IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
  • INDEXING
  • PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE
  • Impact Factor Journal
  • Best Paper of January 2020 Issue: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIHYPERTENSIVE ACTIVITY OF PYRIDAZINONE DERIVATIVES Vikash Jakhmola1, Sunil Jawla2, Ravinesh Mishra3, Ranjeet singh1
  • Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19) by World Health Organization(WHO)
APRIL 2020
1

ASSESSMENT OF PREVELANCE OF SELF MEDICATION AMONG PHARMACY STUDENTS

Gikku Mariyam Varghese1*, Deepa Koshy2, Dr.Abel Abraham Thomas3
1Nazareth College of Pharmacy, Othera, Thiruvalla.
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nazareth College of Pharmacy, Othera, Thiruvalla.

BACKGROUND: Self-medication has been defined as the use of medication (modern and/or traditional) for self-treatment without consulting a physician either for diagnosis, prescription, or surveillance of treatment. Self-medication practice offers ease of access to OTC medications at a lower cost, which serves as an alternative to the costly and time-consuming clinical consultations. Safety issues are a major concern as many diseases have similar symptoms. Many studies have revealed that young adults are more vulnerable to the practice of self-medication due to their low perception of risk associated with the use of drugs, knowledge of drugs, easy access to Internet, wider media coverage on related health issues, ready access to drugs, level of education, and social status. Self-medication is significant among the pharmacy students as they are the future custodians of medicines and have a potential role in counselling the patients about the disadvantages and other implications associated with drugs. METHODOLOGY: A prospective observational cross sectional study was conducted in a Pharmacy college located in South India with a sample size of 568. A structured data collection form was used to collect information on demographic parameters including age and sex, accommodation, year of the degree/ PG program, drugs being used as self-medication and it was then analyzed. RESULTS: In the present study 87% of the participants were females. The main source for obtaining medicines was the pharmacy. Alarmingly, about one third of the respondents obtained antibiotics for self-medication without a prescription despite the fact that they were aware of the risk of development of bacterial resistance. The main reasons for self-medication include health problem being not serious, the illness is minor, to get quick relief of the condition and to avoid long waiting at clinics. The most common types of self-medications used by participants include analgesics, vitamins and minerals, antihistamines, etc. 


 


2

ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESCRIPTION PATTERN OF DRUGS USED IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS UNDERGOING HAEMODIALYSIS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

Anina Anil*, Jeni Joseph, Ria Maria Varghese, Stephy Chacko, Mr. B, Dr. Elessy Abraham
Nazareth College of Pharmacy, Othera, Thiruvalla.

BACKGROOUND: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) has emerged as a major public health hazard worldwide accounting for 98.02% increase in death over the last 27 years. All stages of CKD are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity, premature mortality, and/or decreased quality of life. The prevalence of CKD increases with age and will continue to rise, reflecting the growing elderly population. As the prevalence of CKD increases they are at a higher risk for progression into End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis to maintain the patients’ long term survival[1]. The availability and affordability of good quality medicines along with their rational use is crucial for effective management of any disease [2]. This study can illustrate the present scenario of CKD patients in a tertiary care hospital and the prescribing trends of physicians in managing these patients with comorbities and complications. It provides an outline for management strategies and will be influential in health care decision making.The objective of this study was to assess the prescription pattern of drugs used in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing haemodialysis in a tertiary care hospital in India. METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective observational study carried out with 135 chronic kidney disease patients undergoing haemodialysis in the Nephrology department of Muthoot Healthcare Pvt Ltd, Kozhencherry, for a period of 6 months .RESULTS : In our study, it was found that antihypertensives were most commonly prescribed class of drugs (16%) followed by other drugs. A total of 135 patients were included in this study in which 73% were males and 27% were females. Out of total prescribed drugs (1856), the most commonly prescribed were antihypertensive agents (16%), multivitamins (13%), hematinics (11%), diuretics (7.4%), erythropoietin stimulating agents (7.2%). 


 


3

STUDY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT ON DIFFERENT SPECIES OF PLUMERIA – AS HERBAL INDICATOR.

Simran A. Pandey, Dr. Ujwala Dube, Mrs. Suchita Gokhale, Suraj Rajbhar
Ideal College of Pharmacy & Research.
(Affiliated to University of Mumbai, India).

An indicator is a halochromic chemical compound added in small amounts to a solution so the pH of the solution can be determined visually. [1] Hence a pH indicator is a chemical detector for hydronium ions or hydrogen ions in the Arrhenius model. [2][3] As most naturally occurring organic compounds are weak protolyte, carboxylic acid and amines pH indicator find many applications in biology and analysis. The term pH stands for potential hydrogen and is the measurement of how many hydrogen ions symbolized by H+ are in solution. The more ions, the more acidic. A high number of hydroxide ions, symbolize by OH- characterizes basic or alkaline substances. Plumeria (also known as Frangipani) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apocynaceae. Most species are deciduous shrubs or small trees. A single Plumeria tree can produce around 50-60 flowers and grows to a height of 35 feet. In traditional system of medicine of India Plumeria species are widely used as purgative, remedy for diarrhea, cure of itch, bronchitis, cough, asthma, fever, piles, dysentery, blood disorder and tumors.[ 


 


4

BIO ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIADTION FOR THE QUANITIFICATION OF CYTARABINE IN RAT PLASMA BY USING HPTLC

Supriya.Palaparthi*, Syed Afrin, M.Siva Prasad,Rama rao.N
Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guntur

It is a simple, sensitive, rapid and economic chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of cytarabine in rat plasma using standard API. This analytical technique used for development was high performance thin layer chromatography. HPTLC aetron with already coated silica gel plates 60 F 254 (10X10 cm) at 250 nm thickness was used as stationary phase. the mobile phase used consisted of 2-butanone :acetone :water (65:20:15 % v/v/v)[4] the plasma sample were extracted by protein precipitation with methanol concentration ranges of 1000,2000,3000,4000,5000 ng/ml respectively ,were used mixed plasma for the calibration curves .the stability of cytarabine in plasma were confirmed during three freeze-thaw cycles (-20 ºC ) on a bench for 24 hrs and post preparattively for 48 hrs.this method was validated statistically and proved suitable for the determination of cytarabine in rat plasma. 


 


5

IMPACT OF HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE IN COVID-19 AND ITS CLINICAL CONSEDERATIONS IN DRUG USAGE

Dr C.Nithish*, Dr.Vadla Vidyasagar
Departement of Clinical Pharmacy, Care Hospitals, Hyderabad, India.

Background: Current CoVID-19 is a thretening across the Globe.Till now,there is no specific treatment has been proven to be effective for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients were managed with supportive care, such as oxygen supply in mild cases and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the critically ill patients, specific drugs for this disease are still being researched. In this scenario Hydroxychloroquine is Effective for anti-inflammatory agent and also Anti-Viral properties, has been used in COVID-19 Patients.It is showing better clinical outcomes in combination with Azithromycin. But Clinical Monitoring is required for this drug which has been discussed in this article. Objective: To know the mechanism of action of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19. To asses the risk and benefits of hydroxychloroquine therapy in terms of contraindication and adverse effects. Conclusion: Hydroxychloroquine have Anti-Viral Properties that has been used extensively in CoVID-19 and can significantly inhibits the binding of Virion with ACE and decrease the production of cytokines in COVID-19 patients. Although Hydroxychloroquine providing Positive Clinical Outcomes, we must still consider its Contraindications and Adverse effects. 


 


6

DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN OF ANTI DIABETIC DRUGS IN TYPE II DIABETIC PATIENTS IN A TEACHING AND GENERAL HOSPITAL

Mohamed Ahmed, Sheema Baqtiyar, Ruqiya Khanum, Kulsum Fatima, Anees Fatima

Dept.of Pharmacy Practice, Shadan College of Pharmacy, Peerancheru, Hyderabad.

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is defined as abnormal increase in levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that affects how your body turns food into energy. In people with diabetes, blood sugar levels remain high. This may be because insulin is not being produced at all or is not made at sufficient levels, or is not as effective as it should be. The most common forms of diabetes are type 1diabetes (5%), which is an autoimmune disorder, and type 2 diabetes (95%), which is associated with obesity. Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy, and other forms of diabetes are very rare and are caused by a single gene mutation. OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to study the drug utilization pattern of anti-diabetic drugs in diabetic patients. METHOD: A six-month prospective observational study was carried out at Shadan teaching and general hospital, Peerancheru (Hyderabad). The data was collected from the case sheets of in patients and OPD cards of outpatients and critically analyzed using predetermined criteria. RESULTS: Out of 250 patients, 110(44%) patients were males and 140(56%) patients were females. It is observed that diabetes mellitus II is more common in patients of age groups (51-60) years. Pharmacotherapy revealed that 210 (81.6%) patients were treated with monotherapy followed by 34 (14%) patients with 2 drug therapy and 6 (4.4%) patients were prescribed with 3 drug therapy. Metformin was the drug of choice in monotherapy while metformin along with glimepiride was the preferred drug combination used in both 2 drug and 3 drug therapies. The overall drug usages in this study revealed that a total number of 301 drugs were prescribed. Out of which, metformin was most prescribed [128 (42.52%)]. CONCLUSION: Periodic evaluation of drug utilization patterns need to be done to provide suitable medications profile in prescription of drugs to increase the therapeutic benefit and reduce the adverse effects. The study of prescribing patterns require regular monitoring and evaluation and if necessary, suggestion of modification in prescribing pattern of medical practitioners to make medical care rational and cost effective. The current anti diabetic drugs includes insulin preparation and  oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), the preference is given mostly to metformin which is first choice of drug but the other drugs such as human insulin is also prescribed for many patients, also some combinations of (OHA) drugs are also preferred.BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is defined as abnormal increase in levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that affects how your body turns food into energy. In people with diabetes, blood sugar levels remain high. This may be because insulin is not being produced at all or is not made at sufficient levels, or is not as effective as it should be. The most common forms of diabetes are type 1diabetes (5%), which is an autoimmune disorder, and type 2 diabetes (95%), which is associated with obesity. Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy, and other forms of diabetes are very rare and are caused by a single gene mutation. OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to study the drug utilization pattern of anti-diabetic drugs in diabetic patients. METHOD: A six-month prospective observational study was carried out at Shadan teaching and general hospital, Peerancheru (Hyderabad). The data was collected from the case sheets of in patients and OPD cards of outpatients and critically analyzed using predetermined criteria. RESULTS: Out of 250 patients, 110(44%) patients were males and 140(56%) patients were females. It is observed that diabetes mellitus II is more common in patients of age groups (51-60) years. Pharmacotherapy revealed that 210 (81.6%) patients were treated with monotherapy followed by 34 (14%) patients with 2 drug therapy and 6 (4.4%) patients were prescribed with 3 drug therapy. Metformin was the drug of choice in monotherapy while metformin along with glimepiride was the preferred drug combination used in both 2 drug and 3 drug therapies. The overall drug usages in this study revealed that a total number of 301 drugs were prescribed. Out of which, metformin was most prescribed [128 (42.52%)]. CONCLUSION: Periodic evaluation of drug utilization patterns need to be done to provide suitable medications profile in prescription of drugs to increase the therapeutic benefit and reduce the adverse effects. The study of prescribing patterns require regular monitoring and evaluation and if necessary, suggestion of modification in prescribing pattern of medical practitioners to make medical care rational and cost effective. The current anti diabetic drugs includes insulin preparation and  oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), the preference is given mostly to metformin which is first choice of drug but the other drugs such as human insulin is also prescribed for many patients, also some combinations of (OHA) drugs are also preferred.BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is defined as abnormal increase in levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that affects how your body turns food into energy. In people with diabetes, blood sugar levels remain high. This may be because insulin is not being produced at all or is not made at sufficient levels, or is not as effective as it should be. The most common forms of diabetes are type 1diabetes (5%), which is an autoimmune disorder, and type 2 diabetes (95%), which is associated with obesity. Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy, and other forms of diabetes are very rare and are caused by a single gene mutation. OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to study the drug utilization pattern of anti-diabetic drugs in diabetic patients. METHOD: A six-month prospective observational study was carried out at Shadan teaching and general hospital, Peerancheru (Hyderabad). The data was collected from the case sheets of in patients and OPD cards of outpatients and critically analyzed using predetermined criteria. RESULTS: Out of 250 patients, 110(44%) patients were males and 140(56%) patients were females. It is observed that diabetes mellitus II is more common in patients of age groups (51-60) years. Pharmacotherapy revealed that 210 (81.6%) patients were treated with monotherapy followed by 34 (14%) patients with 2 drug therapy and 6 (4.4%) patients were prescribed with 3 drug therapy. Metformin was the drug of choice in monotherapy while metformin along with glimepiride was the preferred drug combination used in both 2 drug and 3 drug therapies. The overall drug usages in this study revealed that a total number of 301 drugs were prescribed. Out of which, metformin was most prescribed [128 (42.52%)]. CONCLUSION: Periodic evaluation of drug utilization patterns need to be done to provide suitable medications profile in prescription of drugs to increase the therapeutic benefit and reduce the adverse effects. The study of prescribing patterns require regular monitoring and evaluation and if necessary, suggestion of modification in prescribing pattern of medical practitioners to make medical care rational and cost effective. The current anti diabetic drugs includes insulin preparation and  oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), the preference is given mostly to metformin which is first choice of drug but the other drugs such as human insulin is also prescribed for many patients, also some combinations of (OHA) drugs are also preferred.




7

NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY ON ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE : AN OVERVIEW OF PATHOGENESIS AND DIFFERENT TREATMENT APPROACHES

AHMED M*, SANA. SS, HAFIZA BS, SABA MK

Dept. of Pharmacy Practice, Shadan College of Pharmacy.

The article summarizes about the common neuropsychological disorder i.e. Alzheimer’s disease. AD is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with Alzheimer’s symptoms first appear in their mid-60s. The article also deals with pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease using different hypothesis. It also deals with different diagnostic methods used to diagnose it and different therapies used for the treatment of the disease.




8

REVIEW ON: PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG REGULATORY AFFAIRS & REGULATORY REQUIREMENT FOR DRUG’S APPROVAL IN INDIA, US & EUROPE MARKET

Suthar Narayan*, Agarwal Gourav
Ocean College/Ocean Edu Academy, Anadara Choraha (Circle), Rampura Road, Sirohi (307001).

A Drug regulatory approval process, by which a person/organization/sponsor/innovator gets authorization to launch a drug in the market, is known as drug approval process. Drug Regulatory affairs (DRA) is a dynamic, rewarding field that includes both scientific and legal aspects of drug development. DRA department involved in critical roles in a pharmaceutical industry because it is concern about the healthcare product lifecycle, provide strategic, tactical and operational direction and support for working within regulations to expedite the development and delivery of safe and effective healthcare products to individuals around the world. All Countries have their own regulatory authority, which play role in for enforcing the rules and regulations and issue the guidelines to regulate drug development process, licensing, registration, manufacturing, marketing, labeling and the product life cycle of pharmaceutical products. The approval time in all the countries is almost the same 12 to 18 months with their different approval charges. In this article we focus on the Drug Regulatory affairs, drug approval process and regulatory requirements according to Central Drug Standard Control Organization (CDSCO), US Food & Drug Administration (USFDA), and EMEA, CHMP & NATIONAL HEALTH AGENCY. 


 


9

STUDY TO COMBAT ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE WITH STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM

Faaria Siddiqui*1, M. Crystal Nissy1, Ruba Sana1, Dr. Anupama Koneru1, Ms. Khwaja Amtul Raouf Qazi1, Dr. Uma Sreedevi2
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Sultan-Ul-Uloom College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
2Aster Prime Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Background: The global antimicrobial resistance burden is growing and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in both clinical and community settings. The spread of antibiotic resistance to different environmental niches and the emergence of superbugs complicate the control strategies even further. International, national, and local approaches to antimicrobial resistance management and prevention have been suggested. To combat antimicrobial resistance, a multidisciplinary, collaborative, regulatory approach is needed. Aim: The aim of this study is to highlight the use of antimicrobial stewardship which helps us achieve optimal outcome of the infection with minimizing toxicity, reducing costs and limiting microbial resistance throughout the rational use of antibiotics. Stewardship strategies are discussed, and a strategy is developed for implementing a stewardship program. Objectives:To assess the Prescription pattern in infectious diseases. To monitor the clinical outcomes in patients treated with different antimicrobial therapies in infectious diseases. To analyse the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of common microorganisms. Evaluation of the rational and irrational use of drugs. De-escalation of antimicrobial therapy (stewardship program) Methods: This is a prospective observational study that was conducted to assess antibiotic therapy and its clinical outcomes in infectious diseases over a period of six months using designed data collection form as a tool. Results: Of the 150 patients analysed over a period of six months, it was observed that, for the antibiotics prescribed by the hospital physicians, only 43% of antibiotics were observed to be rational while 57% were irrational. Conclusion: Our results show that the choices of antibiotics only occasionally comply with the ICMR and NCDC guidelines for the management of infectious patients. We therefore concluded that irrationality in prescribing was more prominent and therefore implementation of Antibiotic Stewardship Program is essential.