IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
  • INDEXING
  • PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE
  • Impact Factor Journal
JANUARY 2019
1

A STUDY ON ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTOR RESPONSIBLE FOR DEVELOPING POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME, CREATING AWARENESS AND LIMITING THE RISK FACTOR BY ADVANCED PATIENT COUNSELLING

Ms. Sonia Marry Sunny, Dr. Peter Kandel, Ms. Priyanka Prakash, Ms. Ann Sherin Andrews, Ms. Jessilin K Charley, Dr. Beulah Milton, Ms. Manisha J A Mascarenhas
RRCOP, Bangalore.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk factors in developing poly cystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS), creating awareness and limiting them by advanced patient counseling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An institutional and community based randomized observational study was conducted in RR institutions and general public over a period of six months. 200 participants who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The data was collected using self designed questionnaire and suitable statistical analysis was done. Self made PCOS score was used to access the severity. RESULTS: Out of 200 participants included in the study, majority (22.5%) of the participants belonged to age group of ? 25 years. On analysis of PCOS state it was found that 110 participants (55%) were with the chance for getting PCOS (score 5-9), 64 participants(32%) were with High risk of PCOS(score ? 10) and 26 participants (13%) were unpredictable to PCOS (score < 5).Among 64 participants with High risk of getting PCOS, majority(17) of the participants were at the age of ? 25 years. Among 110 participants with Chance of getting PCOS ,majority (20) of the participants were at the age of 21 years and among 26 participants with Unpredictable to PCOS , most of the participants were at the age of 19 years .Out of 200 participants 25 participants were found with complications. Among them Infertility problems (52%) was found to be the major one. CONCLUSION: The risk of PCOS increases with presence of one or more identified predisposing factors. Most of the factors tested as predisposing factors in our study are interlinked to each other and are mostly modifiable. Hence careful monitoring and proper management of identified predisposing factors not only delays but also helpful in adequate management of the disease.OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk factors in developing poly cystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS), creating awareness and limiting them by advanced patient counseling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An institutional and community based randomized observational study was conducted in RR institutions and general public over a period of six months. 200 participants who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The data was collected using self designed questionnaire and suitable statistical analysis was done. Self made PCOS score was used to access the severity. RESULTS: Out of 200 participants included in the study, majority (22.5%) of the participants belonged to age group of ? 25 years. On analysis of PCOS state it was found that 110 participants (55%) were with the chance for getting PCOS (score 5-9), 64 participants(32%) were with High risk of PCOS(score ? 10) and 26 participants (13%) were unpredictable to PCOS (score < 5).Among 64 participants with High risk of getting PCOS, majority(17) of the participants were at the age of ? 25 years. Among 110 participants with Chance of getting PCOS ,majority (20) of the participants were at the age of 21 years and among 26 participants with Unpredictable to PCOS , most of the participants were at the age of 19 years .Out of 200 participants 25 participants were found with complications. Among them Infertility problems (52%) was found to be the major one. CONCLUSION: The risk of PCOS increases with presence of one or more identified predisposing factors. Most of the factors tested as predisposing factors in our study are interlinked to each other and are mostly modifiable. Hence careful monitoring and proper management of identified predisposing factors not only delays but also helpful in adequate management of the disease. 


 


2

OPTIMISATION OF DOSING ANTIBIOTICS IN RENAL IMPAIREMENT PATIENTS

Almas Amreen1, K. Manjula1, Dr. K. Shanta Kumari2

1Nirmala College of pharmacy, Mangalagiri, Guntur.

2Head of the Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Nirmala College of pharmacy Mangalagiri, Guntur.

Aims &Objectives: To study the antibiotics dosage adjustment in renal impairement patients. To evaluate the rationalized use of antibiotics in a givenprescription based on renal dysfunction. Drug dosage adjustment in an individual renal impairement patients can maximize therapeutic afficacy and minimize adverse effects.This dosage adjustment also minimize the therapeutic costs, length of hospital stay and mortality as well as therapeutic effectiveness. Methodology: Prospective Observational Study was conducted on 150 Patients in a Teritiary Care Hospitals. Demographic data were extracted and creatinine clearance was calculated by using Cockcroft-Gault equation. Antibiotic dosages were compared with stanford guidelines dose recommendations to judge whether they were correctly adjusted or not. Results: Among 150 patients ,94 were male &56 were female. Out of all the patients,53 patients are done with dialysis .Totally 220 antibiotics were prescribed. Out of that 127 antibiotics require dosage adjustment,94 antibiotics were adjusted correctly and 33 were incorrectly prescribed. Piperacillin +tazobactam was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic requiring dosage adjustment (18.1%)followed by Levofloxacin(14%). Piperacillin + tazobactam was the majorly used antibiotic (63.6%) with inappropriate dose. In most of the cases inappropriate dosage adjustment (60%), guideline’s recommended dosing intervals were not followed. Of the unadjusted doses, 18 incorrect interval cases, 5 incorrect dose, and in 10 cases incorrect dose and interval were observed. Conclusion: Approximately 71.3% antibiotics were adjusted appropriately in this study and remaining 28.7% were adjusted inappropriately.Findings indicate that dosing errors were common among hospitalized patients with renal impairment. Improving the quality of drug prescription in patients with renal impairment could be of importance for improving the quality of care. 


 


3

PERSONALITY TRAITS OF PHARMACISTS: A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF FACTORS INFLUENCING PHARMACY PRACTICE CHANGE IN PAKISTAN

Madeeha Malik*1, Anina Qureshi2, Azhar Hussain1
1Society of Pharmacy Practice/Professor/Director, Hamdard Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hamdard University Islamabad, Pakistan.
2Hamdard Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hamdard University Islamabad, Pakistan.

Personality has become a focus point in organizational research over the past couple of decades, management skills development and derailment, and mainly employee selection. A better understanding of the personality traits of members of the profession is also required; to deliver a complete pictures of the way in which pharmacists should attempt to revolutionize pharmacy practice. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was to assess personality traits among pharmacists working in different fields in Pakistan. Sample size was calculated to be 382 pharmacists to achieve 95% confidence level with 5% margin of error. A pre-validated data collection tool Big Five Inventory questionnaire was self-administered to the respondents. After data collection, data was cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results showed that out of 382 respondents, females were found more extrovert than males with a mean score (25.1, ±3.89). Agreeableness was found low in all studied fields of pharmacy. Neuroticism was high in industrial pharmacists with mean score (26.5, ±4.3) and hospital pharmacists with mean score (27, ±4.1). Consciousness was found high in pharmacists working in private sector with mean score (29.1 ±4.6). Openness was low in pharmacist working in both private and government sectors. The present study concluded that although, neuroticism a negative trait was found high among pharmacists in twin cities but it was encouraging to notice that pharmacists also possessed positive traits including extraversion, consciousness and openness in their personality. Moreover, industrial pharmacists, hospital pharmacists and especially pharmacists working in government sectors possessed highest neuroticism. 


 


4

PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION AMONG BREAST CANCER PATIENTS UPON DIAGNOSIS

Rama Bobba, Vedasamhitha Ramavarapu, C.Subam Mahender, Srichurnam Sreekar

Malla Reddy Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

The study is carried out as retrospective and prospective observational studies to analyse the cancer characteristics, therapeutic approaches and the state of depression in Breast cancer patients. Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy and hormonal therapy are the distinct modalities of treatments used in the therapy of breast cancer. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are used as adjuvant therapies, typically after the primary surgical approach, these prove to be beneficial in inhibiting the metastasis of cancer and to enhance the survival rates in long-term. Research has shown that almost a third to a half of population diagnosed with breast cancer including the ones undergoing treatment regimen are in all likelihood of experiencing psychological distress. Cancer and therapy-related symptoms can be major emphasizers in a patient undergoing therapeutic regimen for breast cancer. Consequently, addressing the effect of breast cancer and the long-term outcomes of the therapy have become vital. The prevalence of depression among breast cancer population varies from 1.5% to 50%, depending on the populace and explicit definition of depression and method of assessment. The quality of life [QOL] of a breast cancer patient is associated with the types of treatments and treatment-related symptoms or adverse effects . The QOL is adversely connected to the high prevalence of depression which influences the treatment process .Understanding these common psychiatric disorders and associated psychosocial factors found in breast cancer patients can help to plan for effective treatment of these patients and may result in more treatment success. The overall QOL was found to be significant in patients with depression. The state of depression was analysed among 46 patients using PHQ-9 questionnaire. The analysed scores showed that 17.4% of the patients were at Minimal depression state, 43.5% were having Mild depression thoughts, 21.7% were having Moderate depression and 15.2% and 2.2% of the population were suffering from Moderately Severe and Severe depression respectively. 


 


5

COMPARISON OF INTRAOPERATIVE HIGH OXYGEN AND METOCLOPRAMIDE IN PREVENTION OF POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING IN ADULT FEMALE PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

Dr. Sonia Andleeb1, Dr. Hameedullah Samiullah2, Dr. Khalid Samad2, Dr. Inam Gill2
1Aziz Fatima Medical College & Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
2Aga Khan Medical College & Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

INTRODUCTION: There are many benefits associated with the laparoscopic surgery including faster recovery, shorter hospital stays and prompt return to normal activities. Although laparoscopic surgery is minimally invasive in nature but high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remains a major cause of morbidity. To prevent PONV, multimodal techniques are helpful, but not any one technique is idea to deal with this problem. This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of intraoperative high oxygen concentration with metoclopramide in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to observe the effectiveness of high oxygen concentration as compared to metoclopramide in prevention of postoperative nausea and/ or vomiting in adult females undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS AND MATERIAL: This prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted in the operating rooms of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. A total of 84 ASA I and II adult female patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this study. They were randomly divided into two equal groups to receive either FiO2 intraoperatively or Metoclopramide. Postoperatively patients were observed for 24 hours for any episode of nausea, vomiting and antiemetic administration. RESULTS: There was a significant effect on incidence of PONV in adult female patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and received high intraoperative oxygen concentration. During the 24 hr period, out of 84 patients, 12 patients (28.6%) in HO group experience PONV and required rescue antiemetic medication and 29 patients (69%) in Metoclopramide group experience PONV and so the rescue antiemetic medication. We can say high intraoperative oxygen concentration was effective in reduction of PONV as compared to metoclopramide. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that high intraoperative FiO2 was effective in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adult female patients undergoing elective laparoscopic surgery when compared to metoclopramide. 


 


6

SYNTHESIS, ANTITUBERCULAR AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF NOVEL N’-(SUBSTITUTED)-2-(2,5-DIMETHYL-1H-PYRROL-1-YL)PHENYL)BENZAMIDE DERIVATIVES

Shrinivas D. Joshi1*, V. H. Kulkarni1, S. R. Prem Kumar1, Jeelan Basha2.
1Novel Drug Design and Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, S.E.T’s College of Pharmacy, SangolliRayanna Nagar, Dharwad 580 002, India.
2Department of PG Studies and Research in Chemistry, Vijayanagar College, Hosapete, Karnataka, India.
 

 

  

 

Novel series of pyrrolylbenzamide derivatives were synthesized with an aim to combat the increasing anti-tubercular resistance and to develop more potent anti-tubercular agents with reasonably less side effect. Herein, we synthesized a series of substituted 2-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)phenyl)benzamides (3a-f) by reacting different substituted aromatic acids with 2-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline (2) by using HBTU as a coupling agent, DIEA as a catalyst and DMF as a solvent. Structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were established by spectral analysis viz., IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass. Further they were tested for their anti-tubercular and antibacterial activities and compounds showed moderate to good activity. 


7

NANOMETAL OXIDES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS (Al2O3, CuO, Fe3O4, and ZnO): COMPARATIVE STUDY

Manyasree D.1, Kiranmayi P.1*, Venkata r Kolli2
1Department of Biochemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University.
2Department of Toxicology/Global QC (BPANS), Shire Pharmaceuticals, Lexington, MA, USA.

The present research work primarily deals with the characterization and antimicrobial efficacy of aluminium oxide, iron oxide, copper oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a coprecipitation method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation), UV-Visible spectroscopy and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) with EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis). The antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of the nanoparticles were carried out by agar well diffusion method and broth dilution method respectively against gram negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) and gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans) bacteria. The average crystallite size of the metal oxide nanoparticles was found to be 35nm (Al2O3, IO, ZnO ) and 19nm (CuO) by X-ray diffraction. The antibacterial activity test evidently expressed that gram negative bacteria are much sensitive to metal oxide nanoparticles when compared to gram positive bacteria. The results suggest that the synthesized metal oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3, CuO, Fe3O4, and ZnO) are effective antimicrobial agents. 


 


8

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PLURONIC LECITHIN CLOTRIMAZOLE ORGANOGEL FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY

Sandeep C Atram*, Abhilash V Joshi1, Nishan N Bobde, Vikrant P Wankhade, Dr. Shrikant D. Pande
Vidyabharati College of Pharmacy, Amravati, Maharashtra, India, 444602.

Clotrimazole is a synthetic, imidazole derivate with broad-spectrum, antifungal drug which has been used in many skin and nail infections caused by fungi. The aim of the present study is to prepare and evaluate novel topical drug delivery of clotrimazole by using pluronic lecithin based organogel. Formulations were developed using 30% oil phase and 70% aqueous phase. The formulated organogels were evaluated for appearance by psycho-rheological, in vitro diffusion study, drug content, viscosity, spreadability and pH. It was found that the pH of all the formulations is in the range of to 6-7 that suits the skin pH, indicating skin compatibility. This is the primary requirement for a good topical formulation. All formulation showed spreadability in the range of 13.83- 28.35gcm/sec. The finding of the study can be utilize for the development of organogel of the other drugs for the safer and effective topical delivery. 


 


9

ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY IN DESIGNING OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHM THROUGH PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: CURRENT STATE OF ART

A. Deevan Paul, G. Divyavani, Kvn Pavani, M Abdul Gaffar, Kedam Thyagaraju
Svu College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sv Univeristy, Tirupati.

Pulsatile drug delivery systems are gaining a lot of interest as they deliver the drug at the right place at the right time in the right amount, thus providing a spatial, temporal and smart delivery in increasing patient compliance in designing according to the biological rhythm of the body. Here drug delivery is facilitated according to disease rhythm. The principle rationale for the use of pulsatile release of the drugs is where a constant drug release is not desired. A pulse has to be designed in such a way that a complete and rapid drug release is achieved after the lag time. Various systems like capsular systems, osmotic systems, single and multiple-unit systems based on the use of soluble or erodible polymer coating membranes have been dealt with in the article. It summarizes the latest developments in formulating parameters in release profiles of systems. These systems are beneficial for the drugs having Chrono pharmacological behavior such as a drug used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, myocardial infarction and ankylosing spondylitis like inflammatory disorders. Current review article discussed the reasons for the development of pulsatile drug delivery system in designing of circadian rhythm, types of the disease in which pulsatile release is required, classification, advantages, limitation, and future aspects of pulsatile drug delivery system. 


 


10

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV-VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF KETOPROFEN IN CAPSULE AND TABLET DOSAGE FORMS

A. A. Hassan1, S. W. Shantier2*, E. A.Gad-kariem2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Ribat University, Khartoum, Sudan.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 1996, Khartoum, Sudan.

A simple and sensitive UV-spectrophotometric method for the assay of the poorly water-soluble ketoprofen in its dosage form was developed using 1M NaHCO3 as diluent. Ketoprofen exhibited maximum absorbance at 260 nm. Validation of the method was performed according to ICH guidelines. It was found to be linear in the concentration range of 2.5-15 ?g/ml (R2=0.998) with low values of limit of detection and quantification (0.78?g/ml, 2.35?g/ml).The application of the proposed method for assay of ketoprofen (tablets and capsules) gave good results 99.08%±0.58 and 99.28%± 0.82, respectively.