IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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AUGUST 2016
1

“IMPACT OF INTRAVENOUS LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE INFUSION IN PERIOPERATIVE ANAESTHETIC CONSUMPTION AND POST-OPERATIVE ANALGESIA”

Dr. Honey Parmar, Dr. Kinna Shah, Dr. B. M. Patel
Anaesthesia Department, Gujarat Cancer Research Institute, Ahmedabad.

Abstract

Lidocaine is a frequently used local anaesthetic, also having analgesic, antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory property. Lidocaine infusion provide intraoperative hemodynamic stability, less anaesthetic consumption and postoperative analgesia. Our aim was to compare relative doses of Lidocaine infusion to achieve adequate analgesia during intraoperative, postoperative period and also to notice consumption of sevoflurane. This is prospective, randomized double blind study included 150 patients of modified radical mastectomy, 50 patients in each group. Group A received 0.9% normal saline bolus and after that 0.9% normal saline infusion, Group B received Inj.Lidocain 2% 1.5mg/kg IV bolus and 1.5mg/kg/hr infusion and Group C received Inj.Lidocaine 2% 2mg/kg IV bolus and 2mg/kg/hr infusion intraoperative and infusion it was continued for 2 hour in postoperative period in each group. We had measured intraoperative pulse, blood pressure, sevoflurane consumption at every 15 minutes interval and postoperative pulse, blood pressure, VAS score, complication of infusion and sedation score every 30 minutes for 1st 2 hour, every 1 hourly for next 6 hours, every 2 hourly for next 2 hour. We had concluded that Group C has more intraoperative hemodynamic stability, less sevoflurane consumption (P<0.001) and late 1st analgesic requirement (480±168 minutes) (P<0.001).Sedation scale 1 was observed in 5 patients in group C, while none in Group A and Group B. There were no significant complications in any Group.

2

ABOUT DENGUE FEVER AND CARICA PAPAYA, A LEAF EXTRACT OF PAPAYA IS USE TO TREAT DENGUE FEVER:-A REVIEW

Raiyani Dhara1*, Ansari Rubeena1 , Nehate Shweta1, Patel Bhavisha2, Bera Kinjal2
1Bachelor of Pharmacy, Sigma Institute of Pharmacy,Vadodara, Gujarat,390019.
2Department of Pharmacognosy, Sigma Institute of Pharmacy, Vadodara, Gujarat, 390019.

Abstract

The main objective of current study is to investigate the potential of Caricapapaya leaves extract used as a herbal medicine to control or treat the dengue in human being, but the effectiveness of this extract in the treatment of dengue has the conflicting reports.In this presentation a brief overview of dengue. The investigated herbal medicine is used to control the mammoth problem of dengue is the extract of the leaves of the papaya plant, Caricapapaya plant from the family caricaceae could be helped to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies and articles on the topic. The search was done by the authors using Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years what is dengue fever and about it, detail pharmacognosy study of papaya, one human study, possible mechanism of action of papaya leaf extract in dengue.

3

CONDUCTIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF DOSULEPIN HCL AND AZELASTINE HCL IN THEIR PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

Mahmmoud S. Abd-Elmonem*1, Waheed M. Salem2, Hassan A. M. hendawy1
1National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), P.O. Box. 29, Giza, Egypt.
2Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Damanhour University, ARE.

Abstract

Sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB), and Ammonium Reineckate (Rn) was used as titrant for the conductometric determination of Dosulepin HCl (DOS), and Azelastine HCl (AZT), this drugs formed ion-associated complexs. The described procedures allowed the determination of DOS within the range of 3.32 - 33.19 mg, and 4.184 - 41.84 mg for AZS. The molar ratio and as confirmed by the molar conductance – mole ratio plots, reveal that (1:1) (drug: reagent) ion associates are formed for in case of TPB reagent and (1:2 ) in case of Rn with both drugs, Furthermore, the precipitate obtained by ion pairing DOS and AZT with TPB and Rn has been characterized using Elemental Analysis. The suggested method was applied successively for the determination of (DOS) and (AZT) in their pure form and pharmaceutical preparations and the results obtained were favorably and can be applied for the routine measurements of the cited drugs.

4

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PHYTOEXTRACTS ON TUMOR SUPPRESSION IN DLA INDUCED SWISS ALBINO MICE MODEL

Rajalakshmi .A, Jayachitra. A*, Krithiga. N

Dept. of Plant Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India.

Abstract

To investigate the antitumor effect of different plant extracts against Dalton Lymphoma Ascites bearing mice at the concentration of 400mg/Kg of Swiss albino mouse’s body weight. Thirty two Swiss albino mice were selected and grouped into cage each contain 4 mice. The DLA cells were propagated in the intraperitoneal cavity of the mice by injecting 1X106 cells for developing tumors in the each mouse. The extracts were administered daily for 15 days. After administration of the last dose followed by mice were sacrificed and observed the hematological profile and biochemical parameters (antioxidant enzymes) and histopathological studies are examined in the all the control and treated groups. Administration of extracts increased the survival time of DLA induced mice and decreased the peritoneal ascitic fluid content significantly. Hemoglobin, RBCs and total WBC, which was altered by DLA inoculation were restored signed by all the extracts. Serum marker enzyme of AST, ALT ALP, Total Cholesterol triglycerides. Histopathological analysis also revealed control groups shows the normal architecture and DLA treated group shows some of the blood dilation in the liver and extracts treated groups shows restored the dilation. Overall study shows the different extracts of Plant have the potential to cure the solid tumors in the Swiss albino mice. It was confirmed by Hematological, biochemical and histopathological analysis and observed that mice administered with plant extracts were reverted to the normal level when compared with DLA bearing mice. The outcome of the study clearly indicates that the cancer bearing mice can be reverted to the normal state when they are treated with phytoextracts.

5

STUDY OF BLOCK COPOLYMER MICELLES AS VEHICLES FOR ANTICANCER DRUG

Shilpa. P. Chaudhari1, Manashi Das2
1Padmashree Dr.D.Y.Patil College of Pharmacy, Akurdi, Pune-44.
2Marathwada Mitra Mandals College of Pharmacy, Kalewadi, Pune-33.

Abstract

The objective of the study is to study the effect of combination of block copolymer on solubility and bioavailability of BCS class II drug Quercetin. In culmination of Study using various block copolymer pluronic F68 ,Pluronic L81, Pluronic F127 and PLGA in combination and in the (1:1), (1:2), (1:3) ratio polymeric micelles were prepared by direct dissolution technique varying the RPM and stirring time as per factorial experimental design. The formulation was then evaluated for % drug loading and micelle size. The optimized formulation was further evaluated for effect of temperature, effect of pH, effect of salt concentration, zeta potential and in vitro cytotoxicity study. The study concluded that there was high drug loading capacity and minimum micelle size of the formulated mixed polymeric micelles. The solubility of the quercetin enhances with increase in the temperature, lowering the pH and is not affected by presence of salt concentration .In vitro cytotoxicity study on HT-29 cell line showed improved in inhibition of cancer. Hence use of block copolymer Pluronic F127 along with drug contributes to anticancer activity and is promising approach for anticancer activity.

6

EVALUATION OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF AN AYURVEDIC PROPRIETARY `MEDICINE CONTAINING ROOTS OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA

Anindya Mukhopadhyay, Raja Chakraverty*, Himangshu Sekhar Maji
Bengal School of Technology, Chinsurah Sugandha, Delhi Road, Hooghly-712102.

Abstract

Withania somnifera is also known as Indian Ginseng as it resembles the property of Ginseng .It belongs to the family- Solanaceae and is mainly cultivated in the drier regions of India. The present study is based upon the assessment on anti-nociceptive pharmacological property of Withania somnifera containing Ayurvedic proprietary medicine. The acute toxicity study was carried out according to the OECD guideline 423 after obtaining prior permission from IAEC of the institute. No mortality or untoward physiological or psychological morbidities was reported in the experimental animals post the oral acute toxicity study. Subsequently the efficacy study of the drug was performed using 15 swiss albino mice (n=3) as a pilot prospective, interventional efficacy study. To evaluate the beneficial effect of the drug pain and inflammation were induced using Analgesiometer and Eddy’s Hot Plate apparatus on murine models. The experimental groups were: Vehicle control, Positive control, standard (aspirin treated) and Test drugs of two concentrations. The findings from the efficacy study shows promise in putative role of this ayurvedic medicine in the amelioration of pain and inflammation and poses no signs of morbidity or mortality upto a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight with the drug.

7

HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN AND SULPHUR – FOCUS ON FEW BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

K. Purnanagasree*, M. Murali Krishna Kumar, Ch. Nandini, J. Risy Namratha, Y. Rajendra Prasad
AU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.

Abstract

In the recent past, heterocyclic compounds containing sulphur and nitrogen were gaining much importance. Among them, substituted thiazolidine derivatives have been extensively studied because of their synthetic feasibility, varied chemical behaviour, diverse biological activities and different applications. The current review focuses on the methods of synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and few biological activities of thiazolidines. This review mainly summarizes the potential antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity when substituted at 2,3 and 4 positions mainly in thiazolidine ring.

8

USE OF BISPHOSPHONATES DRUG IN TREATMENT OF OSTEOPOROSIS

Praneeth Chandluri*, Ramesh Ganpisetti, Dr. B.V.S. Lakshmi, Dr. Aravinda Swami
Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy (Affiliated to Osmania University), Hyderabad, Telangana, India-500100.

Abstract

Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast that reduce bone turnover and re-establish balance between bone resorption and formation. Intermittent oral dosing and intravenous administration are more convenient. These drugs are generally well tolerated and have an excellent safety profile. Bisphosphonates are generally the most preferred treatment option for most patients. Even for patients with other risk factors. There might be possible drug interactions with quinolones, tetracycline, and aluminum and magnesium hydroxide. Some of the common contra indications are that oral Bisphosphonates should not be used in patients with serious esophageal disease; patient can’t stay at upright position for more than an hour when administered with this drug. Chemistry and classification of Bisphosphonates, history and development. For treatment of skeletal complication that is malignancy of osteoporosis, multiple myeloma, hypercalcemia, Paget’s disease. All the medical doctors, who prescribe Bisphosphonates, should strictly inform their patients about possible side effects of these drugs. All the medical allied personals must be careful in using these drugs which also have life saving properties. There is a great deal of work needed to delineate the mechanisms of action of the Bisphosphonates and their clinical utility alone or in combination with other agents that effect bone strength.

9

GLUCOSE UPTAKE-STIMULATORY POTENTIAL OF COROSOLIC ACID: A MECHANISM BASED REVIEW

Gitanjali Mishra1, Prasanna Kumar Panda2, Trilochan Satapathy1*, Suresh Kumar Ghritlahare3
1School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Berhampur University, Bhanjabihar- 760007, Odisha, India.
2University Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utkal University, VaniVihar, Bhubaneswar- 751004, Odisha, India.
3Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Tekari, Near Vidhansabha, Raipur, Chhattisgsrh, 493111, India.

Abstract

Corosolic acid, (2 alphahydroxy ursolic acid, Glucosol) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound widely existing in many traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, has been proved to have anti diabetic effects on animal experiments and clinical trials. Corosolic acid which is structurally similar to ursolic acid. Corosolic acid is usually extracted from Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa) leaf. It is reported to exhibit antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, antineoplastic, osteoblastic and protein kinase C inhibition activity. Pure Corosolic acid has been reported to decrease blood sugar levels within 60 min in human subjects. The beneficial effects of banaba and Corosolic acid with respect to various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism appear to involve multiple mechanisms, including enhanced cellular uptake of glucose, impaired hydrolysis of sucrose and starches, decreased gluconeogenesis and the regulation of lipid metabolism. Corosolic acid increased glucokinase activity without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase activity, suggesting an increase in glycolysis. Various studies indicated the pharmacological actions of corosolic acid are not summarized based on the mechanism of action. So in this review, our efforts have been devoted to provide some mechanism based anti diabetic potential of Corosolic acid which may prove as additional information and shall be helpful in future research.

10

UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CINITAPRIDE IN BULK DRUG AND ITS PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

Dr. R. Xavier Arulappa*1, M. Jerubin Wel Singh, M. Ahamed Sameem, A. Asha
1S.A. Raja Pharmacy College, Vadakankulam, Tirunelveli district – 627 116, Tamilnadu, India.
2Sree Krishna College of Pharmacy and Research centre, Parassala Railway Station Road, Parassala, Kerala – 695 502.

Abstract

The proposed UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of cinitapride in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulation was found to be specific, precise and validated as per ICH guidelines. The methods was based on diazotization and coupling reaction with 3-methyl benzothiazol 2-one hydrazone (MBTH) in presence of ferric chloride to form yellow colour chromogen exhibiting absorbance maximum at 390 nm. The molar absorptivity value of cinitapride was found to be 1.76x103 mole-1 cm-1. The beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 10-50 μg/ml. The results obtained were statistically evaluated and were found to be accurate and reproducible and can be used for routine quality control analysis for the estimation of cinitapride in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation.

11

FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THEOPHYLLINE HYDRO GELS USING FREEZE THAW AND CHEMICAL POLYMERIZATION METHODS

Nagamani Bolla*, V. Ramalingeswa Rao, GSN Koteswara Rao T. Amruta Rai, P. Uma Devi
Viswanadha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Visakhapatnam, A.P., India.

Abstract

The development of topical formulations has been a challenge to formulation scientists because solubility, permeability, half life of the drug etc governs the absorption of the drug. Hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks capable of imbibing large amounts of water or biological fluids and are held together by chemical or physical bonds. Theophylline is used as a bronchodilator but in lower concentrations it can be used as an analgesic. Theophylline hydrogels were formulated using two different techniques, Chemical Polymerization (crosslinking agent - borax in different concentrations) and Freeze thaw technique. Sodium hyaluronate and polyvinyl alcohol as polymers with gelatin base and PEG 600 as a permeation enhancer. This was the first report on Theophylline anti inflammatory hydrogels formulated using sodium hyaluronate using different methods, Sodium hyaluronate, one of the polymers which is a safer polymer present in the connective tissue of human body and can be used without causing any toxic effect to the skin.

12

INTEGRATION OF FAMILY PLANING SERVICES WITH ABORTION CARE AT PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HEALTH FACILITIES IN METTU TOWN, SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIA

Ebissa Negera, Geremew Tolesa
Public Health and Medical Science Faculty ,Mettu, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Complications of unsafe abortion contribute to 13% of global maternal mortality and have received less attention than other obstetric emergencies discourses. Timely and appropriate treatment of unsafe abortions and incomplete spontaneous abortions can prevent maternal death and morbidity. Counseling post-abortion care patients on family planning and facilitating their access to family planning methods help to prevent unwanted pregnancies and repeat abortions. The objective of this study was to assess the integration of Family planning services with abortion care at public and private health facilities that provided abortion care service in Mettu town. Facility based cross sectional study was employed. The study was conducted at public and private health facilities those providing abortion care service in Mettu town from February to March 2014. A total of 274 women who got services were interviewed. The response rate was 94.2%. One hundred ninety three (70.44%) of the respondents reported that they have got contraceptive counseling/ information from the service providers .Among them 113 (41.24%) left the health facility with contraceptive methods. Significant proportion of women who got abortion services left the health facility without getting family planning counseling and contraceptive methods. Due attention should be given the ways to integrating women who got abortion services at each health facilities.

13

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF HEALTH PROFESSIONALS TOWARDS SAFE INDUCED ABORTION IN PUBLIC HEALTH FACILITIES IN ILU ABABORA ZONE, OROMIYA, ETHIOPIA

Ebissa Negera
Public Health and Medical Science Faculty ,Mettu, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Background: In Ethiopia, in 2005, even though, abortion law has been revised to include provision for conducting abortion, it remained in accessible for large majority of women. Provider attitude, stigma and passive resistance remain insidious barriers to the full realization of reproductive equality. Objective: To assess knowledge and attitude of health professionals towards safe induced abortion at public health facilities of Ilu Ababora zone. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 15, 2011- February 29, 2012. A total of 395 health professionals (General practitioners, mid-wifery, health officers and nurses) selected by simple random sampling method were involved in the study. Data were collected using structured Afan Oromo Version self administered questionnaire. Analysis was done using bivariate and multi-variate techniques. Results: The proportions of health professionals knowledgeable about safe induced abortion were (58%) and fifty one percent (51%) had favorable attitude towards safe induced abortion. Only (28.4%) of health professionals were trained on safe termination of pregnancy. Knowledge about safe induced abortion was significantly associated with marital status (OR= 1.73; 95% CI 1.07-2.8) and training on safe induced abortion (OR=0.31; 95% CI 0.17-0.5). Attitude towards safe induced abortion was significantly associated with sex (OR=0.32; 95% CI 0.2-0.53), marital status (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.4-3.88) and training on safe induced abortion (OR=0.26; 95% CI 0.14-0.4). Conclusion: The present study revealed that, while overall awareness on safe induced abortion was high (81.8%), the actual knowledge and attitude towards safe induced abortion is low among health professionals in Ilu Ababora zone.

14

PHYSIO CHEMICAL STANDARDIZATION OF THE SIDDHA HERBO MINERAL DRUG – AMIRTHARASA MATHIRAI

Kumar S.1, Paechiyammal. S.2, Maanickha chelvi K S1
1Medical Consultant, Siddha Regional Research Institute, Chennai.
2Yoga Consultant, National Institute of Siddha, Chennai.

Abstract

The standardization of any drug before administration to human beings is mandatory in nowadays Amirtharasa mathirai (AM) is one of the drug belongs to siddha system of medicine which is made up of herbals and metals. The aim of the study is to standardize this preparation. The physio chemical properties are black colour solid material, Total ash value is 9.73%w/w , moisture content is 8.82%w/w and pH value is 7.7% which yield 45%w/w. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) revealed that toxic metals like mercury, arsenic, cadmium and lead were below detective limit.(BDL). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis shows that particles of size 0.25 -0.50μm.

15

ABC –VED ANALYSIS OF DRUG STORE IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL FOR YEAR 2013-14

Dr. Amrita Singam, Dr. S. Dudhgaonkar, Dr.Abhishek Mamarde* Dr.Kartik J Salwe*, Dr. Huma Khan*
1Indira Gandhi Government Medical Collage, Nagpur.
2Mahatma Gandhi Medical Collage & Research Institute, Pillayakuppam, Pondecherry.
3Speciality Medical Officer, Department of Pharmacology, Lokmanya Tilak Medical Collage and Hospital, Sion Mumbai.
4Professor and Head Deparment of Pharmacology,Shree Vasantrao Naik Government Medical Collage, Yavatmal.

Abstract

Introduction- In government hospital, about one-third of the annual budget is spent on buying medicines. Effective inventory management is required to balance inventory expenditure against demands for medicines. In hospital inventory management, VED analysis has been commonly used together with ABC analysis. So our aim is to analyze the annual drug expenditure (ADE) & Identification of the drug categories requiring greater supervisory monitoring using ABC and VED analysis. Material and Method-Study was conducted in Indira Gandhi Government Medical Collage and Hospital Nagpur of central India, a 594 bed tertiary care hospital. The data of annual consumption and cost on each drug from Medical store, for financial year 2013- 2014 was obtained. ABC analysis done. The data was arranged in Excel sheet. The ABC-VED matrix (combination) was formed by cross tabulating ABC and VED. Results are expressed as %. Result- On ABC analysis it was found that category A consisted 26 drugs i.e.(13.19%) similarly we calculated for categories B and C which came out as, in category B 36 drugs i.e. (18.2%) and for category C 135 drugs i.e.(68.52%).On VED analysis it was found that ,Vital drugs (V)were 60 i.e. (30.96%), Essential drugs (E) were 79 that was (39.08%) and Desirable drugs(D) were 58 (29.94%) were found out of 197 total drugs. On vital drugs (V) the expenditure was 1,07,75,813 (61.63%),Essential drugs (E) expenditure was 51,64,273.52 (29.53%)and on Desirable (D) expenditure was 1544434.03 (8.83%) of the total budget. Conclusion From present study we may conclude that there is a need for conducting such analysis regularly, and applying the inventory management tools for effective and efficient management of the medical stores.

16

GASTRORETENTIVE IN SITU GEL FORMULATION SYSTEM

Mrs. Sushma Singh, Ragini L. Tandle*
Dr. L. H. Hiranandani College of Pharmacy, Ulhasnagar, Dist- Thane, University of Mumbai.

Abstract

The design of controlled drug delivery systems (DDS) should be primarily subjected to aim and to achieve more predictable and increased bioavailability. In-situ gel refers to polymer solution which can be administered as liquid & undergoes a phase transition to semisolid gel upon exposure to physiological environment. The oral gastro-retentive in-situ gel forming polymeric drug delivery systems are designed with an objective to retain in stomach for an extended time period and also for achieving systemic drug effects over than other pharmaceutical dosage forms. The formulation is introduced to overcome the rapidly increasing cost and to reduce the time required in the development works over than the other pharmaceutical dosage forms. Many natural, biodegradable, biocompatible and synthetic polymers like alginic acid, pluronic F127, xyloglucan, gellan gum, carbopol, pectin, chitosan, poly (DL lactic acid), poly (DL-lactide-coglycolide) and poly-caprolactone etc. are used in the preparation of in situ gelling system. The present study was based on the development of stomach specific drug delivery systems using various approaches like gastro-retentive oral in-situ gel formulation. [1, 2]

17

“EVALUATION OF ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF RUTIN AND BERBERINE IN DIFFERENT BEHAVIORAL MODELS”

S. Viswanth Reddy*, Kappera Swetha
RamNagar Colony, Thatinpally, Near NH 44 Bypass Tuskal Road, Shadnagar, Mahaboobnagar Dist, Telangana- 509216.

Abstract

Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders reported in all the parts of Globe. The existing pharmacological therapy with N-methyl D-aspartate antagonists and tricyclic antidepressants has shown good efficacy in increasing neurotransmission in the brain but they are also associated with various unwanted effects. Hence, alternative therapeutics such as nutraceuticals with low side effect profile were investigated as new safe antidepressant agents. In the present study nutraceutical products Rutin and Berberine were screened for in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging assay and NBT superoxide scavenging assay. These compounds have shown good inhibitory activity in all in vitro assays, based on these results in vivo studies were conducted. Antidepressant activity of Rutin and Berberine was evaluated by using forced swim test in mice, tail suspension test in rats. These compounds (250, 500 mg/kg bd. wt.) decreased the immobility periods in dose dependent manner in both tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The expected mechanism of action the activity probably through increased monoamine transmission in the brain. From the results it was found that Rutin and Berberine have significant antidepressant activity.

18

“EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF RUTIN AND BERBERINE”

S. Viswanth Reddy*, Kappera Swetha, G. Avinash
Asst.Professor, PNR College of Pharmacy, Telangana, PIN: 509216

Abstract

The aim of study is to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of natural compounds like Rutin (bioflavonoid) and Berberine (isoquinoline alkaloid) by using disc diffusion method. Antibacterial activity was determined using two gram positive cultures (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and two gram negative cultures (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli). Antifungal activity was evaluated against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides fungal cultures. Both Rutin and Berberine were tested at concentration of 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml. The isoquinoline alkaloid Berberine at 50μg/ml has significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. At 100 μg/ml it has highly significant antibacterial activity against all cultures compared to control group. Rutin has no significant antibacterial activity at 50 μg/ml however at 100 μg/ml it has shown significant activity against Bacillus subtilis. Rutin has no significant antifungal activity at both the doses. Berberine at 50 μg/ml did not show any significant activity against Aspergillus flavus but it was shown lower significant activity against Fusarium verticillioides however at higher concentration (100 μg/ml) it has shown highly significant activity against both the cultures. Berberine has shown higher anti-bacterial and antifungal against all cultures and the activity was better when compared to Rutin. It was concluded that the antibacterial and antifungal potential of these natural products might be due to interference of microbial protein synthesis, so these natural compounds might be better therapeutic targets for bacteria and fungi clinically for development of safe and efficacious antimicrobials.

19

LOCAL INFILTRATION TECHNIQUE IN UNILATERAL TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT

Ardeshna A Nishita1, Bashwanth Pasupulati1, Dr. Basavaraj CM2, Dr. Vinay Pawar2
1PES college of Pharmacy, Bangalore.
2BGS global hospital, Bangalore.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The most effective treatment for osteoarthritis is TKR and THR but sizeable patient experience chronic pain causing discomfort. There has been shift in the usage of local anesthesia technique (LIA) over the general anesthesia in orthopedic surgeries mainly TKR. Pain control is important post surgery which includes opioid use, and other analgesics. LIA technique has taken increased focus due to early rehabilitation in patients with TKR and THR. METHOD: It was prospective, non-interventional and observational study. RESULTS: Outcomes were assessed with regards to the pain score and analgesic use post LIA. Patients with this technique experienced early mobilization and better pain control after surgery. There was decreased in the opioid usage and increased patient satisfaction. Break-through pain was also found to have decreased with LIA comparatively with only analgesic usage. CONCLUSION: The use of preoperative patient education as an important component in their fast-track recovery program. LIA protocol can achieve meaningful results and can be easily implemented both in tertiary care centers & community hospitals.

20

TRANSDERMAL UNANI FEMALE CONTRACEPTIVE FORMULATION: DESIGNING AND IN-VITRO TRANSDERMAL ACTIVITY EVALUATION

Tarannum*1, Mohammad Idris2
1Research Associate, Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Lucknow, India
2Head of Department of Ilmus Saidla and Ilmul Advia, Ayurvedic & Unani Tibbia College & Hospital, Karol Bagh, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

The transdermal drug delivery system has an important place in the medical field. This delivery system has several advantages over the oral and parental route of drug administration. The concept of transdermal drug delivery system was already exists in the Unani system of medicine. Several dosage forms for transdermal drug delivery system in single as well as in compound formulation were mentioned in the classical literature of Unani system. Unani medicine is enriched with several drugs honored to possess antifertility property. Unani antifertility agents are recommended for both- male and female as oral and/or local application. Several single drugs as well as compound formulations are mentioned in Unani classical literature to control the fertility. With this background an effort was made with two objectives. First was to design a transdermal Unani female contraceptive formulation (TUFCF) based on four ingredients i.e. Leaves of Henna (Lawsonia inermis), rhizome of Pakhanbed (Bergenia ciliata), Sibr (Latex of Aloe barbadensis) and Khar-e-Chirchita (Achyranthes aspera). Secondly to evaluate in-vitro transdermal penetration potential of the TUFCF by Franz diffusion cell method, qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitatively the test formulation reveals significant presence of phytochemicals by chemical test method. Quantitatively it showed 35.07% release across the membrane. Hence, it was concluded that the test formulation possessed the transdermal activity.

21

MYCOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY ALTERNARIA SP ISOLATED FROM BARK PART OF CALOPHYLLUM APETALUM

C P Chandrappa1, M Govindappa1, N Chandrasekar1, Sonia Sarkar1, Sepuri Ooha1, R Channabasava1, C P Ramesh2
1Shridevi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sira Road, Tumkur- 572106, Karnataka, India.
2N.S.R.P. Govt. Degree College for Women, Hindupur, Andhrapradesh, India.

Abstract

The present study described the formation of silver nanoparticles by the extract of Alternaria sp. obtained from bark part of Calophyllum apetalum Willd. Alternaria extract have mixed with silver nitrate to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Scaning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction studies. Silver nanoparticles have acquired Surface plasmon reverberation spectra at 425nm and round shapes of the silver nanoparticles have determined by SEM analysis. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that the synthesized nanoparticles by Altenaria extract were crystalline silver. This approach is one of the primary, efficient and rapid strategies to synthesize silver nanoparticles at ambient temperature without application of hazardous agents.

22

EVALUATION OF MEDICATION ADHERENCE AND IMPACT OF PATIENT COUNSELING ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS SUFFRING FROM TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Nally Suman Raj, A.J. Rocky, A. Chandrakanth, C. Praneeth, Dr. B.V.S. Lakshmi, Mr. T. Praveen Kumar
Malla Reddy Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India-500055.

Abstract

India is the diabetes capital of the world. Diabetes is growing alarmingly in India, home to more than 65.1 million people with the disease, compared to 50.8 million in 2010. Adherence to medication is a crucial part of patient care and indispensable for reaching clinical goals. The WHO, in its 2003 report on medication adherence, states that “increasing the effectiveness of adherence interventions may have a far greater impact on the health of the population than any improvement in specific medical treatment”. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate medication adherence of patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus and counsel them towards improving of quality of life. This was a prospective observational study, conducted over 6 month’s period from December 2015 to June 2016, in a tertiary care hospital. A total 300 patients were studies for the evaluation of their medication adherence and were counselled accordingly. Morisky’s 8 item medication adherence scale was used to measure the adherence of the subjects. After counselling them KAP questionnaire was used to assess the outcome of the counselling. We found that patient counselling played an important role in the patient’s adherence towards medication which resulted in better therapeutic outcome which was noticed from their laboratory parameters. Thus, patient counselling plays a major role in medication adherence and therefore in improvement of quality of life.

23

MONITORING OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS (ADR) IN CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA (CML) PATIENTS TREATED WITH IMATINIB AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

Thanmaya S., Geetha K.M*
College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dayananda Sagar University, Kumaraswamy layout, Bangalore, Karnataka 560078, India.

Abstract

Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and potently inhibits protein tyrosine kinases which include BCR-ABL which is constitutively active in CML. It targets the ATP binding site of receptors. The present investigation was carried out to monitor the adverse reactions of the drug Imatinib mesylate prescribed for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients of different phases. All subjects defined as per the inclusion criteria were included in the study after obtaining the written informed consent. Detailed histories of the patients were gathered by discussions held with the doctors, nurses and the patient attendees. Disease responses were assessed with respect to BCR-ABL. Patients were then checked for the preexisting adverse reactions and were first treated for that before they were included in the study. Later these patients were treated with Tab Imatinib 400 mg once daily. With regular visit and interaction with the patients and by studying the reports, adverse reactions were recorded with the guidance of doctors. Adverse drug reactions (ADR s) of Imatinib were classified based on various criteria viz. gender, phases of CML, age, hematological and non- hematological adverse events and it was observed that there were no significant correlation with age and phases of CML. Out of 83 patients who were included in the study, it was found that CML is more common in males and between the age group of 30-39 yrs. Most of the patients were diagnosed when they were in chronic phase. The common non- hematological adverse effects that were observed was abdominal pain, head ache, GI disturbances etc. and few patients experienced hematological adverse effects such as thrombocytopenia, anemia etc.

24

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL EMULGEL OF LANTANA CAMARA LEAVES EXTRACT FOR WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY IN DIABETIC RATS

Sk. Shaheda Sultana*1, G.Swapna1, G. Sai Sri Lakshmi1, S. Swathi1, G. Nirmala Jyothi1, A. Seetha Devi2
1Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Atmakuru(V), Mangalagiri-522503, Andhra Pradesh.
2Hindu College of Pharmacy, Amaravathi Road, Guntur-522002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The main aim of this work was to formulate the leaf extract of Lantana camara in to an emulgel and investigate their excision wound healing activity in Diabetic rats. Ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Lantana camara were subjected to preliminary phytochemical evaluation. Emulgel formulations were prepared using different types of gelling agents: Carbopol 934, Na CMC, HPMC, HPMC K15M, and HEC. The influence of the type of the gelling agent on the drug release from the prepared emulgel was investigated. The prepared emulgel were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH, Viscosity, Spreadability, in-vitro drug release, pharmacological activity and stability. From the results it was found that the formulation EGF2 with 1%w/w Sodium CMC shows better drug release (92.8% at 8 h) and higher pharmacological activity compared to other formulations. Herbal emulgel of ethanolic extract of Lantana camara shows significant improvement in excision wound contraction and hence this is a promising candidate for wound healing in diabetic rats.

25

IDENTIFICATION OF NATURAL LEAD MOLECULES OF CENTELLA ASIATICA AND AZADIRACHTA INDICA TARGETING CHOLERA TOXIN THROUGH STRUCTURE BASED DRUG DESIGN

Kishore Sarma, Biswajyoti Borkakoty*, Pratap Parida, Sudipta Sankar Bora, P. K. Mohapatra, Dipanakar Biswas, Jagadish Mahanta
Regional Medical Research Centre NE, Indian Council of Medical Research, Post Box. 105, Dibrugarh, 786 001, Assam, India.

Abstract

Vibrio cholerae, the causative organism of cholera infects the small intestine and can lead to death if untreated. Cholera toxin (CT) is primarily responsible for exhibiting the cholera symptoms. Although in numerous study, anticholera activity of Centella asiatica and Azadirachta indica has been evaluated and proved, the active principles and mode of action of active components are still elusive. In order to unveil the active principles of Centella asiatica and Azadirachta indica as potential inhibitor of CT, a ligand library of the reported compounds from these two plants was prepared and was use for molecular docking against three putative drug targets of CT. Progressive knowledge of computer aided drug designing approach was employed to screen out novel lead candidates. Comparative molecular docking analysis inferred that kaempferol 7-O-glucoside flavonol glucoside of Centella asiatica had the highest binding affinity with two of the selected drug targets and third best binding affinity with the third drug target of CT. In silico ADME/Tox profiling showed least toxicity with low bioavailibility. This study suggested that kaempferol 7-O-glucoside has the highest binding affinity with the identified ligandable sites of active CT and may be considered as a candidate inhibitor of CT in the lumen of gastrointestinal tract. Further clinical trials of kaempferol 7-O-glucoside may lead to a candidate drug molecule to fight against cholera infection.

26

DESIGN AND DOCKING STUDY OF SOME (E)-N-(SUBSTITUTED-BENZYLIDENE)-2-(2-CHLORO-4-FLUOROPHENYL) ACETOHYDRAZIDE COMPOUNDS FOR ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY

Ajit Kumar Mishra*1, Neha Singh1, Manju Kumari1, Binita Kumari1, Birendra Kumar1, Divya Mishra2
1Gaya College, Gaya, 823001(Bihar), INDIA.
2Aditya Silver Oak Instititute of Technology, Ahmedabad, INDIA-352353.

Abstract

In this work, we collected the three dimensional structure of Enterotoxin B which plays an important role in staphylococcus pathway. The protein structures were collected from PDB data bank. From the 3D structures of the proteins, the targeted derivatives were designed. Docking studies was performed with designed ligands from the drug. The drug derivatives docked to the protein by hydrogen boding interactions and these interactions play an important role in the binding studies. Docking results showed the best compounds among the derivatives.

27

NOVEL RP-HPLC-PDA METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CHLORPHENIRAMINE MALEATE IN BULK AND DOSAGE FORMS

Ramya.V, Vijaya Lakshmi .M*, Pravallika .M, Buchi N. Nalluri
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, K.V.S.R Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vijayawada-520010, Ap, India.

Abstract

A simple, precise and accurate RP-HPLC-PDA method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Chlorpheniramine Maleate, an antihistaminic in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. It is a synthetic first generation alkylamine developed for the treatment of allergic conditions. Chromatography was carried out on an Inertsil C18 (250 x4.6mm, 5μm) column with a mobile phase combination of 10mM Ammonium Acetate and Acetonitrile in the ratio of 40:60v/v. The detection wavelength was carried out at 220 nm. The flow rate is 1.2 ml/min. The retention time is 5.122 minutes. The linearity was found in the range of 5-25μg/ml (r=0.999) and percent RSD is less than 2. The mean recoveries obtained for Chlorpheniramine Maleate were in the range of 98.77-99.42%. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 0.315μg/ml and 0.949μg/ml. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and can be applied for quality control analysis of Chlorpheniramine Maleate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

28

FATTY ACID BINDING PROTEIN-1 (FABP-1) OF ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS- A PROMISING VACCINE CANDIDATE- AN IN SILICO ANALYSIS

Varun Chauhan1, Gurjeet Kaur2, Naveen2, Kapil Goyal2, Rakesh Sehgal2
1Department of Virology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, Punjab (India)-160012.
2Sophisticated Analytical Instruments Laboratories, Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab (India)- 147004.
3Department of Medical Parasitology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, Punjab (India)-160012.

Abstract

E. granulosus responsible for causing Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a highly pathogenic infection, is causing considerable morbidity and mortality in humans. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins have been suggested to be promising vaccine candidates against several parasitic Platyhelminthes. The present study was thus aimed to identify HLA class I (HLA*A-02:01) restricted T cell epitopes, one of the most common occurring HLA Class I allele in human population, and B cell epitopes by screening of FABP-1 protein of E. granulosus using in-silico approach. The most promising predicted T cell epitopes were docked with HLA-*A 02:01 allele in order to ascertain the binding pattern of the identified peptides and HLA allele. The identified B and T cell epitopes were confirmed by visualizing there locations on the 3D model of FABP-1 protein. We believe that the present study will further help the researchers in better understanding the immune responses generated in an intermediate host in response to FABP protein of the parasite and may provide a platform to facilitate subunit vaccine design.

29

DEVELOPMENT OF VALIDATED SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF BUCLIZINE HYDROCHLORIDE FROM THE TABLET DOSAGE FORM

A. Suganthi*, A. Fathimunnisa, S. Sumithra and T.K. Ravi
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, College of Pharmacy, SRIPMS, Coimbatore-641 044.

Abstract

Buclizine hydrochloride from its tablet dosage form was estimated by developing a novel validated indirect spectrofluorimetric method. Here the Buclizine hydrochloride was derivatized into nitro compound using nitrating mixture with an aid of heat which showed good fluorescence in water at 446 nm after excited at 350 nm. The calibration graph showed linear over the range 200-1000 ng/ml. The assay of buclizine hydrochloride in marketed formulations was found to be 98.96 ± 0.1586. Recovery values were close to 100% with the % RSD values of 0.432% and 0.673% at 50% and 100% level respectively. From the results of validation it was observed that the method was found to be simple, accurate, sensitive and reproducible. Hence the proposed method can be used for routine quality control analysis.

30

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST MOUTH DISSOLVING CHEWABLE TABLET OF ALBENDAZOLE

Dr. O. G. Bhusnure*, Shaikh Faisal Ekbal, Mane Jyoti, Sayyed Sarfaraz Ali, Hucche Bhimashankar, Surkute Ganesh
Department of Pharmaceutics, Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College, Latur, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Fast dissolving tablet format is designed to allow administration of an oral solid dose form in the absence of water or fluid intake. Such tablets readily dissolve or disintegrate in the saliva. Albendazole is anthalmentic agent which is used in disease like worms. As a vermicidal,albendazole causes degenerative alterations in the intestinal cells of the worm by binding to the colchicine-sensitive site of tubulin, thus inhibiting its polymerization or assembly into microtubules. It is a BCS class II drug. It exhibits poor bioavailability of about < 5% which is attributed to its poor solubility. The work was carried out to improve the solubility of albendazoleby direct compression technique and increasing its disintegration time by formulation of fast dissolving tablets by Direct Compression method, with various ratios of Cross povidone and guar gum, as superdisintegrants.Tablets Pre compression parameters e.g. Angle of repose, Bulk density, Tapped density, Carr’s compressibility index and Hauser’s ratio andpost compression parameters like drug content uniformity,hardness,wetting time,friability, Thickness, Disintegration time & In vitro dissolution are evaluated for each formulation and found satisfactory. The formulation of cross providone and guargum disintegrants in the concentration i.e. in F6 batch gives best results. Formulation F6 of guargum and crosspovidone superdisintegrants required minimum disintegration time, wetting timeas compared to formulations of crosspovidone, guargum. So it can be concluded that albendazole can be successfully complexed with sodium starch glycolate prepare fast disintegrating tablet and showed enhanced dissolution rate.

31

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL PHOTO PROTECTIVE CREAM1

Swati D. Deshmukh1*, Santosh S. Surana1, Avish D. Maru1 Nayana Baste2
1Loknete Dr. J.D. Pawar College of Pharmacy, Manur, Tal. Kalwan, Dist. Nashik-423501, Maharashtra, India.
2S.S.D.J. College of Pharmacy, Neminagar, Chandwad, Dist. Nashik-423101, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the polyherbal photoprotective cream comprised of herbs such as Curcuma longa (dried rhizomes), Punica granatum (dried seeds) and Camellia sinensis (dried leaves) with suitable cream base. The formulated cream was evaluated for their photo protective effect by determining the sun protection factor (SPF) on the basis of total phenol content and their antioxidant activity. The SPF of formulated herbal cream was found to be more significant than the SPF of individual extract.

32

DRUG UTILIZATION EVALUATION OF AMINOGLYCOSIDES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL TELANGANA, INDIA

Mohd. Mahmood* K. M. Shahbuddin, Nisma Khan, J. Soumya Lahari, S. Vinitha
Malla Reddy Pharmacy College, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND As drug use evaluation helps the healthcare system to understand, interpret and improve the prescribing, administration and use of medication, the study helps to evaluate the rational use of drug therapy in Aminoglycosides METHODS The study design was prospective and concurrent Drug Utilization Evaluation (DUE) study between February 1, 2015 to October 30, 2015. The study included all patients who received Aminoglycosides during nine months period, which consist of phase I (without intervention for 4 months), and phase II with an educational intervention in the intervening period of next 5 months. The DUE criteria and guidelines for all the drugs included in the study were prepared from standard references and utilized for monitoring the patients based on indication for use, dose, dosage form, duration of therapy, side effects, laboratory testing and drug interaction. The drug use guidelines prepared for selected drugs included in the study and circulated to all medical staff of various departments in hospital. In the study justification of drug use, process indicators and outcome indicators were evaluated. RESULTS The results of the study shown that there was increase in inappropriate indication, inappropriate dosing, drug-drug interaction and adverse drug reaction in Phase I (Before intervention) for the drugs included in the study, where as in Phase II (After intervention) a period of 5 months, study results shown decrease in inappropriateness of drug use for indication, dosing, for the drugs included in study compared to Phase I. Adverse drug reaction and Drug-Drug interactions reduced due to implementation of DUE guidelines and through educational interventions.

33

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPTLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF VALSARTAN IN BULK AND MARKETED FORMULATION

Godiyal Shilpa1*, Nihalani Girish2, Qureshi Rizwan1, Jadhav Kisan1, Kadam Vilasrao1
1Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Mumbai, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Sector-8, C.B.D Belapur, Navi Mumbai, India.
2Actavis Inc., 200 Elmora avenue, Elizabeth,New jersey, USA 07207.

Abstract

A simple, economic, accurate, rapid high performance thin-layer chromatography method has been developed and validated for quantitative estimation of valsartan in bulk and from marketed formulation. The chromatographic separation was carried out on Silica Gel 60 F254 precoated TLC plates using toluene: ethanol: glacial acetic acid (7:3:0.01 v/v) as mobile phase. Detection was carried out densitometrically using UV detector at 251 nm. This system was found to give separation for valsartan with Rf 0.56. The calibration curve was found to be linear between 50 – 300 ng/spot for valsartan with significantly high value of correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.9926). The limits of detection and quantitation were found to be 1.8548 and 5.6206 ng/spot for valsartan. The accuracy was determined by percentage recovery and was found to be 99.41% for valsartan. The developed HPTLC method was validated as per recommendations given by “ICH guidelines Q2 (R1)’’. The developed method was found to be specific, reproducible, selective for estimation of valsartan from bulk and its marketed formulation.

34

ALPHA CYCLODEXTRIN-BASED TRIMETAZIDINE POTENTIOMETRIC SENSORS

Mahmmoud S. Abd-Elmonem1*, Aliaa S. M. Eltantawy1, Elmorsy Khaled2
1National Organization of Drug Control and Research, Cairo, (Egypt).
2Microanalysis Laboratory, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, 12622 Egypt.

Abstract

The construction and performance characteristics of novel trimetazidine (TMZ) solid contact potentiometric sensors were introduced. The cited electrodes are based on alpha cyclodextrin (α-CD) as supramolecular receptors which show selectivity towards TMZ. Electrode matrix compositions were optimized on the basis of effects of type and concentration of the sensing ionophore as well as influence of ionic sites and plasticizers. Sensor incorporated with α-CD, potassium tetrakis (4-chlororophenyl) borate (KTClPB) and 2-fluorophenyl 2-nitrophenyl ether (f-PNPE) as membrane plasticizer showed the highest electroanalytical performances. The fabricated sensors work satisfactorily in the concentration range from 1.0×10-7 to 10-2mol L-1 with cationic Nernstian slope value 34.42± 0.57 mV decade-1 corresponding to trimetazidine dihydrochloride. Fast response times of about 3 s and adequate shelf-life (12 weeks) were achieved. Application of cyclodextrin as a recognition elements improved the selectivity of the fabricated sensors compared with tradition ion-association compounds. The fabricated sensors showed satisfactory sensitivity and selectivity towards trimetazidine and can be introduced as suitable tool for the routine quality control analysis of TMZ in its pharmaceutical under batch and FIA potentiometric measurements. FIA allows the analysis of 70 samples h-1 and offer the advantage of simplicity, accuracy and automation feasibility. Comparison of the obtained results with those provided by reference official method revealed adequate accuracy for control assay.