IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
  • INDEXING
  • PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE
  • Impact Factor Journal
AUGUST 2015
1

SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF IMINE LINKED THIADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

Shavkar Sharada Devi, Hemalatha Sattu*

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sarojini Naidu Vanitha Pharmacy Maha Vidyalaya, Battukamakunta, Tarnaka, Hyderabad– 500017, India.

Abstract

Thiadiazole is a five membered heterocyclic moiety having wide applications in medicinal chemistry. Schiff bases are an interesting moiety useful in the development of chemotherapeutic agents. As part of the project a series of 1,3,4 thiadiazole derivatives bearing schiff bases were synthesized using various aromatic and heterocyclic aldehydes. Software’s like molsoft, molinspiration, OSIRIS were used to predict toxicity and pharmacokinetic properties. The derivatives were screened for anti-bacterial, anti-fungal (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pencillium Chrysogenum) activity by agar-cup plate method and anti-oxidant activity by DPPH method. Compounds 4a, 4c showed potent activity compared to ofloxacin as the reference antibacterial drug, 4d showed equipotent activity compared to fluconazole as the reference antifungal drug, compound 4f showed potent antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 0.09μg/ml.

2

IN SILICO DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FURAN BASED HYDRAZONE

G Sivudu*, Dr Y Siva Rami Reddy, L. Siva Shankar Reddy1, Thangavelu Rajkumar2, Lavnya, Navya

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Creative Educational Society’s College of Pharmacy, Chinnatekure, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Hydrazones constitute an important class of biologically active drug molecules for new drug development. These compounds have attracted the attention of medicinal chemists due to their wide range of biological activities. These compounds are being synthesized ass drugs in order to combat diseases with minimal toxic effects and maximal efficacy. Hydrazones are of wide interest because of their diverse biological applications such as antimicrobial, anti-mycobacterial anti-convulsant , antidepressant analgesic anti-inflamatory , anti-platelet , antimalarial , anti-diabatic and trupanocidal activities. 2-Acetyl furan was reacted with different substituted aldehyde in the presence of 40 % KOHsolution as catalyst to yield chalcone derivatives. The chalcone derivatives are then subjected for the synthesis of hydrazones using 2, 4-Dinitrophenyl hydrazine. The structure was proposed based on IR spectral data. Anti-tubercular activity Anti-microbial and Anthelmentic activity was performed for the synthesized compounds by using MABA method for anti-tuberculosis activity. All the synthesized hydrazones were found to be sensitive against mycobacterium tuberculosis at 50 μg/ml. anti-microbial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria at 1000μg/ml and 500μg/ml. Anthelmintic activity of the synthesized compounds has been performed by using earth worms. Albendazole is used as standard and water as control. Hydrazones is also having antimicrobial activity.

3

ETHNOBOTANICAL AND PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL UPDATES ON DIDYMOCARPUS PEDICELLATA

Parveen Kumar Goyal1, Santosh Kumar Verma2, Ikshit Sharma3, Anil Sharma4, Anil Kumar Sharma*2

1Hindu College of Pharmacy, Sonepat (Haryana), India.

2CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jalandhar (Punjab), India.

3R&D Deptt., Aimil Pharmaceuticals (India) Ltd., New Delhi, India.

4Shri Krishna Govt. Ayurvedic College & Hospital, Kurukshetra (Haryana), India.

 Abstract

From the beginning of time, treatment using herbal drugs has been a favourite tool of naturopathically inspired practitioners; and medical history is filled with descriptions of persons who used herbs as medicine for wellbeing of society. According to World Health Organization, traditional medicines are the synthesis of therapeutic experiences of generations of practicing physicians of indigenous systems of medicine for over hundreds of years before the development and spread of modern medicine. Herbs are the major and common element in many indigenous, traditional and alternative systems of medicine like Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathic, Naturopathic etc. Herbs, since the dawn of mankind to till date, are being used as potent medicine but except than a handful, most of are not scientifically substantiated and well explored. One such herbal drug Didymocarpus pedicellata (Family: Gesneriaceae), traditionally used in renal disorders chiefly urolithiasis and having not so much scientific substantiations, is selected for study and hereby reviewed. This review is aimed to focus and compile the research work of various researchers on this drug and other data including vernacular names, taxonomy, botanical descriptions, traditional uses, pharmacological activities, chemical constituents, marketed formulation etc. This manuscript shall be of immense help to researchers interested in any aspects of research on this plant.

4

CHIRAL RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ENANTIOMERIC SEPARATION OF MEBEVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN FORMULATIONS

K.R. Senthil Kumar1, S.N. Meyyanathan1*, B.Gowramma2

1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, JSS College of Pharmacy, Udhagamandalam, Nilgiris-643001 Tamilnadu, India.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, Udhagamandalam, Nilgiris-643001 Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

An enantiomeric separation of reverse phase liquid chromatographic method for determination of enantiomers of mebeverine hydrochloride in bulk drugs and pharmaceuticals using UV detectors has been developed and validated as per ICH guidelines. Baseline separation with resolution less than 2.0 was achieved on a phenomenex® lux cellulose 1 (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d, 5 μm particle size) stationary phase in an isocratic elution mode. The mobile phase consisting of 0.1% diethyl amine in methanol, 20mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH: 4.6) adjusted with trifluroacetic acid and 0.1% diethyl amine in isopropyl alcohol in the ratio of 55:15:30 (v/v/v) with a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min and UV detection was carried out at 219 nm. The described method was linear over the range of 56 – 84 μg/ml for (-)-mebeverine and 52 – 78 μg/ml for (+)-mebeverine respectively. The mebeverine enantiomers were well resolved with mean retention times of about 11 and 13 min. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to precision, accuracy, specificity, linearity, robustness and system suitability. The validated RP-HPLC method is suitable for analysis of mebeverine enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulation and quality control analysis.

5

EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF CORDIA SEBESTENA L. ROOTS

M. Himaja Trivedi*1, K. Venkata Ramana2, Ch. V. Rao3*

1University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Acharya Nagarjuna University.

2A.S.N. Pharmacy College, Burripalem Road, TENALI - 522201, Andhra Pradesh.

3National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow - 226001, Uttar Pradesh.

Abstract

Cordia sebestena L is also known as Geiger – Tree. It is a rounded, evergreen tree belongs to Boraginaceae family. It grows up to 25 feet with an equal spread. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the anti inflammatory and analgesic activities of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Cordia sebestena L. root. Anti inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema in rats at the doses of 100mg/kg & 200 mg/kg. Tail-flick method was used to evaluate the analgesic activity at the doses of 100mg/kg & 200 mg/kg. Anti inflammatory and analgesic activities was observed in the above models as compared to control and standard. The present studies suggest that, Cordia sebestena roots possess anti- inflammatory and analgesic activities.

6

EVALUATIONS OF AUTOCLAVE FOR MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION

Kamaljeet1*, Devinder Kaur2, Abhimanyu3, Dr K. N. Dubey1

1Jan Nayak Ch. Devi Lal Dental College, Sirsa, Haryana, India.

2Shri Guru Gobind Singh College of Pharmacy, Sector 26 Chandigarh, India.

3PDM Dental College & Research Institute, Bahadurgarh, Haryana, India.

Abstract

Sterilization plays an important role in the chore of providing quality care to the patients. Therefore, it is significant for the health care workers to understand the significance of proper sterilization. Keeping the importance of proper monitoring and sterilization process in the Hospital, it was planned to check the effectiveness of autoclave by multiple parameters. The study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology in teamwork with Central sterilization Supply Department (CSSD) of Jan Nayak Ch Devi Lal Dental College, Sirsa. The sterilization was monitoring aqurding to Health Technical Memorandum No-10. It included the monitoring of autoclaves in CSSD by physical, chemical and biological. The study was carried out for 10 months. Chemical and physical monitoring of autoclaves was done daily and the biological monitoring of autoclave was done 2 times in a month. For physical monitoring pressure and temperature gauzes were monitored and records were maintained in log book. In case of chemical indicators Browne’s tubes and self adhesive autoclave tapes were used. Spore strip of B. stearothermophilus used as biological indicator. Out of total 20 tests 3 (15%) were failed and 17 (85%) were passed showed that the sterilization was efficient. So the results of biological controls were in variance with the physical and chemical controls with the former detecting 15% failure and the later detecting none. The study provided the estimate that the monitoring of autoclaves should be carried out daily. Biological monitoring should be done for proper monitoring of autoclave because chemical indicators only shows that the Sterilization process is complete, but biological indicator shows that the sterilization is effective, satisfactory and up to the desired level.

7

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NEW ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF EPIGALLOCATECHIN GALLATE AND ROSUVASTATIN CALCIUM IN A PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Ramkumar Ponnuraj1, Janakiraman K1, Sivaraman Gopalakrishnan2, Senthilnathan Karuppaiyan2, Meganathan V2, Arunkumar Arumugam2

1Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram, 608002, India.

2Apex Laboratories Private Limited, Alathur, Kanchipuram, 603110, India.

Abstract

A precise method (in accordance with ICH guidelines) is developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of Epigallocatechin gallate and Rosuvastatin Calcium in a combined pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was based on Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography separation of the two drugs using 0.04M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer: Acetonitrile: Methanol (45:25:30, v/v), pH 3.0, as a mobile phase. Areas were recorded at 245 nm for both the drugs and retention time was found to be 0.238 min and 0.753 min for Epigallocatechin gallate and Rosuvastatin Calcium, respectively at 1.0 mL min-1 flow rate. The selected chromatographic conditions were found to determine Epigallocatechin gallate and Rosuvastatin Calcium quantitatively in a combined dosage form without any physical separation. The method has been validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. Linearity was found over the range of 200-300 μg ml-1 and 4-6 μg ml-1 for Epigallocatechin gallate and Rosuvastatin Calcium respectively. The proposed method was found to be fast, accurate, precise, reproducible and rugged and can be used for a simultaneous analysis of these drugs in combined formulations.

8

PERSONALIZED MEDICINE- A BOON FOR TREATING RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

Humeera Rafeeq*, Talath Fatima, Afiya Ansari, Mohd Anwar, Dr. Osman Ahmed

Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad –01, T.S.

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis is a severe inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Synovial tissue is histologically examined which acts as evident for Rheumatoid arthritis disease diverseness. A genetic variation in human leukocyte antigen was considered to be the most threatening factor for treating rheumatoid arthritis. GREES(Group for the respect of ethics and excellence in science)- including members from industrial, academic and regulatory bodies held meeting and aimed for the development of a strategy for defining process essential for models prediction and tool generation for clinical practice in essential decision making for the Rheumatoid arthritis trials. The present report issued by GREES (Group for the respect of ethics and excellence in science)- focuses on designing of personalized medicines to achieve success in Rheumatoid arthritis treatment. Personalized medicine can be defined as a form of drug which involves the usage of information related to an individual’s proteins, genetic material and environmental factors for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of a particular disease. Personalized medicine can be improved by factors like adding biomarkers, studying genetic variation, drug metabolism, epigenetic variations and health factors. Certain biomarkers and genomics are helpful for efficient personalized therapy. Peripheral blood, readily available biosample can acts as an ideal biomarker. On the basis of targeted biomarker, drug trials are been carried. By the application of these aspects, affected tissue can be accessed. Targeted and non-targeted biomarkers help in discovering the novel pathways for the reliable usage of personalized medicines in the effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

9

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF CARVEDILOL, GLIMEPIRIDE OR GLIBENCLAMIDE IN BINARY COMBINATIONS; AND ITS APPLICATION FOR IN VITRO - INTERACTION STUDIES

Magda M. Ibrahim

Department of Analytical Chemistry, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract

Coadministration of antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs is quite common, as both of these medical conditions often occur together. In the present work, a simple and accurate RP-HPLC chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the antihypertensive drug carvedilol (CRV) and the hypoglycemic agent glimepiride (GMP) or glibenclamide (GBD). This study was carried out using an isocratic reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method using a C18 column with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm. The system was operated at flow rate of 1 mL/ min using a mobile phase consisting of 70:30 v/v methanol: 0.2M phosphate buffer (pH 3.5) and column temperature adjusted to 30 oC. The developed RP-HPLC method has been successfully applied for the estimation of carvedilol and glimepiride or glibenclamide in their binary combination laboratory prepared tablets with assay percent range 99.49- 99.95 % and relative standard deviation less than 1% indicating satisfactory accuracy of the method. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines; the linearity range is 2-75 μg/mL for CRV and 5-300 μg/mL for each GMP and GBD; precision, accuracy, robustness, ruggedness, specificity, LOD and LOQ were also evaluated. The RP-HPLC method was also applied in investigating the possible in vitro drug interactions of carvedilol and glimepiride or glibenclamide. This study was carried out at 37oC in simulated gastric juice pH 1 or simulated blood pH (pH 7.4). It was observed that after interaction of carvedilol with glimperide or glibenclamide, the % availability values of the two antidiabetics were decreased, by about 10 and 20% for glibenclamide and glimepiride, respectively. In vivo pharmacological studies were recommended, which can help with the in vitro study in the improvement of clinical efficacy of the coadministered drugs. The developed RP-HPLC method is rapid, sensitive and accurate and can be applied in quality control laboratories for routine determination of carvedilol, glimepiride or glibenclamide in their binary mixtures, and also it can be applied to samples of in vivo subjects.

10

AN ECONOMICAL STABILITY INDICATING RP HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF OFLOXACIN AND TINIDAZOLE

Ceema Mathew1,2, M. Ajitha2, P. R. Sathesh Babu1

1Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy,Osmania University, Bachupally, Hyderabad-90, India.

2Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad - 85, India.

Abstract

The present manuscript describes the development of a simple, economical and LC-MS compatible stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the simultaneous analysis of ofloxacin (OFL) and tinidazole (TNZ) under different stresss conditons as specified by ICH. For the analysis, an isocratic method was chosen which used Phenomenex (250 x 4.6mm, 5μm particle size) ODS column and a SPD 20 A UV detector set at 298 nm. The mobile phase is a combination of organic phase and aqueous phase, where the former is a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile in the ratio of 3 : 7 and the latter is 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid solution (pH adjusted to 3.5 with dil ammonia solution). The ratio of aqueous and organic phase was 80 : 20, at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min-1.The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2 = 0.9998 for OFL in the linearity range of 10 – 60 μg mL-1 and r2 = 0.9996 for TNZ and the linearity range is 15 – 90 μg mL-1. The assay results were found tobe in the range of 98.35 – 100.71% and 99.81-101.35% respectively for OFL and TNZ.The recovery level of OFL and TNZ was found to be in the range of 97.57–104.37% for the two formulations analysed and the %RSD was found to be < 2.0%. The stress degradation studies were performed using acid, alkali, water, hydrogen peroxide, uv light and heat. Since there is no coelution of the degradation products’ peaks with the drug peaks, it can be employed as a stability indicating method.Further the structure of the degradants can be studied by LC-MS,as the optimised mobile phase is LC-MS compatible.

11

“PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF LAGINARIA SICERARIA FRUIT POWDER ON GONADAL MORPHOLOGY AND TESTOSTERONE HORMONE IN MALE WISTAR RATS”

Karle P.P.1, H.V Chauhan2

1Assistant professor, Department of Pharmacology, SSS, Indira College of pharmacy, Nanded [MS], India.431606.

2Assistant professor, Department of pharmacology, Sudhakarrao Naik Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad [MS], India.

Abstract

The LSFP is administered for 08 weeks to see the changes in gonadal morphology and serum testosterone level of male Wistar rats received 300, 500 and 1000 mgkg-1 body weight of the LSFP. Material and methods: male Wistar rats [180–220 g] were divided into four groups. Grp. I: control, Grp. II: low dose [300 mg/kg], Grp. III: medium dose [500 mg/kg.]Grp. IV: higher dose [1000 mg/kg].Such doses of LSFP suspended in gum acacia [2%] were administered orally for 08 weeks. On the last day blood samples were withdrawn by retro-orbital puncture method for estimation of serum testosterone hormone level. Gonadal morphology of testis was performed for any changes. Control group findings were compared with higher dose treatment groups. Results: Serum testosterone level was significantly reduced in 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg LSFP dose as compared with control group male rats, which was evidenced in reduced testicular morphology.

12

NASAL DRUG DELIVERY – REVIEW

Hargurpreet Kaur, Charanjeet Singh, G.D.Gupta

Department of Pharmaceutics, Amar Saheed Baba Ajit Singh Jujhar Singh Memorial College of Pharmacy, Bela, Ropar (Punjab).

Abstract

Intranasal drug delivery – which has been practiced for thousands of years, has been given a new lease of life. It is a useful delivery method for drugs that are active in low doses and show no minimal oral bioavailability such as proteins and peptides. One of the reasons for the low degree of absorption of peptides and proteins via the nasal route is rapid movement away from the absorption site in the nasal cavity due to the Mucociliary clearance mechanism. The nasal route circumvents hepatic first pass elimination associated with the oral delivery: it is easily accessible and suitable for self-medication. The large surface area of the nasal mucosa affords a rapid onset of therapeutic effect, potential for direct-to-central nervous system delivery, no first-pass metabolism, and non-invasiveness; all of which may maximize patient convenience, comfort, and compliance. Intranasal delivery is non-invasive, essentially painless, does not require sterile preparation, and is easily and readily administered by the patient or a physician, e.g., in an emergency setting. This review sets out to discuss some factors affecting nasal absorption, bio-availability barriers, and strategies to improve nasal absorption.

13

EFFECT OF SEEDS OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA ON MITOCHONDRIAL ENERGY PRODUCTION IN ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTED RATS

R. Dhevi1*, V. Elango2

1Research Scholar, Department of Siddha Medicine, Tamil University, Thanjavur, TN, India.

2Assistant Professor, Department of Siddha Medicine, Tamil University, Thanjavur, TN, India.

Abstract

Mitochondria play a central role in molecular events leading to tissue damage in ischemia. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of pretreatment with Spermacoce hispida seed extract on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in heart mitochondrial function in experimental rats. Two different doses of the seed extract such as 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was used to prove the cardioprotective effect against 100mg/kg body weight of isoproterenol (ISO) which was administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 hours. ISO induced cardiotoxicity caused a significant decrease in the activities of TCA cycle enzymes such as Isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), Malate Dehydrogenase(MDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), NADH dehydrogenase and Cytochrome-C-oxidase in heart mitochondria in rat model. Pretreatment with Spermacoce hispida seed extract attenuated these mitochondrial alterations and restored the TCA cycle enzyme activities to near normal values. The present findings indicate that the protective effect of seeds of Spermacoce hispida can be attributed to the activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. The plant may have important implication for future therapeutic approaches involving in the prevention of coronary heart disease. This study identifies the membrane protective action of HAE pre treatment.

14

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORAL FAST DISSOLVING FILMS OF PROMETHAZINE THEOCLATE (25MG)

Kiran Goutam, Rajeev Garg, Ajay Sharma, Ajay Singh, Pooja Sharma, Shriya Kaushal

Department of Pharmaceutical Research Divison, ASBASJSM College of Pharmacy, BELA (Ropar), Punjab 140111 India.

 Abstract

The aim of the research work was to formulate and evaluate Promethazine Theoclate oral fast dissolving films that offers a suitable approach for the treatment and management of nausea and vomiting. Promethazine Theoclate is an antihistamine H1 receptor antagonist. It is primarily an antihistamine with additional sedative and antiemetic actions. Twelve formulation of oral fast dissolving film of Promethazine Theoclate such as F1 to F12 were prepared by solvent casting method. The drug polymer compatibility was ruled out by FTIR studies. FTIR study revealed no interaction between the drug and excipients. A number of polymer such as PVA, HPMC, HPMC-K15, HPMC-E50 were employed as film formers for the preparation of oral fast dissolving films. All prepared films was evaluated for its weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, In-vitro disintegration time, drug content, surface pH measurement, Moisture loss studies. The physical appearance was found to be good and shows that films were transparent with smooth surface without any scratches. The folding endurance was found to vary between 29±3 to 70±4 folds indicating that films have good flexibility. In-vitro drug release for Promethazine Theoclate of all the formulations F1 to F12 was carried out using phosphate buffer PH 6.8 as dissolution media. Among the all formulations F7 was selected as the best formulation. Formulation F7 have shown (95.18%) maximum drug release at the end of 135 sec. F7 was found to be stable at (30ºC/65%RH) and (40ºC/75%RH) which was confirmed by FTIR study.

15

CERVICAL SPONDYLOSIS - CAUSES AND REMEDIAL MEASURES P.

P. Ravisankar*1, K. Manjusha1, V. Laya Sri1, K. Rajya Lakshmi1, B. Vijay Kumar1, P. Pragna2, K. Avinash Kumar1, P. Srinivasa Babu1

1Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, Guntur (Dist.) - 522213, Andhra Pradesh State, India.

2Malla Reddy Medical College for Women, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad-500055, Telangana State, India.

Abstract

Day by day the number of people with the ailment of cervical spondylosis otherwise known as cervical osteoarthritis which is a disorder of abnormal wear and tear on the cartilage and bones called cervical vertebrae of the neck has been increasing alarmingly. More or less, less than 25 % of people below 40 years of age are facing Cervical Spondylosis [1] and about 60 % or above the age of 40 are affected by this disease. Although the role of genetics is yet to be confirmed, people with above 50 years of age who experience the condition, are more likely prone to normal or mild conditions of Cervical Spondylosis. At the age of 50, 50 % out of them suffering from cervical spondylosis and at the age of 75, 70 % out of them are the suffers with neck pain and stiffness. At the age of 60, most women and men are getting signs and symptoms of cervical spondylosis. A close examination of X-ray findings evidently show that 90 % of men older than 50 years and 90 % of women older than 60 years are getting degenerative changes in the cervical spine which causes cervical spondolysis. It also evidently shows that the condition is existing in more than 90 percent of the people over the age of 65. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is the most common cause of nontraumatic spastic paraparesis and quadriparesis and as per reports that 23.6 % of patients suffering with myelopathic symptoms. Around 1 in 10 people develop long-lasting chronic pain. Out of the people suffering from neck pain nearly 75 % with radiculopathy and 50 % with myelopathy get relief by way of therapy alone. For the remaining people suffering from radiculopathy and or myelopathy 70 to 80 percent of patients get relief with surgery. Physical exercise, meditation and yoga and less fat and vegetarian diet plays prominent role in decreasing the cervical spondylosis and to keep up bones and joints in a healthy condition and can prevent the advancement of neck and shoulder pain and the demineralization of bones.

16

NANOSUSPENSION –BOON TO SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY

Afshan Meherose*, Md. Irfan Zakir Omer, Tasleem

Deccan School of Pharmacy, Darussalam-Hyderabad-500001, Telangana State.

Abstract

Nanotechnology is a boon to the science field comprising of nanoemulsions, nanosuspensions, nanocapsules, etc as various formulations. The solubility issue of many drugs belonging to Class II of BCS system has been a great concern since years and due to their poor solubility these drugs were restricted for their use in various formulations. With the advent of nanotechnology, which basically follows the principle of reduction of particle size to submicron level the dissolution profile of many drugs have been altered. Nanosuspensions are defined as colloidal dispersions of drug particles in the vehicle, with particle size ranging from 1 – 1000 nm. Nanosuspensions are far more advantageous over other dosage forms in providing the therapeutic action within a short span and utilizing small concentration of drug therefore reducing unwanted side effects. The present review article describes the preparation methods, formulation, characterization and applications of Nanosuspensions through different routes of administration.

17

FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF GLIPIZIDE CONTAINING FLOATING MICROSPHERE

Dheerendra Singh Rathore1*, Ashish Dixit2, Virendra Sharma3, Ramakant Joshi1, Pankaj Sharma1, Deepesh Parashar3, Sarvesh Bhargava1

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Shri Ramnath Singh Institute of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh.

2Associate Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Shri Ramnath Singh Institute of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh.

3Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shri Ramnath Singh Institute of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh.

Abstract

The aim of the present study is to develop floating microspheres of Glipizide, an oral rapid- and short-acting anti-diabetic drug from the sulfonylurea class. Glipizide is rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Single unit dosage form of Glipizide causes gastric irritation and when converted to multiple unit dosage like microspheres causes no gastric irritation and maintains a constant drug concentration in the blood plasma for a longer period of time as glipizide is rapidly absorbed and eliminated from the body. Preformulation studies like identification tests, solubility analysis, melting point determination, compatibility studies and evaluation of formulation blend are determined by suitable methods. Floating microspheres of Glipizide were prepared by employing polymers like ethylcellulose, poly vinyl alcohol and solvents like methanol, dichloromethane and tween80. Floating microspheres are evaluated for drug entrapment efficiency, particle size by microscopic method, shape and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy, in vitro drug release studies. Results: The floating microspheres were evaluated for angle of repose, particle size, percentage yield, in vitro buoyancy, incorporation efficiency, drug polymer compatibility (IR study), scanning electron microscopy, drug release and DSC(Differential Scanning colorimetry), of microspheres. Results show that as the concentration of polymer increases, the particle size, percentage yield, in vitro buoyancy and drug release from microspheres varies. Percentage drug release at the end of 12 hrs was found to be 91%. Microspheres that are prepared by HPMC exhibited excellent Micromeritic properties, percentage yield, in vitro buoyancy, incorporation efficiency and percentage drug release when compared to HPMC and Ethyl Cellulose polymer. Results clearly indicate that floating microspheres of Glipizide offers a suitable, practical approach to achieve a prolonged gastric residence time and continuous release of the medication over an extended period of time thus oral bioavailability of the drug and subsequent efficacy is improved.

18

PROGRESS IN THE TREATMENT OF NEUROBLASTOMA

Humeera Rafeeq*, Dr. Osman Ahmed, Mohd Abdul Khaleq, Samee Ansari, Amer Mahboob

Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad –01, T.S.

Abstract

The most common solid tumor of extra cranial in infancy, referred as neuroblastoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultra sound, computerized tomography scans, mIBG scan, biopsy and test for urine are used to diagnose neuroblastoma. Treatment at the younger age is beneficial because the spread of neuroblastoma cells is limited to particular part of the body. On the basis of stage of neuroblastoma before surgical removal, the tumor is shrinked chemotherapeutically. Radiotherapy is followed in certain cases for killing the left off cancer cells. About 50% of neuroblastoma is aggressive in nature and the cancer may return back despite of treating it intensively, in such cases further treatment is required. 2005-2010- The current randomization includes Metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy (mIBG).. The main factor for the determination of risk group is the stage of neuroblastoma. Age, histology and biology of tumor are considered as secondary factors for risk group determination. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) does not completely cure neuroblastoma but is able to gain control to provide possible disease stabilization. A more highly radioactive MIBG is also used for treating advanced neuroblastoma in some children’s along with various other treatments. This therapy is also used for the treatment of refractory/ relapsed neuroblastoma. Studies were conducted and it was observed that 30-40% patients with relapsed neuroblastoma gave a positive response to mIBG therapy. I-131-MIBG acts as an active agent in treating neuroblastoma patients. No serious side effect is been noticed. Combination of MIBG along with other radio labeled agents as a component of clinical trials, such as chemotherapy to find out if these further combinations can improve cure rates.

19

A REVIEW - PROGRESS IN THE TREATMENT OF NON SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER (NSCLC) IN A NEW ERA OF PERSONALISED MEDICINE

Talath Fatima*, Osman Ahmed, Amer Mahboob, Afiya Ansari, Amatullah Fathimah
Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad-01, Telangana.

Abstract

Lung Cancer is the major cause of death all over the world. Statistically, China skilled substantial elevation in the rate of cigarette smokers since past twenty years and a pinnacle in lung carcinoma are further anticipated. Globally, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer reports around 85% of cases of all pulmonary carcinomas. To ascertain the suitable treatment for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, exact staging with the help of computed tomography is very important. Practically, surgery would be the only reconcilable alternative for the cure. Although, 70-80% of the cases of lung cancers at the time of presentation itself develop metastases which are determined during the diagnosis. Personalized Medicine is the prominent practice of medicine that employs the patient’s genetic profile for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Current proceedings in knowing the signaling pathways for cancerous cells and the affinity in these pathways, the significance of biomarkers and different receptors, and the interaction of various cancer promoting genes have assisted in progress of various targeted therapies enhancing the safety and efficacy. This boosts up the patient’s attribute of life. The treatments are focused at genetic adjustments in cancerous cells. Several NSCLC subtypes are related to targetable biomarkers like alteration of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor or EGFR, the existence of EML-4 and ALK fusion genes, ALK rearrangements or KRAS. The hostility to therapies is enhanced by the C-Met over expression or amplification. The purpose of this context is the treatment of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) by the targeted therapies or personalized medicine.

20

A STUDY OF ASSESSMENT OF MOBILE PHONE DEPENDENCE AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS IN TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Dr. R. Venkata Ramudu1, RamyaRaj2, Dr. M. Purushothaman3, K. Gowtham Reddy3, P. Venkata Ramana3
1M.D, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, India.
2M.B.B.S, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, India.
3P.Ramireddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, India.

Abstract

Now a days, Most of the people are dependent on cell phones as they became a major part of our culture & a key of communication. Indian market has emerged as the second-largest market after China for mobile phone handsets. People tends to be anxious while being out of mobile phone contact i.e., being out of network area/has run out of battery or balance/even worse when lose their mobiles which adversely affects the concentration level of persons. Our study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of nomophobia in the Indian scenario considering the tremendous increase in the number of mobile phone users in the past days. The present study was a Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted amongst 377 M.B.B.S. students from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa. Sample size was calculated on the basis of pilot study. Initially, students from dissimilar batches using mobile phone for more than one-year duration for at least 1-2 h per day. Except 1st year student all other students met the above inclusion criteria as they started using mobiles since then. A questionnaire designed on the lines of one developed by Dr. Marcus L. Raine was used to study mobile phone dependence among the study subjects. Out of the entire study group, the students having Nomophobic score >35 was 22.3% of which 65.47% were Males, 34.52% were females. Prevalence of Nomophobia was 14% among 2nd yr students, 23% among 3rd yr students, 23.36% among 4th yr students, 34.4% among Interns.(p<0.05).Students at risk of nomophobia (score-30-34) were observed to be 31.3% of which 51.2% were 2nd yr students. In reality these results give an alarming indication that as days goes by the youth is getting more and more dependent on mobile phones, which may lead to some psychiatric and psychological problems among the users.

21

EVALUATION OF VARIOUS METHODS FOR DETECTION OF BIOFILM FORMATION AMONG MULTI DRUG RESISTANT UROPATHOGENIC KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATES

Devinder kaur*, Kamaljeet, Dr.Varsha A Singh, Dr. Ruhi bunger
Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Science and Research (MMIMSR), Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India.

Abstract

Urinary tract infection is a serious health threat with respect to antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation being the prime cause for the antibiotic resistance, the present study aimed to detect biofilm formation in Multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Klebsiella pnemoniae isolates by using Tissue Culture Plate Method, Tube adherence method and Modified Congo Red Agar Method. The study was conducted in the department of Microbiology of Maharishi Markandeshwar institute of medical science and research, Mullana .Out of total 550 samples, 23.2%(128) was uropathogenic. Out of 128 samples 60 samples were Klebsiella pnemoniae strains. They were multidrug resistant (cephalosporins and floroquinlones). The rate of biofilm producers is detected by three methods which were 38(63.33%). In which, Modified Congo Red Agar Method was best 36(60%) followed by Tube adherence method 33 (55%) and Tissue Culture Plate Method 28 (46.67%).In present study, higher biofilm producing isolates were detected in indoor and urban patients 76.31%(29) and 57.89 %(22) respectively. Furthermore, regarding the age highest percentage of biofilm producing isolates was found between 50-79 years (55.26%) followed by 20-49 years of age (23.68%). Dominancy of female (71.05%) were established over the male of only (28.94%). The data on antibiogram revealed that Imipenem (73.68%) followed by Amikacin (68.42%) and Nitrofurantoin(52.63%) were most effective antibiotic for biofilm producing Multidrug-resistance Klebsiella pneumoniae .So at last we can conclude that the urine isolates specially Multidrug-resistance Klebsiella pneumoniae should be screened for biofilm production and should put for antibiotic sensitivity to determine antibiotic policy in the hospital.

22

REFERENCE RANGE OF SERUM TSH AND ITS COMPARISON WITH VALUES FROM OTHER LABORATORIES

Ashima Badyal1, Amarjeet S Bhatia2
1Demonstrator, Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Jammu, J&K, India- 180001.
2Associate Professor, Head, Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Jammu, J&K, India- 180001.

Abstract

Thyroid diseases are common worldwide. In India too, there is a significant burden of thyroid diseases. According to a projection from various studies on thyroid disease, it has been estimated that about 42 million people in India suffer from thyroid diseases. In the present paper, we address the current use of TSH as the dominant parameter in thyroid function testing, to ascertain its normal reference range, explain some major limitations of this approach, and attempt to suggest areas of possible improvement. The study was conducted in the super speciality hospital, Department of Biochemistry, GMC, Jammu. Total number of subjects was 50 (25 males, 25 females) aged 30-70 years. 2ml of venous blood was collected from antecubital vein under aseptic conditions from each individual. Whole blood specimen were analysed for TSH by chemiluminescence. The normal range of TSH was found to be 0.35 mu/L - 4.95 mu/L, for males and females alike. The corresponding values reported by standard laboratories like Dr. Lal Path Labs: 0.35 mu/L - 5.50 mu/L and SRL Labs: 0.35 mu/L to 5.25 mu/L, were comparable (p>0.05). The TSH value has to change by at least 30% to discriminate between a natural variation and a real progression. Additional influences such as gender, age, or time of sampling are less pronounced. A better understanding of thyroid hormone homeostasis including the role of TSH in the context may therefore aid in improving the diagnostic reliability of TSH measurement from both a methodological and clinical perspective.

23

SYNERGISTIC ANTI-BIOFILM ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST BIOFILM FORMING STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES FROM PHARYNGITIS PATIENTS

J. Dineshbabu, D. Teepica Priya Darsini*, P. Srinivasan, Isoe M. Everlyne, K. Manimekalai
Laboratory of Clinical Biotechnology and Herbal Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, Karpagam University, Coimbatore – 641 021, Tamil Nadu.

Abstract

Upper respiratory tracts infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes is one among the predominant infections. Biofilm formation is the major cause of bacterial pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance. Medicinal plants are widely studied for their inhibitory effect against biofilm forming S. pyogenes. The present study involved the antibiofilm activity of synergistic methanolic extracts of Leucas aspera, Vitex negundo and Gymnema sylvestre (LVG) against S. pyogenes isolated from pharyngitis patients. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Biofilm Inhibitory Concentration (BIC), antibacterial activity, growth curve, light microscopy and GC-MS analysis were performed. Results revealed significant (p<0.05) biofilm inhibition percentage (94.2%) against S. pyogenes at sub-MIC. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of thirty tree compounds among which n-hexadecanoic acid, phytol isomer, and octadec-9-Enoic acid were predominant. Microscopic analysis showed dose dependant reduction in the biofilm architecture as compared to control. To our knowledge this study is the first report on the synergistic antibiofilm activity of Leucas aspera, Vitex negundo and Gymnema sylvestre emphasizing on its importance as an alternative medicine. However, it remains for the further study to elucidate the active principles of the combined plant extracts against biofilm forming S. pyogenes.

24

A STUDY TO IDENTIFY, ASSESS AND ANALYSE THE SELF-MEDICATION PRACTICES AND THE IMPACT OF COUNSELING AMONG THE PEOPLE OF DAVANGERE CITY

Muneerudeen J2*, Thomas C T1, Simon G A1, Kuriakose N G1, Sushilkumar P L2,3, Dr. Baishnab S2, Chaitanya Kumar T2, Dr. Sam G K2
1Intern, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davangere, Karnataka.
2Lecturer, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davangere, Karnataka.
3Research Scholar, RK University, Rajkot, Gujarat.

Abstract

According to WHO’S definition, self-medication is “the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat self-recognized illness or symptoms”. Self-medication is the first option for most of the ailments which makes self-medication a common practice worldwide. A total of 200 respondents were covered during the study period. Majority of the respondents [(n=167), 83.5%] were practicing self-medication, whereas [(n=33), 16.5 %] of respondents were not practising self-medication. Major reason for the practice of self-medication was for getting quick relief (33.50%), and the most common drug class used was NSAIDS (41%) for fever, cough and cold (41.58%) which was the the major indication. Majority of the respondents relied that they got information on self-medication from the pharmacist (58.70%). Found a positive impact (52.70%) on counseling given about self-medication. Easy access to medicines was shown to be promoting factor for self-medication. Although self-medication is difficult to eliminate, interventions can be made to discourage this practice and ensure safer usage of drugs. Health education campaigns, strict legislations on dispensing drugs from pharmacies and increasing the quality of and access to health care are among the important interventions to change the people’s health seeking behaviour and protect them from the potential risks of self-medications. Health care professionals mainly the pharmacist should consider patient counseling when distributing the drugs for reducing health risks from irrational medicine use.

25

INFLUENCE OF NATURE OF CORE ON NAPROXEN RELEASE FROM MICROCAPSULES

Venkata Ramesh Kanteti1*, Omar Sarheed1, Shahnaz Usman1, Fasiha Shah1, Venkata Rao B.2, Vinay Kumar M.3
1Dept. of Pharmaceutics, RAK College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, RAK Medical & Health Sciences University, United Arab Emirates.
2Julphar Gulf Pharmaceutical Industries, United Arab Emirates.
3Aditya Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Surampalem, A.P, India.

Abstract

Microcapsules are designed to obtain sustained release of naproxen. Investigations were conducted to evaluate the influence of the nature of core on the release of naproxen from ethyl cellulose microcapsules. Emulsification and solvent evaporation approach is employed to prepare the ethyl cellulose microcapsule of naproxen. When pure drug naproxen as such is employed to prepare the microcapsules – it resulted in very slow release in the first 2 hours in simulated gastric fluid and latter release was faster in the simulated intestinal fluid. This could be because of the difference in dissolution of the drug in the different fluids. But when naproxen gelucire dispersions were employed the release could be better controlled and was spread over a period of 12 hours. Two different types of gelucire are employed – gelucire (50/13) and gelucire (43/01). Solid dispersion of naproxen in gelucire (50/13) and gelucire (43/01) resulted in fast dissolving and slow dissolving forms of naproxen respectively. The various microcapsules were characterized with respect to drug polymer interaction, surface nature and drug release. The various microcapsules were found to be spherical and free flowing. The release was dependent on the nature of gelucire employed and the per cent coat of ethyl cellulose in the microcapsules. The release was found to follow first order kinetics and is diffusion controlled. It can be concluded from the results that release of naproxen from microcapsules can be modified by suitably altering the nature of naproxen that is incorporated as core in the microcapsules.

26

A VIEW OF L- CARNITINE IN HEALTH AND DISEASES

N. Santhosh Kumar1*, K. N. Kalaivanam1, R. Bheemasen1, M. Subhas Chandrappa2, Dinesha Ramadas3
1*Department of Biochemistry, Shridevi Institute of Medical Science & Research Hospital, Tumkur, Karnataka, India.
2Department of Biochemistry, Basaveshwara Medical College, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India.
3Adichunchanagiri Biotechnology & Cancer Research Institute, B.G. Nagara, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Carnitine is essential nutrient obtained from the diet and also biosynthesized from the essential amino acids lysine and methionine. The established function of carnitine is as a carrier of activated fatty acids and activates acetate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Other roles of carnitine include buffering of the acyl coenzyme A - CoA ratio, removal of excess acyl groups, and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and also influences carbohydrate metabolism. Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation caused by deficiency of plasma membrane carnitine resulting from impairment in the plasma membrane transporter, leading to decreased accumulation in the skeletal muscle, heart and potentiates increased renal loss leading to systemic carnitine depletion. Recent studies have revealed Secondary carnitine deficiencies (SCD) occur due to an accumulation of organic acids, characterized by carnitine increased excretion in urine in the form of acyl-carnitine and SCD associated with more common disorders like Diabetes mellitus, hemodialysis, trauma, malnutrition, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, Alzheimer’s disease, AIDS and cancer. Allow us to tease out additional pathways dependent on carnitine functions. In this review, we present current knowledge of carnitine biology in health and disease. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Metabolic Functions and Biogenesis of Carnitine in Health and Disease.

27

MICROWAVE ASSISTED SYNTHESIS AND In-Vitro FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF 1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDRO CARBAZOLE AND ITS OTHER DERIVATIVES

Meenakshi Mehra*, Ajay S. Bisht, Divya Juyal
Himalayan Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

Abstract

The present communication attempts to synthesize a series of new carbazole derivatives through microwave assisted method by incorporating different pharmacophores at various positions to get therapeutically active compounds. For that fisher indolization carried out between phenyl hydrazine and cyclohexaone in the presence of glacial acetic acid to yield 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro carbazole 1(71%), which on treatment with maleic anhydride yielded compound 1a (72%) which on hydrolysis gives compound 1aˊ(76%). The compound 1 on treatment with chloroacetyl chloride yielded N9-(chloroacetylchloride)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole 1c (81%) which on treatment with hydrazinehydrate gives N9-(hydrazinoacetyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole 1c´(73.2%).compound 1cˊon reaction with benzaldehyde yielded N9-(benzylidine acetylhydrazino)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole 1cˊˊ(70%). All the synthesized compound(s) structure were confirmed by UV (λmax) and H1NMR spectral data along with elemental analysis. The synthesized compound(s) were screened for their in-vitro free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showing moderate to good activity. Compound 1aˊ was found to be more active free radical scavenger at all concentrations among the other synthesized compound(s).

28

RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF CITICOLINE AND PIRACETAM IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Manutosh Acharya1, A.K Jain2, Naveen Sharma3, Suman Jain4, Gurdeep Singh Saluja5, Ashish Dixit6
1OmniActive Health Technologies, Thane (W)-400 064.
2Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmacology, Gajraraja Medical College, Gwalior (M.P.
3Department of Pharmacology, Shri Ram Pharmacy College, Gwalior (M.P.)
4SOS Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (M.P)
5Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shri Ram Pharmacy College, Gwalior (M.P.)
6Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Shri Ramnath Singh Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Gwalior (M.P.)- 474011.

Abstract

A new simple, selective, rapid, precise reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Piracetam and Citicoline in a pharmaceutical dosage form. The separation was made using Inertsil C18, (250 x 4.6) mm, 5μm column. Mobile phase used contained Phosphate buffer and acetonitrile in gradient mode at wavelength of 210nm. The mobile-phase flow rate and the sample volume injected were 1 ml/min and 10 μl, respectively. Retention time of Citicoline and Piracetam were found to be 4.2 ±0.2mins, 12.3±0.2minsrespectively. A good linear relationship (Citicoline r=0.999& Piracetam r=0.999) was observed over a concentration range of 80.50 to 603.73 μg/ml of Piracetam and 50.66 to 379.94 μg/ml of Citicoline. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for Citicoline was found to be 0.08 ppm&0.26ppm and for Piracetam it was found to be0.12 ppm & 0.42ppm. It was concluded that in the present developed RP- HPLC method, the standard and sample preparation required less time and without tedious extraction. The developed method is simple, rapid, and accurate, hence can be used for routine quality control analysis in Pharmaceutical industry. The method was optimized on gradient mode; offering better resolution of peak of interest as well as impurities in contrast to all existing methods which are on isocratic mode.

29

IN VITRO CUSO4 EXPOSURE INDUCES GENOMIC DNA DEGRADATION AND REDUCES ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN LIVER CELLS: AN IMPORTANT CONTAMINANT IN FOODS

Durairaj Sekar2*, Narsonai Pichandi1, Ramalingam Krishnan3, Punitha Sekar2 Venugopal Basam2, Kalaimathi Janakiraman1
1Sri Akilandeswari Women’s College, Wandiwash, Tamilnadu, India – 604408.
2Cryovault Biotech India Pvt Ltd, Bangalore, India -560016.
3Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore, India – 605005.

Abstract

Consistent evidence suggested that copper is an important environmental pollutants which can be easily found in all kinds of foodstuffs. Copper can induce toxicity to the liver cells and intern it affects the genetic component of the human body. Total number of broiler consumer has been increased tremendously in recent decades, so the present study mainly focused on the ability of Copper Sulphate (CuSo4) to affect total genomic DNA content, Antioxidant activity, and total protein content of broiler’s liver cells. The experiment was carried out in to three fundamental steps after the In vitro CuSO4 exposure to the Broiler’s liver cells. First, we evaluated the percentage of Antioxidant Activity (scavenging activity) reduction by DDPH method. Secondly, DNA status was evaluated by DNA fragmentation and finally total protein quantity reduction was estimated by Lowry’s method. Further studies should be carried out to better investigate the actual apoptosis mechanism and to further characterize the nature of DNA damage. The data obtained are important for the analysis of genetic and health risks produced by CuSO4 in liver cells.

30

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE AND SIMVASTATIN BILAYERED TABLETS

S. Prasanthi*1, A. Rajendra Prasad1, Y. Ganesh Kumar2, R. Naresh Babu1, M. Sudhir1, P. Shekar Babu3
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Mangalagiri, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Research Scholar, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, JNTUH Kukatpally, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
3Aurobindo Pharma Ltd, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Abstract

The aim of the present work was to develop a novel and elegant pharmaceutical combinational dosage form for simultaneous treatment of many patients with Type 2 diabetes with at high risk for coronary artery disease and associated co-morbidities. In general the work deals with the combine formulation and evaluation of bilayered tablets of DPP-4 inhibitor i.e., sitagliptin phosphate and HMG-CoA reductase i.e., simvastatin. Ten formulations of sitagliptin phosphate and simvastatin bilayered tablets were prepared by varying the ratios of polymers in the sitagliptin phosphate layer and simvastatin layer F1 to F10 by direct compression method. FTIR studies revealed there is no interaction between the drugs i.e., sitagliptin phosphate and simvastatin and the polymers such as pregelatinised starch, potato starch and sodium starch glycolate. All the powdered blends of formulations were evaluated for pre-compression parameters for flow properties such as angle of repose, Tapped density, compressibility index and post compression parameters such as thickness, weight variation, friability, hardness, drug content, In-vitro disintegration time and dissolution studies. The physical appearance was good and elegant. The weight variation, friability and hardness of tablets were found to be within USP limits. In-vitro drug release for sitagliptin phosphate and simvastatin of all formulations of F1 to F10 was carried out in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 dissolution media. Among all the formulations F7 was optimized as best formulation.F7 formulation showed (97.23%) for sitagliptin phosphate and simvastatin (98.32%) maximum drug release at the end of 45 mins.

31

ARCHAEOSOMES: MODIFIED POTENTIAL LIPOSOMES (FROM ARCHEAL LIPIDS)

Gajanan Shinde1, Purva Kumbhani1, Virag Gophane3, Ganesh bangale1 and Rajesh K.S.1
1Parul Institute of Pharmacy, PASM, Limda, Waghodia-391760, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
2Govt. College of pharmacy, Amravati, Maharashtra, India.
3Parul Institute of Pharmacy & Research, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

The conventional liposomes are present in market and having good release profile and patient compliance but they are also having some disadvantages which are overcome by making modifications in liposomes. Archaeosome is one of them and having good impact on stability related problem. Archeal lipid is obtained from the membrane lipid of the archeal domain bacteria. Varieties of bacteria are available in archaeal domain like halophiles, thermophiles, methanogens, etc. Lipid from which archaeosome is prepared, was extracted from the bacterial growth and it is a membrane lipid obtained from archaea species. For preparation of the archaeosome only two things are needed polar lipid and solvent for hydration. Evaluation of archaeosome can be done almost similar to liposome only stability test with the enzymes and lower pH is different. Application of archaeosome is also broader, it is able to incorporate both hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic drug, high as well as low molecular weight drug, vaccines, etc.