IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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MARCH 2016
1

NEW HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF OPIPRAMOL IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

Dr. Nemala Appala Raju1, Mr. J. Raghu Ram1, Dr.V. Kiran Kumar2, Dr. VVSS Appala Raju3
1Sultan–Ul–Uloom College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Unity College of Pharmacy, Bhongir, Nalgonda Distrtict, Telangana State, India.
3Deparment of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, MAHSA University, Koula Lumpur, Malaysia.

Abstract

A simple, precise, rapid and accurate reverse phase HPLC method developed for the estimation of Opipramol in Tablets dosage form. The Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 Column with 150 length, 4.6mm diameter, and 5μm particle size, with mobile phase 3.48 gms of Di Potassium hydrogen Orthophosphate (0.02M) in 1000 mL of water and by adjusting the pH to 2.5 with dilute orthophosphoric acid (mobile phase solvent-A) and acetonitrile (mobile phase solvent-B) in a gradient mode of separation was used. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and the effluents were monitored at 257 nm. The retention time was 4.43 min. The detector response was linear in the concentration of 5-60 μg/mL. The respective linear regression equation being Y=273255.34x+101066311. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 0.05 and 0.15 mcg/mL respectively. The percentage assay of Opipramol was 98.96 %. The method was validated by determining its accuracy, precision and system suitability. The results of the study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate; this is useful for the routine determination of Opipramol in bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage form. The present study demonstrates the applicability of chromatographic method to develop a new sensitive and robust RP-HPLC method for the determination of opipramol in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

2

EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF HYPERICUM HIRCINUM

Mathew George1*, Lincy Joseph2, Ashitha.K.S3
Pushpagiri College of Pharmacy, Pathanamthitta, Kerala, India.

Abstract

Hypericum hircinumis most widely distributed plant species in the world. In this article shows that the study of the phytochemical screening and anxiolytic activity of the extract of Hypericum hircinum on AlbinoWistar rat. Plant partswere collected and extracted using hydro alcoholic mixture by maceration. The crude extracts were screened for the biological activity through the assay behavioral study. Anxiolyticactivity was evaluated by using methods such aselevated plus maze and ondansetron antagonist. Result of this study shows thatHydro alcoholic extract ofHypericum hircinumhave significant anxiolytic effect on rat. The study concluded that, the whole plant extract of Hypericum hircinum was an anxiolytic agent.

3

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION AND VALIDATION OF MUPIROCINE AND SATRANIDAZOLE BY UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

Vanita Panda*, Dr. Snehalatha Boddu, Dr. Sudha Rathod
Oriental College of Pharmacy, Department of Quality Control, Sanpada, Navi Mumbai.

Abstract

A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of mupirocin and Satranidazole using acetonitrile and water (50:50) as solvent. Beer’s law was obeyed for both the drugs. The absorption maxima was found at 215nm for mupirocin and 220nm for satranidazole. The concentration range was 5-25g/ml with correlation coefficient 0.999 for both mupirocin and satranidazole. The limit of detection was found to be 1.013g/ml for mupirocin and 1.39g/ml for satranidazole respectively. The limit of quantitation was found to be 3.067g/ml for mupirocin and 4.22g/ml for satranidazole respectively. Accuracy of the method was verified by performing recovery studies using simultaneous equation method and found to be 98.95-101.56% for mupirocin and 98.95-101.56% for satranidazole. The precision was found to be 1.51% for mupirocin and 1.11% for Satranidazole respectively. The robustness is calculated and it is found to be 1.16% for mupirocin and 0.18% for Satranidazole respectively.

4

NON-IONIZING RADIATION EFFECT ON THE MARKUP OF BLOOD CELLS WITH 99 MTC IN VITRO

Carlos Ricardo de Queiroz Martiniano1, Lídia Audrey Rocha Valadas Marques1, Edilson Martins Rodrigues Neto2,3, Mara Assef Leitão Lotif1, Érika Sabóia Guerra Diógenes1, Allana Bezerra Capistrano1, Mayra Furtado Dias Filgueira Thé1, Francisco Filipe Carvalho da Silva1, Maria Teresa Jansem de Almeida Catanho4
1Departament of Clinical Dentistry, School of Pharmacy, Dentistry and Nursing, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza-CE-Brazil.
2Departament of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine. Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza-CE-Brazil.
3Pharmacy and Psychology Graduation Courses, Catholic Faculty Queen of Sertão, Quixadá-CE-Brazil.
4Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife-PE-Brazil.

Abstract

The energy density of low power, laser and electromagnetic field, has been used in recent years quite often in the medical field. The study of labeling red blood cells with technetium 99m is used for various evaluations in nuclear medicine including the study of blood volume in neurological intensive care. The aim was to evaluate the influence of non-ionizing radiation on the red blood cells labeled in vitro. Blood samples from rats of the Wistar strain divided into two groups were used. The first group used the EDTA and heparin as anticoagulants and received low-power laser induction (LPL) in the following separately energy density: 3, 6, 9 and 18J/cm². The second group received an electromagnetic field (EMF) of 60 Hz for 2, 4, 17 and 21 hours separately. After the induction of the laser and the electromagnetic field, the blood samples were labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc). The results indicate that the presence of anticoagulants is able to modify the uptake of technetium-99m by red blood cells. The laser induced decreases the binding capacity of the technetium-99m from 3J/cm². From the foregoing it was found that the radiation is non-ionizing EMF with LBP or alters the binding capacity of 99mTc the erythrocytes and the use of heparin as an anticoagulant gave also a higher labeling efficiency compared with the use of EDTA.The non-ionizing radiation has a promising power applications of biomedical sciences can be used for marking targets macromolecules in the body in order to diagnostic procedures and disease control.

5

IMPACT OF TREATMENT NONCOMPLIANCE AND ITS EFFECT ON CLINICAL OUTCOME AMONG PATIENTS WITH TYPE II DIABETES BY IMPROVED COMPLIANCE

Hrushikesh Reddy. Yerraguntla1, Muralidhar Naidu. Chitraju1, Javeed Baig. Moghal1*, Prathiba. Bhaskarudu1, Bushrah Anjum. Beparie1, Dr. Surehswara Reddy. Mulla2
1P Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Compliance is a scope to which a person's behaviour in captivating medications, diet and executing life style changes optional with the prescriber. Foremost intend of the study is to appraise how much obedience is departure to have consequence on clinical outcomes in Type II Diabetic Patients. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic illness and progressive disease that requires progressing medical care, fragmentary patient self-management education, and compliance is compulsory to managing this conditions and reduced farther complications for this conditions. The collision of medication adherence was observed among adherent and non adherent subjects. The patients diagnosed with Type 2 DM (with or without complications) from either sex > 30 years aged were included in the study and The patients under the onset of age below 30years, prescribed with insulin therapy only, who did not refill the prescription for at least once during the study period were excluded from the study. A total of 100 patients were recruited in the study of whom 74 of them completed the study and 26 were dropped out. A total of 35% followed by 15% patients were non-adherent whereas, 65% followed by 85% patients were adherent before and after counselling respectively. Non-compliance is being increasingly recognized as one of the major limitations to improve health care outcomes and a greater understanding of the relationship between non-compliance as well as treatment practices. New pioneering methods are obligatory to support those patients who not succeed in their medication compliance.

6

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF OLANZAPINE

S. Swati*, G. Nirmala Jyothi, N. Jyothi 

Department of Pharmaceutics, Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Atmakuru – 522503.

Abstract

Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic widely used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder because of its better tolerability. It is structurally similar to the clozapine and quetiapine, its antipsychotic activity is due to the combination of antagonism at D2 receptors in the mesolimbic pathway and 5HT2A receptors in the frontal cortex. Antagonism at D2 receptors relieves positive symptoms while antagonism at 5HT2A receptors relieves negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The present research work is aimed to formulate and evaluate the Fast dissolving tablets of Olanzapine. Super disintegrating agents such as sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium were used for different formulations to prepare the olanzapine FDTs. Formulations were evaluated for physical appearance , weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, content uniformity test, disintegration test and in vitro release studies. The FTIR studies revealed that there was no interaction between the drug and excipient. The all prepared formulations having weight variation of 1.2-4.1 mg, hardness of 3.73-4.56 kg/cm2, percentage friability of 0.34-0.64, disintegration time of 15-50 sec, thickness of 2.44-3.15 mm, drug content of 97.82-102.3%, wetting time of 19.54-70.6 sec, water absorption ratio of 76.53-135.5. The disintegration time for formulation F9 was found to be 19±0.45 sec and in vitro drug release of formulation F9 was found to be 109.38±0.35 in 3minutes, in all those formulations F9 given the optimized results by showing the faster disintegration and dissolution profile than other formulation.

7

CLERODENDRUM PHLOMIDIS (ARNI), EMINENT SOURCE OF PHYTOCHEMICALS

Chirmade Dipti*, Chirmade Hitendra, Gawli Shanvi
St. John Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Palghar (Maharashtra).
SSS College of Pharmacy, Chopda (Maharashtra).

Abstract

The maximum drugs used in modern medicine are derived from the plant source. Phytochemicals are secondary metabolites, which are produced by medicinal plants. Ayurvedic plants and their components mediate their effects by modulating several of these recently known therapeutic targets. The plant of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. was used by the traditional practitioner for various purposes. Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. (Verbenaceae) is commonly known as Arani. Plant parts are used in dyspepsia, stomachache, colic, cholera, dysentery, postnatal fever, during convalscence from measles, rheumatism, asthma and other inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive and sedative properties, gonorrhea and so on. The major aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical screening of petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. leaves. After preparation of petroleum ether and ethanolic extract, it was subjected to phytochemical screening in which the secondary metabolites were confirmed based on tests of coloration and precipitation.The leaves have confirms the presence of all the phytoconstituents like carbohydrates, phenols, phytosterols, flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins etc. Among both the extracts used, the extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. Leaves were found to have methanolic fraction of ethanol extract accountable number of phytoconstituents. The result of the above studies support the use of this plant for human and animal disease therapy and the importance of the ethno- botnical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances.

8

PRODUCTION OF CHITINASE FROM AQUATIC WASTE USING ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE AND STREPTOMYCES GRISEUS UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

S. Sridevi*1, D. Sri Rami Reddy2
1Andhra University, College of Science & Technology, Visakhapatnam, India – 530003.
2Andhra University, Centre for Biotechnology, Visakhapatnam, India-530003.

Abstract

Chitinases have received attention because of their wide applications in the medicine, biotechnology, agriculture, waste management and industrial applications such as food quality enhancer and biopesticide. Excessive use of insecticides has led to several problems related to pollution and environmental degradation. Chitinases play an important role in the decomposition of chitin to simple sugars in the utilization of chitin as a renewable resource. Chitin is the most widespread biopolymer in nature. Chitin and its derivatives have great economic value because of their biological, industrial and biomedical applications. Chitinase extracted from three sources, namely crustaceans, insects and microorganisms. However, the main commercial sources of chitin are shells of crustaceans such as shrimps, crabs, lobsters and krill that are collected in large quantities from the shellfish processing industries. Extraction of chitin involves two steps, demineralisation and deproteinisation, which can be conducted by two methods, chemical or biological. The chemical method requires the use of acids and bases, while the biological method involves microorganisms. Chitinase activity was found 90.67U/gIds and 71.40U/gIds were obtained in a potato dextrose agar and MGYP medium containing aqua waste using Streptomyces griseus and Aspergillus oryzae respectively. The production of chitinase/ chitinolytic enzymes from microbial source is economic and have beneficial aspects in pharmaceutical and food industries.

9

IDENTIFICATION OF T CELL AND B CELL EPITOPES DERIVED FROM EG95 ANTIGEN OF ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS USING IN SILICO APPROACH FOR THERAPEUTIC VACCINE DEVELOPMENT

Varun Chauhan1, Umar Farooq*1, 2
1Molecular and Immuno – Parasitology Research Lab (MIPL), Faculty of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Shoolini University, Solan (H.P.), India.
2Faculty of Dentistry, Taif University, Taif, KSA.

Abstract

Hydatidosis, a cystic disease, caused by a tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is a zoonotic disease responsible for considerable human morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis, treatment as well as control of this cosmopolitan disease is difficult. Eg 95 antigen of E. granulosus is a secreted glycosylphosphatydilinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, involved in cell adhesion and expressed during all stages of its life cycle thus indicating it to be an important marker for vaccine development. The present study was aimed to identify promiscuous peptides of HLA Class-I, II and B cell epitopes targeting Eg 95 protein using in-silico tools. Identification of T cell epitopes was carried out using several online softwares including NetMHCpan 2.4, NetMHC3.4, NetMHCIIpan 3.0, ProPred, MultiPred, IEDB-ANN and IEDB-SMM and B cell epitopes were identified using Discotope, ABCpred, BCPREDS and BepiPred 1.0. The epitopes predicted by most of the servers used in the present study were further analyzed. The identified T and B cell epitopes were confirmed by visualizing their locations on the respective 3D modeled protein. In order to ascertain the binding pattern of the identified promiscuous peptides with HLA alleles, the class I peptides were docked with predominating HLA*A 02:01 allele and class II peptides with HLA*DRB1 01:01 allele. After rigorous bioinformatic analysis, the peptide T3 and C1 were predicted to be most promising T cell epitopes having higher affinities with HLA*DRB1 01:01 and HLA*A 02:01 alleles with maximum number of hydrogen bond interactions. Using in silico approach we identified some promising B and T cell epitopes which could provide a platform to facilitate the development of subunit vaccine and should further be tested for their immunogenicity in in vitro and in vivo models.

10

ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO IMPROPER DRUG USE IN AN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT AT A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Cijy Thomas*1, Rajeswari Ramaswamy1, Teena Nazeem1, Ahmadi Naaz1, Janet Jacob1, Dr. Susheela Shekar2
1Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Chikkabellandur, Carmelaram Post, Varthur Hobli, Bangalore-560035.
2Medical ICU, MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Bangalore-562114.

Abstract

Although patient’s safety is increasingly recognized as an essential component in the practice of intensive care medicine, the complexity of processes and medical conditions dealt with makes the practice of this specialty vulnerable and prone to error. Aim of the study was to observe the prescribing practices in emergency department and to study the factors contributing for improper drug use. A 6 months, prospective observational study was conducted in the ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patient’s medication charts were observed for the prescribing practices and factors contributing for improper drug use. Out of 120 cases collected, 45% of the study subjects were females and 55% accounts for males. Among the prescriber related factors contributing to improper drug use, illegible handwriting (35.6%) and in administration related factors, improper recording (50%) were the highest. In transcribing related factors, drugs not ordered were the highest (20%) followed by discrepancy in drug name (12.5%) and route (0.8%). The study results show an association between the prescriber related illegible handwriting and discrepancy in transcribing the drug’s name, route etc that leads to errors. Indecorous recording related to the drug administration is a prominent factor that contributes to the improper drug use. Thus study results highlights the need of stringent policies and implementation of guidelines on prescription, transcription and administration of drugs which could lead to decreased errors and thereby improved patient care and thus improved quality of life.

11

SYNTHESIS OF DISUBSTITUTED ISOXAZOLES FROM 2-PROPYN-1-OL THROUGH PROPARGYLIC N-HYDROXYLAMINES

N. Srinivasan*, B.Venkateswara Rao, Y.L.N.Murthy and P. Mahesh
Department of Organic Chemistry, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam– 530001, India.

Abstract

Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to be an effective catalyst for the synthesis of Isoxazoles via propargylic N-hydroxylamines from 2-propyn-1-ol using cesium carbonate. Various 2-propyn-1-ol alcohol compounds reacted cleanly with Tosyl hydroxyl amines to provide the corresponding Propargylic alcohol-N-Hydroxylamines. Reaction proceeds with the formation of propargylation on N-Hydroxylamines using Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane thereby base catalyzed cyclization using cesium carbonate furnishes 3, 5-Disubstituted-Isoxazoles in prominent yields.

12

FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A NOVEL APPROACH

Shaikh Faisal Ekbal*, Dr.Bhusnure O.G, Sayyed Sarfaraz Ali, Hucche B.S, Kamble Santosh, Bhalerao Sachin
Department of Pharmaceutics, Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College, Latur, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The purpose of writing this review on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) is to compile the recent literature with special focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. It is known that differences in gastric physiology (such as, gastric pH, motility) exhibit both intra- as well as inter-subject variability demonstrating significant impact on gastric retention time and drug delivery behaviour. Technological attempts have been made in the research and development of rate-controlled oral drug delivery systems to overcome physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence times (GRT) and unpredictable gastric emptying times (GET). Several approaches are currently utilized in the prolongation of the GRT, including floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), swelling and expanding systems, polymeric bioadhesive systems, high-density systems, modified-shape systems and other delayed gastric emptying devices. In this review, current & recent developments of Stomach Specific FDDS are discussed. Although tremendous advances have been seen in oral controlled drug delivery system in the last two decades, this system has been of limited success in the case of drugs with a poor absorption window throughout the GIT (Gastro Intestinal Tract).

13

ETHOSOMES– RADICAL APPROACH IN TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

Pooja Solanke*, Shweta Saboo, Pooja Tidke
Government College of Pharmacy, Aurangabad.
Osmanpura, Station Road, Aurangabad, Maharashtra.

Abstract

There are numerous transdermal delivery systems currently available in the market. The transdermal drug delivery market, worth $12.7 billion dollars in 2005, is expected to reach $32 billion in 2020.Ethosomes are gaining attention in the fabrication of novel drug delivery systems for topical and transdermal use for their excellent capability to reach deep skin layers and systemic circulation and being non-invasive carriers. It shares numerous advantages like Simple method of preparation as well as their safety profile. Although with their great efficiency they show strong potential of expansion of their application. Here the brief focus towards Basics of drug delivery system i.e., like Advantages, Mechanism of penetration, method of preparation, evaluation parameters are summarized with additional information like the Formulation aspects of ethosomes, challenges and opportunities they share, And Marketed Formulations Available in the market. The aim of the review is to highlight the tremendous potential of these ultradeformable carriers across skin.

14

A REVIEW ON HYDROGEL

Vishwanath K. Morkhande*, Pentewar R. S, Sandeep V. Gapat, Sayyad S. R, Duve Amol B, Bhalerao Sachin, Kesale Sandip.
Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College, Kava Road, Latur-413512.

Abstract

A hydrogel is a network of polymer chains that are hydrophilic, sometimes found as a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium. Hydrogels are highly absorbent (they can contain over 90% water) natural or synthetic polymeric networks. Hydrogels also possess a degree of flexibility very similar to natural tissue, due to their significant water content. Hydrogels being biocompatible materials have been recognized to function as drug protectors, especially for peptides and proteins, from in-vivo environment. Also, these swollen polymers are helpful as targetable carriers for bioactive drugs with tissue specificity. Hydrogels are presently under investigation as a delivery system for bioactive molecules, because of their similar physical properties as that of living tissue, which is due to their high water content, soft and rubbery consistency, and low interfacial tension with water or biological fluids. The hydrogels have been used extensively in various biomedical applications, viz. drug delivery, cell carriers and/or entrapment, wound management and tissue engineering.

15

NANOFIBERS: THE NEW-FANGLED LOOM IN DRUG DELIVERY AND THERAPEUTICS

Sujitha R.1, Afrasim Moin2, D.V. Gowda1*, Jigyasa V.1, Santhosh T.R.1, Riyaz Ali M. Osmani1
1JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, SS Nagara, Mysuru -570015, Karnataka, India.
2College of Pharmacy, University of Hail, Hail-81442, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Nanofibers can be identified as fibers having diameters between tens and hundreds of nanometers. Electrospinning is a versatile and efficient fabrication method for one-dimensional (1D) nanostructured fibers of polymers, metals, metal oxides, hydrocarbons, composites, and so forth. The resulting nanofibers (NFs) with controllable diameters ranging from nanometer to micrometer scale possess unique properties such as a high surface-area-to-volume and aspect ratio, low density, and high pore volume. In comparison to dissimilar appearance of scaffolds, the nanofibrous scaffolds assist cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation more economic due to sidestep high surface facing volume ratio. Admitting scaffolds applications in tissue engineering and other fields, nanofibers have been fabricated by various techniques however electrospun nanofibrous have displayed high degree of suitability in each field. This review highlights the drug delivery aspects, attention of nanofibers in various ranges and applications pasturing from drug delivery to tissue engineering, oral mucosal delivery, wound healing etc. Certainty has also been built to highlight the merits and demerits of nanofibers for drug delivery using different technique. The role of various factors controlling drug distribution in nanofibers is also discussed; which can aid in increasing the therapeutic efficiency of nanofibers based systems.

16

CYTOMEGALOVIRUS DISEASE IN DECEASED DONAR KIDNEY TANSPLANT RECIPIENT WHO WERE GIVEN ANTI CMV PROPHYLAXIS

Mr. Abel Abraham Thomas*, Ms Sincy Mery Chacko, Ms Divya Gopinath, Mr Laxman Wagle
Department of Pharmacy Practice. Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy.B.G Nagara Karnataka .India 571448.

Abstract

Background: Cytomegalovirus tends to be the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients. However, the onset of acute infection has been delayed by the use of prophylactic antiviral in the early post-transplant period. This study was conducted to assess the incidence of cytomegalovirus disease in deceased donor kidney transplant recipients who were given anti CMV prophylaxis. Methods: Retrospective study was carried out in 66 deceased donor kidney transplant recipients from 2009 to 2015. Relevant information was obtained from the Old Patient case records and follow up. Among the infected patients 3 were detected by using PCR and the other 1by tissue culture (IHC) method. Results: Among the 66 cases 47 were males and 19 were females, mean age was 39 +/- 12 yrs. All patients who underwent cadaver transplantation were given oral Valgancyclovir 450 mg as prophylaxis. Majority of the transplant recipients received prophylaxis for 90 days. After giving prophylaxis 4 patients developed CMV infection in which two patients developed infection after 5 months of transplant and two patients developed infection after 4 months and 36 months of transplant respectively. Out of the four patients affected with CMV all patients were given with Basiliximab as the induction immunosuppressive drug and three patients got prednisolone/tacrolimus/mycophenolic acid and one patient got prednisolone/cyclosporine/ mycophenolic acid as their maintenance immunosuppressive regimen. Treatment was given all patients who developed CMV infection i.e., Valgancyclovir 450 mg PO BID for 3 weeks then valgancyclovir 450mg PO OD for 1 month in 2 patients and Valgancyclovir 450mg PO for 15 days was given in 2 patients (i.e., valgacyclovir 450 mg PO BD for one week followed by OD for remaining days). Conclusions: Our study proves that the incidence of a CMV disease is minimal after giving oral valgancyclovir prophylaxis for 3months.

17

GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: A NEW ERA IN FORTE OF AGRICLUTURE

Nirmala Gupta*, Kriti Rai, Lakshya DharamDasani, Pallavi Nair, Prerna Bodhankar
Institute for Excellence in Higher Education (IEHE), Bhopal, MP (India).

Abstract

Genetically modified (GM) crops are the advent of Recombinant DNA technology that allows alterations in the genetic makeup of organisms or crops in many ways and is possible through moving of genes from one organism to another or by changing the gene in an organism to get the desired trait. Delayed ripening of tomatoes, pest resistant crops, herbicide resistant crops are some of the traits developed in genetically modified foods. These modifications are advantageous for Farmers/ Consumers by improving crop yields, reduce insecticide use or by enhanced nutritional value in foods. This review presents the importance and varieties of genetically modified crops yet developed. Generally GM crops categorised in 3 generations: First generation GM crops possess enhanced input of new traits such as pest resistant crops, herbicide tolerant crops, etc; Second generation crops are present with value enhancing output traits such as nutritional value; Third generation crops are pharmaceuticals based. But commercially available crops belong from only First generation. One rumor that usually affects GM crops time to time is its potential to cause allergic reactions because it contain genes that is foreign to that organism in which it is incorporated but there is no such reports available till date. This technology appears to generate employment in developing countries because more workers are needed to harvest the significantly higher yields. One such study in India suggests that Bt cotton produces 82 percent higher incomes for small-farm households compared with conventional cotton, a remarkable gain in overall economic welfare. So, global attention is needed to irradicate the controversies surrounding the use of GM crops and foster their necessity and safe use.

18

EVALUATION OF INVIVO ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIALS OF NUTRISLIM GREEN TEA (AYU-606)-AN AYURVEDIC FORMULATION IN CCL4 INDUCED HEPATOXICITY IN RATS

Mayank Bhatt1, Paul Raj1, Kalyani G1, Dr.Thriveni KC2, Dr.Vatsala Guruprasad2, Dr.Shivalinge Gowda KP1
1Department of Pharmacology, PES College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru- 560050.
2Ayurwin Pharma Pvt Ltd. No-1094, 19th Cross, Ist Block, Rajajinagar, Bengaluru- 560010.

Abstract

Nutrislim Green Tea is an Ayurvedic formulation developed by Ayurwin Pharma Pvt Ltd, Bengaluru. The present study evaluated the antioxidant effects of Nutrislim Green Tea (AYU-606). The in vivo antioxidant effects were evaluated using serum parameters- AST/SGOT, ALT/SGPT, Lactate dehydragenase (LDH). The rats were divided into five groups each consisting of 6. The first group is served as normal control. The duration of the study was 10 days. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in liquid paraffin (1:2v/v) 1ml/kg bw sc was administered to all rats except group I on 4th, 6th 7th and 9th day. Nutrislim Green Tea (630 and 950 mg/kg bw po) was administered to group III and IV group respectively for 10 days. Silymarin (25 mg/kg/day; p.o) was administered to group V for 10 days. The rats (group II) have shown significant increased levels of SGPT, SGOT and LDH when compared to the normal rats. The rats treated with standard Silymarin and Nutrislim Green Tea have shown significant decrease in these values when compared to hepatotoxic rats (group II). These findings suggest that the Nutrislim Green Tea (AYU-606) has potent antioxidant activity and can be used as an antioxidant supplement.

19

EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCATION ON KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, PRACTICE AND THERAPEUTIC COMPLIANCE OF HYPERTENSION IN THE POPULATION OF HYDERABAD

Saira Nausheen Sultana*, S.N Sirisha, M. Priyanka, V. Sireesha, Nooreen Sultana, T. Ramya Krishna, Dr. Vinay Umesh Rao
Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Affiliated to Osmania University Maisammaguda, Dulapally, Secunderabad- 500014, Telangana, India.

Abstract

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) like Hypertension are replacing communicable diseases. And have become the new global epidemics. Its management includes assessment, non-pharmacological treatment and drug treatment. The objective of the study was to improve hypertension control at the community level through more active involvement of pharmacists in prevention, detection and management of hypertension & thereby preventing complication. The method implied was a Cross-sectional study with study period from March 2014 to August 2014, with a sample size of 603 people (382 hypertensive & 221 normotensives) from 4 different locations of Hyderabad. Inclusion criteria: Individuals of both genders above the age of 20 who were willing to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria:(a) Gestational hypertension(b)In the post counselling normotensive were excluded. Result: Post counselling results: Knowledge improved from 1.5 to 2.07, Attitude improved from 1.66 to 2.41, and Practice improved from 2.4 to 3.7. There was an improvement (22.51% to 34.55%) observed after counselling in the adherence of hypertensive patient. Most common monotherapy drug were amlodipine, combination therapy was telmisartan+ hydrochlorothiazide. Males were commonly prescribed with CCB whereas female were commonly prescribed with β- blockers. Common side effect was of ankle swelling due to CCB & constipation/diarrhea due to β- blockers were seen. Conclusion: The effect of this intervention in study was observed, Hypertensive subjects did not have appropriate knowledge about disease, with inappropriate medication intake which leaded to poor medication adherence and poor therapeutic outcomes. Only just after the counselling about disease, diet modification, appropriate time and frequency of medication intake patient showed increased medication adherence and low incidence of side effects. Therefore, improved therapeutic outcome. Hence, hypertension prevention and control in the community can be achieved by creating awareness which is a pivotal challenge.

20

ISOLATION AND OPTIMIZATION FOR EXTRACELLULAR LIPASE USING GROUND NUT SHELL UNDER SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

Sarika Chaturvedi, Aradhana Khare*
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Haryana Manesar, India. *Amity School of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Mumbai, India.

Abstract

Lipase is an enzyme produced by various microorganisms in nature that catalyzes acylglycerols to liberate fatty acids and glycerol. Lipase is applicable in food, dairy, paper, textile, leather and detergent industries as well as in the production of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, surfactants, polymers, vegetable fermentation and meat product curing. Lipase-producing microorganisms have been found in diverse habitats such as industrial wastes, vegetable oil processing factories, dairies, soil contaminated with oil, oilseeds, decaying food, compost heaps, coal tips, and hot springs. In the present study the bacteria were isolated from agricultural soils and subject to grow on different agricultural wastes under submerged fermentation. The various agricultural source used are wheat bran, ground nut, potato peel extract, and banana peel extract at 1% concentration. The media optimization for the production of lipase was performed along with evaluating the substrates for maximum lipase activity, which was observed to be maximum level (0.0054μg/ml/min) with groundnut shell under agitation speed of 140 rpm for 48h and pH 6.0 under batch fermentation at 37°C. The ground nut shell was observed to be a good carbon source for extracellular lipase production under submerged fermentation. Groundnut wastes are abundantly present agro residue in India. It was used as good substrate for lipase production. Such findings have not been reported so far and proved as a novel producer of lipase.

21

STUDY OF RELATION BETWEEN PRESCRIBING PATTERN AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERN IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

Nooreen Sultana1*, S. Shafia1, Saira Nausheen Sultana1, Sumiah Fatima1, Areeba Riyaz1, Syed Ayath1

1Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana.

Abstract

Antibiotic resistance occurs when an antibiotic has lost its ability to effectively control or kill bacterial growth. The aim of the study was to study the prescription pattern and its association with antibiotic resistance. In the present cross-sectional study. All the In-patients who underwent culture sensitivity test and showed bacterial growth were included in the study. In the 6 month’s study period, 102 patients were selected based upon Inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. Prescription pattern and resistance pattern of all the study subjects was studied and patients were given education about antibiotics and its resistance if overused or misused with the help of Patient information leaflets. E. coli was the most common organism found in the study samples. Cephalosporins are the most commonly prescribed antibiotics, among Cephalosporins, cefotaxime was found to be highly prescribed antibiotic. Cefuroxime was found to be resistant in E. coli and Klebsiella spp. It was Concluded that Culture sensitivity tests are of high importance in detection & treatment of a disease. Therefore, Antibiotics should be prescribed as per CST reports rather than going for empirical treatment. Drugs that were found to be resistant to various organisms isolated during the study of Antibiotic resistance pattern should be avoided in order to avoid the further antibiotic resistance in the patients. Prescribing antibiotics correctly, getting cultures, starting the right drug promptly at the right dose for the right duration. Reassessing the prescription within 48 hours based on tests and patient examination.

22

NOVEL APPROACHES FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA DISEASE MANAGEMENT: AN UPDATE

Anshu1*, Sukhwinder Singh1, Manoj Kumar Katual1#, Jaspreet Saini 1, Gurpinder Kaur1, Sukmeet Singh Kamal1, S. L. Harikumar2
1Rayat-Bahra Institute of Pharmacy, Hoshiarpur, Punjab, India-146001.
2University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rayat-Bahra University, Mohali, Punjab, India.

Abstract

Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, debilitating mental illness that affects about 1% of the population, more than 2 million people in the United States alone. With the sudden onset of severe psychotic symptoms, the individual is said to be experiencing acute psychosis. Psychotic means out of touch with reality or unable to separate real from unreal experiences. There is no known single cause of schizophrenia. It appears that genetic and other biological factors produce a vulnerability to schizophrenia, with environmental factors contributing to different degrees in different individuals. Schizophrenia is one of the psychotic mental disorders and affects an individual's thoughts, behaviors, and social functioning. Schizophrenia is considered to be the result of a complex group of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors. Other statistics about schizophrenia include that it affects men about one and a half times more commonly than women. The thought problems associated with schizophrenia are described as psychosis, in that the person's thinking is completely out of touch with reality at times. The sufferer may hear voices or see people that are in no way present or feel like bugs are crawling on their skin when there are none. The individual with this disorder may also have disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, physically rigid or lax behavior (catatonia), significantly decreased behaviors or feelings, as well as delusions, which are ideas about themselves or others that have no basis in reality (for example, the individual might experience paranoia, in that he or she thinks others are plotting against them when they are not. Although there have been fewer studies on schizophrenia in children compared to adults, researchers are finding that children as young as 6 years old can be found to have all the symptoms of their adult counterparts and to continue to have those symptoms into adulthood. This review tries to enlighten new insights and future prospective of this disease.

23

SYNTHESIS, ANTIMICROBIAL, BIOFILM INHIBITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF SOME NOVEL UNDECENOIC ACID-BASED SUBSTITUTED BENZALDEHYDE OXIME ESTER DERIVATIVES

Venepally Vijayendar, R. B. N. Prasad, Y. Poornachandra, C. Ganesh Kumar, Shiva Shanker Kaki*, Ram Chandra Reddy Jala*
CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Tarnaka, Hyderabad-500007, India.
Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

In an attempt to find a new class of antimicrobial agents, a series of new oxime ester derivatives were synthesized from various substituted benzaldehydes and undecenoic acid. The structures of the oxime esters were confirmed using NMR, IR and mass spectroscopy. The prepared oxime esters were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The oxime ester of 3, 5-dichloro-2-hydroxyphenyl derivative (3i) exhibited good antibacterial activity against all the tested strains. In particular, the compound (3i) exhibited promising activity against two Gram-positive strains such as Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 as compared to other strains with a MIC value of 3.9 μg ml-1. Compound 3i showed significant biofilm inhibition activity with MIC value of 2.2 μg ml-1. Among all the tested compounds, few derivatives exhibited promising antioxidant activity based on DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide free radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation assays. Oxime ester of 4-fluoro derivative (3b) showed good antioxidant activity in case of all the three assays. These molecules could be useful as antimicrobial agents and are expected to be useful in the design of efficient biologically active new molecules in future studies.

24

THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS OF MELATONIN RECEPTOR IN BRAIN

Jegan Sakthivel * Jain Saloni

St. .John Institute of Pharmacy and Research, St. John Technical Campus, Vevoor Road, Palghar (W) 401404.

Abstract

Melatonin is a chronobiotic substance that acts as synchronizer by stabilizing bodily rhythms. Its synthesis occurs in various locations throughout the body, including the pineal gland, skin, lymphocytes and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Its synthesis and secretion is controlled by light and dark conditions, whereby light decreases and darkness increases its production. Thus, melatonin is also known as the ‘hormone of darkness’. Melatonin and analogues that bind to the melatonin receptors are important because of their role in the management of depression, insomnia, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and Parkinson’s disease. In this article, we review recent advances and discuss the mechanism of action of melatonin in these disorders, which could aid in the design of novel melatonin receptor ligands.

25

SYNTHESIS OF NEW 2, 4 – DINITRO PHENYL HYDRAZONE DERIVATIVES OF CHALCONES AND ITS BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION

Vidya Desai*, Sinthiya Gawandi
Department of Chemistry, Dnyanprassarak Mandal’s College & Research Centre, Assagao, Bardez – Goa.

Abstract

In this study, a set of new 2,4 – dinitrophenyl hydrazone derivatives of substituted chalcones have been synthesized under hot acidic conditions. The condensation of corresponding acetophenones with substituted benzaldehydes resulted in chalcones, which on further treatment with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine in presence of H2SO4 gave respective hydrazone derivatives. Their structures have been characterized and confirmed by spectroscopic data. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-microbial activity against gram positive staphylococcus aureus and gram negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa bacterial strains and candida albicans fungal strains by agar well diffusion technique. The specificity of the tested series of hydrazones was observed as it showed selective activity. It was found that the hydrazones showed selective activity against gram negative bacteria but were found inactive against gram positive bacteria. The samples were also screened for their anti-tubercular activity against M. Tuberculosis and showed an acceptable anti-tubercular activity.

26

ELECTRONIC TATTOO - A NEW WAY OF TRACKING PATIENTS HEALTH INFORMATION

Mr Amaresh Prusty*1, Mr Debasish Mohanty2
1College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Puri.Odisha.752002.India.
2Acharya Harihara Cancer Research Institute, Cuttack. Odisha.753011, India.

Abstract

Electronic tattoo is an ultra thin device that attaches to skin like a stick on tattoo. This tattoo adheres to the skin and the texture of the tattoo adhesive layer is flexible enough that it moves with the skin in every direction providing maximum comfort for the patient and provide accurate data for the physician. Electronic Tattoo can keep track of patient all the health related data such as heart rate, strain and other condition-specific symptoms. This tattoo is placed over the skin using a flexible water-soluble film-like adhesive layer. They have wide range of applications in health care, wellness, and fitness. These tattoos can gather electrophysiological information which connects electrical activity to physiological functions such as brain activity, heart rate, respiration, and so on and may also aid with physical rehabilitation not just as monitors, but also as a device to stimulate muscle contractions without restraining motion. Nowadays from newborn babies to post-operative patients, this electronic tattoo acts as a diagnostic and monitoring tool for primary healthcare providers leading to better-informed clinical decisions. Though it’s a new approach to but Electronic Tattoo can enable sensitive and frequent assessment of an individual health condition and advances new treatments for physiological and neurological conditions.

27

PREVENTION OF HEPATOTOXICITY WITH CURCUMA LONGA AND ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS IN GENTAMICIN TREATED GUINEA PIGS

Azab Elsayed Azab1*, Mohamed Omar Albasha1, Ata Sedik Ibrahim Elsayed2
1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alejelat, Zawia University, Libya
2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Gentamicin induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals were reported by many investigators. Natural antioxidants strengthen the endogenous antioxidants defenses from reactive oxygen species and restore the optimal balance by neutralizing the reactive species. The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Curcuma longa (Cur), and Rosmarinus officinalis (Ros) as a natural source of antioxidants to minimize the harmful effects of gentamicin (GM) induced hepatotoxicity in Guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were divided into five groups. The first group (control) was injected intraperitoneal with saline. The 2nd group was injected intraperitoneal with gentamicin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight /day. The 3th , 4th , and 5th groups were injected intraperitoneal with gentamicin (100 mg/kg b. wt /day) concurrently with curcumin, rosemary, and curcumin with rosemary at the doses of 200 mg, 220 mg, and 200 mg with 220 mg /kg body weight /day respectively orally by gavage for 10 days. Liver function was assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ- glutamyltransferase activities (γ-GT), total proteins, albumin, and globulin concentrations, A/G ratio, and histopathological changes of liver were examined. GM -induced hepatotoxicity was evidenced by increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and γGT; a decrease in serum total proteins, albumin, and globulin concentrations; and a significant alteration in hepatic architecture. Co-administration of Cur and/or Ros with GM prevented severe alterations of biochemical parameters and disruptions of liver structure, which may be due to its antioxidant property. it can be concluded that, gentamicin had adverse effects on the liver. Curcumin and rosemary administration showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities in gentamicin treated male Guinea pigs, which may be due to its antioxidant property. So, the patients should be advised to take curcumin and rosemary in combination while they are treated by gentamicin. Further studies are necessary to elucidate exact mechanism of hepato-protection and potential usefulness of curcumin and rosemary as a protective agent against gentamicin induced hepatotoxicity in clinical trials.

28

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND BIOCHEMICAL PROFILING OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Hemigraphis Colorata

Thara K.M*1, Raji T.K2.,
1Department of Biotechnology, University of Calicut, Thenjippalam, Kerala, India.
2Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology,Government Medical College, Calicut.

Abstract

Aqueous extract of aerial parts of Hemigraphis colorata, (Blume) Hallier f. was prepared by sequential bioassay guided fractionation. Antimicrobial activity against clinical, standard and drug resistance strains were tested. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was evaluated against both including Gram positive and Gram negative fungi. It exhibited significant antimicrobial against all the test pathogens. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC value 120 μg/ml) followed by S.aureus (150 μg/ml) Salmonella typhi (160 μg/ml). It also showed significant synergistic effect against S.aureus when treated along with penicillin. The biochemical analysis and HPLC profiling were also done. The results show that the plant is a source for alternative medicine.

29

A REVIEW ON RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS AND RADIOCHEMICAL METHOD IN ANALYSIS

Mrs. Shanvi Sachin Gawli*, Mrs. Dipti Hiten Chirmade
St. John Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Vevoor,

Abstract

A radiopharmaceutical is only as good the care taken in each preparation step throughout compounding process. Since radiopharmaceuticals are intended for human use, it is imperative that they undergo strict quality control measure. Quality control is a set of operation, which involve observation, testing and analysis performed in order to certify that product matches set of standards and hence is suitable for intended use. Quality control testing assures purity, integrity, potency, product identity, biological safety and efficacy of radiopharmaceuticals. The success of diagnostic radiopharmaceutical is reflected in the quality of images of diseased site. Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals must pass quality control test otherwise results could be life-threatening to the patient.

30

DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES OF A WATER SOLUBLE DRUG

Akkshata Parab*, Amrita Bajaj
Department of Pharmaceutics, SVKM’s Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, Vile Parle (West), Mumbai - 400 056, India.

Abstract

This study was done to optimize and evaluate Tramadol hydrochloride loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles by using particle size and zeta potential analysis, Differential scanning calorimetry and Scanning electron microscopy. Tramadol hydrochloride was obtained as a gift sample from Indeus Life Sciences. Precirol ATO 5 and Compritol 888 ATO was obtained from Gattefosse Ltd. Stearic acid, Glyceryl mono stearate self emulsifying, chloroform, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, Tween80, Poloxamer 188 were also used for the formulation of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Attempts were made to optimize SLN by Solvent evaporation method. The solid lipid nanoparticles were successfully formulated which were in the size range of 300-400nm with zeta potential between -20 to -30mV. The SLN exhibited circular structure with better encapsulation efficiency. Compatibility between the drug and excipients was confirmed by Differential scanning calorimetry. Solid lipid nanoparticles of Tramadol hydrochloride with sufficient drug content can be a promising approach in context to formulation of topical gels and creams.

31

VARIATION OF THREE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN SIX SHAMPOO FORMULATIONS WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE

Thalles Yuri Loiola Vasconcelos*, Raimundo Jeová Martins Mesquita, Aristides Ávilo do Nascimento, Ítalo Mendes Cangussu
Laboratory of Physicochemical Control Quality, School of Pharmacy, Superior Institute of Applied Theology, CE, Brazil
*T. Y. L. Vasconcelos. Superior Institute of Applied Theology. Humberto Lopes 729, 62020-395, Sobral–CE, Brazil.

Abstract

Sodium chloride is a thickener used to adjust the viscosity of shampoos. This study evaluated three physicochemical parameters (i.e., pH, viscosity, and conductivity) in six shampoo formulations with increasing concentrations of sodium chloride. The formulations were made with different concentrations of sodium chloride (i.e., 0 %, 1 %, 3 %, 5 %, 10 %, and 20 %). The pH and conductivity were determined using a digital pH meter and conductivity meter, respectively, and the tests were performed in triplicate. The viscosity was measured in a single assay using a Brookfield rotational viscometer. The formulations showed a constant pH value, with a mean of 4.8, appropriate pH range for shampoos. Regarding conductivity, the higher the concentration of sodium chloride, higher the conductivity. There was a steady increase in viscosity between the concentrations 0 %, 1 %, and 3%, whereas beginning at a concentration of 5 % there was a proportional decrease in viscosity (i.e., at concentrations of 5 %, 10 %, and 20 %). Thus, it is arguable that the pH of all samples of shampoos were appropriate. The conductivity increases proportionally to the concentration of sodium chloride and the viscosity increase until the breaking of formulation. The formulations with sodium chloride concentrations of between 1 % and 5 % presented ideal physicochemical characteristics for shampoos.

32

LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND THERMODYNAMIC INVESTIGATION OF BARNIDIPINE ENANTIOMERS ON COATED AND IMMOBILIZED AMYLOSE TRIS (3, 5 - DIMETHYLPHENYLCARBAMATE) CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASES

Ramisetti Nageswara Rao1*, Kondapalli Santhakumar1, Kandukuri Nagesh Kumar2
1Analytical Chemistry Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad-500607, India.
2Daicel Chiral Technologies (India) Pvt. Ltd, Hyderabad-500078, India.

Abstract

Liquid chromatographic separation of barnidipine enantiomers on physically adsorbed and covalently bonded polysaccharide chiral stationary phases was studied at different temperatures. The separations were accomplished under normal-phase conditions by using different combinations of hexane, organic modifiers (2-propanol and ethanol) as mobile phase. The effects of organic modifiers and the column temperature on retention, separation and resolution were studied. Baseline separation with resolution >5.0 was achieved on coated CHIRALPAK AD-H column containing amylose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) as a stationary phase using a mobile phase containing of n-hexane: 2-propanol (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8mL min-1 at 25°C. The detection was carried out at UV-238 nm. The symmetry was observed at the peaks with no mobile phase additive. The observed differences were explained in terms of the coated and immobilized nature of the two columns. Van’t Hoff plots (ln k′ vs 1/T) and apparent thermodynamic parameters were derived to understand the effect of temperature on enantioseparation of barnidipine enantiomers. The developed method was validated in terms of LOD, LOQ, linearity, accuracy and precision.

33

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SINTERED MATRIX TABLETS OF CAFFIENE AND IT’S COMPARISION OVER UNSINTERED MATRIX TABLETS

Satish Polshettiwar1,2, Chetana Patil1, Ajinkya Battuwar1, Rahul Hajare3
1Department of Pharmaceutics; MAEERS, Maharashtra Institute of Pharmacy, MIT Campus, Kothrud, Pune-411038, Maharashtra, India.
2Centre for Research and Development, Pacific University, Udaipur 313003, Rajasthan, India.
3Department of Pharma Chemistry, AES, College of Pharmacy, Narhe , Pune-411041.

Abstract

The aim of present work was to design, fabricate and characterize gastro retentive matrix tablets of Caffeine with the application of sintering technique to achieve sustained release dosage form. Caffeine, a highly water-soluble drug, which is used as a CNS stimulant, mild diuretic, and respiratory stimulant, belonging to the methyl xanthine class has been selected as a model drug. Hence in the present study, an attempt has been made to develop sustained release matrix tablets of caffeine to reduce the gastric irritation. The polymers like HPMC K4M, Eudragit L 100, Guar gum and Sodium bicarbonate, Citric acid were utilized as gas generating agents in the formulation of matrix tablets containing Caffeine by direct compression techniques and evaluated for its in-vitro drug release. The powder blend was evaluated for bulk density tapped density, compressibility index and angle of repose shows characteristic results. Formulation was optimized on the basis of acceptable tablet parameters such as hardness, friability, drug content, weight variation, Buoyancy lag time, in-vitro drug release and stability studies. The results of the present work stated that sintering caused decrease in drug release as compared to unsintered tablets. It was found that F6, L2, I2 and H4 gave better results compared to other formulations. The stability studies were carried out according to ICH guideline which indicates that the selected formulations were stable. The release data was then fitted to various mathematical models such as Hixon Crowell, Korsmeyer peppas, First order, Zero order to evaluate the kinetics and the mechanism of the drug release. Thus it could be useful to retain Caffeine in stomach, minimize the mucosal irritation by drug releasing slowly at controlled rate, reduces drug waste and better patient compliance.

34

SPRAY DRIED NOVEL CO-PROCESSED SUPERDISINTEGRANTS IN THE DESIGN OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS

S. B. Shirsand, R. T. Gumate, Shailashri, V. Jonathan
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, H.K.E. Society’s College of Pharmacy, Sedam Road, Gulbarga- 585 105, India.

Abstract

In the present study, novel co-processed superdisintegrants were developed by Spray drying method using MCC, Crospovidone, and Aerosil in the different ratios (88:10:2, 90:8:2, 92:6:2) for use in the fast dissolving tablet formulations. The developed superdisintegrants were evaluated for angle of repose, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio in comparison with physical mixture of superdisintegrants. The angle of repose of the developed superdisintegrants was found to be < 30o, Carr’s index in the range of 9-15% and Hausner’s ratio in the range of 1.12-1.16. Fast dissolving tablets of glibenclamide were prepared using the above co-processed superdisintegrants and evaluated for pre-compression and post-compression parameters. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 12.56 sec), promising formulation MCPA3 was tested for in vitro drug release pattern in pH 6.8 Phosphate buffer and stability (at 400C/75% RH for 3 months), drug excipients interaction (IR spectroscopy) were studied. Among the designed formulations, the formulation (MCPA3) containing 8% w/w of co-processed superdisintegrant (92:6:2 mixture of MCC, Crospovidone and Aerosil) emerged as the overall best formulation (t50% 1.5 min) based on drug release characteristics in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer compared to commercial conventional tablet formulation (t50% 6 min). Stability studies on promising formulation indicated that there were no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (p<0.05). It can be concluded that Co-processed superdisitegrants prepared by spray drying method consisting of MCC, Crospovidone and Aerosil exhibited good flow and compression characteristics.

35

EVALUATION OF THE SAFETY AND ANTI-ULCERATIVE POTENTIAL OF A POLYHERBAL AYURVEDIC FORMULATION (ASC01): AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

Raja Chakraverty1*, Tatini Debnath2, Niloy Saha1, Amitava Ghosh1, Anuradha Pati3
1*Bengal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, B.R.B Sarani, Bidhannagar, Durgapur-713212, West Bengal.
2Gena Pharmaceuticals Limited. Madhyamgram. Kolkata-700128.West Bengal.
3Department of Pathology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata-700073.

Abstract

An experimental study with the objective to evaluate the acute toxicity study and anti-ulcerative property of the polyherbal formulation named-ASC01 (formulated in the same institute) was performed as per OECD guidelines 423. The polyherbal ayurvedic formulation (PHAF) is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients like Yashtimadhu, Shatavari which have reported antiulcer activity. Firstly an acute toxicity study was formulated (as per OECD guidelines 423) the animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with the PHAF at the dose upto 5000 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was observed in any of the animals indicating its safety. The anti-ulcer property of the polyherbal formulation was evaluated on wistar albino rats grouped into 4 groups (n=6). The findings showed that the said polyherbal test extract (ASC01) helped in reversing duodenal and peptic ulcer in murine models.

36

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ARTEMISIA PALLENS BY HUMAN RED BLOOD CELL MEMBRANE STABILIZATION METHOD

Arjun. K1*, Sangeetha.M1, R.Kamalraj2
1Sri Ramachandra University Porur, Chennai – 600 116.
2R&D, Hospira a Pfizer Company, IKKT, Tamilnadu-602117.

Abstract

Artemisia pallens was studied for anti-inflammatory action by HRBC Membrane Stabilization Method. Various Extracts of Aerial Parts of Artemisia Pallens with serious of dose concentration (10-1000 μg/ml) were studied for the anti-inflammatory action and compared against the standard Diclofenac sodium. The percentage protection was found to be petroleum ether (60.93%), ethyl acetate (63.89%), ethanol (69.96%), chloroform (64.55%), and hydro alcohol (66.17%). The results of the present study suggest that ethanol extract of Artemisia pallens at the concentration of 1000 (μg/ml) has %inhibition of 69.96% which is similar to Diclofenac sodium and it may uses as a potent anti-inflammatory agent.

37

INVESTIGATION OF ANTIOXIDANT, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF YELLOW SEEDS OF BANGLADESHI SETARIA ITALICA

Tumpa Dasgupta1, Rezwana Nasrin Chowdhury2, Krishna Paul3, Dr. Nazmul Qais1
1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Dhaka.
2Department of Pharmacy, Jagannath University.
3Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

The ethanolic seed extract of Setaria italica was screened for its antioxidant, cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity using DPPH radical scavenging method, brine shrimp lethality bioassay and adult earth worm’s paralysis pattern determination by using albendazole as standard respectively. The results of the study showed that the IC50 values of ethanolic crude extract (10.33 μg/ml), chloroform (11.12 μg/ml), carbon tetrachloride (15.25 μg/ml) and pet ether (12.49 μg/ml) fractions of Setaria italica have shown potent free radical scavenging activity compared to IC50 value of standard BHT (28.08 μg/ml). Assessment of cytotoxic activity of Setaria italica showed that ethanolic crude extract and its different partitionates (pet ether, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform) exhibited cytotoxicity with the LD50 values of 7.71 μg/ml , 6.49 μg/ml, 1.61 μg/ml, 2.59 μg/ml, respectively compared to the vincristine sulphate (LD50 value 0.544 μg/ml). The result of anthelmintic activity evaluation of ethanolic extract of Setaria italica depicted that the ethanolic crude extract at a dose of 50 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml did not show any significant anthelmintic activity compared to the standard albendazole. This study has shown that the ethanolic extract of Setaria italica and its different partitionates possess potent antioxidant activity and chloroform fraction possesses fair cytotoxic activity but any satisfactory anthelmintic activity not assessed from this study.

38

ONE-POT SYNTHESIS OF 3, 4 – DIHYDROPYRIMIDINE – 2 (1H) - ONES USING ZINC ACETATE AS ORGANOMETALLIC CATALYST UNDER SOLVENT FREE CONDITION

Vishvanath D. Patil*, Ketan P. Patil, Nagesh.R. Sutar, Prathamesh V. Gidh
Organic Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, C.K.Thakur A.C.S. College New Panvel, Raigad, Maharashtra, India-410206.

Abstract

Zinc acetate efficiently catalysed the synthesis of various 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones derivatives. This method has been applied to a variety of substrate including electron donating and electron donating aldehydes. Dihydropyrimidinone derivatives synthesized with excellent yields. The remarkable selectivity under mild and neutral conditions of this commercially available, inexpensive catalyst is an attractive feature of this method.

39

HPTLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL IN BULK AND MARKETED FORMULATION

Vishruti Kadam*, Manisha Karpe, Vilasrao Kadam
Department of Pharmaceutics, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Navi Mumbai-400614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Rapid, accurate and precise method for identification and quantitation of Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) was developed by HPTLC-densitometry and validated. The Camag HPTLC system, employed with software winCATS (ver.1.4.1.8) was used for proposed analytical work. Planar chromatographic development was carried out with the help of Silica Gel 60 F254 pre-coated TLC plates. Sample application was facilitated by Linomat 5 applicator and ascending development in a previously saturated twin trough chamber was carried out, using Methanol: Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Glacial acetic acid (2.5, 5.5, 1.8, 0.2 % v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase and detection wavelength of 257 nm. In HPTLC densitogram well defined peak was obtained for OLM at 0.43. Performance characteristics of HPTLC method for estimation of OLM in bulk and its marketed dosage form were statistically validated as per recommendations of ICH guidelines of analytical method validation. The HPTLC method was found to be linear with R2 value of 0.9946 and across the range 40-400 ng/band. The developed method was found to be specific as the densitogram of pure OLM and tablet extract matched correctly. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 2.68 and 8.13 ng/band respectively. The method was found to be accurate, precise, robust and economical for the analysis of OLM from bulk and its formulation. Thus this method can be safely employed for analysis of routine samples and quality control of drugs in pharmaceutical formulations.

40

POTENTIAL OF PLGA AS A BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY: A REVIEW

P. R. Patil*1, M. P. Wagh2, S. R. Chaudhari3
1Govt. College of Pharmacy, Opp. Govt. Polytechnic, Osmanpura, Aurangabad (M.S.) 431005, Research Scholar JNTU Kakinada(A.P.).
2N.D.M.V.P’s College of Pharmacy Gangapur Road, Nasik (M.S) 422 002.
3AVSSVS’s Amrutvahini College of Pharmacy, Amrutnagar, Sangamner (M.S.) 422 608.

Abstract

PLGA is a combination polymer of PLA and PGA which has adapted a good market value in several years due to its unique properties of remaining stable in an amorphous and semi-crystalline form. As it is biodegradable polymer [1, 2]. Its property of controlled degradation is very useful for release of drug in a controlled manner hence its use increasing very rapidly in various formulations. Present review deals with its structure, properties, degradation pattern, USFDA IIG level to be used in various formulations and available marketed formulations containing PLGA hence it effectively used in various formulations including subcutaneous implantable delivery of drugs for its sustained effects[3].

41

BOTTOM-UP TECHNOLOGIES FOR DESIGN OF NANO-SUSPENSIONS AS NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Hucche B. S.*, Panchbhai V.B., Dr.Bhusnure O.G, Shaikh F.E., Ovhal P.
Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College (Degree), Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The interest in the preparation and application of nanometer-sized materials is increasing due to their tremendous potential as a drug delivery system with wide range of applications. Recently, nanoscale systems have received much interest as a way to resolve solubility issues because of their cost-effectiveness and technical simplicity compared to liposome and other colloidal drug carriers. Nanosuspensions have proven to be a better alternative over other approaches currently available for improving bioavailability of number of drugs with low solubility. Nanosuspensions have been extensively developed for a wide range of drugs and have been evaluated for in vitro and in vivo applications by various routes: parenteral, oral, pulmonary, topical. They have also been used for drug targeting. Different preparation methods for nanosuspensions and their application are being reported and patented. In fact, the number of products based on nanosuspension in the market and under clinical study is higher than that of other nanotechnology-based applications. Nanosuspension seems to be a promising approach for bioavailability enhancement because of the simple method of its preparation and its universal applicability. This review focused on the various method of preparation of nanosuspension with their advantages and disadvantages, evaluation of nanosuspension , their application in drug delivery system and current marketed products of nanosuspension.

42

FORMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF BOSWELLIA SERRATA EXTRACT TABLET

Vivek Chauhan*
* Research scholar, JJT University, Rajasthan, India.

Abstract

Herbal therapy has been the most convenient mode of drug applications since the time im- memorable to the people of present pharmaceutical and clinical arena. Traditional medicines that are derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. Based on preformulation studies of raw material, granules of polyherbal tablets were prepared.for trial batch (T1-T5) The powder blends was evaluated for tests such as Angle of Repose, Bulk density, Tapped density, Compressibility ratio, and hausner’s ratio before punching of tablet. (pre-compression). The polyherbal tablet is used in arthritis. Pain and inflammation of joint is reduced due to the mode of action of boswellic acid on LOX enzyme. The polyherbal tablet is effective in comparison to other NSAIDS. In the present study, the polyherbal tablets were prepared using 32 full factorial design containing two factors evaluated at three levels. Initially five trial batches incorporating various concentration of disintegrants and lubricant were formulated and evaluated. The best batch (T4) containing sod. CMC (9mg) and Mg. Stearate (3mg) was selected as a source of information for designing factorial batches. Two evaluated independent formulation variables included: - Factor A (sod. CMC 5, 7 & 9 mg) and Factor B (Mg. stearate: 3, 5 & 7 mg). The experimental trials were performed at all possible combinations. The two response parameters like disintegration time and hardness were determined using design expert version (8.5.0.1) software for the construction of polynomial equation. All the formulated batches were evaluated for pre and post-compression parameters. All the batches of ployherbal tablets were evaluated for pre-compression parameters such as bulk density (0.649-0.688 gm/ml), tap density (0.686- 0.736 gm/cc), hausner’s ratio (1.05-1.13 ), angle of repose ( 25.43-28.630, carr’s index ( 5.23-11.8 ) & post-compression parameters like hardness ( 4.0 – 8.0 Kg/cm2), thickness ( 4.64-4.72), weight variation (510±5%), disintegration time ( 25-65 min) and friability (0.455-0.533) The results of accelerated stability studies revealed no physical and chemical changes in the tablets during three months of experiments. The finally optimized batch of formulation (D8) was subjected to check disintegration time and hardness. The actual response values were in accordance with the predicted values which showed validity of the model. The optimized formulation was subjected to stability studies which revealed the dosage form as stable with decreased D.T. time and optimum hardness.

43

MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES OF PYRROLYL BENZOHYDRAZIDE DERIVATIVES AS ENOYL ACP REDUCTASE INHIBITORS

Shrinivas D. Joshi*, Sheshagiri R. Dixit, Pradeepkumar MR, V. H. Kulkarni
Novel Drug Design and Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, S.E.T.’s College of Pharmacy, Sangolli Rayanna Nagar, Dharwad 580 002, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

The antibacterial target, enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase, is a homotetrameric enzyme that catalyses the last reductive step of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this paper, surflex docking studies have been carried out on a series of 35 pyrrolyl derivatives as enoyl ACP reductase inhibitors. Surflex docking studies revealed that carbonyl, methoxy and nitro group are essential for activity and it showed putative binding modes of the synthesized compounds and it is also found that the pattern of binding of tested compounds is same as that of the 4TZK ligand, this in turn helped in understanding of specific activity of compounds. While the theoretical evaluation of cell permeability based on Lipinski’s rule of five has helped to rationalize the biological results.

44

IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACTS OF NYMPHAEA ALBA

N. Jaya Raju*, P. Sai, G. Santhi, L. Lavanya, B. Satya Vani
Adarsa College of Pharmacy, G. Kothapalli, E.G. Dist, Andhra Pradesh, India-533285.

Abstract

Helminthiasis has been found to result in poor birth outcome, poor cognitive development, poor school and work performance, poor socioeconomic development, and poverty. Most of the commonly used anthelmintics belong to one of 3 chemical classes (benzimidazoles, imidazothiazoles, and macrocyclic lactones), within which all individual compounds act in a similar fashion. Thus, resistance to one particular compound may be accompanied by resistance to other members of the group (ie, cross-resistance). Hence it is important to look for alternative strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes, which have lead to the proposal of screening medicinal plants. This study evaluated the scientific basis for the traditional use of Nymphaea alba (Nymphaeaceae) leaves extract as an anthelmintic agent by using earthworms on four extracts of the plant were evaluated. The earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) resembles both anatomically and physiologically to the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. The four crude leaves extracts of Nymphaea alba were Petroleum Ether extract (25, 50 &100 mg/ml), Chloroform extract (25, 50 &100 mg/ml), Ethanol extract (25, 50 &100 mg/ml) and Aqueous extract (25, 50 &100 mg/ml). The paralysis time of four extracts were compared to the standard drug Albendazole suspension 100mg/5ml (19±2.21). The results shown that the four extracts produced dose dependent and significant anthelmintic activities. Dose dependent activity was observed in the plant extracts but ethanolic extract exhibited more activity as compared to others. From these findings the four extracts of Nymphaea alba are rich source of naturally occurring anthelmintic activity. Further work is recommended to evaluate the in vivo anthelmintic activity and toxicity of the extracts.

45

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL VANISHING CREAM CONTAINING PUNICA GRANATUM

D. Nirmala kumari*, Dr. T. Satyanarayana, CH. Sai kumar, SK. Moulabi, B. Pullarao, A. Gavamma, K. Nagamani
Mother Teresa Pharmacy College, Sathupally, Khammam District, Telangana State.

Abstract

Everyone needs natural and beautiful skin so that the natural skin care products are growing day by day in the present market. The main objective of these natural products is to avoid skin problems and to protect the skin from harmful chemicals and also to give healthy skin. By extracting the seeds and peel of Punica granatum Pomegranate) with olive oil and almond oil the herbal vanishing creams of 4 formulations were formulated named as C1, C2, C3 and C4. The prepared formulations were evaluated for physical evaluation tests like color, odor and evaluated for different evaluation parameters like pH, homogeneity, viscosity, type of smear, after feel test, dye test, spreadability test, patch test and skin irritation studies were done on rat skin. The results were found good and no erythema and hypersensitivity was found on rat skin therefore the formulated creams were tested on human skin and found satisfactory. All the 4 formulations were subjected to accelerated stability studies for 20 days by maintaining at different temperatures and creams were evaluated for different parameters and there was no change in the results.

46

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CARVEDILOL CONTAINING ETHOSOMAL SUSPENSION

Beedha. Saraswathi*, Dr. T. Satyanarayana, K. Poosha, P. Laxman Rao, N. Ramya, V. Hemalatha, Ch. Anitha
Department of Pharmaceutics, Mother Teresa Pharmacy College, Sathupally, Khammam Dist, 507303, India.

Abstract

The main objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate Ethosomes containing Carvedilol for treatment of hypertension by better penetration of drug through the skin and to increase bioavailability of the drug by circumvent first pass metabolism.Transdermal delivery is important because it is a noninvasive procedure for drug delivery. To overcome the stratum corneum barrier, various mechanisms have been investigated, including use of chemical or physical enhancers such as iontophoresis, sonophoresis, etc. Liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes and ethosomes also have the potential of overcoming the skin barrier and have been reported to enhance permeability of drug through the stratum corneum barrier. Ethosomes are able to improve skin delivery of drugs both under occlusive and non-occlusive Conditions over liposomes. Developed ethosomes of Carvedilol were evaluated for the parameters such as vesicle size and shape, entrapment efficiency and diffusion studies. From among all the developed formulations, E5 showed better entrapment efficiency i.e., 97.45 and drug diffusion for a period of 24 hr was found to be 97.61 which also has smaller vesicle size. Therefore, it was selected as the best formulation. Thus it concluded that ethosomes is a very promising carrier for transdermal delivery and creating a new opportunities for topical application of carvediolol in the treatment of hypertension and this can be furtherly formulated in the form of gels, creams or patches.

47

VALIDATED UV-SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DABIGATRAN ETEXILATE MESYLATE IN FORMULATION AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM

Kumar Raja Jayavarapu*, Dr. T. Satyanarayana, B.Baby, Ch.Kesavarao, K.Sujatha, K.Ramya, and M.S.N.Varaprasad
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Mother Teresa Pharmacy College, Sathupally, Khammam Dist, 507303, India.

Abstract

A simple and sensitive UV spectroscopic method for the determination of Dabigatran Etexilate Mesylate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms was described. From the solubility data 0.1 N HCl was used as solvent and shows absorption maximum at 326 nm. The Beer’s Law range is 03 – 21 μg/ml. The linear regression for method found to be 0.99982, slope 0.03158, Intercept 0.04169. When marketed formulations were analysed, the results obtained by the proposed method were in good agreement with labelled amounts. The developed method was validated statistically as per ICH guidelines. Conclusion: The developed UV-Spectroscopic method is simple, sensitive, specific and can be successfully employed in routine analysis of Dabigatran Etexilate Mesylate Pharmaceutical dosage forms in Industries as well as in routine laboratory analysis.

48

PRODUCTION OF NOVEL SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI BY USING FERMENTATION PROCESS

KAJAL WANI, Dr. SHWETA SABOO, POOJA SOLANKE, POOJA TIDKE
Government College of Pharmacy, Hotel Vedant Road, Osmanpura, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India-431005.

Abstract

Fungal endophytes are microorganisms that internally infect living plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, and live symbiotic relationship with plants for at least a part of their life cycle. Now-a-days endophytic fungi are used as novel source for getting novel bioactive compounds with increase in yield. This review contains endophyte diversity and production of secondary metabolites through fermentation process with their activity as anticancerous, antimicrobial, antiviral, antibiotics along with huge number of other secondary metabolites for potential application in medicine and agriculture. The drug resistance, toxicity are problems caused by synthetic drug overcome by producing secondary metabolite by using plant containing endophytic fungi. So that, in future this technique will be used to get huge number of bioactive compounds for effective treatment from endophytic fungi through fermentation process.

49

ASSESSMENT OF DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS IN NEPHROLOGY UNIT OF A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Sibi C Chacko1*, Javedh Shareef1, Janardhan Kamath2
1NGSM institute of pharmaceutical science, Nitte University, Mangalore-575018, Karnataka, India.
2Justice K S Hegde Charitable Hospital, Nitte University, Mangalore-575018, Karnataka India.

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease patients have multiple associated co- morbidities and hence they receive complex drug regimen which will increases the risk for drug-drug interactions. The present study was to assess the pattern of potential drug-drug interactions in chronic kidney disease patients in nephrology department of Justice K S Hegde Hospital, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.It was prospective observational study was carried out for a period of eight months from June 2015 to February 2015. A total of 150 patients of nephrology department were included in the study. A total of 365 drug-drug interactions were identified from 87 patients with male (77.1%) predominance over females (23.1%). The average age of the patients was found to be 21.01 ± 78.01 years. According to severity classification 244(66.80%) moderate interactions were most common. Among the interactions 116 (31.70%) were of delayed onset and 74(20.27%) were of rapid onset. According to significance 48(13.15%) were excellent, 148(40.54%) were good, 141 (38.63%) were fair, 13(3.56%) were poor and 11(3.61%) were unlikely. aspirin +clopidogrel 25(12.25%) was the most frequently prescribed drug combination which caused moderate drug interactions. 30(22.3%) hypertension 13(9.70%) was the most clinically reported outcomes of drug-drug interactions. The study highlights the need of intense monitoring of drug therapy by clinical pharmacist in patient with chronic kidney diseases. This will help in achieving better therapeutic outcome, improve the quality of care and limit the adverse outcomes associated with drug interactions.

50

PREVALENCE OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASES AND MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE AMONG UROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATES

Harjot Pal Kaur*, Sukhvir Kaur, Anu
Shaheed Udham Singh College of Research and Technology, Tangori, SAS Nagar (Mohali).

Abstract

Antibiotics have always been considered one of the wonder discoveries of the 20th century. This is true, but the real wonder is the rise of antibiotic resistance with their use. Resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has been increasing, particularly over the last decade. This is mainly due to the spread of strains producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Indiscriminate use of antibiotics is the main factor resulting in emergence, selection and dissemination of drug resistant pathogens in human. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing Gram negative uropathogen - Escherichia coli (E. coli) and their antibiotic resistance patterns. To isolate E. coli, urine samples of urinary tract infection (UTI) patients were obtained from hospitals in Mohali, Punjab, India. Urinary tract infection was found more prevalent in females than males. Out of the total isolates, 33.4% were identified as belonging to E. coli sp. The E. coli isolates were found to be highly resistant to penicillin G, erythromycin, streptomycin and oxacillin and susceptible to imipenem, cephotaxime, amikacin and chloramphenicol. 55% of E. coli isolates were detected as ESBL producers whereas 45% were non-ESBL producers and all the isolates showed resistance to more than three antibiotics. Results reveal that E. coli strains from UTI were multidrug resistant and produced ESBL that may be the cause of resistance to the antibiotic drugs. Results of this study suggest the need for an antibiotic policy for its rationale use and the policy should stress not only for prevention of infections, but also ensures proper selection of antibiotics and misuse of antibiotics should be minimized.

51

RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR THE ESTIMATION OF FLUNARIZINE DI-HYDROCHLORIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM

Deepthi G, Dr. Balakrishnan M, Yuva Raj Yadav K, Mallika K, Muni Shekhar G
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Seshachala College of Pharmacy, Puttur.

Abstract

The present study has been made for development for the estimation of Flunarizine di Hcl in tablet dosage form by isocratic RP-HPLC method. Simple, rapid, accurate isocratic RP-HPLC methods were developed for the determination of Flunarizine di Hcl in tablet dosage form by using RP-HPLC method by assay with UV Detection. The results obtained in recovery studies were indicating that there were no interferences from the excipients used in the formulation. The performed study clearly explains that the developed isocratic RP-HPLC method can be effectively applied for the routine analysis of Flunarizine di Hcl in tablet dosage form.