IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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OCTOBER 2013
1

SCREENING OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LEAF AND LEAF DERIVED CALLUS EXTRACTS OF SEBASTIANIA CHAMAELEA (L.) MUELL. ARG

Reena Ganesan, Kamalanathan Desingu, Ragavendran Chinnasamy and Natarajan Devarajan*

Natural Drug Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Periyar University,

Salem-636011, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

Medicinal plants are widely used as a potent source for isolation of several drugs and formulations in treatment of many diseases. The present study was aimed to carry out preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial activity of six different solvents extracts from leaf and leaf derived callus of S. chamaelea. The maximum percentage of callus mass was achieved in modified MS medium supplemented with different concentration of 2, 4 – D (2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mg/l). In vitro antibacterial activity of leaf and callus extracts were tested against 12 bacterial cultures by agar well diffusion method. The acetone, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf and leaf derived callus show maximum inhibitory effect. The preliminary phytochemical analysis reflects the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrate, alkaloids, phytosterols, fats and oils, terpenoids. The result highlights among two extracts, leaf extract show negligible activity than callus extracts. The present study conclude that invitro raised plants can be utilized for isolation of antimicrobial drugs than wild plants.   

2

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF IN-SITU GELLING OTIC FORMULATIONS OF CHLORAMPHENICOL USING POLOXAMER 407

P.V.DANGRE1, K.R. KATTEKAR2, S. V. SHIROLKAR2

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Kamla Nehru College of Pharmacy, Butiibori, Nagpur

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Padm. Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Pimpri, Pune-411 018

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to develop a sustained release in situ gel formulations for the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media and otitis externa with the aim to increase drug concentration in the middle ear fluid and external ear respectively. The main objective of the present study is to formulate sustained release otic gel along with poloxamer 407 as thermoreversible gelling agent and Chloramphenicol 0.5% as active ingredient which may further help in enhancing topical bioavailability. In an attempt to reduce the concentration of Poloxamer 407 without compromising the in situ gelling capabilities, various viscosity increasing agents like Natrosol 250M, Methocel E4M, Methocel K4M, Methocel K100M and Sodium CMC were added to Poloxamer 407 solution containing 0.5% Chloramphenicol. The formulations were evaluated for appearance / clarity, sol-gel transition temperature and gelling time, pH, spreadability, rheological characteristic and in vitro diffusion through synthetic as well as biological membrane. The viscosity of formulation increased as the concentration of Poloxamer 407 increased. The viscosity of formulation increased as the concentration of viscosity increasing agent was increased in the formulation containing constant amount of Poloxamer 407.It will be a promising drug delivery system with sustained release action and better patient compliance for the treatment of suppurative otitis media and otitis externa.

3

SIMPLE RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MOXIFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE AND PREDNISOLONE ACETATE IN EYE DROPS

Haritha Reddy. N*, Samidha. T, Mangangkhomba Mangang K. H, Sudheer kumar.D, Sreekanth. G

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis,

Care College of Pharmacy, Warangal- 506006, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract

A selective, precise, isocratic and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method have been developed for the simultaneous determination of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride and Prednisolone acetate in Eye Drops Formulation. The HPLC method was carried out on PHENOMENEX Luna C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) column. A mobile phase composed of Methanol-Buffer (0.5% Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate buffer adjusted to pH 3 using orthophosphoric acid) in proportion of 80:20 v/v, at flow rate of 1 ml/min was used for the separation. Detection was carried out at 254nm. Moxifloxacin hydrochloride and Prednisolone acetate eluted at the retention times of 2.7 ±0.1 min and 3.7 ±0.1 min. The Linearity Range of each MOXI and PRED was found to be 1-900µg/ml. Method was validated statistically and recovery studies were carried out. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the analysis of cited drugs either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations with good accuracy and precision. The method herein described can be employed for quality control and routine analysis of drugs in pharmaceutical formulations.

4

FUNCTIONALITY COMPARISON BETWEEN NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS IN DEVELOPMENT AND IN-VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF GASTRO RETENTIVE FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM

K. Navaneetha1, Basu Venkateswara Reddy2

Department of pharmaceutics, St. Pauls College of Pharmacy, Turkayamjal(V), Hayathnagar(M), Ranga Reddy Dist-501510, A.P.INDIA.

Abstract

Gastroretentive floating tablets of atorvastatin calcium were formulated by using synthetic and natural polymers like HPMC and guar gum, Xanthan gum, karaya gum, aleovera powder respectively in order to enhance the bioavailability (14%) of atorvastatin calcium a drug used in the treatment of dyslipidemia and for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Floating tablets were prepared by employing potassium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent, and Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 as binder and excipients like Micro crystalline cellulose, dibasic calcium phosphate, magnesium stearate and talc. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method and the prepared tablets were evaluated for pre-compression characteristics and post-compression characteristics like weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, swelling index, floating lag time, floating duration and in-vitro dissolution studies. FTIR studies for the drug and polymers shows that they are compatible. The precompression parameters indicate good flow properties for the powder. The tablets formulated with synthetic polymers remained buoyant for more than 6hrs and those with natural polymer remained for more than 8hrs in the release media. The optimized formulation F6 remains floating for more than 12 hrs and shows a sustained release of drug and percentage of drug release after 12 hrs was found to be 95.92%. The drug release mechanism for the optimized formula is by Higuchi’s model (R2= 0.9987). DSC studies have shown that drug is stable in the formulation. It is concluded that the natural polymers are more effective than the synthetic polymers in the development of gastroretentive dosage forms and thus enhances the solubility and bioavailability of the drug.

5

ROLE OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN SPATIAL MEMORY

Mittal Khushboo*1, Kothiyal Preeti1

Shri guru rai institute of technology and science, patelnagar, dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand, India.

Abstract

Oxidative stress is the main cause of impairement of learning and memory. It may occur due to suppression of various brain functions. Antioxidants are therefore very helpful in maintaining the brain functions and improving memory. They are very useful in enhancement of spatial memory also. Various preclinical and clinical studies have been performed on their role in memory enhancement. It has been suggested that they are of prime importance in improving spatial memory and both natural and allopathic medicines are available in the form of antioxidants to improve the memory. Therefore it can be concluded from various studies mentioned in the article  that antioxidants alone can also be helpful in enhancement of spatial memory especially when there is stress induced impairement of spatial memory.

6

ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF CEFEPIME HYDROCHLORIDE AND TAZOBACTAM SODIUM IN BULK AND STERILE DRY POWDER FOR INJECTION BY GRADIENT RP-HPLC.

K.Neelima1*, R.Nikhila1, S.Selina1, N.Appalraju2, Y.Rajendra Prasad3.

1*Department of Chemistry, Sarojini Naidu Vanitha Pharmacy Mahavidyalaya, Hyderabad-500001, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sultan-Ul-Uloom College of Pharmacy, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad – 500034, Andhra Pradesh, India.

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Andhra University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peda Waltair, Visakhapatnam- 530003, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

A simple, sensitive, linear, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Cefepime Hydrochloride and Tazobactam Sodium in sterile dry powder for injection was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation of the two drugs was achieved on Inertsil ODS 3V (150 mm x 4.6 mm) 5µ column in a Gradient mode. The mobile phase mixture consisting of 0.08 M ammonium acetate buffer whose pH was adjusted to 3.0  using dilute orthophosphoric acid (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) was set with gradient programming for 15min and was delivered at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and effluents are monitored at 220 nm. The retention time of Cefepime HCL and Tazobactam Sodium was found to be 3.722 and 4.304 min respectively. The percentage assay of Cefepime HCL and Tazobactam Sodium was found to be 99.83% and 96.51%. Calibration curves were linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.991 for CEH and 0.997 for TAS over the concentration range of 400-1200 μg/mL for CEF and 50-150 μg/mL for TAS and precise with (%RSD<2).  The LOD for CEH and TAS were found to be 0.2 μg/mL and 0.022 μg/mL and LOQ for CEH and TAS were found to be 0.6 μg/mL and 0.075 μg/mL respectively. The method was validated by determining its accuracy, precision and system suitability as per ICH guidelines and the developed method can be employed for routine quality control analysis.

7

A RAPID BIOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING LEAF BROTH OF RAUVOLFIA TETRAPHYLLA AND THEIR PROMISING ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

R. Kalaiarasia, G. Prasannaraja,b and P. Venkatachalama,b*

aPlant Genetic Engineering and Molecular Biology Lab, Department of Biotechnology, Periyar University, Periyar Palkalai Nagar, Salem – 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India

bCentre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Periyar University, Salem – 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract

Green synthesis of nanoscale materials is under exploration due to various biomedical research applications in nanobiotechnology. Rauvolfia tetraphylla is a small evergreen woody species which contains various alkaloids viz., ajamaline, reserpine, serpentine and tetraphyllincine. The present study describes the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaf extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were structurally characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and X-Ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). Elemental and vibrational analyses of nanoparticles were carried out with Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) respectively. Bioreduction of silver ions by Rauvolfia tetraphylla leaf extract resulted in the synthesis of spherical, triangle and square shaped nanoparticles. The size of the silver nanoparticles was ranged from 26–37 nm. FT-IR spectrum confirmed the involvement of aromatic amines, amide (I) and amide (II) groups, flavonoids, polyols and secondary alcohols in capping and reduction of silver nanoparticles. Phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-7443), Escherichia coli (MTCC-739) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-1034). The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles approach appears to be cost effective, eco-friendly and easy alternative to other conventional methods for nanoparticles synthesis and its antibacterial activity.

8

NEUROPHARAMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF HYDRO ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF FAGONIA CRETICA LINN IN MICE

Yamuna Sadam*1, Pradeep kumar.C 1 ,Renuka Tejasvi Pusa*1 , D. Vidya1

1Department of Pharmacology, Teegala Krishna Reddy College of Pharmacy, Medbowli, Meerpet, Saroornagar, Hyderabad – 2013

Abstract

To study the Neuro-pharmacological screening by hydro alcoholic extract of Fagonia cretica Linn (Family: Zygophyllaceae) (HAEFC). The phytochemical constituents of and some neuropharmacological activity of  HAEFC was evaluated in  Male swiss albino mice weighing 20-25g,  employing various models elevated plus maze test (EPZ), exploratory behavior (hole board apparatus ) (HBA)  for anxiolytic effect and locomotor activity using actophotometer, muscle relaxant activity using rota-rod apparatus (RRA) for sedative-hypnotic activity. The results of preliminary phytochemical analysis had showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, triterpenoids in the whole plant hydroalcoholic extract of Fagonia cretica Linn.  The HAEFC showed LD50 at a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight p.o in mice. HAEFC had showed a significant (P<0.01 for 200 mg/kg and P<0.05 for 100 mg/kg) increase in number of entries and time spent in open arm, where as it significantly (P<0.01 for 200 mg/kg and P<0.05 for 100 mg/kg) decreased the no of entries and time spent in closed arm in EPZ when compared to control group. HAEFC had also showed a significant (P<0.01 for 200 mg/kg and P<0.05 for 100 mg/kg) decrease in no of head dips for exploratory behavior in HBA , no of counts in for locomotor in actophotometer and time spend on revolving rod on RRA for sedative and hypnotic effect when compared to control group. The effects were similar to that of standard drug diazepam. Our study proves that HAEFC has anxiolytic, sedative and hypnotic activities.

9

CITRUS PARADISI: AN OVERVIEW

Sameer More, Shruti Sathe, Archana Sonawane, Aruna Jadhav and Vilasrao Kadam

Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) is a subtropical Citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet fruit found in United States of America, China, South Africa, Mexico, India, Argentina and Turkey.  The Chemical constituents obtained from fruits include naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, poncirin, tangeritin, nobiletin, auraptene, umbelliferone, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, α-pinene, limonene and sabinene. Previously grapefruits were used as breakfast food but recent in-vivo and in-vitro studies indicate its antiinflammatory, anticancer, antiatherogenic, antidepressant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic effect, antibacterial properties. This article is an attempt to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review on Citrus paradisi covering its medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

10

CHARACTERIZATION OF PIGMENTS FROM FUSARIUM SPECIES USING TLC AND FTIR-BASED APPROACH

Stanly Pradeep, F. and Pradeep, B. V.

Bioactive Molecules Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences,

Karpagam University, Coimbatore – 641 021, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract

Investigations were made in the present study to characterize the novel bioactive compounds present in pigment extracts of Fusarium species using TLC and FTIR based approach. Coloured pigments were biosynthesized in Potato dextrose broth (2%), glucose (2%), peptone (1%), KH2PO4 (0.5%), 28°C, pH-5.5, 8-days at 250 rpm. Pigments were recovered by solvent extraction method and purified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), yielding three major fractions viz., brown, pink and yellow in colour. Based on FTIR spectroscopy, for each Fusarium pigment extract, the fingerprint region was recorded, located between 500 and 4000 cm–1 and the specific functional groups which were involved have been identified. FTIR spectrum of the pigments indicates the presence of OH groups, lipid and methoxy derivatives (CH3), carbonyl groups (C=O) and complex chain expansion (n-Alkanes). TLC and FTIR technique shows high potential as a novel, accurate and easy-to-use differentiation method by identifying the functional groups and separation of colour compounds for Fusarium species isolated from a wide range of environmental sources. We hope that the intensive study on the pigmented compound from Fusarium species will lead to the discovery of novel pharmaceutical, insecticidal and bioherbicidal properties.

11

FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF COMPRESSION COATED TABLET

Jadhav S. B.*1, Kale S. V.1, Dr. Kawtikwar P.S.2, Kadam V. S.1, Nabde M. K.1, Rai S. D.1, Dr. Kshirsagar R.V. 3,   Bharkad V.B.1

1SSS, Indira College of Pharmacy, Vishnupuri, Nanded.

 2 S. N. Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad.

 3School of Pharmacy, SRTMU, Nanded.

Abstract

In the present work, lag time increased by using the hydrophilic polymer that get swell when it come in contact with biological fluid and show the burst release of drug after lag time. The fast disintegrating core tablets of model drug Diclofenac potassium were prepared and coated with coating material of different grades of Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) 100-cps, 15-cps and 6-cps respectively. Three batches without combination, and four batches in combination having ratio 1:1:1, 1:2:2, 2:1:2, 2:2:1, were prepared which showed lag time of 8, 3, 4, and 6 respectively. Formulation F4 show greater increase in the lag time. The compression coated tablets showed a clear lag time before a burst release of diclofenac potassium. The FTIR study showed that drug and excipient are compatible with each other. No significant changes were found during the Stability study of best batch, indicating its stability aspect. The result showed that the HPMC hydrophilic polymer can be successfully used in different concentrations to achieve desired lag time.

12

EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF MARKETED ANTI-DANDRUFF SHAMPOOS

S. R. Nikam1, V. V. Khanvilkar*1, D. M. Jagdale1, A. P. Jadhav1, S. H. More1 and V. J. Kadam1

1Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of anti-dandruff shampoos by cup plate (well diffusion) method against seven bacterial and two fungal pathogenic cultures. Two different concentrations were used to screen the antibacterial and antifungal activities of shampoos. Results showed that anti-dandruff shampoos have remarkable antibacterial and antifungal activities due to synergistic action of its ingredients such as zinc pyrithione, ketoconazole and selenium sulfide.

13

NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA FOR ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE.

Rakesh Gupta. N*1, Renuka Tejasvi. Pusa1, CH. Pradeep Kumar1.

1Teegala Krishna Reddy College of Pharmacy, Medbowli, Meerpet, Hyderabad.

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is age related progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused due to aggregation of misfolded proteins which accumulate fibrillary amyloid deposits in selective regions of central nervous system. Neuro fibrillary tangles (NFTs) and senile plaques formed by neuro accumulation of abnormal tau filaments and extracellular deposits of β- amyloid fibrils. Amyloid plaques correlate with progressive deficits in cognitive, memory dysfunction and selectively cholinergic deficits in neurocortex, hippocampus and basal forebrain. In the present study animals were pre-treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia for a period of 4 weeks dose dependently (200 and 400 mg/ kg b.w). The animals were trained on water-maze, Y-maze, exploratory behavior and passive avoidance apparatus during the treatment period for memory. On 21st day of the treatment β- amyloid peptide was administered by Intra CerebroVentricular, The extract decreased the neurodegeneration and helped in memory retention activity. The extract showed significant effects (P<0.01) when compared to negative control.

14

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DOMPERIDONE MALEATE AND CINNARIZINE IN A PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION BY RP-HPLC METHOD

Rajashekhar Prahalad*1, Dr. R. Narasimha Rao2, Kishore Konam2, Srinivasa Reddy Edara3, Thirupathi Rathna3, Y.Ramalingeswara rao3, Raja Sree.P3, Soujanya Aare3.

1 HITS College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, India.

Department of Pharmaceutics, HITS College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, HITS College of Pharmacy

3 Department of Quality control, Chandra laboratories pvt ltd, kukatpally, Hyderabad, India.

Abstract

An isocratic Simultaneous estimation by RP-HPLC Method were developed and validated for the quantification of Domperidone maleate and Cinnarizine in tablet dosage form. Quantification was achieved by using a reversed-phase C18 column (ZODIAC Column , 5µ, 250 mm × 4.6 mm) at ambient temperature with mobile phase consisting of Mixed Phosphate Buffer buffer : Acetonitrile : Methanol(30: 50:20 pH:2.5)). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. Measurements were made at a wavelength of 268nm. The average retention time for Domperidone maleate and Cinnarizine were found to be 2.55 min and 5.09. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. The developed method was successfully applied to estimate the amount of Domperidone maleate and Cinnarizine in tablet dosage form. 

15

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NOVEL THIAZOLIDINONE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS

Osman Ahmed*1, Md Salahuddin2, Iffath Rizwana1, M.A.Aleem3, Pankaj Sharma4

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, A.P. India.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Farooqia College of Pharmacy, Mysore, Karnataka. India.

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Nizam Institute of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, A.P India.

4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, Rajasthan. India

Abstract

The capital cold is to amalgamate and characterize atypical thiazolidinone derivatives and awning them for anti-inflammatory activity. An alternation of ten 2-(substituted phenyl)-3-[{4-(1-naphthyl)-1, 3-thiazol-2-yl} amino]-5-methyl-1, 3-thiazolidin-4-ones (TM1-TM10) were synthesized from 1-acetyl naphthalene. The synthesized compounds, characterized on the base of satisfactory analytic and spectral (IR, H1NMR, Mass and elemental) data. Studies were agitated out for the synthesized compounds which were as well evaluated for anti-inflammatory action in albino rats by application of a carrageenan induced paw edema method. The synthesized compounds showed acceptable appear that two of the compounds TM1 (Ar = 4-nitrophenyl) and TM8 (Ar = 4-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl) showed 50% anti-inflammatory action as compared to accepted biologic indomethacin afterwards 2hr. All the compounds showed negligible action afterwards 4 hr. We address the acknowledged amalgam of atypical thiazolidinones, as able-bodied as their spectral characterization, and anti inflammatory action which, for some, is above to currently acclimated as anti-inflammatory agents.

16

EMERGING TRENDS OF UNETHICAL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKETING IN PAKISTAN

Hafeez Ullah Khan1, Rai Muhammad Sarfraz2, Asif Mahmood2, Safirah Maheen1, Alamgeer1, Muhammad Zaman3, Ghayur Abbas2, Muhammad Abdullah Akram1

1Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.

2Faculty of Pharmacy, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.

3Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lahore, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

Abstract

Marketing of Pharmaceutical products is a very vast field after their production in the Pharmaceutical Units. Pharmaceutical industry of every country contains its own marketing unit. The objective of the present work was to highlight various illegal ways that are adopted in Pakistan to promote one’s product in market. A questioner containing 19 questions was designed regarding unethical marketing i.e. who is responsible for Unethical marketing; its impact on the purchase of brands, tools used for it and Doctor’s Views about sales promotion officers (SPO’s) etc. Study was conducted in 400 doctors of Pakistan. Survey highlighted that 50% of the doctors prescribe medicines on the basis of their self-experience, 73% declared that they keep patient compliance in their minds while prescribing rather than personnel benefits. 35% of the doctors consider themselves for the unethical marketing while 46% declare pharmaceutical companies as major culprit for this act. 46% of the doctors showed that national companies invest more on them rather to invest on product. 56% of doctors said that samples are most frequently used promotional tool. Due to this unlawful practice excellent quality products are losing their markup value in market. Moreover, it will result in poor patient compliance, large impact on patient’s economical status and provision of poor medical treatment to population. This will only be possible when role of pharmacist is implemented in the profession. There should be proper, strict check and balance on the prescription written by Medical officers. Role of Pharmacist should clearly be implemented. Pharmacist along with duties of care giver should provide excellent knowledge and way of ethical marketing of drugs.

17

INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF POLYPHENOLS IN OBESITY

Zeba Raheem[1], Gandham Mythri3 , Neha Tabassum1, Arshad Hussain Mohd2, Syed Abdul Azeez3

1Deccan School Of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, AP, India

2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Deccan School Of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, AP, India

3Department of Pharmaceutics, Deccan School Of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, AP, India

 

Abstract

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have increased risks to health. Obesity increases the risk of many other diseases. It was estimated that in 2008, over 200 million men and 300 million women were obese. Hence, by preventing obesity we can reduce a horde of diseases. Recently, natural polyphenols present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects in reducing obesity and hence can be a major contributor as an anti-obesity agent. Polyphenols are also useful for their antioxidant nature, skin photo-protective action, anti-inflammatory action, in neurodegenerative disease, for combating diabetes,etc.  They act by various mechanisms to inhibit obesity like modulation of physiological and molecular pathways involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity, inhibition of adipogenesis, development of fat cells, and increase lipolysis. Various polyphenols derived from blueberries, oolong tea, cocoa, lemon, grapes, sugarcane, lychee, red wine, green tea, apple, etc have shown this action. Hence, this review is majorly aimed at throwing light on how polyphenols can be used as a weapon to counteract obesity via different mechansisms and also how it prevents obesity related disorders also.

18

ANXIOLYTIC, ANTIDEPRESSANT AND IN VIVO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF STEM BARK OF TERMINALIA TOMENTOSA ROXB

Avik Das1, Dr. Sunit kumar Mukhopadhayay2

1Department of Pharmacology, Gupta College of Technological Sciences Ashram More, Asansol-713 301. India

2Department of Veterinary Pathology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kshudiram Bose Sarani, Kolkata - 700037. India 

Abstract

The problem of psychiatric disorders like anxiety and depression is looming large on the entire world today. In spite of that the pharmacotherapeutic agents available till date for treating these conditions are lacking efficacy and is also associated with a plethora of side effects. Members of the genus Terminalia have been used in many psychiatric disorders. In the present study presented here was to evaluate the anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of the ethanolic extract of the stembark of Terminalia tomentosa Roxb. As because oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathology of both anxiety and depression, we also went forward to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant potential of the extract. All the animals were divided into five groups consisting of six animals each. One group served as control and another as standard while the other received the test drug (TTe) in three different doses of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg. Tests were done sixty minutes after oral and thirty minutes after intraperitoneal injection. Tests performed for evaluating antidepressant activity were forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), for anxiolytic activity, the elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration test (L&D) and for invivo antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) content of brain were tested. Lipid peroxidation assay was also carried out to determine oxidative status of brain. In all the tests two doses (400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg) of the extract showed consistent anxiolytic activity and only the 800 mg/kg of the extract showed significant antidepressant activity in both the tail suspension test and forced swim test. The in vivo antioxidant activity was also significant (p<0.05) at doses of 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg. Thus we conclude that the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Terminalia tomentosa do possess in vivo antioxidant , antidepressant and anxiolytic potential and thus can be an alternative option in the treatment of anxiety and depression.

19

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKING ACTIVITY OF NOVEL AMLODIPINE CONTAINING BENZOXAZINE NUCLEUS AGAINST AMLODIPINE

G. Naveen Kumar*, N. Siva Subramanian, M. Ramadevi, CH. Maheswara Reddy, B.Vivekananda, Moghul Zubair Khalid Baig

Teegala Krishna Reddy College of Pharmacy, Meerpet, Saroor nagar, Ranga reddy District, A.P., India.

Abstract

An attempt has been made to modify Amlodipine and perform Calcium channel blocking study of the same by using Isolated Frog Heart Perfusion technique (IFHP). The modification of Amlodipine was carried out by the reaction of Salicylaldehyde with amlodipine, a Calcium channel blocker, which yields Schiff base. The schiff base on reduction with Sodium borohydride results in a reduced schiff base which on cyclization with different aldehydes affords Amlodipine containing Benzoxazine nucleus derivatives. The calcium channel blocking activity of these synthesized compounds has been evaluated on CaCl2-induced arrhythmias in isolated frog heart and compared with the standard amlodipine. The method of evaluation involves the isolation of the frog heart which is perfused with frog ringer solution. The stock solutions of different concentrations of CaCl2, synthesized compounds and standard amlodipine are injected into syme’s cannula and their effects were measured by switching on the kymograph and recording the heart beats on a smoked drum. The heart rate per min and the cardiac output in volume per min were measured. The amlodipine containing Benzoxazine nucleus showed significant calcium channel blocking activity by blocking the depolarization effect of CaCl2 with a better relaxing effect at a low dose levels of 0.4 ml (4 μg/ml) when compared to standard amlodipine.

20

DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF NOVEL AMIDES OF PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES AS ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTHELMINTIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS

Manojkumar K. E1, Sreenivasa S1*, Mohan N. R1, Aruna Kumar D. B1, Thippeswamy B. S2, Nagarjun S2, Raja Naika H3

1 Department of Studies and Research in Chemistry, Tumkur University, Tumkur-572 103, Karnataka, INDIA

2Department of Pharmacology, Sree Siddaganga College of Pharmacy, Tumkur-572 102, Karnataka INDIA

3Department of Studies and Research in Environmental Science, Tumkur University, Tumkur-572 103, Karnataka, INDIA

Abstract

The paper presents the synthesis of Some new (6-(4-chloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-methylpyrimidin-4-yl)(4-(substituted)piperazin-1-yl)methanone 11a-j by condensation of 9 with different substituted alkyl and aryl carboxylic acids in basic media. The key intermediate scaffold 9 was generated from commercially available compound 1 via borylation, Suzuki coupling, hydrolysis, condensation and deprotection reaction. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, LCMS and CHN elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds of(6-(4-chloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-methylpyrimidin-4-yl)(4-(substituted)piperazin-1-yl) methanone derivatives were screened for their antibacterial activity with four bacterial strains of Gram positive S. aureus (NCIM-5022) and Gram negative K. aerogenes (NCIM-2098), E. coli (NCIM-5051), P. aeruginosa (NCIM-2242) using cup plate method and also for their anthelmintic activity against P. posthuma. Selected compounds 11a, 11c, 11f, 11g and 11i were screened for their anti-inflammatory activity carried on carrageenan induced paw edema. It was found that halogenated amides of pyrimidine nucleus exhibited significant antibacterial, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory activities against ciprofloxacin, piperazine citrate and carrageenan induced paw edema in rats respectively.

21

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF PAJANELIA LONGIFOLIA (WILD.) K SCHUMAN AND CRATAEVA MAGNA (LOUR.) DC.

Parul Sharma1,2 , Sandipan Mazumder3 , Shuvasish Choudhury1,2

1Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar-788011, India

2Natural Product Process Laboratory, Central Instrumentation Laboratory, Assam University, Silchar-788011, India

3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Assam University, Silchar-788011, India

Abstract

Development of multi-drug resistance to available anti-microbial agents requires the search for new and alternative drug entities. The present study was taken up to evaluate the phytochemicals of pharmacological prominence in the leaves of C. magna and P. longifolia, and to assess their anti-bacterial activity so that a complete validative report can be obtained ascertaining its use in traditional medicine. Phytochemical screening of the non-polar (n-hexane) and polar (ethyl acetate and methanol) leaf extracts of C. magna and P. longifolia was done as per the accepted international protocol so as to ascertain the possible presence of various secondary metabolites. The antibacterial activity was evaluated as per the standard CLSI guidelines. The phytochemical screening of leaves extract of both the plants proved the occurrence of diverse phytochemicals. The leaf extracts containing polar components showed potential antibacterial activity. From this study, it can be concluded that leaves of both Crataeva magna and Pajanelia longifolia (Wild.) K Schuman has potential antibacterial compounds that may be used for developing new drugs against multiple drug resistant pathogenic bacteria.

22

A SIMPLE METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TAMSULOSIN HYDROCHLORIDE AND TOLTERODINE TARTRATE BY RP- HPLC METHOD

S. D. Shanmugakumar*, D. Vamshikrishna , C. Ragapallavi

Jyothishmathi College of Pharmacy, Turkapally (V), Shamirpet (M), R. R. District -500078, Andhrapradesh, India.

Abstract

A simple and accurate RP – HPLC method has been developed with isocratic elution for the simultaneous estimation of Tamsulosin hydrochloride and Tolterodine tartrate in bulk and tablet dosage forms. This method is validated as per the ICH guidelines. The estimation of Tamsulosin hydrochloride and Tolterodine tartrate was carried out using reverse phase C8 column (250mmx4.6mm, 5µm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-dipotassium hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH is adjusted to 9.2 by using NaOH) in the ratio 30 :70 v/v with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min ( UV detection 247nm). The retention time of Tamsulosin hydrochloride and Tolterodine tartrate are found to be 2.753 and 4.678 min respectively. The linearity was obeyed in the concentration range of 0.02 -0.06µg/mL for Tamsulosin hydrochloride and 0.2-0.6µg/mL for Tolterodine tartrate. The corresponding regression equations of concentration related to the peak areas were found to be Y = 16616x ( R2 =0.999) and Y =19288x ( R2 = 0.999) for Tamsulosin hydrochloride (TAM) and Tolterodine tartrate (TOL) respectively. The method which was developed was validated as per the ICH guidelines.

23

ORGANOMETALLIC ANTIVIRAL DRUGS

Yogesh Arote, Deepali Jagdale, Mitul Patel, Neha Nandedkar and Vilasrao Kadam

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Some antibiotics or antiviral showed acquired or intrinsic resistance against viral infection due to mutation at multiple sites of enzymes or genes leading to a low affinity for the drug and often cause severe side-effects such as nausea, bone marrow suppression and kidney toxicity. Metal complexation can have a major influence on the antiviral and co-receptor binding properties of some drugs. Metal coordination complexes offer potential advantages over the more common organic based drugs, including accessible redox states, kinetics of ligand substitution and a wide structural diversity. Thus, this review attempts to address the recent development in organometallic drug discovery for viral infection. This review can serve as an important tool in research, development and discovery of new organometallic antiviral drug.

24

HPTLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF EPROSARTAN MESYLATE IN HUMAN PLASMA

Vineeta Khanvilkar, Vinayak Dalvi, Atmaram Tambe, Daksha Parmar, Vilasrao Kadam

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Navi Mumbai- 400614.

Abstract

A simple high performance thin- layer chromatographic method was developed and validated for estimation of eprosartan mesylate in human plasma using losartan as internal standard. Protein precipitation technique was used for extraction of drugs from human plasma. Separation was achieved on precoated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates using mobile phase ethyl acetate: acetonitrile: glacial acetic acid in the ratio 6:4:0.2 (v/v/v). Detection was performed by densitometric analysis at 238 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship in the concentration range of 0.7-32 µg/ml. The percent recovery of eprosartan mesylate was found to be 61.50- 66.58%. The Rf values for eprosartan mesylate and losartan were 0.3±0.03 and 0.59±0.03, respectively. The method was validated in accordance with the requirements of European Medicines Agency (EMEA) guidelines. The proposed method can be applied for quantitative analysis of eprosartan in clinical samples.

25

STUDY ON INCIDENCE OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTION IN HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS IN TEACHING HOSPITAL

Sara Fatima*1, Sobia Noor1, Ayesha Fatima1, Huma Fatima1,  Dr. Arshad Hussain Mohd1, Dr. Mazhar Uddin Ali Khan2.

1Pharm.D, Department of Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy Practice, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, AP, India.

2MS, Department of orthopedics, Owaisi Hospital and Research centre, Hyderabad, AP, India.

Abstract

Adverse drug reactions are a common clinical problem and are associated with significant risk of morbidity, mortality and admission to hospital. It is an undesirable effect of a drug beyond its anticipated therapeutic effects occurring during clinical use. The objective of the study was to assess incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients (especially elderly patients, females and patients with multiple drug therapy) in a teaching hospital. The methods applied in this study was a single centered, observational, non-interventional study conducted by random selection of patients. Patients receiving pharmacological therapies were interviewed after obtaining verbal consent for information on type of adverse effect and other pertinent information like demographics, diagnosis, treatment and drugs used to manage the adverse drug reactions were collected from patients medical record.During six months study period, a total of 230 patients were admitted. Out of 230 patients, 107 male and 123 female. Total of 80 ADRs were observed in 67 patients. Among the 67 patients reported with ADRs 42 were female and 25 were male. Female experience more ADRs than male. The most vulnerable age group were 21-50yrs with respect to ADRs followed by 51-65yrs and >65yrs. Top most drugs involved in causing ADRs were tramadol, furosemide, ramipril and phenytoin. This study concludes that, polypharmacy and gender are the major risk factor in contributing the development of ADRs. The attempts to minimize ADRs should be focus on increasing the awareness through educational interventions, implementing appropriate use of medications, regular follow up by patients and non-pharmacological treatment for improved quality of life. 

 

26

IN VITRO EVALUATION OF PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST EXSEROHILUM TURCICUM (PASS.) CAUSING LEAF BLIGHT OF SORGHUM

T.Meena kumari, N.Venkateswarlu, O.Sireesha, A.Sreeramulu

Department of Botany, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, 517 502

Abstract

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has global socio-economic importance and is as model plant species for many tropical grasses with complex genomes. It is frequently devastated by Turcicum leaf blight, caused by Exserohilum turcicum, leading to considerable grain and fodder yield losses. With the introduction of high yielding indigenous and exotic hybrids and use of fertilisers, there has been a phenomenal increase in the area and production. Fifteen medicinal plants extracts viz Andrographis paniculata , Calotropis procera, Pongamia glabra, Azadirachta indica, Phyllanthus emblica Murraya koenigii Syzygium cumini Ocimum tenuiflorum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Cassia montana,  pareira, Vitex leucoxylon, , Datura stramonium, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Wrightia tinctoria and  Eucalyptus globules were evaluated in vitro against  leaf blight of sorghum caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) by poisoned food technique method.  The results concluded that the Phyllanthus emblica, Calotropis procera and Eucalyptus globules were found significantly more effective as an alternative to conventional chemical fungicide.

27

DEVELOPMENT OF QUALITY STANDARDS OF ANCIENT SILVER BASED NANOMEDICINE: RAUPYA (SILVER) BHASMA

Shyam Baboo Prasad1, Yashwant1, Madhurima Bhargava2, Vidhu Aeri3

1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Punjab (India)

2Department of Rashsastra, Dayanand Ayurvedic College, Punjab (India)

3Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi (India).

Abstract

Health practitioner afraid to use metal as medicine due to reported severe toxicity. However Ayurvedic system of medicine particularly Rashshastra described about metal based medicine to cure various ailments. From ancient time bhasma is used in various disease and found to be free from toxicity. As per Ayurvedic physician bhasma may be toxic if it is not prepared as per standard method mention in Rashshastra. Raupya bhasma is silver based nanomedicine of ancient Ayurveda which is used to strengthen brain, liver, heart and memory. It is also used as immunomodulator and aphrodisiac. Due to lack of scientific data over Raupya bhasma it is not as popular as other silver nanomedicine. To consider above mention fact an attempt has been taken to prepare Raupya bhasma according to ancient literature and their characterisation by modern analytical techniques. In this work, we present a systematic characterization of this traditional drug using various techniques like inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and zeta sizer. The silver content in bhasma was found to be 63.054%. The nature of bhasma was found to be microcrystalline irregular having particle size 323.8 nm. TGA analysis indicates about loss of weight with temperature. The results obtained were found to satisfactory and confirm the traditional evaluation process by modern method. In addition, some specific findings were also made which could be used as standard data for quality control of Raupya bhasma.

28

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORAL FLOATING IN SITU GEL OF MOXIFLOXACIN HCl

T.Sivannarayana1*, Varanasi.S.N.Murthy2, I. John Noble Deva Kumar1 , Prakash. K3, Rajendra Prasad. A3

1Nirmala College Of Pharmacy

2University college of pharmaceutical sciences, Acharya Nagarjuna University,  

3Nirmala College Of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Nirmala College of pharmacy Atmakur, Guntur dist, Andhra Pradesh, India. 

Abstract

The present research was focused to develop the formulation to release the drug (Moxifloxacin hydrochloride) for an extended period of time and buoyant, thus prolong the residence time of formula­tion in the stomach. Sodium alginate and pectin are used as polymers. Tri sodium citrate and calcium carbonate are the main ingredients for the formation of gelling solution. In the present study calcium ions released from calcium carbonate complexes with citrate ions. The conversion of complexed calcium into free calcium causes gelation of Alginate. In order to release the drug from the formulation the gelled material floats upwards with a potential in the stomach. Based on the concentration of polymer the drug release was varied. Totally twelve formulations were prepared with sodium alginate alone and sodium alginate with pectin combination. In vitro evaluation study was conducted in USP- Type II apparatus. In all the formulations, MIG-4 and MIG-9 are optimized for 8 hrs. The viscosities of the samples were measured by Brookfield Viscometer. The porosity of gel was evaluated by using scanning electron microscope. The floating in-situ gels can be formulated by using polymers like Chitosan, Polaxomer and natural polymers like tamarind seed polymers. The Moxifloxacin floating in-situ gels used to treat H. Pylori infection. This formulation enhances the residence time. The in-situ  gel formulations were developed for improve patient complence. 

29

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTI-ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF SALVADORA PERSICA LINN. AND ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS WILLD: AN IN-VITRO STUDY

Rupesh K. Gautam*1, 2, Sanjay Sharma1, Komal Sharma3

1Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), India.

2Department of Pharmacology, Jaipur College of Pharmacy, Jaipur (Rajasthan), India.

3Department of Pharmacology, Bhupal  Nobles’ Institute  of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur (Rajasthan), India

Abstract

The present study is aimed to compare the anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Salvadora persica Linn (EESP) and root of Asparagus racemosus, Willd. (EEAR) by in-vitro techniques. Two in-vitro models i.e. inhibition of protein denaturation and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization were selected for the study. Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug. The results of both models exhibited that EESP, EEAR and standard drug (diclofenac sodium) showed concentration dependent inhibition of protein (egg albumin) denaturation as well as stabilization towards HRBC membrane. By comparing the present findings, it can be concluded that EEAR has slightly more potent anti-arthritic activity than EESP. The activity may be due to the presence of phytocompounds such as flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids etc.

30

UREA AND THIOUREA DERIVATIVES OF CELECOXIB DRUG: SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

Chenna Krishna Reddy R1, Subba Rao D1, Naresh K2, Venkata Rami Reddy Y1 and Naga Raju C*1

1Department of Chemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract

A series of new urea and thiourea derivatives of 4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl] benzenesulfonamide (Celecoxib drug) (6a-j) have been synthesized via simple addition reaction of celecoxib with bioactive substituted aryl isocyanates/isothiocyanates. All the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity including MIC value. Among all the compounds 6a, 6b, 6g, and 6j found to be significant antibacterial activity and compounds 6d, 6e, 6f, and 6i exhibited promising antifungal activity against all the tested fungal strains. Promptly, urea and thiourea derivatives functionalized with lipophilic groups, F, Cl and NO2 influence to exhibit potential antimicrobial activity. 

31

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS OF CAPECITABINE USING DIFFERENT HYDROPHYLIC POLYMERS

SUCHITRA.DOMALA*1, DEEPAK S. KOBRAGADE1, VELMURUGAN.SELLAPPAN2

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Bharat Institute of Technological Sciences, Mangalpally,  Ibrahimpatnam, Rangareddy Dist,  Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh, 501510 India.

2Department of Industrial Pharmacy, KLR pharmacy college, New Palvoncha, Khammam Dist, Andhra Pradesh, 507115 India.

Abstract

The objective of this work was to formulate and evaluate the sustained release matrix tablets of Capecitabine - an anti cancer drug used in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and colorectal cancers by using various hydrophilic polymers such as Xanthan gum, Carbopol and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K 100 [HPMC K 100] as cost-effective, nontoxic, easily available, with suitable hydrophilic matrix systems. Matrix tablets of Capecitabine were prepared by wet granulation method. Granules were evaluated for pre compression parameters such as bulk density, tapped density were found within limits. Angle of repose showed that the blend was freely flowing and Carr’s index was in 11.29 ± 0.324 to 14.53 ± 0.926 showing that the powered blend were having  good compressibility. The prepared tablets were evaluated for various post compression parameters such as hardness, friability, uniformity of weight were showed good physical properties by satisfying with the limits. The uniformity of drug content was found to be   99.63 ± 0.65% to 99.08 ± 0.28% indicating that the drug content was uniform in all batches. The dissolution test was performed in the phosphate buffer media (pH 6.8) up to 24 hours. Among the different formulations prepared, formulation no. 2 with HPMC K 100 10%, Xanthan gum 10% has the % drug release 98.44% up to 24 hours was found to be satisfactory compare to other formulations. Overall, the safety and patient compliance was improved as well as the efficacy of the drug; this was achieved by reducing the frequency of drug administration and better control of drug plasma levels.

32

STABILITY-INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF EPIRUBICIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

A. Sreedevi, A. Lakshmana Rao*, L. Kalyani

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, V.V. Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gudlavalleru- 521 356, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

A simple, isocratic, rapid, accurate and precise stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Epirubicin in bulk and its pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was developed using Zorbax SB C8 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µ) as stationary phase with mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer pH 3.1 and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 v/v. An excellent linearity was observed for Epirubicin in the concentration range of 10-60 µg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The flow rate was maintained at 1.0 mL/min and UV detection was performed at 233 nm for eluted compound. The retention time was 3.437 min. The percentage assay of Epirubicin was 99.4%. The method developed was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, ruggedness, robustness, solution stability, selectivity and forced degradation studies were performed as per ICH guidelines. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for Epirubicin was found to be 0.06 μg/mL and 0.19 μg/mL respectively. The drug Epirubicin was subjected to acidic, alkaline, oxidative, thermal, hydrolytic and photolytic stress conditions according to ICH regulations. Due to simplicity, accuracy, this method is suitable for the routine quality control analysis of the Epirubicin in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulation.

33

STUDIES ON HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF SEEDS OF CUMINUM CYMINUM LINN

Vaibhav Srivastava*1, Subodh dubey2, Shyam Bihari Sharma3, Varun Chaddha4

1Department of Pharmacognosy, Nagaji Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Gwalior (M.P.)

2IPS College of Pharmacy, Shivpuri Link road, Gwalior, (M.P.)

3SOS in Pharmaceutical Science, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (M.P.)

4Sri RNS Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Gwalior (M.P.)

Abstract

Hyperlipidemia is a very common disease. Various reasons like abnormal and unusual food habits, life styles and stress of various nature and origin are the various aspect of the disorder. Drugs from herbal sources and about 50 medicinal plants are under screening for a potential natural hypolipidemic agent. Hyperlipidemia causes atherosclerosis, which is a major cause of death in the world. This paper put forth the anti- hyperlipidemic potential of Cuminum cyminum linn. (Commonly known as ‘Jira’) to a great extent and also highlights major issue in combacting the disorder. 

34

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A NOVEL RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CABAZITAXEL IN BULK AND FORMULATIONS.

Geetharam Yanamadala 1, 3, Praveen srikumar. P 2, Rushyendra G.V1, V.R.M.Gupta 1, Srinivasarao. S 1

1. Department of pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, Pullareddy institute of   pharmacy, Hyderabad

2. Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, Hindu college of pharmacy, Guntur, Andhrapradesh, India

3. College of Pharmaceutical sciences, Acharya Nagarjuna university, Guntur, Andhrapradesh, India.

Abstract

A simple, specific, precise, and accurate RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Cabazitaxel in bulk and parenteral formulations. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Thermo Hypersil ODS C18(250 x 4.6mm x 3.5µ) column using potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (Adjusted PH 3.0 with Orthophosphoric acid) and Acetonitrile in the ratio 30:70 at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min with UV detection at 223 nm.The retention time was around 4.6.Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 30-90 µg/ml (R2=0.999) with regression equation y = 26209x + 204.79.The Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification were found to be 0.398 and 1.3274µg/ml respectively.

35

FORMULATION AND ABSORPTION ENHANCEMENT OF METFORMIN ORAL TABLETS

M. Ravindra Babu1, K. Sampath Kumar2

1Asst.proff, Dept of Pharmaceutics, Creative Educational Society’s College of Pharmacy, Chinnatekur, Kurnool-518002, A.P. INDIA.

2Dept Of Pharmaceutics, SLVCP, proddatur,kadapa (dist)

 

Abstract

All the BCS Class-III drugs show high solubility and low permeability. Due to low permeability they have less intestinal absorption. The present study concentrates on the Metformin which is a BCS-III drug, which is having less permeability which in turn having less intestinal absorption. The permeability can be increased by using different permeation enhancers like chelates, salicylates, surfactants etc., The permeability of this drug was increased by the addition of sodium salicylate which acts as a permeation enhancer. This in turn results in better absorption enhancement. Six formulations were prepared in which calcium sulphate was used as filler and sodium salicylate as absorption enhancer where the amount of absorption enhancer increases from F1-F6 with the increment of 5mg for each formulation. All formulations are punched in the form of tablets with 350mg weight and this weight is kept common for all formulations. Out of all, F6 formulation shows highest absorption enhancement ratio. The absorption enhancement ratio was decided by the calculation of permeation coefficient by using everted sac method with simultaneous dissolution and absorption. The permeability studies were conducted ex vivo by using freshly scarified chicken intestine. This study revealed that 30 mg of sodium salicylate enhances intestinal absorption of 250 mg of Metformin.

36

Permeation coefficient, Permeation enhancers, Enhancement ratio, Salicylates, Everted sac method, Simultaneous dissolution-absorption

Pranabesh Sikdar, C. Shashank, Dr. M.Niranjan Babu

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Thirupathi, Andhrapradesh.

 

Abstract

Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research.Algae are relatively simple photosynthetic plants with unicellular reproductive structures. These marine algae have different biomasses and among these Graceleria edulis were choosen to carry out antibacterial activity against gram (+) and gram (-) organism. The constituents were extracted using 2 different solvents i.e. ethanolic extract and aqueous extract. The antibacterial activity is carried out by Agar Disc method. The aqueous and the ethanollic extract have shown good antibacterial activity against E.coli, S.aereus and B.subtilis. The ethanol extract showed better result than aqueous extracts. The maximum antibacterial activity was noted in ethanol extracts of Graceleria edulis (GEEA) which showed highest inhibitory activity against E.coli (26 mm) and the minimum was recorded in aqueous extracts of Graceleria edulis (GEAE) against E. coli (10 mm).

37

QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF LAMOTRIGINE BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY USING ETHYL CHLOROFORMATE AS A DERIVATIZING REAGENT IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATION

R S Chandan1, B M Gurupadayya2, M Indupriya3

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore 570 015, India

Abstract

 

A novel Gas Chromatographic (GC) method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of Lamotrigine (LMT) in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Ethyl chloroformate (ECF) was used as a precolumn derivatizing reagent. GC separation was carried out on an Rtx-5 capillary column (cross bond 5% diphenyl/95% dimethyl polysiloxane) with a length of 30 meters and an internal diameter of 0.25 mm with flame ionization detector. The elution was carried out at an initial temperature of 80˚ C for 4 minutes and temperature increased at the rate of 100˚C/min up to 180˚C for 5min. Column pressure was programmed as 29.8 Kpa for 3.5 minutes and pressure increased at rate of 20Kpa/min up to 120Kpa for 4.50 minutes. The linear calibration ranges for LMT was observed between 2- 10 ng/ml. The method was subsequently applied to the determination of LMT in pharmaceutical preparations. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was found to be 0.17%. The recovery studies were done and the percentage recovery of LMT was found to be 97.86%.

 

38

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM AND TELMISARTAN IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

R S Chandan1,2, M Vasudevan1, Deecaraman1

1Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Dr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute, Dr. M. G. R. University, Maduravoyal, Chennai 600 019, (TN), India.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore 570 015, (KA), India.

 Abstract

A simple, sensitive, accurate stability indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of Atorvastatin calcium and Telmisartan in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The quantification was carried out using Hypersil BDS C18 (250× 4.6, 5 µm) column. The mobile phase consists of the mixed phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 and acetonitrile in the ratio of 55:45. The flow rate was found to be 1ml/min and detector wavelength was 254nm. The calibration curve was linear and the concentration range was found to be 8-48 µg/ml and 16-96 µg/ml for Atorvastatin calcium and Telmisartan with the correlation coefficient of Atorvastatin calcium and Telmisartan 0.9988 and 0.9994 respectively. The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines. The drug undergoes degradation under acidic, alkaline, oxidation and UV conditions. For all the stability study, the formation of degradable product was confirmed by comparing to chromatogram of the solution kept under normal conditions. The Telmisartan drug was found to degrade extensively in acidic, basic, UV and mild degradation was observed when exposed to oxidation whereas Atorvastatin calcium was found to degrade extensively in acidic, basic, UV and oxidation. The proposed method can be readily utilized for bulk and pharmaceutical formulations of Atorvastatin calcium and Telmisartan.

39

STRESS: EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH & ITS MANAGEMENT

Shyam Bihari Sharma*1, Sunisha Kulkarni1, Kaushal Prasad Mishra1, Vaibhav Srivastava2

1School of Studies in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.

2Department of Pharmacognosy, Nagaji Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India

Abstract

Stress may be considered as any physical, chemical, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental unrest and that may be a factor in causing disease. Physical and chemical factors that can cause stress include trauma, infections, toxins, illnesses, and injuries of any sort. If stress disrupts body balance and function, then is all stress bad? Not necessarily. A mild degree of stress and tension can sometimes be beneficial. Stress produces numerous symptoms which vary according to persons, situations, and severity. These can include physical health decline as well as depression. The process of stress management is named as one of the keys to a happy and successful life in modern society .Many practical stress management techniques are available, some for use by health practitioners and others for self-help, which may help an individual to reduce stress, provide positive feelings of being in control of one's life and promote general well-being. An important goal for those under stress is the management of life stresses. We can learn relaxation techniques and other methods to manage stress so that we have control over our stress and its effects on our physical and mental health. Stress management involves controlling and reducing the tension that occurs in stressful situations by making emotional and physical changes. Meditation can relax your mind and help fight stress. It is one useful technique for dealing with stress.

40

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP -HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF LANSOPRAZOLE IN HUMAN PLASMA

Satyadev TNVSS1, Tenneti Jayaprakash2, Tata Santosh2, B. Syama Sundar* 3

1.Lecturer, PG Department of Chemistry, P B Siddhartha College of Arts & Science,Vijayawada

2. Corpuscle Research Solutions, Visakhapatnam.

4.Vice - Chancellor, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa.

 

Abstract

Lansoprazole in human plasma using metronidazole as internal standard was determined quantitatively by a well developed and validated RP – HPLC method by UV detection. The extraction process involved a liquid – liquid extraction using a 70:30 % v/v mixture of t-butyl methyl ether and Dichloromethane. Both lansoprazole and the internal standard (metronidazole) were eluted under isocratic mode. A mixture of 50:50 % v/v methanol and 10mM mixed phosphate buffer (pH 3) at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/Minute was used as mobile phase. The wave length of detection is 285 nm. The method showed good linearity in the range of 50.25 – 2999.93 ng/mL. Matrix effects were not observed. 

41

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LANSOPRAZOLE AND NAPROXEN IN HUMAN PLASMA BY VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD

R. Vijayalakshmi1, M. Poorna Chandra Rao2,  P. Kalyani3, P.Sandya4 and M.D.  Dhanaraju1*

1Research Lab, GIET School of pharmacy,  Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India .

2Mahindra Satyam, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

3Drug Inspector, Kovvur, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India.

4KGRL College of pharmacy, Bhimavaram, West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India.

 Abstract

This paper reports a validated RP-HPLC method for the estimation of lansoprazole and naproxen in combination formulation and human plasma. The method is achieved on a phenomenex C18 column (4.6 x 250mm, 5µ i.d), using methanol: pH 7.8 buffer (70:30%, v/v),  as mobile phase mixture, applying a flow rate of 1ml/min and eluents were monitored at 214 nm with an average retention time for lansoprazole and naproxen at 4.9 and 3.71 min, respectively and the linear calibration curves between the concentration range of 100-350 µg/ml for lansoprazole and 50-300 µg/ml for naproxen.  The correlation coefficient was found nearer to 0.9998 for both drugs. The LOD and LOQ for lansoprazole was 4.14; 12.57 µg/ml and naproxen was 6.5; 19.72 µg/ml, respectively. The number of theoretical plates was found to be 8932 for lansoprazole and 6385 for naproxen.  Ethyl acetate was used as the extraction solvent for liquid- liquid extraction of both drugs in spiked human plasma. The developed method was evidenced to be more accurate, simple, precise and rapid by statistical validation and recovery studies.

42

DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROPARTICULATED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF CAPTOPRIL

Manish Kumar Gupta*1, Dr. Deepak Prakash1, Dr. Brahmeshwar Mishra2

1Institute of Pharmacy, Harish Chandra Post Graduate College, Varanasi, (UP) India,

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology, (B.H.U.), Varanasi, (UP) India.

Abstract

From the very beginning of the human race; the quest is going on for newer and better alternatives. In the present study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) based microparticles bearing captopril were prepared by an emulsification–heat stabilization technique and emulsification polymerization technique. The prepared microparticles were studied for percentage practical yield, drug loading, particle size distribution, in vitro release characteristics and stability studies. Surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy of the microparticles revealed a spherical, nonporous and uniform appearance, with a smooth surface which prepared by heat stabilization method as compare to polymerization method. The microparticles had mean diameter between 2 and 12μm of which more than 75% were below 6μm and incorporation efficiency of 54.88–71.67%was obtained. In vitro release profile for formulations containing captopril-loaded albumin microparticles with heat stabilizing technique shows slow controlled release up to 24h against emulsification polymerization technique. On comparing regression-coefficient (r2) values for Hixson Crowel, Higuchi and Peppas kinetic models, different batches of microparticles showed Fickian, non-Fickian, & diffusion kinetics. Stability studies showed that maximum drug content and closest in vitro release to initial data were found in the formulation stored at 4˚C. Further research warranted on a modified formulation of captopril, is optimizing biodegradable microparticulate drug delivery system.

43

A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEDICATION USE AND THE RISK OF STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME OR TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROSIS

Sandeep.A1, G.P.Mohanta2, Dr.S.Viswanathan3, Rajat rana4

  1 Department of Pharmacy Practice, Annamalai University, India.                                                               

 2 Department of Pharmacy Practice,Annamalai University, India.                                                                    

 3 Rajah Muthiah Medical College Hospital,Annamalai University, India. 

 4Department of Pharmacy Practice, Annamalai University, India.

Abstract

Background : Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrosis (TEN) are rare but severe adverse drug cutaneous reactions associated with the use of several medications.

Objective : To review the current medication use and the risk of stevens-johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrosis that is associated with the medicine

Studymethod: All publications describing medication use and risk of SJS and TEN in adults and  children were searched in Medline and The Cochrane collaboration. The search yielded 920 references, of which 896 were excluded, we couldn’t retrieve 11 case reports, hence 13 references were included, which consisted of  4 case-control studies in 1405 cases (5736 controls),a study of 82 retrospectively reviewed cases,7 case reports, a pooled analysis from 2 multicentre case-control studies in paediatric patients involving 80 cases and 216 controls and another study in children consisting of 29 sjs/ten cases. As a result totally 1414 adult cases and 135 paediatric cases of sjs/ten associated with drug use were included in the study.

Results :The total number of patients of Stevens Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrosis (associated with medication use) included in the reports are 1549 (which include 1414 adult patients and 135 pediatric patients).Among them 287 patients were associated with the use of antibiotics, which account for 18.53% of the total diseased. The use of antiepileptic’s was found in 274 patients which account for 17.69% of total. A total of 147 patients were associated with the use of allopurinol (An antigout agent) accounting for 9.49% of total. A total of 115 patients were associated with the use of NSAIDs, accounting for 7.42% of total. Around 96 were associated with the use of Analgesics (non NSAID), accounting for 6.20% of total. Rest of the medications used included Proton Pump Inhibitors(PPI) in 34 patients(2.19%),Antiviral drugs in 21 patients (1.36%),chlormezanone in 13(0.84%),Antihyperlipidemic in 12(0.77%) and chemotherapy as a cause in 2 patients accounting for 0.13%.

 

Conclusion : Stevens Johnson syndrome and Toxic Epidermal necrosis are rare but potentially severe adverse drug reactions associated with the use of several medications. Mortality rate in children was found to be significantly lower than in adults. Antibiotics as a group dominated for both adults and children, followed by antiepileptic’s, oxicam NSAIDs, allopurinol, chlormezanone, and corticosteroids, which were associated with increased in the risk of Stevens–Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. However, when individual drugs were considered, it was the antiepileptic, carbamazepine, that was associated with most of the SJS/TEN patients(both adult and children) encountered. But for no drug the risk exceeded five cases per million users per week. Our study also found that the risk associated is directly proportional to the exposure time for any drug.

44

FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ORAL DISINTEGRATING TABLETS OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL

Shaik Irfan Pasha*1, Nagakanyaka Devi Paladugu1, Bonthu Satyanarayana1, Neerukonda Vamsi1

 1Department of Pharmaceutics, MAX Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India-507001.

Abstract

The objective of present study is to develop mouth dissolving tablets of an antihypertensive drug, olmesartan medoxomil. Olmesartan is a highly potent, long-acting and selective angiotensin II type 1 (AT) receptor blocker. It is administered orally as an inactive prodrug olmesartan medoxomil which is rapidly and completely converted to olmesartan during gastrointestinal absorption. In this investigation rapid disintegrating tablets were prepared by using various super disintegrating agents; Crospovidone, Croscarmellose sodium and Sodium starch glycolate in concentrations 3%, 4% and 5% by direct compression technique. Prepared tablets were evaluated for thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, wetting time, in-vitro disintegration time, drug content and in vitro drug release. Disintegration time and drug release were taken as the basis to optimize the rapidly disintegrating tablets. All the formulations were evaluated for the influence of disintegrants and their concentrations on the characteristics of rapid disintegrating tablets mainly in terms of disintegration time and dissolution studies. Among all the formulations, the batch prepared using 5% crospovidone (F6) showed better disintegration time of 18 sec. The formulations (F4, F5 and F6) with crospovidone showed more than 90% drug release within 30 min.  The formulations with different superdisintegrants to improve the drug release rate & disintegration time were found to be in the following order, Crospovidone > Croscarmellose sodium > Sodium starch glycolate respectively.

45

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLET (ODT) OF CINNARIZINE BY DIRECT COMPRESSION METHOD: A REVIEW

Avinash.K.Dhadve1, Chander.P.Rathod2

1Department of pharmaceutics, Nanded Pharmacy College Nanded, Maharashtra, India.

2Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, Nanded Pharmacy College Nanded, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

In a society in which people are living longer, drug dosage forms that can improve elderly patient compliance are needed. Many elderly patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets or capsules. In order to solve this problem, the development of solid dosage form that disintegrates rapidly or dissolves even when taken orally without water are being formulated anywhere, anytime lead to their suitability to geriatric and pediatric patients. Oro-dispersible tablet is a tablet to be placed in mouth where it disappears rapidly before swallowing. They are also suitable for the mentally ill, the bedridden, and patients who do not have easy access to water. Cinnarizine is widely used in the treatment of motion sickness, vomiting,coughing during common cold, allergic conditions and bronchitis and vertigo. Finally it can be observed that the orodispersible tablet is ideal for elderly patients and patients consuming tablet in supine position without intake of liquid. This formulation has high patient compliance and should be tried with other drug candidates.

46

DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERISATION OF LIPOSOMAL DELIVERY SYSTEM CONTAINING DIURETIC DRUG TORSEMIDE

Tapaswi Rani Dash*1, Biswajit Mukherjee2

1School of Pharmacy & Emerging Sciences, BUEST, Baddi, Makhnumajra, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India

2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

 

Abstract

The present work has been designed to develop a simple manufacturing approach of torsemide loaded freeze-dried liposomes for intravenous administration to treat hepatic chirrosis and hypertension, possibly to minimize its side effect and pH related problems in blood. After reconstitution of the freeze dried formulation, it could be directly injected into the vein.  So to fulfill the objectives the torsemide loaded liposomes were formulated by Lipid film hydration technique using soya lecithin, cholesterol and drug in different weight ratios. The prepared liposomes were characterized in terms of drug excipient interaction by FTIR spectroscopy, morphological study of liposomes by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size and particle size distribution, polydispersity index, zeta potential, drug loading, drug release through dialysis membrane.

47

A NEW RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF LINAGLIPTIN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS

K. Sujatha*1, J.V.L.N. Seshagiri Rao2

1Department of Pharmacy, Government Polytechnic, Visakhapatnam.

2Yalamarty College of Pharmacy, Visakhapatnam.

Abstract

An accurate RP-HPLC method with short retention and run times was developed for estimation of linagliptin in its tablet dosage forms. Good separation of the drug was achieved on an X Bridge C18 column (100 x 4.6 mm; 5m) by using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of phosphate buffer (pH 3.4) and acetonitrile (70:30 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The drug in the eluates was monitored by UV detection at 240 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the retention time obtained for the drug was 2.791 min. The linearity of quantification was observed in the concentration range of 25-150 µg/mL of the drug. The validation of the method was done by following the ICH guideline. The proposed method could be applied for determination of linagliptin in its tablet dosage forms without any interference from normal excipients.

48

FREQUENCY OF MODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE IN THE DOCTORS OF LIAQUAT UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES, JAMSHORO.

Bikha Ram Devrajani 1, Syed Ali Haider Naqvi 2, Saleem Ilyas3, Aneela Atta ur Rahman4, Munir Ahmed Sheikh5, Sunil Maheshwari6, Samia Jaffer6

1Professor of Medicine & Director, Medical Research Centre, LUMHS, Jamshoro.

2Additional Director, Professional Development Centre DIMC, Assistant Professor of Medicine, DIMC, DUHS.
3 Director, PDC, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi.

4 Community Medicine and Public Health Sciences, LUMHS, Jamshoro.

5Pakistan Medical and Research Council Karachi.

6Department of Medicine, Medical Unit-IV, LUH, Jamshoro

Abstract

To investigate modifiable risk factors of heart disease among doctors of a University hospital. This was a cross-sectional study conducting during the symposium of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS), Jamshoro. The young doctors were requested for brief history of the modifiable risk factors of heart diseases, the body measurements and the laboratory tests of glucose and total cholesterol. The young doctors were interviewed for the presence or absence of the risk factors, history of smoking, hypertension and diabetes in themselves and their parents. The laboratory tests included random blood glucose and total cholesterol. The body measurements included weight in kilograms and height in centimeters and the blood pressure in mm of Hg at resting position.  A total of 204 doctors were interviewed, examined for the body measurements and blood glucose and cholesterol were measured.  Mean age was 34.91 + 12.21 years. Mean BMI was 24.69+ 4.73 Mean systolic BP was 120.10 + 16.42 mm Hg while mean diastolic BP was 77.23 + 13.23 mm Hg. Mean random blood cholesterol was 173.37+31.27 mg/dl. Mean random blood sugar was 147.58 + 54.41 mg/dl. Majority of the doctors were not performing any regular exercise (n=174). Ninety four percent of the doctors were found non-smokers and sixteen percent of doctors were found hypertensive. Seven percent of the doctors were known diabetic. Implement to yourself first before advising the others is the basic teaching of Islam and also other sacred religions. Doctors are the role models of every community and society; if they are not practicing the health principles themselves is the alarming situation. Repeated workshops are needed for reminding medical professionals about the importance of modifiable cvs risk factors.

49

LEAF EXTRACT OF AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L. CONFINES THE OXIDATIVE STRESS AND CONFERS HEPATOPROTECTION IN ALBINO MICE

Sandipan Mazumder1, Shuvasish Choudhury2

1Department Of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Assam University, Silchar-788011, India.

2Natural Product Process Laboratory, Central Instrumentation Laboratory, Assam University Silchar-788011, Assam, India.

 

Abstract

Different parts of the plant Averrhoa carambola L. is used for the treatment of various disease/disorder (s) by ethnic communities from North Maharashtra and Sonowal Kachari tribes of Dibrugarh, Assam. Still no scientific study is available about the hepatoprotective effect of the leaf of this plant. Present investigation aims to illustrate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant profile of leaves of Averrhoa carambola on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in mice. To achieve the objective, extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening. The leaf extract was then tested for its oral toxicity which was followed by evaluation of hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity at a dose level of 100mg/kg bw, 200mg/kg bw and 400mg/kg bw orally. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effect was further sustained by validating the leaf extract against different pharmacological parameters. Leaf extract of A.carambola  possess  phytoconstituents like alkaloids, tannins, reducing sugar and flavonoids. The extract did not any show any sign of toxicity. The pre-treatment of extract had significantly controlled the levels of serum biochemical and antioxidant enzymes. Finally the grades of hepatoprotectivity were further confirmed while experimenting against other parameters. Finally it can be concluded that the study demonstrates hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of leaf of Averrhoa carambola and thus supports its usage in traditional medicine.

50

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF RIVASTIGMINE TARTRATE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Sk .Sharmila*, Srilakshmi.M, Renukadevi.G, S.A. Rahaman, K.Shanthakumari.

Department of pharmaceutical Analysis, Nirmala College of pharmaceutical sciences,

Atmakuru (vill), Mangalgiri- 522503, Andhrapradesh.

Abstract

A simple efficient, precise and accurate spectroscopic method has been developed and validated for quantitative estimation of Rivastigmine tartrate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. Rivastigmine tartrate is soluble in 0.1N HCl so it was used as solvent. Rivastigmine tartrate is dissolved in 0.1N HCl the resulting solution was then scanned in the UV range (200-400nm) in a 1cm quartz cell in a double beam UV spectrophotometer. The λmax of Rivastigmine tartrate was found to be 263.1 nm. The method obeys Beers law in the concentration range from 10-90 μg/ml. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999 (r2═ 0.999). The LOD and LOQ were found to be 2.68 and 8.12 μg/ ml respectively. The result of estimation of marketed formulation (Exelon) was found to be 99.02 %. The accuracy of the method was determined by recovery studies. The percentage recovery was found to be 99.9%. The method was validated statistically as per ICH guidelines. The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with % RSD less than 2. So, the proposed method was found to be simple, specific, precise, accuracy, linear, and rugged. Hence it can be applied for routine analysis of Rivastigmine tartrate in bulk drug and the Pharmaceutical formulations.

51

Analytical Method Development and Validation of Cefepime Hydrochloride and Tazobactam Sodium in Bulk and Sterile Dry Powder for Injection by Gradient RP-HPLC.

K.Neelima1*, Y.Rajendra Prasad2, N.Appalraju3, S.Selina1, R.Nikhila1.

1*Department of Chemistry, Sarojini Naidu Vanitha Pharmacy Mahavidyalaya, Hyderabad-500001, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Andhra University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peda Waltair, Visakhapatnam- 530003, Andhra Pradesh, India.

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sultan-Ul-Uloom College of Pharmacy, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad – 500034, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

A simple, sensitive, linear, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Cefepime Hydrochloride and Tazobactam Sodium in sterile dry powder for injection was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation of the two drugs was achieved on Inertsil ODS 3V (150 mm x 4.6 mm) 5µ column in a Gradient mode. The mobile phase mixture consisting of 0.08 M ammonium acetate buffer whose pH was adjusted to 3.0  using dilute orthophosphoric acid (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) was set with gradient programming for 15min and was delivered at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and effluents are monitored at 220 nm. The retention time of Cefepime HCL and Tazobactam Sodium was found to be 3.722 and 4.304 min respectively. The percentage assay of Cefepime HCL and Tazobactam Sodium was found to be 99.83% and 96.51%. Calibration curves were linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.991 for CEH and 0.997 for TAS over the concentration range of 40-120 μg/mL for both the drugs and precise with (%RSD<2).  The LOD for CEH and TAS were found to be 0.2 μg/mL and 0.022 μg/mL and LOQ for CEH and TAS were found to be 0.6 μg/mL and 0.075 μg/mL respectively. The method was validated by determining its accuracy, precision and system suitability as per ICH guidelines and the developed method can be employed for routine quality control analysis.

52

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Pterolobium hexapetalum (Roth.) Sant. and Wagh

B. Kavitha*, N. Yasodamma, C. Alekhya.

Department of Botany, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati,

Andhra Pradesh, India -517502.

 

Abstract

Pterolobium hexapetalum is one of the important medicinal plants (Caesalpiniaceae) with significant herbal uses like diarrhea, skin disorders, constipation, piles and venereal diseases with leaf, stem bark, fruit and flower parts. Herbal drug also possess in high quantities of significant phytoconstituents in leaf and stem bark extracts like alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, glycosides, tannins, quinines and steroids with effective antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts at 10 mg/well with 0.312- 0.625mg of MIC values. Hence it is also necessary for scientific validation of antifungal activities of fruit extracts on A.niger and C. candida in support of its herbal uses against diarrhea, constipation, piles and ulcer. Antifungal activity of fruit aqueous, methanol, benzene and alcohol extracts at 10mg/well proved effective with 26-36mm zone of inhibition on both organisms with 0.156-0.625mg Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values. Antifungal activity of P. hexapetalum aqueous, methanol and benzene extracts are supported with the earlier reports of other Caesalpiniaceae species like B.purpurea, B.racemosa, B.rufesens, C.alata, C.fistula, C.tora, C.nigricans, Caesalpinia bonducella, C.sappan, Hardwickia binata, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Sena alata and T.indica on fungal strains like Candida, Aspergillus, Pencillium, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, Blastomycetes, Microsporium, Neisseria and Rhizopus species.

53

ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF IMPORTANT PLANTS USED BY LOCALS OF KISHTWAR DISTRICT, JAMMU AND KASHMIR, INDIA.

1TOUSEEF HUSSAIN TRAK, 2RABIA JAHANGIR, 3HUMEERA AYUB, 1RAVI UPADHAYAY

1Department of Botany, Govt. Narmada P. G. college, Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh, India

2Department of Botany, Unique College Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

3Department of Botany, University of Jammu

Abstract

The survival of human population on planet earth is dependent on the survival of other organism’s particularly plants. The biodiversity in wild and domesticated form is the source of human food, medicine, clothing and housing, much of the cultural diversity, and most of the intellectual and spiritual inspiration. Although without doubt, it is the very basic of the human survival, 1/4th of the known global diversity, useful in one or the other way, is in serious risk of extinction. Consciously or unconsciously plants have been used by humans and their livestock right from their inception for curing of illness. The present study was documented from the knowledge used by locals to cure different diseases. The study represents a systematic attempt to explore the traditional, ethnic knowledge of the native people about plants of the particular area, which they use to cure diseases. And it is an attempt towards conserving the local knowledge of people to plants.

54

EFFECT OF ANIONIC SURFACTANT ON THE REDUCTION OF TINIDAZOLE AT A GOLD NANAOPARTICLE MODIFIED GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE.

Theresa Josa, Divya Thomasb, Sowmya T Cyriacb, Meera Jacobb, Krishnapillai Girish Kumarb*

aDepartment of Chemistry, Vimala College, Thrissur – 680009, India.

bDepartment of Applied Chemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi – 682 022, India.

Abstract

A gold nanoparticle - modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNP/GCE) was prepared and its external morphology was characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface area study. The electrochemical behaviour of tinidazole (TIN) at this electrode was examined by square wave voltammetry (SWV). At the AuNP/GCE, TIN exhibited a well-defined irreversible reduction peak at 548 mV in pH 3 acetate buffer solution whose potential is further reduced to 420 mV in the presence of an anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulphate (NaLS). The effect of supporting electrolyte, number of cyclic scans for AuNP electro deposition and the effect of various surfactants were studied. The modified electrode showed good stability, selectivity and can be used to quantify TIN in a real pharmaceutical sample.

55

HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN BULK AND FORMULATION

Vineeta Khanvilkar, Atmaram Tambe, Vinayak Dalvi, Daksha Parmar, Vilasrao Kadam

Department of Quality Assurance,

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

A  simple, precise, accurate and economical high  performance thin  layer  chromatographic (HPTLC) method  has  been  developed  for  the  simultaneous estimation  of  Tramadol Hydrochloride and  Diclofenac Sodium in  bulk and formulation. The  separation  was  carried  out  on  Merck  TLC  aluminum  sheets  of  silica  gel  60F254,  using Methanol: Ethyl  acetate: Chloroform: Toluene  (4:2:2:2, v/v/v/v)  as   mobile  phase  and  densitometric  analysis  of  compound  was  carried  out  in absorbance mode  at 273  nm.  The linear  regression  analysis data  for  the calibration  plots  for TH  and  DS  showed  good  linear  relationship  with  regression  coefficient  (r2) of 0.996 in  the  concentration  range  of  1000–4500 ng/spot  for TH and DS both.  The method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness as per the ICH guidelines. The method was successfully applied for simultaneous estimation of TH and DS from bulk and tablet dosage forms.

56

SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL 8-HYDROXY QUINOLINE DERIVATIVES

P. G. Ingole*2, Dr. S. R. Butle1, V. V. Navghare2, P. P. Sonwane2, S. S. Pawle2

1Associate Professor, School of Pharmacy, SRTM University Nanded.

2SSS, Indira College of Pharmacy, Vishnupuri, Nanded.

Abstract

More than half of the biologically active compounds produced by nature contain heterocyclic rings as fundamental components in their skeleton. These compounds and their modified products have popularly been utilized as pharmacophores for preparing drugs. 8-hydroxyquinoline has a wide variety of use and its medicinal and agricultural significance were discovered before the start of current century. Mannich reaction, o-alkylation and alkylation of 8-hydroxyquinoline resulted in very high yield of products. In the current publication we synthesized series of 8-hydroxy quinoline analogues which were prepared via Mannich based reaction. The synthesized analogues were characterized by 1HNMR, IR and Mass spectroscopy.  The fungicidal and antibacterial properties are believed to be due to the chelation of essential trace metals on the surface of bacteria and fungi mainly by 8-hydroxyquinolines. Chelation of metals with 8-hydroxyquinoline is thought to facilitate the transport of metal across biological membrane. Analogues have been screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activity by the Disk diffusion method. Some of the analogues showed good activity against all the organisms. Biological data study shows synthesized compounds were had more antibiotic activity as compared to antifungal; particularly halo substituted aryl moiety may be responsible for the effective antibacterial activity.

57

STABILITY INDICATING VALIDATED NOVEL RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DEXLANSOPRAZOLE IN BULK AND EXTENDED RELEASE CAPSULES.

Geetharam. Yanamadala1, 3, Praveen srikumar P2, Rushyendra G.V1, Ramamohanupta.V1, Srinivasarao.S 1.

1. Department of pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, Pullareddy institute of   pharmacy, Hyderabad

2. Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, Hindu college of pharmacy, Guntur, Andhrapradesh, India

3. College of Pharmaceutical sciences, Acharya Nagarjuna university, Guntur,Andhrapradesh, India.

Abstract

A simple, specific, precise, and accurate stability indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation Dexlansoprazole in Bulk and Capsule dosage formulation. The separation was achieved by Hypersil BDS C18 100 x 4.6 mm, 5m column using mobile phase consisting of 0.01M KH2PO4 buffer (pH adjusted to 7.0 with triethyl amine) and acetonitrile (60: 40, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min and detection at 283 nm. The Method was developed in isocratic mode. The retention time was around 2.45. The method showed linearity with correlation coefficient < 0.999 over the range of 25–150 𝜇g/mL .The mean recoveries were found to be in the range of 99.8–100.16% for Dexlansoprazole.LOD and LOQ values were found to be 0.0929 and 0.282 𝜇g/mL respectively.  The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, robustness and solution stability. Stability indicating capability of the developed method was established by analyzing forced degradation of samples with separation of degradation products from analytes peak was achieved. The method can be successfully applied for routine analysis of quantitative determination of Dexlansoprazole in pharmaceutical dosage form.

58

EFFECT OF Eclipta alba ON URINARY VOLUME AND ELECTROLYTE EXCRETION IN ALBINO RATS

Monalisa Jena1*, Jyotirmoyee Jena2,  Sashi Bhusan Biswal2, Abhisek Pal3                         

1. Dept of Pharmacology, IMS & SUM hospital, Siksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, India

2. Dept of Pharmacology, V.S.S. Medical College, Burla

3. Dept of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, India

Abstract

Introduction: Eclipta alba Hassk (Bhringaraj) grown widely in tropical countries, recently known to have diuretic and anti-hypertensive effect in the tribal community.

Objectives: Since the report has shown new dimension to one important clinical use and paucity of data available in this regard, the present work is undertaken to study the above mentioned effects in a scientific manner.

Materials & methods: Albino wistar rats (100-200gms) deprived of food for 15hrs divided into seven groups of six in each and put in metabolic cages after hydration by normal saline for 24hrs. Ethanolic extract of  Eclipta alba (EEEA) was administered in 50,100,200 and 400mg/kg doses per oral. Urinary volume, total Na+, K+, Cl- concentration was  estimated at 5th hr & 24th hr and compared with control (saline treated) group. Furosemide (25mg/kg P.O) was taken as the standard.

Results: EEEA   was found to increase the urinary volume of the 5th hr and 24th hr sample in a dose dependent manner. Na+ & Cl- excretion also significantly increased in 200&400 mg/kg doses. Synergistic Effect was not seen with furosemide.

Conclusion: EEEA was found to posse’s diuretic activity.

59

A Study on Insulin Usage among Diabetic Patients in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Sankaralingam Ramalakshmi1*, Siddharapu Madhuri 2, Kaliamurthy Kousalya 1, Punniyakotti Saranya 1

The achievement and maintenance of optimal glycemic control are critical steps among diabetics to prevent complication. The discovery of insulin has been a cornerstone for diabetes care. The continued prevalence of the disorder and the changing prescribing patterns with the fluctuating blood sugar level indicate to evaluate the clinical management of this disorder. Hence this Cross-sectional observational study was carried out in the Department of General Medicine, Sri Ramachandra University, India for a period of 6 months. The demographic and treatment details of patients were collected in a structured data collection form and analyzed. Data of 350 patients were collected and analyzed, of which 47.4 % were male and 52.2% were female. The mean age was 58.6 ±9.26 years. Insulin as monotherapy was observed for 39.71% patients and 60.28% patients were prescribed with combination therapy.  The most commonly prescribed insulin was Human Mixtard 30/70 and combination of Insulin ® with Insulin (Neutral) which had a better glycemic control among our study population. The preferred oral hypoglycemic agent was metformin which was well tolerated in patients who were willing to continue with oral therapy. From the study findings it can be concluded that the prescribing trend of insulin was away from monotherapy and individualized according to patients need.

60

Neurodegenerative disorders Combining novelty with an ancient science

Gyanesh Krishna

Research scholar at Samastipur College, Samastipur (LNMU, Darbhanga), INDIA

Abstract

The neurodegenerative disorders are on rise whereas on the other hand the present system of therapeutics is unsuccessful in treating them completely. This results in loss of human life and afflict a great impact on socio-economic conditions of our society. The present system of medicine relies vastly on allopathy which is costly and is accompanied with damaging side effects. So it is of utmost importance to develop a system of medicine which is effective in treating these disorders successfully without imposing serious health threats to patients and is cost effective at the same time so as to reach to the masses. Herbal medicines fit into the requirement of being body friendly and cost effective. Ayurveda is an ancient system of medicines developed thousands of years ago comprising of numerous preparations of herbal drugs. They are administered under various conditions of health like neuropsychiatric disorders, anti-ageing tonics, immune boosters, etc. These herbs comprise of many active ingredients in the form of antioxidants and other chemical constituents having various beneficial roles in different diseases. These drugs have been in use in India from ancient times and are known for their efficacy. Keeping in view of the therapeutic potential, a proper investigation at molecular level is required to study the interaction of these drugs with prominent characteristic features, i.e. insoluble proteinaceous aggregates commonly expressed in neurodegenerative diseases. In this review we discuss the prospects of Ayurveda in treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using modern methods of biology.