Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
MARCH 2020


Layan Arafah1, Shaimaa Hawsawi1, Amal Alfaifi1, Widad Berdisi1, Naeema Akbar2
1Family Medicine Program, Public Health Department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
2Clinical Preventive Medicine, Public Health Department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Influenza is a substantial threat to healthcare settings, and the annual influenza vaccine (IV) is an effective preventive measure against influenza. However, the vaccination rate among health care workers (HCWs) remains low. Objective: This study aimed at assessing vaccine coverage among HCWs at the primary health care centers of the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH), and determine factors affecting compliance to vaccination. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, and by applying a multistage clustering sample method, we randomly selected 83 male and 202 female HCWs. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect information about IV uptake and its determinants. We performed the chi-square test to define associated factors and used binomial logistic regression analysis to determine the unconfounded predictors of IV. Results: The rate of IV among HCWs ranged from 53.3% during 2016 to 51.7% during the 2018 season. Compliances to successive vaccination over the past three years were only 30.2%; however, 66.2% of HCWs intended to receive the vaccine during the upcoming season. The main reasons for IV uptake included self-protection against influenza (60.7%) and caring about client's patients (44.8%). Single female nurses were more likely to be immunized against IV than other HCWs p<0.05. Both reading the official MOH IV guidelines and feeling of having sufficient knowledge about IV were unconfounded predictors for the vaccine. Conclusion: The overall immunization coverage was suboptimal, and the fact that reading the official MOH IV guidelines had a strong statistical association with a positive attitude towards vaccination emphasizes the role of governmental authorities in enhancing vaccine among the HCWs. 




Neha Naaz*, Aaminah Najmus Sahar, Khadija Akhtar Omer, Humaira Minhaj, Sufia Iram Irshad.
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Deccan School of Pharmacy(DSOP),OU,Hyderabad500001,Telangana,India.

Organ transplant seems like a complex procedure and many are unaware of the process to register as a donor. This article is to create a base for understanding the procedure of organ transplant, the personnel involved and the process to register as a donor. Organ transplant is a process in which an organ completely from one human being to the other. Different types of sources for organ transplant include Live donor, deceased donor. Not all organ transplants are successful, transplant rejection is common and it’s types include Hyperacute-rejection, chronic rejection, acute cellular rejection and acute vascular rejection. The various aspects of a solid organ transplant procedure like personnel involved and how to get oneself as a donor volunteer include a sequence of steps to do. With a better understanding of the process of organ transplant and registering as a donor, many lives can be healed. More awareness about organ donation is necessary. 




P. Sai Harshita*, R. Kanchan Sonali, M. Rajeshwari, P. Aarthi, P. Girija Sravani, Leemol Shaju, V. Jyothi
Sarojini Naidu Vanita Pharmacy Maha Vidyalaya Tarnaka- 500017.

Churna is a fine powder of a mixture of drugs or a single drug prepared by air drying, finely powdering, mixing and sieving the drugs. In any ayurvedic system of medicine, standardization is the need of the hour. The increasing use of herbal drugs by the human is the driving force to evaluate the health claim of these agents and to develop the standards of quality, purity, safety and efficacy. Divya Udarkalp churna is an Ayurvedic formulation made from various medicinal plants and is used for constipation, maintaining good digestive health, as a digestive aid, Dyspepsia, Indigestion, Inflammation of the colon, heartburn, alcohol abuse and ulcers. The main objective of the present study is to perform the comparative evaluation of the marketed and in-house formulations of divya udarkalp churna. The phytochemical screening of different extracts of both the formulations was performed. Both the samples were subjected to atomic absorption spectroscopy for heavy metal analysis to ensure the quality of the churna. The extracts were further screened for In vitro anti-inflammatory activity by protein denaturation assay. The results of the study showed the presence of essential phytochemical constituents, permissible levels of heavy metals and significant anti inflammatory activites in both the marketed and in house formulations. The results obtained may be utilized as tools of assistance to the scientific organizations for developing formulations of potential therapeutic intervention. 




Koringa College of Pharmacy, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India.

It is a rare genetic neurological disorder characterised by the spongy degeneration of the white matter in the brain. Canavan affects at birth. The affected newborn may look normal at birth, but they usually develop symptoms between 3-6 months of age. The symptoms of canavan disease include an abnormally large head, lack of head control, severely diminished muscle tone resulting in floppiness, and delay in reaching developmental sitting and walking. Most affected children deveolps lifethreatininb complications by 10 years of age. The cause of the rare disorder includes mutations in the aspartoacylase gene that affects the breakdown of N-acetylaspartic acid(NAA). It is inherited as an autosomal recessive condition. This disease affects men and women equally. The disorder affects all ethenic group, but happens with greater frequency in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. The carrier frequency is Ashkenazi Jewish is estimated to be high as one in 40-58 people. The risk for an affected child born to Ashkenazi Jewish parents is between 1 in 6,400 and 1 in 13,456. Diagnosis of canavan disease may be suspected in infants with the characteristic finding of the disorder. It may be confirmed by a thorough clinical evaluation, a detailed patient history, and a variety of specialized tests. The tests may include gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a device that can detect elevated levels of NAA in the urine. Elevated levels of NAA can also be detected in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Patient registry is the canavan disease patient insight network (PIN) is a shared network that collects experience directly from patients and families. PIN services to create a research ready community that can help drug developers and researchers get closer to the patients. 




Kaveri Wagh*, Krutanjali Rajesh Nikumbh, Nidhi Ashish Parikh, Dheeraj Raghunath Chavan, Shailesh Ram Kokani, Ranjana Prakash Guroda, Ansari Sadiya Bano Habeeburrahman
Royal College of Pharmaceutical Education & Research SayneKhurd, Malegaon, Dist. Nashik [423203] Maharashtra, India.

Magnetic microspheres hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery. Magnetic microspheres as an alternative to traditional radiation methods which uses highly penetrating radiations that is absorbed throughout the body. Its use is limited by toxicity and side effects. Now days, several targeted treatment systems including magnetic field, electric field, ultrasound, temperature, UV light and mechanical force are being used in many disease treatments (e.g. cancer, nerve damage, heart and artery, anti-diabetic, eye and other medical treatments). Among them, the magnetic targeted drug delivery system is one of the most attractive and promising strategy for delivering the drug to the specified site. Magnetically controlled drug targeting is one of the various possible ways of drug targeting. This technology is based on binding establish anticancer drug with ferrofluid that concentrate the drug in the area of interest (tumor site) by means of magnetic fields. There has been keen interest in the development of a magnetically target drug delivery system. These drug delivery systems aim to deliver the drug at a rate directed by the needs of the body during the period of treatment, and target the activity entity to the site of action. Magnetic microspheres were developed to overcome. CONCLUSION: Magnetism seems to be a common function of opening a new vista of a multi-barrier of multi-step drug delivery. Their main advantage is the targeting of drug using an external magnet, which can be accomplished very easily. They are relatively young drug delivery systems, having received attention from the early 1990s. In the early days of twentieth century, Paul Ehrlich envisioned his MAGIC BULLET CONCEPT-the idea that drugs reach the right site in the body, at the right time, at right concentration. 




K. Rashid*, V. Baskar Ananda Raj, P. S Shiji Kumar, K.M Nishad
Jamia Salafiya Pharmacy College, Pulikkal, Malappuram-673637 Kerala.

Hair is a major esthetic display feature of the human body, especially in social and sexual interactions. Hair loss is not just a cosmetic problem but psycho-sociological problem also. Alopecia is a universal problem, could have an adverse effect on physiological life and self-esteem between both the genders. The side effect associated with synthetic drug has limited its pharmacological benefits hence the drug of choice is plant origin which adds value necessary to replace the synthetic medicine. India is a repository of medicinal plants. Besides healthcare, herbs are also used for beautification of the body and for preparation of various cosmetics. In traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth promotion but lack of sound scientific background and information limits their use. About 1000 kinds of plants extract have been examined with respect to hair growth. This review describe the use of some natural products for hair growth promotion, plant parts used, chemical composition, the active responsible for effect and with a brief description of major use. Thus this article focus the use of variety of medicinal plants traditionally reported with clinical and scientific evidence. 




Peruboina Neelima*, Maddula Venkata Ramana, Rama Rao Nadendla
Department of Pharmaceutics, Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur-522034, A.P, India.

In the recent times the focus is more on the development of effective drug delivery systems rather than the development of new drug molecules. Pulsatile drug delivery ensures a right dose at right time at right place. It shows a sigmoid drug release with a lag time. After the lag time the drug is released rapidly and completely at a certain time or place. Pulsatile drug delivery delivers the drug at a particular time which is needed for the diseases which exhibit circadian rhythm and for the drugs which show high first pass metabolism, gastric irritation or for local effect. Several diseases such as asthma, cardiovascular diseases, peptic ulcers which follow the circadian rhythm can be treated by Pulsatile drug delivery. It has many advantages like decreased dose, minimum side effects and increased patient compliance. There are many systems like single unit, multiple unit and stimuli induced systems. Several Pulsatile drug delivery technologies are discussed in the article.