IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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DECEMBER 2016
1

WONDERS OF VERSATILE SPHERULITES

Rizwan I. Qureshi*, Shilpa Godiyal, Kisan.R. Jadhav, Vilasrao J. Kadam
University of Mumbai, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, C.B.D. Belapur, Sector 8,Navi Mumbai- 400614, India.

Abstract

The objective of this study is to assess the various applications of spherulites that are muticoncentric, multilamellar microvesicles possessing morphology similar to an onion.Simultaneous encapsulation of both hydrophilic and lipophilic active ingredients is possible as they consist of concentric bilayers of amphiphiles alternating with layers of aqueous medium.Small and long circulating fullrene induced polymer spherulites is used for controlled delivery.Around 80% oligonucleotides were encapsulated in spherulites and were successfully delivered.Thus it proved to be a promising oligonucleotide carrier. Antisense oligonucleotides have been used to inhibit thousands of genes by RNAs H dependent mechanism. Currently antisense drug formivirsen is used to treat CMV retinitis. Spherulites are also found to be a promising vehicle for delivering the actives to the skin and hair from shampoos as they are stable when included in rinse off products. It may prove to be highly effective in cleansing personal care products in coming years.Spherulites have found to be used as parenteral drug sequestering agents in order to treat drug overdose and chemical poisoning. Thus spherulite technology will help reduce the adverse of overdosed drugs by altering their pharmacokinetics and biodistribution.Innumerable applications developed interest to even discover more on spherulites. Some of its most promising applications are highlighted in this study.

2

ROTATOR CUFF TEAR- MANAGEMENT IN SIDDHA SYSTEM INCLUDING VARMA THERAPY -A SINGLE CASE STUDY

Maanickha Chelvi K S, Kumar S Rajasekar D*
Medical consultant, Siddha Regional Research Institute, Puducherry, India.* Professor, Santhigiri Siddha Medical College, Trivandrum.India.

Abstract

Disease curing by plant and its products is started when the mankind was started living in this earth. Each and every part of civilization had their own system of medicine which transferred to their next generation. Lot of existing traditional systems in worldwide is basically using herbals, someone using animal products also. Getting injured and having fractures are the commonest life threatening in ancient people who were living in the forests and caves. Rotator cuff tear is most common in sports persons also in those who have heavy work also. Treating the tear with conservative treatment is somewhat difficult. Siddha system of medicine is one of the oldest one belongs to southern part of India. In this system, one of the external therapies is called the Varmam therapy is used along with internal medicine to treating this condition. Here presenting the single case study about rotator cuff tear was treated with siddha medicines and varma therapy as external. This study resulting with pain and disability were relived without side effects and returning to his regular life earlier.

3

EVALUATION OF IN VITRO IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL SEED EXTRACT OF SINAPIS ALBA LINN.

Sheik Noor Mohamed. M, Jaikumar. K, Anantha Padmanabhan. S, Deventhiran. M, Anand. D, Saravanan. P.*
Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College (Autonomous), Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004, India.

Abstract

Bioactive compounds from plant source can be used to modulate immune response to alleviate certain diseases. Sinapis alba is a traditionally used medicinal plant. The plant seed was considered to possess analgesic, carminative, expectorant and stimulant properties. The study here is to investigate the preliminary phytochemical and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrum (GC-MS) analysis of ethanol extract of the seed. Further to analyze in vitro immunomodulatory competency of the extract with J774A.1, cell line model using cell proliferation assay. Phytochemical screening of seed extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides and phenolic compounds whereas the existence of 13 components was identified from GC-MS analysis. The ethanol extract of seed exhibited a significant increase in macrophage proliferation with percentage proliferation of 42.21±0.32 % at 25μg/ml versus the control. These results validate the presence of various bioactive compounds in ethanolic extract of S. alba seed and the use of the plant as immunomodulator for various ailments.

4

SYNTHESIS, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF SOME NOVEL QUINOLINE BASED PYRAZOLINES

Naqui Jahan Siddiqui*1, Supriya Majumdar2, Mohammad Idrees1
1Government Institute of Science, Nagpur-440001, Maharashtra, India.
2Government Science College, Gadchiroli-442605, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Novel Quinoline based α-β unsaturated ketones or chalcones on condensation followed by cyclization with hydrazine hydrate using solvents such as ethanol and acetic acid afforded a series of biologically active pyrazoline derivatives (4a-d and 5a-d) respectively. Chalcones (3a-d) were prepared by treating 8-methyl-2-(4-methylphenoxy) quinoline-3-carbaldehyde (1) with different substituted acetophenones (2a-d) by Claisen-Schmidt condensation. Chemical transformations, elemental analysis and IR, 1H NMR, Mass spectra were used to established the structures of the newly synthesized 3b, 4a and 5a. The title compound 5b was evaluated in-vitro for its antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at different concentrations. Similarly, antioxidant properties of all pyrazoline derivatives were evaluated and they showed moderate to good activity.

5

MALIGNANCIES ASSOCIATED WITH IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT IN DERMATOLOGY

Arjan Aryal
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bangalore- 560035, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Immunosuppressants were initially developed for the treatment of conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, cancer and organ transplantation but these are now also preferred by dermatologist for treating severe cases of steven johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, pemphigus vulgaris and many other dermatologic conditions. These drugs require a close scrutiny for the possibility of immunosuppressant induced malignancy. Many studies have demonstrated malignancy risk with organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. Similarly certain drugs are reported to induce malignancy while treating dermatologic disorders. The risk of bladder cancer is associated with the use of Cyclophosphamide whereas the risk of lymphoma is associated with the use of methotrexate, cyclosporine and certain TNF (tumour necrosis factor) inhibitors. Likewise, it has been reported that there is increased risk of squamous as well as basal cell carcinoma when PUVA (psoralen and ultraviolet A) phototherapy is given. . Certain measures can be applied for the prevention of possible malignancy. Educating the patient on early signs and symptoms can aid the clinicians in preventing malignancy. Furthermore, determining the drug causation using CDR (challenge-dechallenge-rechallenge) step or utilizing the available databases such as SEER (Surveillance epidemiology and end results) and disease specific databases can help in determining the incidence of malignancy and come up with suitable solutions. However, these methods provide limited information and a confident conclusion concerning malignancy risk associated with immunosuppressants use cannot be made. Nevertheless, rough analysis can always be made using these methods for early detection and prevention of malignancy.

6

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF COMPRESSION COATED PIROXICAM TABLETS FOR COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY

Chitta Venkateswararao*1, J. Venkata Suresh2, Mr. G. Nagarujanareddy3
KLR Pharmacy College, Palvoncha, Khammam-507115.

Abstract

The objective of the present research study is to develop compression coated tablets of piroxicam with a view of minimizing the drug release in the physiological environment of stomach and small intestine and to achieve maximum drug release in the physiological environment of colon by applying applying polymers like microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), sodium starch glycollate (SSG), guar gum/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), talc and magnesium stearate piraxicam core tablets. The prepared tablets were evaluated for their pre and post compression parameters. In vitro drug release studies were conducted in pH1.2 buffer, phosphate buffer (pH7.4). A significant difference was observed in the amount of piroxicam released at the end of 24hr of the dissolution study.

7

A NOVEL VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF MIRABEGRON IN BULK DRUG AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

Srikanth Inturi*, Prameela Rani A, Venkata Pavan Kumar G
Dept .of Pharmacy, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur-522 510, A.P, India.

Abstract

Mirabegron is a novel beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonist in the treatment of overactive bladder disorder. It is a white to slightly yellow crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 396.506 g/mol. Mirabegron is freely soluble in water. In this study, a simple, rapid, precise and accurate High performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed on a Shimadzu Model, equipped with SPD-20A UV/Vis detector and prominence LC20AD, C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 3.5 μm particle size) column using isocratic elution of 0.5M potassium di hydrogen ortho phosphate (pH-4.5 adjusted with OPA): Acetontrile (50:50) as mobile phase with 1ml/min flow rate and 280nm wave length . The proposed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The present robust RP-HPLC method supports the quantitative analysis of Mirabegron in Bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. Forced degradation studies were performed in different stress conditions such as acidic, basic, oxidation and thermal degradations.

8

EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF KINNOW FRUIT JUICE ON COGNITIVE IMPAIRED ALBINO RATS

Kumar Neeraj*1, Sharma Sanjay2
1Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur (Raj.).
2School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM’ S NMIMS, Shirpur (Maharashtra).

Abstract

Cognitive impairment is a common problem in people more than 65-year age group, progressing to Alzheimer’s disease. Pathophysiology of many neurological, particularly neurodegenerative diseases shows presence of oxidative stress. Objective of the research was to investigate the antioxidant potential of Kinnow fruit juice in Scopolamine induced cognitive impaired albino rats. Kinnow fruit juice contain phytochemical constituents such as Vitamin C and Flavanoids. 07 groups of Albino rats were randomized for study on morris water maze. Kinnow fruit juice was administered orally in four doses (2.5, 05, 7.5 & 10% v/v, p.o.), once daily for 30 days in different groups. Albino wistar rats treated with single intraperitoneal injection of Scopolamine (01 mg/kg body weight) for induction of amnesia. Effect of Kinnow fruit juice on oxidative markers (MDA, GSH & SOD) level was assessed in the brain tissue of albino rats. Scopolamine treated albino rats showed significant increase in escape latency time (impairment in acquisition) and significant decrease in Time spent in target quadrant (impairment in retention) in morris water maze. Pre treatments with Kinnow fruit juice showed significant decrease in escape latency time and significant increase in Time spent in target quadrant indicated protection from scopolamine induced amnesia and improvement of memory. Treatment with Kinnow fruit juice significantly inhibited the Scopolamine induced rise in brain MDA, decrease in GSH & SOD level. Memory enhancement may be linked to antioxidant potential of Kinnow fruit juice. These results suggest that Kinnow fruit juice have a potential role in the management of cognitive dysfunctions.

9

APPLICATION OF HOT MELT EXTRUSION TO ENHANCE THE DISSOLUTION OF BOSENTAN MONOHYDRATE

Ranga Harish, Dr. T. E. G. K. Murthy, Dr. K. B. Chandrasekhar.
Matrix Laboratories, Hyderabad.
Department of Pharmaceutics, Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Oil Technological and Pharmaceutical Research Institute, JNTUA, Ananthapuramu.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to improve the in vitro dissolution rate of bosentan monohydrate, a water insoluble drug belongs to BCS class II. For enhancing the solubility we want to fabricate solid dispersion of bosentan monohydrate with water soluble polymers by Hot Melt Extrusion Technique. In the present study we fabricated solid dispersion of bosentan monohydrate using soluplus as a polymer at different ratios. The prepared solid dispersion were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and invitro dissolution. From the studies performed we concluded that bosentan monohydrate was a crystalline API and it was successfully converted to amorphous form and there is no major interactions between the functional moieties of drug molecule with excipients incorporated in the formulation of solid dispersions. The rate and extent of drug release of batches fabricated with solid dispersions was much better when compared with batch fabricated with bosentan mohydrate API (F6). For enhancing the solubility and the dissolution rate and extent of API, solid dispersion process is a good approach. For fabricating stable solid dispersion hot melt extrusion is an efficient process with good industrial applicability. From the present research work the rate and extent of dissolution data of batches fabricated with solid dispersion (F1, F2, F3 & F4) was much better when compared with the batch fabricated with API (F6.) Batch (F2) was further evaluated in different dissolution mediums and found that rate and extent of drug release was much better when compared with the (F6) in all the dissolution mediums. Overall, hot melt was an efficient strategy to enhance the dissolution rate.

10

A SURVEY ON REQUIERED FACILITY AND TREATMENT IN EMERGENCY IN HOSPITAL OF DEHRADUN CITY

Popin Kumar*, Indu Tiwari, Tulsi Bisht
Gyani Inder Singh Institute of Professional Studies, Opp. Malsi Deer Park, Post: Sinola, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, 248003.

Abstract

The aim of the study is to study on required facilities and emergency treatment in hospitals. This study evaluates the current status of emergency treatment among the hospitals in area of dehradun city. A cross-sectional and descriptive prospective study was carried out in 10 different hospitals. In this study, we collect the data based on facilities required/available and emergency treatment provided in hospital. Collection of data carried based on the some basic questionnaire related to facilities (first aid treatment, cabinet utility room and utility box of medicine) and emergency facilities. Some hospitals provide a lot of details related to ours research work and very helpful in the designing of data. Information provided by various hospital shows, some hospital have proper and good facilities for the emergency treatment and some hospital do not support patient up to such do. One or two hospital didn’t have common requirement and facilities for the emergency treatment as per their requirement. Based on collected information, after plotting the details in the graphical representation showed in the result and discussion and conclude that about 75-85 % hospitals have their required facilities and emergency treatment. Ours study was only observation study; as carried out in the dehradun city as project work in the university syllabus. Study also provided the current status of emergency in the hospital and future prospective to increasing the medication health care system.

11

PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MICROEMULSION AS A CARRIER SYSTEM FOR INSOLUBLE COMPOUNDS

Pallavi P. Pawar, Nilam Tawre, Rahul H. Kirange*
S. Zhaveri Pharmakem Pvt Ltd, Dombivli Midc. Dombivli (E), Maharashtra, India 421 203.

Abstract

Microemulsion (ME) is a system that has been discovered by Hoar and Schulman in the year 1943 and that thermodynamically stable and isotropic system of two immiscible liquids (oil / water), stabilized by an interfacial film of surfactants. The study of microemulsion systems is based on their three theories: (1) solubilization theory, (2) theory of interfacial tension and (3) thermodynamic theory. The structure ME is influenced by the physicochemical characteristics of the components used and quantity of the ingredients. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the microemulsified systems emphasizing a theoretical approach. Besides that, recent advances on clinical applicability and use as carrier of insoluble molecules are discussed.

12

ASSESSMENT OF ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY FOR METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS (LINN.) LEAVES

Sneha J Anarthe*, M. Swetha, P. Spoorthisudha, M. Ganga Raju
Department of Pharmacology Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Bachupally, Hyderabad- 500090, India.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE The present study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic activity for methanolic extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (Linn.) leaves. METHADOLOGY Methanolic extract of Nyctathes arbor-tristis (MENA) was evaluated for in vitro antioxidant assay by reducing power assay and hydrogen peroxide assay and in vivo models of antihyperlipidemic study was carried out by three methods those are cholesterol diet, triton 100 X and fructose. The serum was collected and analyzed for lipid profile total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein. RESULTS Methanolic extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaves at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg bd. wt showed significance (p < 0.01) decrease in lipid profile like TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and showed significance (p < 0.01) increase in HDL. CONCLUSION MENA showed significant antihyperlipidemic activity with specific and non-specific mechanism which may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents like phenols, triterpenoids and flavonoids.

13

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF IXAZOMIB CITRATE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP- HPLC

S. V. Saibaba*1, Dr. P. Shanmuga Pandiyan2
1Research Scholar, Department of Pharmacy, Mewar University, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan.
2Reseacrh Supervisor, Department of Pharmacy, Mewar University, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan.

Abstract

A simple, rapid, precise and accurate Rp-Hplc method was developed and validated for the determination of Ixazomib citrate, in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The separation is achieved on RP-HPLC using a PDA detector by incorporation of enpower 2 software with a flow rate of 1.0ml/min using a mixture of Methanol and water (15:85% v/v) as mobile phase. The column used was Hypersil C18 (4.6×150mm, 5μ) at a wave length of 284nm. The retention time of the Ixazomib citrate was 3.515min. The linearity of the drug was 25-125μg/m and the method precision for the determination of assay was below 2.0%RSD. The proposed method was validated and applied for the estimation of ixazomib citrate in quality control of bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

14

DEVELOPMENT OF ODT OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM β CYCLODEXTRIN COMPLEX

Y. Sowmya, G. Uma Rani
RBVRR Womens College of Pharmacy, Barkatpura, Hyderabad, Telangana.

Abstract

Atorvastatin calcium is a lipid lowering drug which acts by inhibiting the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme thereby resulting in reduced cholesterol synthesis. It comes under class- II for the BCS system. The present investigation was undertaken to enhance dissolution by formulating ODT of ATC using natural super disintegrant banana powder. βcyclodextrin inclusion complex with drug was prepared by kneading method in different ratios of drug and carrier. βcyclodextrin inclusion complex prepared at molar ratio of 1:3 showed high solubility .So 1:3 ratio of β cyclodextrin complex was selected for the preparation of ODT. To increase the dissolution the tablets were formulated using natural super disintegrant banana powder by direct compression method and evaluated for hardness, disintegration, friability, in-vitro drug release. The optimized formulation with β cyclodextrin inclusion complex containing 3% of banana powder showed less disintegration time i.e. 26 seconds and increased drug release. Stability study of optimized formulation was conducted for a period of 3 months. ODT were also prepared with synthetic disintegrant (SSG, MCC) and the dissolution studies were compared.

15

TITRIMETRIC ASSAY OF RANITIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE USING MERCURY(II) NITRATE REAGENT AND MERCURY(II) THIOCYANATE-IRON(III) NITRATE INDICATOR SYSTEM

Shivaji Rangnath Labhade1*, Kailas Rangnath Labhade2, Pravin Dinkar Harak3, Vishwas Bhaskar Gaikwad4
1K.R.T.Arts, B.H. Commerce and A.M. Science (K.T.H.M.) College, Nashik- 422 002, Maharashtra, India.
2S.V.K.T. Arts, Science and Commerce College, Deolali Camp, Nashik- 422 401, Maharashtra, India.
3Food and Drug Inspector, Government of Maharashtra, Aurangabad Division, Maharashtra, India.
4Director, BCUD, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411 007, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

A simple, rapid and reliable titration procedure for mercurimetric assay of ranitidine hydrochloride (RHCl) in the tablet formulations is proposed by measuring the chloride content of its hydrochloride salt. The amount of RHCl in the sample solution was determined by measuring its volume required for titration with the known amount of mercury(II) nitrate, using mercury(II) thiocyanate-iron(III) nitrate indicator system. The procedure was initially set up for determination of RHCl in the range 3.5087 to 7.0174 g/lit by using standard 0.01 to 0.02 M RHCl solutions. The reaction stoichiometry was found to be 2:1 [RHCl: Hg(NO3)2]. Statistical information obtained by using experimental data illustrates that the procedure is accurate and precise. The procedure was further implemented for the assay of RHCl in the tablet formulations. The average accuracy was found to be in agreement with claimed by the manufacturer. Excipients used in tablet formulations did not interfere as shown by the recovery experiment using standard addition method. In conclusion, the proposed procedure is found to be excellent for titrimetric assay of RHCl in acidic homogenous solution and it is free from the titration errors; those commonly encountered by co-precipitation in argentimetric assay of RHCl.

16

IN VITRO ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF HYBANTHUS ENNEASPERMUS L., AGAINST HEp-2 CELL LINE

Jaikumar K, Sheik Noor Mohamed M, Marimuthu S, Anantha Padmanabhan S, Anand D, Saravanan P*
P.G & Research Department of Botany, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College, Mylapore, Chennai-600 004, Tamil nadu, India.

Abstract

Hybanthus enneaspermus, a rare ethno botanical herb or a shrub distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Ayurvedic literature, the plant is reported to cure various ailments. Spectral analysis of ethanol fraction of the extract by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) results eight new compounds that have not reported earlier. In this study, an ethanol fraction from Hybanthus enneaspermus showed potent growth inhibitory activity against HEp-2 cell line with IC50 value of 19.75μg/ml. The present study indicate the potential use of traditional Indian medicinal herb as anti proliferative agents and suggests that further isolation of active anticancer compounds and evaluating its mechanism(s) are warranted.

17

EVALUATION OF SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF GREEN TEA AND HORSE GRAM POWDER EXTRACT ON THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES INDUCED RATS

Dhanalaxmi Mohan Raj1*, Dr.K. Bhaskar Reddy2

1Pacific Academy of Higher Education and Research University, Udaipur, Rajsthan, India.

2Sri Venkateswara College of Pharmacy, R.V.S Nagar, Tirupati Road, Chitoor-517127, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The present study aimed that evaluation of synergistic effect of green tea and horse gram powder extract on the treatment of obesity induced rats. Extraction of leaf of the Camellia sinensis and legume of Macrotyloma uniflorum with methanolic by Maceruation method. Individually and combined both plants extracted poly herbal extraction and screened for phytochemical study performed Preliminary Phytochemical analysis of crude extracts for individual palnts and poly herbal extraction and evaluated leaf of the Camellia sinensis and legume of Macrotyloma uniflorum and poly herbal extraction for Anti-diabetic activity by Activity in Alloxan Induced Hyperglycaemic Rats , Single dose study, Multiple dose treatment Phytochemical investigation reveals the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, triterpinoids, carbohydrates and glycosides in poly herbal methanolic extraction and individual plant extraction, In acute toxicity studies no mortality was observed with either of the extracts even at the dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight, In the present study, the methanol extracts showed significant reduction of blood glucose levels in alloxon induced rats.

18

A REVIEW ON ANTI-MICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF MURRAYA KOENIGII

Shanmuga Sundari Ilangovan, Pranit Krishna, Koushika Das, Shampa Sen*
School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, India.

Abstract

Plant materials remain one of the important resources to combat serious diseases around the world. In the developing countries, the traditional medicinal methods, especially the use of medicinal plants, still play a major role to cover the basic health requirements. The medicinal values of these plants rest in some bioactive substances that produce certain physiological activity on the human body. The major bioactive constituents in the plant are alkaloids, tannin, flavonoid and phenolic compounds. The various notable pharmacological actions of the plant such as anti-inflammatory activity, anti-diabetic and cholesterol trimming property, antiulcer activity, antioxidative property, antimicrobial, anti-diarrhea, phagocytic and cytotoxic activity. The common medicinal herb with such bioactive compounds is Murraya koenigii. This review paper summarizes the ethanobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the medicinal herb Murraya koenigii.

19

ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF CHONEMORPHA FRAGRANS AND ERYTHROXYLUM MONOGYNUM COMBINED ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

KAUSAR FATIMA*, KONDE ABBULU
Department of Pharmacology, CMR College of Pharmacy, Medchal, Hyderabad, Telangana.

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of herbal formulation containing Chonemorpha fragrans and Erythroxylum monogynum in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus is a group of syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia, altered metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and an increased risk of complications from vascular diseases. Hyperlipidemia constitutes a major etiopathological factor for atherosclerosis. The preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, sterols, phenols and proteins. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of combined herbal formulation was studied in alloxan (150mg/kg b.w., i.p.) induced diabetes in wistar rats for doses 200 mg/kg b.w. and 400 mg/kg b.w. (p.o.) daily for 21 days, and the effect was compared with oral dose of 5mg/kg, b.w. glibenclamide. The effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of Chonemorpha fragrans and Erythroxylum monogynum on blood glucose, serum lipid profile total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were measured in the diabetic rats. Diabetes caused by alloxan treatment increases the level of glucose and biochemical parameters in blood sample but treatment with combined herbal formulation, protects from diabetes and significantly decreases the elevated blood glucose, LDL, VLDL levels, total cholesterol levels and total triglycerides levels & increases the HDL levels. In conclusion the present study indicates that the combined ethanolic leaf extracts of plants Chonemorpha fragrans and Erythroxylum monogynum possesses significant antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

20

DEPRESSION AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG ADULT PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS ATTENDING METU KARLI HOSPITAL ILUABABOR ZONE , SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIA

Geremew Tolessa Dugul, Fikadu Balcha, Melese Workneh
Department of Nursing, Mettu University, Medical and Health Sciences Faculty.
Department of Nursing, Jimma University, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma, Ethiopia.
 

Abstract

HIV is major public problem in the world and in Sub-Saharan Region in particular. The literature has shown that mental disorders and particularly depression are common among people living with HIV/AIDS, but that little is known about the prevalence, level of depression and factors associated with it, among people living with HIV/AIDS. The main objective of this study is to assess depression and associated factors among HIV/AIDs patients attending Metu Karl hospital, Ilu Ababora Zone, South west Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was performed to examine depression and associated factors among PLWHA attending Metu Karl Hospital. 387 PLWHA were selected using Simple random sampling technique with response rate of 98%. Data were collected using structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Five data collectors and one supervisor were trained and involved in data collection process. Data were coded, numbered, entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Binary and multivariate Logistic regression was performed to determine each factor and how they are associated with depression. The level and prevalence of depression was determined in this study. According to this finding the overall depression was 48% of these, 15%, 24% and 9%were mild, moderate, and severe depression respectively the rest were normal for depression as well as some associated factors were internalized stigma, having CD4 less than 250, being female and less social support. For all the socio-demographic factors, psychosocial factors and HIV medical related factors that were studied, it emerged that being a female and lack of social support, internally stigmatized being single, divorced and widowed were statistically associated with depression. Also the numbers of CD4 counts bellow 250 were statistically associated with depression. Nursing practice and Nursing and public health research and PLWHA are recommended on giving health education for clients, doing research on this area.

21

BUDD-CHIARI SYNDROME; A CASE REPORT IN GENERAL MEDICINE DEPARTMENT

Dr. S. Chandrababu1, Dr. S. Kavitha1, C. V. Jagadishwar*1, A. Lokesh2, P. Venkataramana3, M. Sam jeeva kumar3, G. Mahesh2
1General Medicine Department, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences(RIMS), Kadapa, India- 516003.
2Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), PRRMCP, Kadapa, India-516003.
3P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, India-516003.

Abstract

Budd-chiari syndrome is a condition caused by occlusion of the hepatic veins that drain the liver. It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites and liver enlargement. The formation of a blood clot within the hepatic veins can lead to Budd-chiari syndrome. Though rare in incidence (1 in million) BCS can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Any obstruction in the hepatic veins confirms its diagnosis through USG abdomen/CT abdomen. A 50 years old male patient presented with ascites, scrotal and lower extremities with pitting type of edema. Initial management was conservative with paracentesis and intravenous diuretics to reduce the accumulated fluid later anticoagulants were given to dissolve the any obstruction for the hepatic flow. Liver transplantation is the outcome management if all these gets fail to improve patient condition. To avoid this, early diagnosis helps to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality.

22

ASSESSMENT OF MODERN FAMILY PLANNING USE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG MARRIED WOMEN IN REPRODUCTIVE AGE, IN ILU ABABORA ZONE OROMIYA REGION, SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIA, 2014.

Alebachew Birhan, Bikela Tesfa.
Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Public Health and Medical Science, Mettu University. Ethiopia.

Abstract

Background: Family planning services are an essential part of reproductive health care and it is among the top internationally agreed interventions of safe motherhood that enable developing countries achieving millennium development goals through increasing its use thereby decreasing maternal and child mortality and morbidity. Family planning service enables couples to decide the number and spacing of their children which is crucial to safe motherhood and healthy families. While the use of modern contraceptive methods has increased globally to 55%, many of the developing countries are still experienced with low utilization of modern contraceptives. Sub-Saharan African countries have the lowest contraceptive use in which only 17% of women in reproductive age group use modern contraceptives methods. Studies were also conducted elsewhere in different countries to identify factors influencing the utilization of family planning services and have identified socio cultural, socio economic, reproductive and facility related factors affecting the utilization. Despite these efforts made, still the utilization of modern family planning is very low in developing world and sub-Saharan countries particularly in Ethiopia. So that conducting this study in Alle, Darimu, Hurumu, Didessa districts and Bedelle town, Ilu Aba Bora Zone is mandatory to get factors affecting modern contraceptive use since no study was conducted on similar topic. Methods:- A community based cross-sectional study design was conducted in Ilu Aba Bora Zone, Oromiya region, south-West Ethiopia from February to March 2014. Reproductive age women (15-49 years), currently married were participated in the study. Structured interviewer administered questionnaire were used to collect the data which is developed after reviewing different relevant literatures and similar studies. Data were entered, cleaned (explored) for outliers, missed values and missed variables were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Different frequency tables, graphs and descriptive summaries were used to describe the study variables. Bivariate analyses were performed to see the existence of association between dependent and independent variables. Results: - Six hundred fifteen married women were included in the study with a response rate of 92.2%. Majority of the women 467(79%) are using modern family planning. From this more than half of the women 392 (84.3%) are Depo-Provera users whereas 50(10.8%), 18(3.9%) and 4(1%) are Norplant, pills and IUCD users respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis shows that modern family planning was significantly associated with residence of the respondents in which those who live in urban has 29% more likely to have history of using (AOR/95%CI =0.29/ .150-.54/0.001) than who live in rural area. Conclusion and recommendations:- in the zone modern contraceptive methods use among currently married women of reproductive age group is high. However, women’s demand for more children has a negative effect on the use of modern contraceptive methods.so community awareness about modern contraceptive family planning methods and family size is important.

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LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE AMONG DIABETIC PATIENTS HAVING CHRONIC FOLLOW UP IN HIWOT FANA SPECIALIZED UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, EASTERN ETHIOPIA

Ousman Ahmed1, Jemal Abdela2, Mekonnen Sisay2*
1College of Health Sciences, Woldiya University, Wollo, Ethiopia.
2School of Pharmacy, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with the risk of developing micro-and macro-vascular complications. This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice on life style modification of diabetic patients having chronic follow up at the diabetic clinic. Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital (HFSUH) from March 1-30, 2015 G.C. Convenience sampling technique was applied to select eligible diabetic patient. Data, regarding the knowledge, attitude and practice on lifestyle modification (LSM) of eligible diabetic patients on chronic follow up at HFSUH, was collected prospectively using interview with the help of a structured questionnaire. Data was entered into SPSS version 16 for analysis. Some statistical associations using Pearson chi-square test were made as necessary and P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Concerning the knowledge of the diabetic patients towards LSM; majority of them were found to be knowledgeable and accounts 64.2% followed by 27.2% patients who were averagely knowledgeable. Regarding the attitude of patients towards non pharmacological therapeutic approaches, majority of those (96%) had very good attitude followed by good attitude (1.2%) and poor attitude (2.9%) towards LSM. The large proportion of respondents have been with very good practice (74.6%) followed by those with average practice (20.5%). There is a significant association between knowledge and educational status (p=0.000), occupation (p=0.000) as well as area of residence (p=0.000). In addition, a significant association was observed between attitude and occupation (p=0.010) as well as residence (p=0.006). Similarly, statistically significant association was also shown between practice and occupation (p=0.040) and area of residence (p = 0.007). Generally, the majority of respondents has very good knowledge, while in the case of attitude and practice, majority of them have a good attitude and practice. Since LSM plays a pivotal role in the management of chronic diseases like DM, the health care professionals should give great emphasis for it for betterment of the overall therapeutic outcome.