IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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OCTOBER 2016
1

DIACEREIN NANOSUSPENSION: PROCESS OPTIMIZATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION, CYTOTOXICITY ASSES

Abhishek Pathak*, Sadhana J Rajput
TIFAC Centre of Relevance and Excellence in NDDS, G H Patel Pharmacy Building, Faculty of Pharmacy, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Fatehgunj, Vadodara-390 002, Gujarat, INDIA.

Abstract

The present research was focused on bioavailability enhancement of ‘Diacerein (DAR)’ by formulating an efficient Diacerein nanosuspension (DAR-NS) through wet media milling using Poloxamer-407 (P-407) and zirconium oxide beads. A 33 factorial design was employed to evaluate the combinatorial effect of P-407 concentration, DAR concentration and milling time on the particle size (PS) and saturation solubility (SS) of DAR-NS. The morphology of DAR-NS was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The loss of crystalline nature of DAR was confirmed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The in-vitro studies revealed significant increment in SS and dissolution efficiency of drug in DAR-NS. The MTT assay and in-vitro permeability studies using Caco-2 cells described the reduction in cytotoxicity and improved permeation. The in-vivo studies illustrated the enhancement in oral bioavailability of drug from DAR-NS by 3.93 and 2.41 fold compared to plain DAR and commercial formulation, respectively. The DAR-NS was found to be stable at 5°C±3°C and room temperature for 6 months. These results concise that prepared nanosuspension significantly improved the oral bioavailability of DAR which could minimize the drug side effects by reducing dose frequency and thus will lead to improved patient compliance.

2

A STUDY ON SEVERITY OF POTENTIAL DRUG DRUG INTERACTIONS IN COMMUNITY PHARMACIES OF MYSORE CITY

Patel Jaskumar Nileshkumar, Ansu Anie Sunny, Jaidev Kumar*, Mit Kaushikbhai Suthar, Umesh
Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, SS. Nagar, Mysore-570015 JSS Deemed University, Mysore, India.

Abstract

Pharmacoepidemiologic studies, carried out in Europe and the Americas, have found varying rates of potential drug-drug interactions, ranging from 5% to 80%. Risk factors that have showed closer association with the presence of potential drug-drug interactions in previous studies includes Polypharmacy, age, gender, clinical conditions, medications and the number of physicians that a patient visits. By applying computerized DDI screening programs research investigators can significantly improve the identification of potentially harmful DDIs, beyond what can be achieved with manual review alone and the main objective of the study is to assess the potential drug-drug interactions in prescriptions of patients with chronic diseases in community setting and to evaluate the severity of drug-drug interaction. Among 500 potential drug-drug interactions, majority of PDDIs were moderate in severity (n=354, 71%) followed by major PDDIs (n=126, 25.4%) and minor PDDIs (n=20, 4%). This finding was similar to that found in another study performed by Anna Chatsisvili et al in community pharmacies in Greece where majority of PDDIs were moderate in severity. PDDIs involving beta adrenergic blockers and oral hypoglycemic agent (glimepiride+metformin) were the highest recorded (22.4%) followed by beta blockers and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (10.6%), ACE inhibitors and thiazide diuretics (8.2%). Our research study was only observational study; as a result investigators could not be able to evaluate the health care outcomes of the patients which remains as one of the biggest limitations of this research study.

3

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF TENATOPRAZOLE SODIUM USING NATURAL POLYMERS

B. Divya*1, J. Sreekanth2, D. Satyavati1
1Brilliant Group of Institutions (Integrated Campus), Abdullapurmet, Hayathnagar, R.R Dist, Telangana, India.
2Progenerics Pharma Pvt. Ltd, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Abstract

Delayed release dosage forms are the best formulations which are used for drugs that are destroyed in the gastric fluids, or cause gastric irritation, and are absorbed preferentially in the intestine. The stability of Proton pump inhibitors is a function of pH; these are rapidly degraded in acid media, and are stable under alkaline conditions. Therefore exposure of Tenatoprazole sodium to the acidic content of the stomach would lead to significant degradation of the drug and hence, reduced bioavailability. The present investigation is aimed to formulate the matrix tablets of Tenatoprazole sodium with cashew nut tree gum, Okra gum and Xanthum gum and during formulation of the matrix tablets, granules are prepared with drug and polymers and dried and sieved well and were finally enteric coated with AQOAT AS-MF to prevent the tablets from acidic environment. Then the granules are compressed in to tablets. The tablets were evaluated for preformulation studies like angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index and physical characteristics like hardness, weight variation, friability and drug content. In-vitro release of drug was performed in phosphate buffer solution pH 6.8 for twelve hours. All the physical characters of the fabricated tablet were within acceptable limits. It is cleared through the dissolution profile of Tenatoprazole sodium matrix tablets prepared using different polymers were indicated an increase in the polymer ratio retarded the drug release to a greater extent as evident from the in vitro drug release profile of batches A-3, B-3 & C-3. Therefore, 50% polymer level was found to be ideal for the matrix system. A better sustained drug release i.e 89.7±0.32 % drug release was obtained with the matrix tablet (Batch B-3) made-up of the Okra gum (Drug: polymer ratio=1:1) than with the cashew nut tree gum and Xanthum gum.

4

ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXICITY ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF EUPHORBIA HITRA AGAINST PC-3 AND MCF-7 CELL LINES

Perumal .R, Selvamaleeswaran .P, Maheswaran .S, Sureshkumar .M
Department of Biotechnology, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram Namakkal DT, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

Plants are considered to be a perennial source of medicine from time immemovial. The phytochemical screening was carried on the leaves extracts of Euphorbia hitra, divulged the presence of some active ingredients namely alkaloids, tannins, saponnins, phenols, steroids, flavanoids and terpenoids. The antibacterial activities of methanol extract of Euphorbia hitra aganist some pathogens; Proteus vulgaris Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa .The well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity. The antifungal activities of methanol extract of Euphorbia hitra aganist some fungus; Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagarophytes and Alternaria solan the disc diffusion method was used to regulate the antifungal activity. The prostate cancer is the most important form of cancer in males and the second leading cause of cancer related death.MCF-7 and PC-3 cell lines was derived from adinocarcinoma of human prostate this was assayed for MTT assay on treatment with Methanolic leaf extract of Euphorbia hitra where in inhibition of the cell growth was noticed.

5

STUDY OF PONGAMIA PINNATA FLOWER AND SEED EXTRACTS FOR THEIR ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

R. S. A. Sorna Kumar*, R. Rajeswari, M. Selvakumar, N. Karthick raja, N. Hariharan
Department of Biotechnology, P.S.R.Engineering College, Sivakasi-626140, Tamil Nadu.

Abstract

Various plants that have rich medicinal properties have been used to cure many diseases for several thousand years. Pongamia pinnata is widely used as a traditional medicine commonly known as ‘Pungai’ in tamil which has been distributed throughout the India.P. pinnata is a source of biomedicines have been used as a crude drug for the treatment of tumours, piles, skin diseases, itches, abscess, painful rheumatic joints wounds, ulcers, diarrhoea etc. In this study,it was found that flower extract possess good antioxidant activity wherein seed extracts gave good antimicrobial activity.it was also found that kernel is less toxic to haemocytes than flower. Methanolic flower extracts also showed higher free phenolic content, Aqueous flower extract had maximum antioxidant activity. Aqueous flower extract was found to be active against Brucella melitensis and P.fluroscens. Based on the study it was found that flower extract possess good antioxidant activity wherein seed extracts gave good antimicrobial activity.

6

RUNNING MORTALITY SYNDROME (RMS) IN FARM-REARED SHRIMP, LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI CULTURE SYSTEMS IN ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

S. A. Mastan, Md. Osman Ahmed*
Karyotica Biological Pvt. Ltd., 69, Vittal Rao Nagar, Hitech City, Madhapur, Hyderabad-500 081.
Department of Zoology, Osmania College (UG & PG), Kurnool-518 004.

Abstract

Since 2011, a new syndrome has struck the shrimp industry in India. The syndrome was such that, the farmed shrimp in the affected ponds show different mortality patterns which results in unusual symptoms with no co-relation to any other reported diseases. In running mortality syndrome affected farms mortality percentage reaching upto 50-70% and as a result of this several farmers have partially harvested in the middle of crop and some farmers were closed down their farming operations for two or three seasons. The symptoms includes cut antennae, uropods turn red in colour and later the hepatopancreas begins will turn reddish yellow; finally entire body turns dark red in colour. A continuous internal mortality of shrimp was observed in affected ponds. The dead shrimp settle down in the bottom of the affected ponds and do not come surface. Mortality was observed only during inter- moult stage. Mortality rate is relatively more in low saline ponds. White or yellow faecal matter was noticed in the gut of affected shrimps. This condition is known as Running Mortality Syndrome (RMS).The present paper reports the incidences of Running Mortality Syndrome (RMS) in Litopenaeus vannamei culture systems in Andhra Pradesh.

7

SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF SOME NEW N-ACETYL PYRAZOLINES FROM SUBSTITUTED CHALCONES

Abdulkareem Ali Hussein1,2*, Bushra Ahmed Kateb1,2, P.A. Kulkarni1
1P. G. Research Center, Department of Chemistry, Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya , Nanded-431602.
2Hodiedah University, Education College, Yemen.

Abstract

In the present study, a novel series of N-acetyl pyrazolines (4a-j) were synthesized from different chalcones (3a-j) with hydrazine hydrate and glacial acetic acid. The compounds were synthesized and characterizes by TLC, melting points, IR, and 1H-NMR spectra. All the synthesized compounds have been screened and evaluated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus gr +ve, Escherichia coli gr –ve, Bacillus subtilis gr +ve, Salmonella typhi gr –ve , and antifungal activity against Aspergillus oryzoe, Aspergillus niger, using disc diffusion method. The compounds show the moderate to good activity against bacteria. The new structural classes of compounds may prove as lead molecules and good candidates for the future investigations.

8

STUDIES ON THE FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING DOSAGE FORMS OF LORATADINE

Ramesh KVRNS*, Maha Hammad Sitta, Omar Sarheed, Shahnaz Usman, Hemant Yadav, Fasiha Shah, Quamrul Islam
RAK College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, RAK Medical & Health Sciences University, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE.

Abstract

Loratadine is a anti allergic drug (NSAID) used in the management of the symptomatic relief of allergy such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis), urticarial (hives), chronic idiopathic urticaria. Loratadine is a poorly water-soluble drug and for such drugs, dissolution plays an important role in their absorption. In the present investigation, an approach of solvent deposited systems of the dispersions of loratadine in Gelucire – 50/13 (G) and Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) on Neusilin (N) were prepared to enhance the dissolution of loratadine. Dispersions were prepared employing different proportions of the carriers. The prepared dispersions were characterized by infra-red spectroscopy, x – ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the XRD and DSC study indicated that the drug existed in amorphous form in the dispersions. The dispersions exhibited higher dissolution compared to the pure drug and there were no interactions with the carriers. Dispersion in gelucire showed much higher dissolution than the dispersion in hydroxypropyl cellulose. There was 10 to 12 fold increase in dissolution rate with various dispersions when compared with the pure drug. Dispersions on neusilin resulted in products which had good flow properties enabling direct compression of the dispersion into tablets. The Kawakita constants calculated for the various products are suggestive of good flow character. All the tablets showed good pharmaceutical characteristics and exhibited rapid dissolution. From the results of the investigation in may be concluded that employing solvent deposited systems of the solid dispersions is a useful approach to prepare the fast dissolving tablets of loratadine.

9

THIAZOLES AS AN ANTICANCER AGENT: AN OVERVIEW

Prabodh V. Sapkale1, Avinash V. Patil2
1SES Arunamai College of Pharmacy, Mamurabad, Dist-Jalgaon, MS, India.
2Smt. S. S. Patil College of Pharmacy, Chopda, Dist- Jalgaon, MS, India.

Abstract

Cancer is a potentially major disease caused mainly by many surrounding factors that mutate genes encoding critical cell-regulatory proteins. The resultant aberrant cell behaviour leads to expansive masses of abnormal cells that destroy surrounding normal tissue and can spread to vital organs resulting in disseminated disease, commonly patient death is occurred. Structurally diverse thiazoles with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups were conveniently synthesized through various methods which are explained in this review. The effect of substitution at the 2- and 4-positions was investigated. Thiazole is also showing various biological activities but recently it shows major activity as anticancer with minimizing side effect and adverse effect. It also has large area for research with same biological activity.

10

3 H-QUINAZOLIN-4-ONES AS ANTICANCER AGENTS: A REVIEW

Nilesh S. Khairnar1*, Jogendra C. Hundiwale2, Avinash V. Patil2
1NES’S, Gangamai College of Pharmacy, Nagaon.
2S. S. Patil College Pharmacy, Chopda, Dist- Jalgaon.

Abstract

Heterocyclic chemistry composed of at least fifty percent of all organic chemistry research worldwide which contains heterocyclic moieties. 4(3H)-Quinazolinone is nothing but the 3H-Quinazolin-4-one which play a prominent role in the field of Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry for to invent or discover the new potent moiety. It is strongly showing evidence as active chemical agents in all human being or in animals by their pharmacological activity. 4(3H)-Quinazolinone and their entire derivatives having very good pharmaceutical utility among the influential classes of heterocyclic moieties by synthesizing it through various synthetic avenues. It shows some of the Pharmaceutical or Biochemical activities like anticancer, analgesic & anti-inflammatory, anti HIV, antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antimalerial & antifungal etc. from the literature survey. Cancer is very crucial or critical health problem now a day in developing as well as undeveloped countries. It has achieved first position as killer by surpassing the heart disease also from all over the world. It is quiet difficult task to design novel antitumor agent in lab level but it is critically very important. The purpose of this review was to follow literature work reported by researchers on 3H-Quinazolin-4-ones for only anticancer activity. This review might be helpful in the development of novel lead molecules which is having heterocyclic nucleus to potential drug profile for future prospect as anticancer agent and become prospective part in fulfillment of pharmaceutical world. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is made from one of the erbB members which come from Tyrosine Kinase Receptor (TKR). It is cellular transmemberane glycoprotein.

11

MIXED HYDROTROPY: A RISING TOOL FOR SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY AND COSMECEUTICAL APPLICATIONS

Satish Polshettiwar, Snehal Shivaji Khorate*

Dept. of Pharmaceutics; MAEERS, Maharashtra Institute of Pharmacy, MIT Campus, Kothrud, Pune-411038, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Solubility is the important phenomenon in pharmaceutical formulation, which plays very effective and significant role in the designing of various dosage forms. It is important characteristics of a drug for its oral bioavailability, formation and development of different dosage form of different drugs and for quantitative analysis. There are many techniques which are used to enhance the aqueous solubility, hydrotropy is one of them which is simple, advance, cost effective, eco-friendly and novel method. Hydrotropy is defined as a solubilization process whereby addition of a large amount of second solutes results in an increase in the aqueous solubility of another solute and chemicals which are used in the hydrotropy are called hydrotropes like sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, urea, niacinamide etc. To achieve highest degree of solubility hydrotropes can be combined with polymers or cosolvents as in mixed hydrotropy. Mixed hydrotropic solubilization technique is the phenomenon to increase the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs in the blends of hydrotropic agents which gives synergistic enhancement in solubility. Based on advantages of certain properties like the high selectivity, independent of pH and cheap, easy availability makes this technique more powerful than other Solubilization methods. In the present review attempt has been made to provide detailed information on the novel applications of hydrotropy with respect to Cosmeceutical and transdermal formulations as well the mechanism of hydrotropes, hydrotropic agents, classification and Solubilization of hydrotropes, several hydrotropes used in tablet formulation are discussed.

12

NIOSOMES- A NOVEL TOOL FOR ANTI-AGEING COSMECEUTICALS

Prabha Singh*, Huda Ansari, Shalan Dabre
Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, Vile parle (W), Mumbai, Maharashtra 400056, India.

Abstract

Aging is a complex biological process that has not yet been completely elucidated. Human aging and longevity are affected by multiple reasons like genetic factors, environmental factors such as diseases, lifestyle, and social factors. Ageing gives rise to different age related diseases like cognitive impairment, diabetes mellitus, and frailty. Also people around the world have always been looking for better health and appearance. Therefore, the ideal anti-ageing formulation should be applicable for both maintaining the healthful appearance as a cosmetic product as well as preventing the development of degenerative diseases. With increasing advancement in the field of science and technology and also with increase in the information about products available through the use of social media, formulating new products and advertising them have become quite easy. Nowadays formulation containing nanotechnology combined with cosmeceuticals is growing on a larger scale. Thus, we can say that novel cosmetic delivery systems have enormous potential and are next generation carrier systems. Novel drug delivery systems like liposomes, were discovered in 1960’s and since then they have been used effectively. However, due to their stability issues, new delivery systems like niosomes were discovered with improved stability. Niosomes are used in the field of cosmetics since the early 1970’s. They are stable with good penetrating power and less irritating as compared to other colloidal carrier systems. This review article focuses on the role of niosomes as a carrier for anti-aging topical products.

13

SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF N-HETEROCYCLIC SUBSTITUTED HYDRAZONE SCHIFF’S BASES

Vrushali T. Kale*, Archana S. Burghate, Shrikant A. Wadhal
Department of Chemistry, Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati - 444603, M.S. India.

Abstract

The present research deals with the synthesis, spectral studies and biological evolution of substituted hydrazone schiff’s bases derivatives of benzothiazolyl and benzimidazolyl for antimicrobial activity. the compounds were synthesized by green chemistry technique which includes synthesis series of 2-[1-(Benzothiazole-2-yl hydrazono)-ethyl]-4-methyl phenol 3, 2-(Benzothiazole-2-yl hydrazono)-methyl)- phenol, N-Benzothiazole-2-yl-N-(1-4-chloro-phenyl)-ethylidene]-hydrazine ,2-[1-H-Benzimidazole-2-yl hydrazono)-methyl]-4-methyl phenol and implemented for their antibacterial activity study. The antimicrobial activities of these synthesized compounds are done by agar disc diffusion method at two different concentrations in DMSO against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli. Structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their IR, 1H-NMR and CHN analysis .From the synthesized compounds 3a,3b,3c biologically active Escherichia.coli and Staphylococcus. Aureus.

14

EFFECT OF MIXING ESSENTIAL OILS CONTENTS OF ARTEMESIA HERBA ALBA ASSO. AND ARTEMISIA MONOSPERMA DELILE ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA OF URINARY TRACT

Heba Ibrahim Abd EI-Moaty, Rehab A. Lotfy
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Department, Desert Research Center EI-Mataria, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract

The objective of the study is to assess antibacterial activities of essential oil and its mixture of two Artemesia species against four bacterial strains isolated from urine (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus spp. and Klebsiella spp.). The essential oils percentages of the aerial parts of Artemesia herba alba and Artemesia monosperma were 0.83 % and 0.22 %, respectively as clear yellowish liquid oil. Mixing essential oil of both plants with ratio (1:2 v: v), respectively, gave highest antibacterial activity, then the mixture were investigated using GC –MS, beside investigation the essential oil of each plant alone. The obtained results showed that, the major constituents of the essential oil of Artemesia herba alba were Geraniol (28.27 %), Artemesia alcohol (24.92 %), Yomogi alcohol (13.05 %) and αˈ-Ionol (11.66 %), which resembled monoterpene alcohol compounds. Meanwhile the major constituents of the essential oil of Artemesia monosperma were Naphthalene 2-ethenyl (Aromatic hydrocarbon) (35.20 %), Imidazolidine (Heterocyclic compound) (19.27 %), and 2αˈ-pinene (Monoterpenes) (10.89 %). On other-hand the obtained major components of the mixture (1: 2, v: v) were Naphthalene 2-ethenyl (31.78 %), Imidazolidine (14.84%) and 2αˈ-pinene (12.93 %). Meanwhile the mixture of Artemesia herba alba and Artemesia monosperma with ratio (1: 2 v: v, respectively) showed highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus spp. and Klebsiella spp. isolated from urine. The present study scientifically proved that the mixture of essential oil of Artemesia herba alba and Artemesia monosperma is antimicrobial agent that can be used to treat urinary tract infectious diseases.

15

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND BIOPESTICIDAL EFFICACY OF SOME PLANTS OF EAST SINGHBHUM, JHARKHAND

Namrata Kumari1, Kiran Shukla1, Hanuman Prasad Sharma2
1Department of Botany, G. S. College for Women, Jamshedpur.
2University Department of Botany, Ranchi University, Ranchi.

Abstract

Preliminary phytochemical studies have been carried out on 5 plant species, growing wildly in East Singhbhum,district of Jharkhand. The leaf extracts were prepared using organic solvent in soxlet apparatus. Three insect pests viz. storage pest, mealybugs and cut worm/caterpillar were used in the study. All the five plants studied exhibited pesticidal properties which are dose dependent. Annona squamosa and Cleistanthus collinus contains highest amount of the phytochemical and are most effective in these pest. It can be used as bio-pesticides. Blumea balsamifera was least effective as pesticides.

16

MULTIPLE DISEASES AND POLYPHARMACY IN THE ELDERLY CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PATIENTS: CHALLENGES FOR THE INTERNIST WITH A NEED FOR AN EFFECTIVE SOLUTION

Battu Rakesh*1, Emilda .T. Joy1, Jaladi Himaja2, Dr.B.S.Suresha3
Bharathi College of Pharmacy, Bharathinagara, K. M. Doddi, Mandya, Karnataka, India-571422.

Abstract

Polypharmacy is arguably one of the most pressing prescribing issues. There is no formally accepted definition, but it is usually considered as concurrent prescribing of at least four or five drugs. Multiple diseases and multimorbidity inevitably lead to the use of multiple drugs, a condition known as polypharmacy. Polypharmacy, a preventable and significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in geriatrics of cardiovascular disease. Aging seldom comes alone, often being accompanied by chronic diseases, co-morbidity, disability and frailty. Older people are particularly prone to adverse consequences due to age related physiological changes altering the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics characteristics of many medicines. Over the last 20–30 years, problems related to aging, multimorbidity, and polypharmacy have become a prominent issue in global healthcare. Therapy in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) often involves poly pharmacy and patients require close therapy monitoring. Polypharmacy also has the potential to influence many aspects of safe prescribing, including adverse drug reactions, risk of medication interactions, and adherence. Clinical pharmacists need to challenge the current culture of ‘ratcheting up’ numbers of medications, and to increase awareness of the consequences of polypharmacy. This can be addressed, in part, through continued medical education, and also through clinical guidelines, particularly for common conditions affecting older patients. Proactively addressing the problem has significant potential to maximise quality of life for patients, help patients to manage their own medicines, reduce adverse effects, and encourage more rational and efficacious drug use. When individualization of therapy is warranted, the role of pharmacist can prove to be the best in achieving the therapeutic goals and improve the treatment outcomes of the patients. The main objectives of the study are to assess the prevalence of polypharmacy in cardiovascular disease patient’s ≥ 65 years and to assess the various causes for polypharmacy and to reduce and manage polypharmacy. This Cross Sectional study was carried out in the Department of General Medicine, MIMS Teaching Hospital, Mandya, Karnataka, using a well-designed patient data collection form. Among 114 cardiovascular disease patients analysed 65 patients were males (57.01%) and 49 (42.99%) were females. Among all admitted patients in ICCU, RICU, MICU and medical wards (male and female) for cardiac problems, patients were suffering mostly from co-morbid conditions and commonly found co-morbid condition was hypertension and diabetes mellitus, which supports the study that polypharmacy is extremely high in Hypertensive and Diabetic patients are more prone to high risk of complications (Drug-Drug Interactions and Adverse drug reactions). Polypharmacy was identified in 86 patients (75.43%) which include 51 (59.30%) males and 35 (40.70%) females. The study highlights the emergency department as a place where potential drug interactions can be identified in high-risk elderly patients. The presence of a Clinical Pharmacist would be of potential benefit to the process of identification of Polypharmacy and drug interactions. Furthermore, rational prescribing for the elderly should essentially involve listing potentially inappropriate medications, where the risks of administration may outweigh the benefits of administration. Polypharmacy places geriatric patients at risk of adverse events, functional decline, and geriatric syndromes. The strategies such as use of a risk stratification tool and application of palliative care principles represent initial steps forward to reduce polypharmacy.

17

SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF FLURBIPROFEN AND PANTOPRAZOLE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC

Varaprasad Adepu*, K.E.V Nagoji1, V.Girijasastry2
*Jyothishmathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Karimnagar,TS-505481.
1Sri venkateswara College of Pharmacy, Srikakulam, AP-532410.
2Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, AP-530003.

Abstract

RP-HPLC method is developed for determination of pantoprazole and flurbiprofen in binary combination. Pantoprazole and flurbiprofen were detected at 270 nm using a BDS Hypersil C8 (250 X 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column and mixture of 0.02M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile 30:70 v/v as mobile phase.The flowrate was 1ml/min and effluent was detected at 270nm. Response was linear over the range of 10-100 mcg/ml for pantoprazole and of 5-50 mcg/ml for flurbiprofen. The retention time of flubiprofen was 2.407 min and pantoprazole was 5.441 min.The developed method efficiently separated the analytical peaks from mixture. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ. The method developed can be applied successfully for determination of pantoprazole and flurbiprofen in dosage form.

18

PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION, IN-VITRO STUDIES AND IN-VIVO ASSESSMENT OF DRUG CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPLEX FOR ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF FEBUXOSTAT

Abhishek Pathak*, Sadhana J Rajput
TIFAC Centre of Relevance and Excellence in NDDS, G H Patel Pharmacy Building, Faculty of Pharmacy, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Fatehgunj, Vadodara-390 002, Gujarat, INDIA.

Abstract

The objective of this research was to enhance the oral bioavailability of Febuxostat (FBX) by preparing the Febuxostat/cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The β-cyclodextrin, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, Methyl-β-cyclodextrin and γ-cyclodextrin were used to prepare inclusion complex with FBX by physical mixing, kneading method and freeze drying method. And 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was selected as a best fit carrier for inclusion of FBX in (1:1) molar ratio on the basis of phase solubility and inclusion efficiency study. Freeze drying method was found most effective method in terms of solubilization and dissolution of FBX. The physicochemical characterization of prepared inclusion complexes was performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Infra-red spectroscopy (IR) analysis indicated the perfect inclusion of FBX in 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. Adequate dissolution was achieved in distilled water and phosphate buffer pH-6.8. In-vitro Cell Cytotoxicity Studies (MTT Assay) using Caco-2 cell line model confirmed the bio-tolerability of FBX-inclusion complexes. In vivo assessment demonstrated that freeze dried inclusion complex of FBX with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin exhibited better pharmacokinetic properties compared to plain FBX and commercial formulation. The relative oral bioavailability of FBX in Albino rabbits resulted from Freeze dried inclusion complex was found 3.08 fold and 2.29 fold greater than plain FBX and marketed formulation, respectively.

19

FORMULATION OF BIOADHESIVE CHITOSAN/PLURONIC THERMOSENSITIVE IN-SITU GEL FOR MODIFIED RELEASE OF GATIFLOXACIN

Shah Hirva*, Shah Dhiren, Vashi Jenisha
Shree Naranjibhai Lalbhai Patel College of Pharmacy. At & Po. Umrakh, Bardoli-Mota Road, Ta: Bardoli, Dist: Surat, Gujarat. 394345.

Abstract

Bacterial conjunctivitis requires treatment of antibiotics for almost a week. It may result in poor patient compliance with conventional dosage forms due to greater frequency of drug administration. Some dosage regimens are 2-3 drops every 2-3 hours. The excessive drug loss is exhibited by conventional formulations in the cul-de-sac upon instillation. The thermosensitive Chitosan/Pluronic in-situ gel loaded with Gatifloxacin, used for bacterial conjunctivitis, exhibited sol-gel transition upon instillation. The formulation prepared by polymer mixing exhibited bioadhesive and gelling properties. The selected independent variables were percentage of Pluronic F127 (A) and percentage of Chitosan (B) and dependent variables were gelling temperature and bioadhesive strength. This temperature triggered gelling system was prepared with the objectives of increasing contact time, achieving controlled release, reducing the frequency of administration and obtaining greater therapeutic efficacy of the drug. The characterization showed that all formulations had clarity, variation in gelling capacity. Other physical properties like pH, viscosity and drug content were found to be varying from 7.1-7.7, 240-410 cps, and 84.62-96.83% respectively. Therefore, the formulation having 0.3%w/v chitosan and 20% w/v Pluronic F127 exhibited the critical gelling temperature at 37°C and bioadhesion strength of 4.0 g/cm2. This formulation showed better sustained drug release i.e. 75.10% drug release for period of 10 hours.

20

VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND ITS LINKAGE WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

Sadia Farooqui, Maria Ansari
Deccan School of Pharmacy, Telangana, Hyderabad – 500001.

Abstract

Vitamin D receptors are not only limited to bones and muscles but are also present on other organs including the brain, heart, skin, ovary and testicle, prostate gland, and breast, as well as the cells of the immune system, including white blood cells and other key immune cells. As these receptors are also present on pancreas, directly or indirectly vitamin D is interlinked with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The increase in number of diabetes patients in the world seems to be never ending. Hence, preventing it’s ascend is better than looking for various remedies. As vitamin D deficiency and Diabetes are found to be related, its deficiency may act as a trigger for the onset of Diabetes. Vitamin D, easily obtained from sunlight and diet, when given to diabetes patients may boost insulin secretion, glucose intolerance and thereby prevents diabetes associated complications. Thus it is recommended to screen persons of all age groups infants, young adults and pregnant females for vitamin D deficiency and also those who may present with risk factors, in order to hunt down DM. Additionally, vitamin D supplementation ought to be accounted for collective refinement of glucose intolerance, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion proficiency etc, in prognosticating type 2 DM. The purpose of this paper was to review the available present day information relating to harmful effects of vitamin D deficiency that aid the development of DM and to highlight the positive effects of vitamin D supplementation on glucose impairment and insulin resistance and to potentiate the use of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment and control of DM. Even though there is corroboration that verifies the existence of a link between vitamin D status and insulin resistance, the associated mechanism appears to be hidden and requires further investigation.