Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
October 2011

Design and Evaluation of Extended Release Capsules of Acetazolamide Using Eudragit RS100 And Eudragit RL100

B.Srinivas* 1 , Nansr i Saha Ghosh2, Soumik Gho sh3, Subal Debnath4, Santhosh kumar C.4, Abhish ek, Datta5, Niraj Kumar6

1Shri Vishnu College of Pharmacy, Vishnupur, Bhimavaram, West Godavari District, A.P. – 534202.
2SSJ College of Pharmacy, Vattinagula Pally, Gandipet, Rangareddy Dist, Hyderabad, A.P. – 500 075.
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu.
4Srikrupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Velkatta, Kondapak, Medak, Siddipet. A.P.- 502 277.
5Venkateshwara Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cherlapally, Nalgonda Distt, Andhra Pradesh.
6JSS College of Pharmacy,SS Nagar, Banimontap Road, Mysore, Karnataka, Pin-570015.


Utilizing the concept of incorporating drug in to the polymer matrices and extend the drug release for prolong period of time, an attempt was made to design and evaluate extended release capsules of acetazolamide using extended release polymers. The
initial three formulations of Acetazolamide ER capsules were formulated with Ethyl cellulose N-7, Benecel (HPMC 15M) and Natrosol (HHX Pharm) with concentrations of 11%, 13% and 15% respectively. However satisfactory results were not obtained these polymers and it was decided to proceed further with high viscosity polymers which would effectively sustain the release of drug. The F1 - F16 batches were taken with different concentrations of Eudragit RS100 and Eudragit RL100. The combinations of these polymers in different proportions provide varied sustained release profiles. The optimized formulation (F12) was developed by using Eudragit RS100 (6%) and Eudragit RL100 (4%). The dissolution profiles of formulation F12 and innovator product were compared by calculating differential factor (f1) and similarity factor (f2). The f1 and f2 were found to be 2.97 and 69.70 respectively for the comparison of dissolution profiles of formulation F12 and innovator product. Infrared Spectroscopy studies were showed sharp characteristic peaks for Acetazolamide at different wave numbers. All the above peaks appeared in optimised formulation at same wave numbers, indicating no interaction between the drug and the polymer. The stability studies on Acetazolamide ER capsules 500 mg in HDPE container at 400C / 75 % RH were conducted as per ICH protocol and no significant change was observed in the assay value after a storage period of 1 month at 400C / 75 % RH and 2 months at 400C / 75 % RH.



Kumara Swamy.G*1, JMR.Kumar2, J.V.L.N Sheshagiri Rao3, U.Ashok Kumar1, Vidya sagar. P1.
1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Trinity College of Pharmaceutical sciences, Peddapalli, Karimnagar (dist) -
505172.A.P. India. 2Holy Mary Institute of Technology and Science (HITS), Ghatkesar, Hyderabad. 3College of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam- 530 003, A.P, India


A simple efficient, precise and accurate spectroscopic method has been developed and
validated for quantitative estimation of Naratriptan Hydrochloride in bulk and
pharmaceutical dosage form. Naratriptan is dissolved in distilled water and the resulting
solution was then scanned in the UV range (200-400nm) in a 10 mm quartz cell in a
double beam UV spectrophotometer. The λmax of Naratriptan was found to be
223nm.The method obey’s Beers law in the concentration range from 2-12 μg/ml. The
correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9998 (r2═ 0.9998). The LOD and LOQ were
found to be 0.4362 and 1.3265μg/ ml respectively. The result of estimation of marketed
tablet formulation (Amerge) was found to be 99.47% with their % RSD 0.4362.The
accuracy of the method was determined by recovery studies. The percentage recovery
was found to be 99.83%. The method was validated statistically as per ICH guidelines.
The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with % RSD less than 2. So, the
proposed method was found to be simple, specific, precise, accuracy, linear, and rugged.
Hence it can be applied for routine analysis of Naratriptan in bulk drug and the
Pharmaceutical formulations.



*Badri.Nagarani, Subal debnath, Nilesh P. Babre, Santhosh Kumar C.

Srikrupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vil. Velkatta, Mdl: Kondapak, Dist. Medak, Siddipet, Andhra Pradesh – 502 277, India.


Since the time immemorial plants have been in use as sources of medicine throughout the world. The demand for plant-based medicines is ever growing as crude or processed products from plants have less or no adverse effects. Obesity is a global epidemic and most common disorder in the world. Obesity refers to an abnormally high proportion of total body fat. It results from less physical work and more mental work existing, in our present day living and working conditions. Traditiona herbal medicines have more acceptance than prescriptional drugs in many cultures with epidemics of obesity. Here an attempt has been made to discuss about the antiobesity activity of various herbal plants. In India most of the people is facing the problem of obesity. Garlic, Guggul, pride of India, Nutmeg, Black Pepper, Tamarind are the most commonly used herbal drugs in India for the treatment of obesity due to effective decrease in cholesterogenesis.Cabbage an excellent home remedy for obesity due to the presence of a valuable chemical tartaricacid present in this vegetable which inhibits the conversion of sugar and other carbohydrates into fat. Piperine is the active principle found in Black pepper which will reduces the levels of plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL).



Subhash P.G.*1, Srilatha K.S.2, Ajay Kumar Bachupally1, Madhusudhan Punnuru1, Jamal Shariff, Shaik1, Jayanth Kumar Reddy G.2
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, East West College of Pharmacy, B.E.L. Layout, Bangalore-
560091, Karnataka, India.
2 Department of Pharmaceutics, East West College of Pharmacy, B.E.L. Layout, Bangalore-560091,
Karnataka, India


Granulation is one of the most significant unit maneuvers in the production of
pharmaceutical solid oral dosage forms. Granulation process imparts improvement
in flow and compression characteristic, decreases isolation, improves content
uniformity, and avoids excessive fines. The results will be improved yields,
reduced tablet defects, increased productivity, and reduced down time. A
pharmaceutical organization employs different techniques such as directcompressing,
wet-granulation, or dry granulation methods for the production of
pharmaceutical products. The method of selection depends on the ingredients
individual characteristics and ability to properly flow, compresses, eject, and
disintegrate. Proper granulation process requires thorough knowledge of each
ingredient in the formula, the combination of ingredients, and how they work with
each other.


Antimicrobial Activity of Swietenia mahagoni L (Leaf) Against Various Human Pathogenic Microbes

Laxmaiah.Ch, Srikanth.V, T. Shivaraj Gouda, Santhosh Kumar. C, Subal debnath, Chiranjib.B*

Srikrupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vil. Velkatta, Mdl: Kondapak, Dist. Medak, Siddipet, Andhra Pradesh – 502 277, India.


Different organic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Swietenia mahagoni L (Meliaceae) were screened for their antimicrobial activity against seven human pathogenic bacteria and two fungal strains by plate hole diffusion assay to determine the growth inhibition of microorganisms. The medicinal plant appear to have a broad antimicrobial activity spectrum, they could be useful in antiseptic, disinfectant and other antimicrobial agent formulation. Among the various micro organisms, the methanolic extract was more active against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli. In antifungal activity of the methanolic extract shows positive results for fungus.


A Review: Methods of Drug Targeting to the Brain

Shailesh Shah, A.K Seth, Nirmal Shah, Tejas Ghelani, Sahin P Chauhan
Department of Pharmacy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Piparia, Vadodara - 391760, Gujarat, India.


Treating central nervous system diseases is very challenging because of the
presence of a variety of formidable obstacles that obstruct drug delivery.
The brain is very complicated as well as fragile organ and Nature has been
played a very efficient role to protect it. The brain is protected from many
toxic substances and various chemicals by the presence of two barriers
namely blood brain barrier (BBB) and blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier
(BCSFB). Various routes of drug targeting to the brain now become an
important tool in the pharmaceutical field because of many complicated
disease of the brain like Alzheimer, Huntington disease, epilepsy etc.
Therefore various routes like craniotomy, osmotic disruption, colloidal drug
delivery, intranasal route of administration and nanotechnology have been
proposed to favors brain drug delivery. Novel drug delivery is the decisive
part of this review. This review includes general methods that can enhance
drug delivery to the brain and discussed the appropriate route by which such
a drug delivery can be possible.



Jayachandran.D.L* 1 , Krishnamoorthy M. Rao2, S.Jeganath 3, V.Ashlin Viji 4, K.Sheeja Devi 5
1 Department of Pharmaceutics, Millind Institute of Pharmacy,J.C.Nagar,Bangalore,India.
2 Department of Pharmacognosy,Millind Institute of Pharmacy,J.C.Nagar,Bangalore,India.
3 Department of Pharmacognosy, A.M.Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Narasaraopet, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
4 Department of Pharmaceutics, Periyar College of Pharmaceutical sciences, Trichy,Tamilnadu, India.
5 Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, KMCH college of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India


The purpose of this research was to develop a matrix-type transdermal therapeutic system containing drug Aceclofenac with different ratios of hydrophilic (hydroxyl propyl cellulose) and hydrophobic (ethyl cellulose) polymeric systems by the solvent evaporation technique by using 15 % w/w of dibutyl phthalate to the polymer weight, incorporated as plasticizer. Different concentrations of oleic acid and isopropyl myristate were used to enhance the transdermal permeation of Torasemide. Formulated transdermal films were physically evaluated with regard to thickness, weight variation, drug content, flatness, tensile strength, folding endurance, percentage of moisture content and water vapour transmission rate. All prepared formulations indicated good physical stability. In-vitro permeation studies of formulations were performed by using Franz diffusion cells. Formulation prepared with hydrophilic polymer containing permeation enhancer showed best in-vitro skin permeation through rat skin (Wistar albino rat) as compared to all other formulations. The results followed the release profile of Aceclofenac followed mixed zero-order and first-order kinetics in different formulation. However, the release profile of the optimized formulation F4 (r2 = 0.9935 for Higuchi) indicated that the permeation of the drug from the patches was governed by a diffusion mechanism. These results indicate that the formulation containing the F4 [CAP: PVP (6:1)] has shown optimum release in concentration independent manner.


Formulation and Evaluation of L-arginine Sustained Release Tablets

Pradip Das*1, R. P. Ezhil muthu2, Diptanu Biswas3.
1Balaji institute of pharmacy. Laknepally, Narsampet, Warangal. AP, 506331.
2Padmavathi College of Pharmacy and Research Institute, Dharmapuri, 635205.
3Srikupa institute of pharmaceutical science, vill.Velkatta, Mdl.Kondapak,Siddipet, AP.


L-Arginine is an amino acid that has numerous functions in the body. In the body L-Arginine is used to make nitric oxide which reduces blood vessels Stiffness, increases blood flow and improves blood vessel function. L-Arginine also used for erectile dysfunction by enhancing the action of Nitric Oxide, which relaxes muscle surrounding blood vessels supplying to the penis. As a result blood vessels in the penis dilate, increasing blood flow which helps to maintain an erection. Due to its less biological half life i.e., ≥ 1hours in India L-Arginine was available in 5-8 gms of granules and 1050 mg capsule and intake of dose is twice daily whose dosage quantity is much more. This can be overcome by formulating Sustained Release tablet of L-Arginine 525 mg twice daily. The tablet can be developed with the combination of 30% HPMC- K 100 and HPMC -K 15 M Polymer which can retard the drug release up to 12 hours.



Mohammed Shadul*, Subal Debnath, Santhosh Kumar C, Arghya Acharjee1, Saurav Nandi1,
Srikrupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vil. Velkatta, Kondapak (mdl),
Dist. Medak, Siddipet, Andhra Pradesh – 502 277.
1Aurobindo Pharma Ltd, Maitrivihar, Ameerpet, Hyderabad, A.P.


The drug delivery system described here is based on a virus like particle consisting of the
recombinant expressed major capsid protein of Polyomavirus, VP1. Polyoma, a murine
virus belonging to the Papovaviridae, forms a non-enveloped icosahedral capsid. These
capsids are organized as a double shell composed of three different proteins: VP1, VP2 and
VP3. The outer shell of the virus is composed of 360 VP1 molecules arranged as 72
pentamers. These capsids have a diameter of about 50 nm. The VP1 protein acts as a major
ligand for certain membrane receptors during virus infection. VLPs have demonstrated their
potential in transfecting mammalian cells. In the case of cell transfection, the VLPs are
bound to sialic acid residues which are present on almost all cells of higher eukaryotes. To
achieve a cell type specific targeting of this potential useful vector system, new functional
domains have been established on the surface of VP1. Virus like particles displays an
excellent system for drug delivery in vitro and In-vivo. The diameter of the capsid amounts
to approximately 50 nm and whereas the diameter of the pentamers adds up to 8.5 nm.
Beyer et. al. described the great potential of VP1 capsids as heterologous drug carriers,
especially for the delivery of foreign protein antigens. VLPs were well suited for evoking a
protective immune response on several routs of vaccine administration. Both, humoral and
cellmediated immunity was observed. The prominent advantage of these drug delivery
devices was presented by the capacity to target antigenic proteins or DNA vaccines to
immature dendritic cells along their maturation pathway. VP1-VLPs are shown to be a
useful tool to incorporate not only DNA but also small biological molecules and to improve
the specifical delivery of these molecules to their target cells.