IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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JANUARY 2018
1

PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTI HYPERTENSIVE IR GRANULES AND ANTI DIABETIC SR MINI TABLETS FILLED CAPSULE SYSTEMS

Dr. M. SUNITHA REDDY*, GUDUGUNTLA SRILATHA, S. MUHAMMAD FAZAL UL HAQ
CENTER FOR PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, IST, JNTUH.

The objective of the present study is to formulate and evaluate the Capsule system with the anti diabetic mini tablets of Glipizide and antihypertensive granules of Losartan potassium with different release patterns by using suitable Excipients. Ethyl cellulose is used as a release retarding polymer in various concentrations in the formulation of the Glipizide mini tablets and the Losartan potassium granules were prepared by using Crospovidone as a super Disintegrant in various concentrations for the immediate drug release. The drug Excipient compatibility studies were performed by FTIR spectroscopy. The pre formulation studies were performed. The in vitro drug release studies were carried out by using the dissolution Apparatus - II at 100rpm in 0.1N HCl for Losartan potassium and 50rpm in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer for Glipizide as described in USP. The simultaneous estimation of both the drugs was carried out by using ultra violet spectroscopy. Optimized formulations are filled in to the hard gelatin capsule systems by using the working formula mentioned above. Formulation CF2 and CF3 showed the best results for the losartan potassium IR (immediate releasing) granules and Glipizide SR (sustained releasing) mini tablets simultaneously. Stability studies were performed for optimized formulation. The capsule systems were observed for accelerated stability studies for a period of two months the obtained results were within specifications.

2

“AN INTERVENTIONAL STUDY ON KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE & PRACTICE TOWARDS URINARY TRACT INFECTION AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS STUDENTS IN SELECTED GIRLS SCHOOLS IN CHITRADURGA CITY”

Anjaly Vijayan, Shirish Inamdhar, Bharathi DR, Nagendra Gowda MR, Sankar Reddy, Rincy Joy, Sravan Manikanta, Sathya Krishna
Department of Pharmacy Practice, SJMCP, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India.

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection found to be more prevalent among the adolescent girls than any other age groups. Therefore, a good promotional dissemination on UTI is important to convey accurate information to the society. Objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards UTI among adolescent girl students and to assess the impact of structured education by means of self-designed questionnaire. Methods: A community based interventional study was carried out among the students in selected girl’s schools in Chitradurga city for a period of six months. Paired t-test was used to detect the association status of different variables. Results: The results implicated that out of 467 adolescent girls enrolled in the study, mean score regarding the knowledge on UTI in pre-test 4.78(±1.6) had increased to 10.87(±1.301) in post-test after intervention. Also 10th grade students (4.94(±1.89)) had higher level of knowledge than other grades. It was also observed that majority of the students were following unhealthy practices like drying the clothes under fan(21.17%), keeping the same napkin for long hours(76.75%) , improper perineal washing(97.29%), lack of menstrual hygienity, use of unsanitary napkins(5.99%) etc. After intervention they started following hygienic practices. Conclusion: The study has shown a prompt result in improving the knowledge through KAP. This signifies the need and importance of implementing various teaching programs for adolescent girls on various topics as it would help to improve knowledge and follow healthy practices to build a healthy nation.

3

CASE REPORT ON ZOLEDRONIC ACID INDUCED METABOLIC MYOPATHY

Neenu Baby*, Catherin T.J, Lekshmi E.S, Blessy Rachel Thomas, NeethaSabu, Apollo James, T. Sivakumar
Nandha College of Pharmacy, Erode, Tamilnadu.

Giant cell tumour is a locally aggressive primary tumour, occurring mostly at the epiphysis of long bones. Although classified as benign, it can recur locally upto 50% cases and in 1-3% it cause spontaneous transformation to high grade malignancy. Surgical procedure (intra leisonal curettage with or without adjuvant therapy or en-bloc excision) is the mainstay of treatment. Systemic therapy includes Denosumab (RANKL inhibitor- Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand) and Zoledronic acid (biphosphates). Zoledronic acid is a bisphosphonate given intravenously for the treatment of skeletal fractures in osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, cancers such as multiple myeloma, prostate cancer and hypercalcaemia associated with malignancy. As per FDA (Food and drug administration) reports, Zoledronic acid causing myopathy is 0.3%. The possible common side effects of Zoledronic acid includes bone pain, nausea, fever, fatigue, anaemia, arthralgia, dizziness, insomnia and headache. In this report, we present a 12 year old boy who developed weakness on all 4 limbs and generalised body pain after receiving the first dose of Zoledronic acid. On investigating, he was diagnosed to have quadriparesis and his muscle functions (muscle power and plantar flexion) were decreased with preserved deep tendon reflexes. Initially, it was suspected as electrolyte abnormality induced myopathy. On laboratory investigation his electrolyte levels were normal, Vitamin D25 levels were low, creatinine kinase levels were high whereas calcium and phosphate levels were normal. These findings suggest the reaction has occurred due to Zoledronic acid and was managed with calcium and vitamin D3 supplements.

4

AN OVERVIEW OF CATARACT ACTIVITY AND THEIR SCREENING METHODS

Veeram Anjali*, G. Sindhu, C.Girish, K.Mounika
S.V.U. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, S.V. University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.

A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eyes which leads to a decrease in vision. Cataracts often develop slowly and can affect one or both eyes. Cataracts are the cause of half of the blindness and 33% of visual impairement worldwide. Cataract is a multifactorial disease associated with several risk factors such as aging, diabetes, malnutrition, diarrhoea, poverty, sunlight, smoking, hypertension and renal failure. Various convenient models are available for the evaluation of drugs for the prevention of cataract formation they are galactose induced cataracts in rats, naphthalene induced cataracts in rats, selenite induced cataract in rats etc. Various medicinal plants having anti-cataract activity were reported with minimal adverse effects. Even there is the need to find out novel drug with minimal adverse effects to treat the cataract activity and to prevent the blindness in humans.

5

DEVELOPMENT OF HERBAL FORMULATION WITH AJWA SEED (Phoenix dactylifera L.) EXTRACT AND ZAM-ZAM WATER FOR ANTICANCER ACTIVITY

Ibrahim Afsal V.T1*, B.Arul2

1Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research Centre, Bhagwant University, Sikar Road, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India-305004.

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Vinayaka Mission College of Pharmacy, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India.

Fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Belonging to the family of Arecaceae are very commonly consumed in many parts of the world and are a vital component of the diet in most of the Arabian countries. One of the miracles of Zamzam water has been collected by scientists and they have found certain peculiarities that make the water healthier, like a higher level of calcium. Hence, the present study was intended to evaluate ethanolic seed (Fruits of the date palm) extract of Phoenix dactylifera L for anticancer activities by Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA) models. Acute toxicity study and preliminary phytochemical screening were also studied to evaluate the toxicity. No toxicity profile was observed in rats after oral administration of the ethanolic date palm extract at the dose of 5g/kg body weight. The dose of 200 mg/kg administered seed extract of Phoenix dactylifera L increased the average life span of DLA cells bearing mice from 20 to 54 days when compared to that of DLA cells induced group mice. Phoenix dactylifera L having the property of percentage increase in body weight and significant increased level of total WBC (10.88±0.44), neutrophils and a significant reduced levels of RBC (2.10±0.24), hemoglobin, platelet count, eosinophils and lymphocytes (7.50±0.57; 132.59±1.00; 4.03±0.06 and 33.65±0.62) when compared to the control mice (P<0.05). It can be concluded that the anticancer activity elucidated by Phoenix dactylifera L could be mainly due to the presences of high value class of compound like phenolic group as the major content in the seed extract.

6

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PARITAPREVIR, RITONAVIR AND OMBITASVIR IN FIXED TABLET DOSAGE FORM

Marakada Sridevi1, T. Siva Rao1*, Challa Gangu Naidu2
1School of Chemistry, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India – 530 003.
2Vignan's Foundation for Science, Technology & Research University (VFSTRU), Vadlamudi, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh 522213, India.

Developing a single analytical method for the estimation of individual drugs is very challenging, due to the formation of drug-drug and drug-excipient interactions. The present study demonstrates the applicability of thechromatographic method to develop a new, sensitive, single HPLC method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of three antiviral agents in thefixed pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation of the three antiviral drugs was achieved by using a gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min on Inertsil ODS 3V C18 column (250m×4.6mm, 5?m particle size, 100Å pore size) at ambient temperature. Mobile phase A of the gradient solvent system was KH2PO4 (0.03M) in 1000 ml of water and by adjusting the pH to 3.2 with dilute ortho-phosphoric acid and mobile phase B was Methanol and water in the ratio of 85:15 v/v. UV detection at 265 nm was employed to monitor the analytes. A linear response was observed for Paritaprevir over the concentration range 30–90 ?g/ mL, 20-60 ?g/ mLof Ritonavir and5-15?g/ mL of Ombitasvir.

7

FAST DISSOLVING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR ENHANCED THERAPEUTIC ACTION

R.Santosh Kumar, Poluri Sesha Sai Kiran, Mangesh Pradeep Kulkarni
GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam-45.

Among the increasing advancement in technology different novel drug delivery systems are introduced. In those fast dissolving drug delivery system has played an important role in providing the patient satisfaction and convenience. Oral route of drug administration is the most important method for systemic effect. Among the pharmaceutical dosage form, the conventional tablet seems to be most popular because of its ease of transportation and comparatively low manufacturing cost. It is generally done for the tablets which perform fast pass metabolism. These dosage forms disintegrate fast in the oral cavity and increase the bioavailability. Fast dissolving dosage forms are also called mouth dissolving dosage forms or super disintegrants. They are of tablet type and film type. It also has some important ideal characters such as easy portability, easy manufacturing, and accurate dosing. These dosage forms not only solve the purpose of oral route it also helps in disintegration of drugs in oral cavity within sixty seconds without swallowing or chewing. It can be easily taken orally without the help of water. It is helpful in providing patient compliance for people especially pediatric, disabled, patients having psychological problems and geriatric patients.

8

CHRONOTHERAPEUTICS: CIRCADIAN RHYTHM BASED THERAPY

R.Santosh Kumar, Mangesh Pradeep Kulkarni
GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam-45.

The functions of human body vary considerably in a day. These are due to the circadian clock of human body and can also be stated as the circadian rhythms. Depending on the variations in the circadian clock the disease patterns and its effect on the body also varies in a day. Now Chronotherapy is a new concept in the Novel Drug Delivery System [NDDS]. Chronotherapy is nothing but the treatment of many disorders or ailments like asthma, cardio-vascular disorders, hypertension, arthritis etc., by relating the drug pharmacokinetics with the changes in the biological rhythms of the human body. This principle can be achieved by the timely release of the active substance into the systemic circulation when the therapeutic effects can be maximized. The various approaches for this also have been discussed below. In this review, the concepts of biological rhythms and chronotherapy have been discussed. The very purpose of chronotherapy is to increase the efficiency of the drug molecule against the disorder and reduce the side-effects of the therapy.

9

IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT POTENCY STUDIES OF HYDRO ALCOHOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF CASSIA UNIFLORA

Sujatha Jadi1, Pratap Kumar Patra*, Anusha Sami Reddy2
1St. Paul College of Pharmacy, Turkayamjal, Hyderabad, R.R. Dist.
2Mother Teresa Pharmacy College, Sathupally, Hyderabad.
*Sree Dattha Institute of Pharmacy, Sheriguda, Ibrahimpatnam, Hyderabad, 501510.

To study the antioxidant potency of hydro alcoholic extract of Cassia uniflora. Hydro alcoholic leaf extracts of the plants was studied for its Free radical scavenging activity against DPPH, ABST and Superoxide ion. Hydro alcoholic crude extracts of leaves of Cassia uniflora at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50?g/ml were studied against DPPH, ABST and Superoxide ion to know their antioxidant potential. Cassia uniflora leaf hydro alcoholic extract possessed an IC50 value 26.32 ?g/ml in DPPH radical scavenging assay on compare to standard Vitamin C (3.59?g/ml), in ABST radical scavenging assay 8.76 ?g/ml and standard vitamin C (2.32 ?g/ml) and in Super oxide ion scavenging recorded as 45.84 ?g/ml and for standard gallic acid was found to 0.61 ?g/ml. The crude extracts showing better activity against DPPH ABST and Superoxide ion. Hence, can be recommended for potential usage as an antioxidant agent in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries.

10

ROLE OF HYDROPHILIC POLYMERS ON THE STABILITY OF FORMULATIONS OF TENOXICAM – SBE7-?-CD INCLUSION COMPLEX

Venkat Ramesh, Fasiha Shah, Omar Sarheed, Shahnaz Usman, Hemant Yadav and Quamrul Islam
Department of Pharmaceutics, RAK Medical & Health Sciences University, Ras Al Khaimah , United Arab Emirates.

The present study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of sulfobutyl ether ?-Cyclodextrin (SBE7-?-CD) in increasing the dissolution rate of tenoxicam. The approach employed to prepare the inclusion complexes of the drug with captisol is by freeze drying and kneading methods. The phase solubility studies indicated that a 1:1 M complex was formed between tenoxicam and captisol. The complexes showed a rapid dissolution compared to the pure drug tenoxicam. In between the kneaded and freeze dried complexes, the freeze dried complex showed higher dissolution rate. The inclusion complexes were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The drug is found to exist in amorphous state in the complexes. The efficacy of hydrophilic polymers, gelucire and hydroxypropyl cellulose in stabilizing the high dissolving amorphous forms of tenoxicam in the tablet formulations was studied and the findings of the investigation suggested that the hydrophilic polymers were able to offer protection in preventing the transformation of the amorphous drug during compression and storage. It can be concluded from the results of the present study that careful formulation is essential to stabilize the high dissolving forms of drugs to retain their physical stability and high dissolution characteristics.

11

FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO ENHANCE GASTRIC RESIDENCE TIME

R. Santosh Kumar, Ganesh Sai Myneni
GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam-45.

Gastric emptying is a complex process and one of the most important obstacles in the better absorption and enhances bioavailability of oral drug delivery system. In recent years various scientific and technological advancements have been made in the research and development of oral drug delivery systems to overcoming physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence times (GRT) and unpredictable gastric emptying time (GET). In order to avoid such adversities, efforts have been made to increase the retention time of the drug-delivery systems for more than 12 hour via floating drug delivery system Diverse attempts were being currently used including swelling and expanding system, polymeric bio adhesive systems, modified-shape systems, high density system and other delayed gastric emptying devices. The purpose of this review was to systemize recent approaches on floating drug delivery systems along with the principle mechanism of floatation to acquired gastric retention.

12

PREVALENCE OF MENTAL RETARDATION IN CHILDREN WITH ADHD, AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY, AT SIR C.J.INSTITUTE OF PSYCHIATRY, HYDERABAD

Dr.Syed Qalb-I-Hyder Naqvi1, Asra Qureshi2, Prof; Moin Ahmed Ansari3, Dr.Saleem Uddin Rashed4, Dr.Zulfiqar Siddiqui5, Dr.Summaira Channa6, Dr.S.Nisar Ahmed7
1Sir. Cowas Jee Institute Of Psychiatry Hyderabad.

2Department of Medicine (Cardiology), Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical College.

3The Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, PO Box 3500, Karachi 74800, Pakistan.
4Chairman Department of Psychiatry LUMHS Jamshoro.

5Muhammad Medical College Mirpur khas.

6Sir.C.J.Institute of Psychiatry.

7Sir. Cowas Jee Institute Of Psychiatry Hyderabad.

8District Headquater Hospital Matyari.

Objectives: To determine the frequency of Mental retardation in children of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Study Design: A Cross-Sectional Study. Patient and Method: Study was conducted in the outpatient department (Clinics) of Sir Cowasjee Jahangir Institute of psychiatry Hyderabad. The study is of 06 months duration (1st January 2014 to 31st June 2014). Two hundred and fourteen (214) cases of ADHD age from 6years to 12 years were selected in this study. Non-probability consecutive sampling was done. Among patients with ADHD 6 months duration of symptoms either gender from age 6-12 years, attending Psychiatry clinic (OPD) at CJIP and LUH OPD were included in the study. Cases with Adverse General Medical Conditions, History of head injury, Head Injury, who deny/withdraw consent, were excluded. Data was collected on semi-structured Performa and analyzed through SPSS version 18 (PSW). Results: Out of 214 ADHD Children, mean age of the children was 9.50 years ±SD 2.32, in which 160 (74.8%) were males and 54 (25.2%) were females. n=105 (49.1%) of cases were from rural area and n=109 (50.9%) were from urban area. Co-morbid Mental retardation was present in 53.3% cases, from which 69.2% were male and 30.7% were female (p-value 0.034). 48.1% of children attended schooling despite 51.9% had not attended schooling (p-value 0.005). Conclusion: ADHD commonly present in male children. Co-morbid Mental retardation is significantly present in children with ADHD. Despite urban ruler difference Male gender significant associated with co-morbid Mental retardation.

13

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DACLATASVIR AND SOFOSBUVIR IN DRUG PRODUCT BY RP-HPLC

M. Srinivasa Rao*, Dr. K. Rambabu
Department of Chemistry, R V R & J C College of Engineering, Chowdavaram, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh – 522019.

New Analytical method was developed for the estimation of Daclatasvir and Sofosbuvir in drug product by liquid chromatography. The chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 column (Phenyl XDB 250*4.6mm) at ambient temperature .The separation achieved employing a mobile phase consists of 0.1%v/v Trifluoro acetic acid in water : Acetonitrile(500:500). The flow rate was 1.0ml/ minute and ultra violet detector at 275nm. The average retention time for Daclatasvir and Sofosbuvir found to be 2.805 min and 3.743 min. the proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The assay methods were found to be linear from 12.0 – 36.0?g/ml for Daclatasvir and 80.0 – 240.0 ?g/ml of Sofosbuvir.

14

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND DOLUTEGRAVIR IN DRUG PRODUCT BY RP-HPLC

B.Sowjanya1*, Dr.K.Rambabu2
R V R & J C College of Engineering, Chowdavaram, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh – 522019.

New Analytical method was developed for the estimation of Lamivudine and Dolutegravir in drug product by liquid chromatography. The chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 column (Eclipse XDB-Phenyl 250*4.6mm) at ambient temperature .The separation achieved employing a mobile phase consists of 0.1%v/v Trifluoro acetic acid in water: Methanol (300:700). The flow rate was 1.0ml/ minute and ultra violet detector at 260m. The average retention time for Lamivudine and Dolutegravir found to be 2.412 min and 3.263 min. the proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The assay methods were found to be linear from 300.0 – 900.0?g/ml for Lamivudine and 50.0 -150.0?g/ml of Dolutegravir.

15

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TACROLIMUS LOADED LIQUID CRYSTALLINE NANOPARTICLES

Hiren Kodinariya*, Chintan Aundhia, Avinash Seth, Nirmal Shah, Vinod Ramani, Snehal Patel, Dipti Gohil
*Deparatment of Pharmacy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Vadodara.

The use of liquid crystalline nanoparticles is a novel approach in the field of controlled drug delivery. Tacrolimus, being a highly lipophilic drug, is easily incorporated in the hydrophobic core of these nanoparticles. Which are prepare by pseudo binary mixture technique by using polymers like monoolein and poloxomer 407 to extend the drug release for about 32 hours, there by improved bioavailability. Formulation optimization of tacrolimus loaded liquid crystalline nanoparticles was carried out by using different concentration of monoolein and poloxomer 407. Total 10 batches were formulated. The process optimization was carried out at three different stirring speeds i.e. 2200, 2500 and 2800 rpm for three different stirring time period i.e. 05mins, 10mins and 15mins. Out of all the batches S5 showed the spherical shape of liquid crystalline nanoparticles. All 10 batches were evaluated for entrapment efficiency (EE) and particle size (nm). Among all batches S5 shows maximum entrapment efficiency (EE) and uniform particle size and was considered as optimized formulation. Optimized batch S5 was evaluated for Zeta Potential, Particle Size Distribution which show -35.4mV and 126.1nm particle size, TEM Analysis. Batch S5 was charged for stability and were placed in glass vials container and stored at ICH storage condition (30 ± 2°C / 60% ± 5% RH , 40 ± 2°C / 75% ± 5% RH ) for a period of 30 days. The samples were analyzed for physical appearance, entrapment efficiency and particle size after 30 days. After 1 months samples were withdrawn and liquid crystalline nanoparticles showed no change in physical appearances, entrapment efficiency and particle size, which indicate that the liquid crystalline nanoparticles were stable. Therefore, study suggests the possible use of tacrolimus-loaded formulation for intradermal or topically delivery can be useful in the treatment of locally affecting autoimmune skin disease such as psoriasis.

16

EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MUCILAGES FROM FRUITS OF CORDIA LATIFOLIA AND AEGLE MARMELOS FOR ITS MUCOADHESIVE BEHAVIOUR

Patil N. D.1, Marathe R. P.2, Patil K.S.*1
1Government College of Pharmacy, Kathora Naka, Amravati, Maharashtra- 444604, India.
2Government College of Pharmacy, Aurangabad, Maharashtra-431005, India.

Mucilages are generally normal products of metabolism formed within the cell and may represent storage material, a water storage reservoir or protection for germinating seeds. Literature review reveals that different sources of natural mucilages have been studied and being used as pharmaceutical excipients. The present research work aimed at extraction and characterization of Cordia latifolia (Cordia) and Aegle marmelos (Bael) fruit mucilages for various physico-chemical properties and investigation of mucoadhesive ability of extracted mucilages. The mucilages were successfully extracted from the fruits of Cordia and Bael by aqueous extraction using acetone (1:3) as precipitating solvent; percent yield were found to be 19%w/w and 14%w/w respectively. The extracted mucilages were characterized for solubility, swelling index, pH, loss on drying, melting point microbial load, micromeritic properties, rheology, FT-IR and mucoadhesion. From results it was found that the extracted mucilages were polysaccharide, hydrophilic, nontoxic and thermostable. Results of swelling study concluded that, cordia mucilage has good swelling behaviour in comparision to bael mucilage hence incorporation of these materials into tablet formulations would control release profile and mucoadhesiveness. The mucoadhesive nature cordia and bael mucilage was studied by physical methods. The Cordia mucilage is more mucoadhesive than HPMC whereas Bael mucilage is less mucoadhesive than Cordia mucilage and HPMC. Hence extracted Cordia mucilages can be used in formulation of various mucoadhesive dosage forms.

17

PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF INDIGOFERA ASPALATHOIDES

S. Selvakumar*
Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath University, Chennai-600073, India.

Plants have played a major role in treatment of various diseases of animals and humans since time immemorial. More than 50% of all modern drugs are of natural origin and many of which have the ability to control and cure infections. A large number of active principles from traditional medicinal plants have been reported to have anti microbial properties .Most of the studies are based on individual chemicals with well defined mechanisms.India is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants and it is one of the 12 mega bio-diversity centres having 45,000 plant species. In India around 20,000 medicinal plants have been recorded recently, but more than 500 traditional communities use 800 plant species for curing different diseases. Currently 80% of world population depends on plant derived medicines for human alleviation because of its slight side effects, easy availability and cost effectiveness. This plant is found abundantly in india, .Phytochemical analysis was performed on extracts of Aqueous and ethanol [1:1] ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform and propane, therefore it is of interest to investigate the phytochemical analysis of Indigofera aspalathoides.

18

DETERMINATION OF BIO ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF A POLY HERBAL FORMULATION ACTP BY GC – MS ANALYSIS

S. Selvakumar*, R. Valliammai
Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath University, Chennai-600073, India.

The present study was designed to determine the phyto components from the chloroformic extract of a poly herbal formulation ACTP were studied. The analysis of natural products involves isolation in a pure form of plant constituents and investigation of their structure, formation, efficacy and purpose in the organism. Secondary metabolites appear to function primarily in defense against predators and pathogens and in providing reproductive advantage as intraspecific and interspecific attractant. The present study aims at quantifying the phyto constituents by chromatographic methods. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the GC-MS analysis of the chloroformic extract of the herbal formulation ACTP were analysed Our result envisage that the presence of 21 phyto constituents of a poly herbal formulation of ACTP.

19

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF KLEINIA GRANDIFLORA

S. Selvakumar*
Department of Industrial BioTechnology, Bharath University, Chennai-600073, India.

Phyto medicinal constituents can be derived from any part of the plant like bark, leaves, fruits, flowers, roots, seeds etc. The herbal medicines are becoming more popular because of its inability to cause side effects and cheaper than synthetic drugs .Phytochemical is chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants.The study and analysis of chemical constituents of plants are desirable, not only for the discovery of therapeutic agents, but also for disclosing new resources of such chemical substances. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the phytochemical analysis of aqueous chloroform, acetone, aqueous ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of leaves of Kleinia grandiflora.Our findings indicate that the presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, flavonoids and anthraquinones.

20

IN VITRO INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF MUCUNA PRURIENS AND VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES ON SELECTED HUMAN BACTERIAL PATHOGENS

S.Selva Kumar*, Mudiganti Ram Krishna Rao, Saintani Choudhury
Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath University, Chennai, 600073. India.

Indian herbal medicines have served as major source of medicine for prevention and treatment of many diseases including microbial infections. Emergence of multidrug resistance has limited the therapeutic options for antibiotics in the world. Hence, monitoring resistance is of paramount importance. The use of traditional herbal medicines in crude or refined form may help the treatment of microbial infections with two advantages, i.e. the cure is achieved and the chances of microbes becoming resistant are minimized. The herbal medicines have the advantage of producing minimum side effects when compared to the usual antibiotics. Therefore this study was undertaken to focus on the in vitro antimicrobial effects of two plants known for their medicinal value. Plant materials of Mucuna pruriens and Vetiveria zizanoides were tested for their antibacterial activities on selected strains of bacteria namely, Bacillus cereus (ATCC13061) Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 6643). These activities were compared with standard antibiotic namely Broad spectrum antibiotics, Penicillin and Ampicillin. Antimicrobial activity was measured using the standard method of diffusion disc plates on agar and the MIC was calculated using dilution method. Our results clearly indicate that the plants Mucuna pruriens and Vetiveria zizanoides have the antimicrobial properties.

21

FREQUENCY OF DIASTOLIC HEART FAILURE AND ITS COMMON FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH NEW ONSET HEART FAILURE

Dr. Syed Dawood Shah, Dr. Hazrat Ali, Dr. Noor Ahmed Khosa, Dr. Syed Abdul Bari, Dr. Sheikh Ahmed, Dr. Muhammad Samsoor Zarak, Mir Zaman Kasi

Sandeman Provincial Hospital Quetta, Balochistan Pakistan.

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is the clinical syndrome of heart failure associated with normal or near normal systolic function. Ppatients who have heart failure present with dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and exercise intolerance, regardless of a preserved or an impaired ejection fraction. Diastolic dysfunction is the most important pathophysiological mechanism ultimately leading diastolic heart failure. Abnormal cardiomyocyte sodium and calcium handling within myocytes has been proposed as a potential mechanism that contributes to diastolic dysfunction. Risk factors for diastolic dysfunction are older age, female sex, hypertension, ischemia, obesity and coronary artery disease. The rates of death and illness among these patients are high and have not declined, as they have in patients with heart failure and a low left ventricular ejection fraction. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of diastolic heart failure and its common factors in patients with new onset heart failure. This study was conducted at Bolan Medical College / SPH, Department of Cardiology, Hospital, Quetta. Study design was descriptive cross sectional study and the duration of the study was one years (2012-2013). The total sample size was 205 using 7%12 proportion of heart failure among general population, 95% confidence interval and 3.5% margin of error under WHO sample size calculation. More over non probability purposive sampling technique was used for sample collection. All patients both male and female of age more than 20 years admitted to Cardiology Unit with signs and symptoms of heart failure were included while patients having prior history of diagnosed heart failure and on treatment, patients having prior history of coronary artery disease, patients with acute pericarditis, acute myocarditis and unstable angina were excluded. In this study 4% patients were in age range 40-50 years, 28% patients were in age range 51-60 years, 35% patients were in age range 61-70 years and 33% patients were in age range 71-80 years. Mean age was 65 years with SD ± 1.26. Forty five percent patients were male and 55% patients were female. The frequency of diastolic heart failure was 8% in patients with new onset heart failure in which 60% patients were female gender, 70% patients had hypertension, 11% patients had atrial fibrillation. Our study conclude that the incidence of diastolic heart failure was 8% in patients with new onset heart failure in which 60% patients were female gender, 70% patients had hypertension, 11% patients had atrial fibrillation. Which shows that hypertension and gender in onset of diastolic heart failure was found to be an independent predictor of mortality.

22

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF 18-? GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID TRANSDERMAL PATCH FOR ANTI-SMOKING ACTIVITY

B.Bhuvana, S.Nagalakshmi*, S.Shanmuganathan, S.Nagalakshmi
Department of pharmaceutics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai.

An effort was taken to prepare and evaluate 18? glycyrrhetinic acid transdermal patch for anti smoking activity. 18? glycyrrhetinic acid was obtained from the herb liquorice. The transdermal patches were prepared using solvent casting technique. Eight formulations were prepared with 400mg of drug along with polymers like ethyl cellulose and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose. Evaluation parameters like weight, thickness, percentage moisture uptake, folding endurance water vapour transmission rate, in-vitro release were studied for eight formulations. The formulation F1 showed a good release profile due to increase in concentration of penetration enhancer. The in-vitro study showed that 18? glycyrrhetinic acid would be a potential drug delivery system for its anti-smoking potential. The in-vivo studies also showed that the probability of TDDS of 18-?-glycyrrhetinic acid in sufficient amount into the systemic circulation which would be a potential drug delivery system for its anti-smoking potential. From this study it has concluded that 18-? glycyrrhetinic acid can be used for antismoking activity due to its improved penetration in blood circulation.

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“FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL LIPSTICK CONTAINING ANTIFUNGAL AGENT”

Tejashri A. Gore*, Priya Rodge
Rajarshi Shahu College of Pharmacy & Research, Pune – Mumbai Highway, Tathawade, Pune-411033, Maharashtra, India.

Cosmetics are incredible in demand since historical time till day. Lipstick formulations are most widely used to enhance the beauty of lips and add glamour to touch to the makeup. With this aim and objectives, an attempt was made to formulate herbal lipstick using natural ingredients. The natural drug used in the formulation is a curcumin which is used for antifungal therapy and Pomegranate arils extract is used as coloring agent. Preformulation studies revealed that API and excipients were found compatible for the formulation of herbal lipstick. Preliminary trials were carried out for determination of concentration of ingredients and drug. Two ingredients such as carnauba wax and cocoa butter was varied and remaining all ingredients was kept constant on the basis of preliminary trials. Evaluation test like melting point, pH, breaking point, thixotropy structure, softening point, solubility, permeability study was performed, and select optimized batch on the basis of evaluation of lipstick. Determination of curcumin antifungal activity and stability study was performed on the finalized formulation. Skin has to bear various external traumas like irritation, cheilitis, braking of lips, blacking of lips etc. as well as topical fungal infection. Attempt was also made to access the antifungal activity of the formulation against Candida albicanse. Due to various adverse effects of available synthetic preparations and to improve patient compliance the present work was conceived by us to formulate herbal lipstick having antifungal activity to treat lips fungal infection and having minimal or no side effects which will extensively use by the women of our communities with great surety.

24

“FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GASTRO RETENTIVE IN- SITU FLOATING GELS OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM CUBOSOMES”

Dr. M. Sunitha Reddy*, M.Tejasri, S. Muhammad Fazal Ul Haq
Centre for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Atorvastatin calcium is a BCS class-II competitive HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor having a half-life (almost 14 hour). The aim of the present work is to formulate and evaluate gastro retensive in-situ floating gels of atorvastatin calcium in form of cubosomes. The drug, excipients and formulation are characterized by FTIR. Cubosomes are prepared by Top down approach employing Glyceryl monooleate (GMO) as lipid phase vehicle, Pluronic F127 as stabilizer and distilled water as aqueous phase, Atorvastatin calcium as active pharmaceutical ingredient. The resultant cubosome dispersion is evaluated for drug release by diffusion studies, subjected to zeta-sizing and visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Floating gels are prepared in a manner similar to cubosome dispersion employing gelling agents like Sodium alginate, Guar gum, Xanthan gum, Carbopol 934 B.P. The formulated gels are evaluated for viscosity, gelation property, pH and drug release by diffusion studies. The compatibility studies by infrared spectroscopy showed no interaction between the drug and excipients. Cubosome formulation ACF6 containing 25% GMO showed a maximum drug release of 94 % within 5 hours. The concentration of GMO from above optimized cubosome formulation is used in formulation of floating gels. Sustained release up to 8 hours was observed in gels formulated with carbopol 934, guar gum and Sodium alginate (ACFCNG2). In vitro release kinetics exhibited sustained release and followed non- Fickian diffusion and secondary case 2 by the optimized formulations. Satisfactory viscosity and pH values are obtained.

25

A STABILITY INDICATING METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF OFLOXACIN AND METRONIDAZOLE IN BULK AND DOSAGE FORM

Dr. Osman Ahmed*, Kauser Fathima, Syed Vakeeluddin
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad.

A new method was established for simultaneous estimation of Ofloxacin and Metronidazole in bulk and dosage form by RP-HPLC method. The chromatographic conditions were successfully developed for the separation of Ofloxacin and Metronidazole by using Qualisil BDS C18 column, flow rate was 1ml/min, mobile phase ratio was Methanol: ACN (70:30%v/v), detection wave length was 254nm. The linearity study for Ofloxacin and Metronidazole was found in concentration range of 10?g-50?g and 10?g-50?g and correlation coefficient (r2) was found to be 0.999 and 0.999, for the amount of drugs estimated by the proposed methods was in good agreement with the label claim. The proposed methods were validated. The accuracy of the methods was assessed by recovery studies at three different levels. Recovery experiments indicated the absence of interference from commonly encountered pharmaceutical additives. The method was found to be precise as indicated by the repeatability analysis, showing %RSD less than 2. All statistical data proves validity of the methods, sensitivity, precision and reproducibility. It can be used for routine analysis of pharmaceutical dosage form. Hence the suggested RP-HPLC method can be used for routine analysis of Ofloxacin and Metronidazole in API and Pharmaceutical dosage form.

26

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HYDROGEL CONTAINING AZITHROMYCIN AND SILVER NANOPARTICLES

Shubhangi S. Kharat*, Vishal D. Yadav, Prakash D. Jadhav, Ganesh D. Mote
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Arvind Gavali College of Pharmacy, Jaitapur, Satara, Maharashtra (India) 415004.

The main aim of the study is to formulate and evaluate hydrogel containing azithromycin and silver nanoparticles to treat wound dressing, burn infections, acne, Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis, psoriasis, etc. The Silver nanoparticles were prepared by green synthesis approach with the help of reduction of silver nitrate by Azadirachta indica leaves extract. Azithromycin was chosen as antimicrobial drug, however it shows adverse effect when administered in high dose, hence to reduce dose of azithromycin it was decided to make formulation containing silver nanoparticles and azithromycin. The drug loading and drug delivery techniques were searched for topical as well as bone grafting purpose. Initially mixing of Silver nanoparticles, Azithromycin and Bis acrylamide in ammonium persulphate were done and added N, N dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate (DEM) to form semisolid mass that is hydrogel. Hydrogel formulation was found fantastic results with azithromycin and silver nanoparticles. The compatibility study was done for silver nanoparticles with polymer and azithromycin and all are found compatible with each other. All the formulations were characterized for consistency, spreadability, efficacy, safety and stability. From all F1-F12 Hydrogel Formulations F4 batch was optimized by parameters like pH measurement, spreadability, Drug content, Drug release and antimicrobial assay. So F4 batch was further evaluated for SEM, XRD, FTIR, skin Irritation study and showed good results. Hydrogel formulation of azithromycin and silver nanoparticles formulated for Azithromycin as a antimicrobial drug, however it shows adverse effect when administered in high dose, hence to reduce dose of azithromycin it was decided to make formulation containing silver nanoparticles and azithromycin. It was concluded that formulation was compatible with animal as well as human being with excellent evaluation results.

27

HYPERTENSION: CAUSES AND PHARMACEUTICAL ISSUES

Devi Rajni*, Kumar Sandeep
Amar Shaheed Baba Ajit Singh Jujhar Singh Memorial College of Pharmacy, Bela, Ropar, Punjab -140111, INDIA.

Hypertension (High blood pressure) is defined as a condition in which the arteries have persistently elevated blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood against the blood vessel walls. If the pressure is high then heart has harden to pump. Hypertension may also lead to damaged organs, and also cause severe illnesses like kidney failure (renal), heart failure etc. The normal level for blood pressure is 120/80, here 120 represent the systolic pressure (maximum pressure in the arteries) and 80 represent the diastolic pressure (minimum pressure in the arteries). The blood pressure of 140/90 or above is considered hypertension. There are various major causes of hypertension like obesity, lack of physical activity, deficiency of vitamin D, insufficient calcium, potassium and magnesium consumption, chronic kidney disease, aging etc. In this article, focus is on the various types of hypertension, causes of hypertension, pathophysiology of hypertension and antihypertensive drug therapy. The choice of specific drug therapy is depend upon safety, efficacy and cost.