IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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JANUARY 2015
1

IN-VITRO SCREENING OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF ALBAZIA SAMAN (Jacq.)Merr, FOR THEIR CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY

Suresh Arumugam*, Anju Venugopal, Suriya Annamalai and Senthil kumar Natesan

Department of Pharmacology,JKK Munirajah Medical Research Foundation College of Pharmacy, B.Komarapalayam, Namakkal (Dist), Tamilnadu.

Abstract

The present study was designed to evaluate the invitro cytotoxic potential of methanolic extract of Albazia saman leaves. The extraction of leaves was carried out by Soxhlet apparatus using methanol. The Cytotoxicity of methanolic extract was tested by Brine shrimp lethality assay, Trypan blue dye exclusion method, Neutral red Cytotoxicity assay, MTT assay and Ethidium bromide – acridine orange staining. Studies have shown differential sensitivities to several natural compounds between tumor and normal cells in vitro and the results obtained from the present study show that the methanol extract from Albazia saman leaves to DLA cell lines, and L929 cell lines. Moreover it has protective effect against cancer by their effect on signal transduction in cell proliferation and angiogenesis. It also justifies the folklore medicinal uses and claims about the therapeutic values of this plant as curative agent against tumor and we therefore, suggest further, the purification and characterization of the phytochemicals along with investigations needed to provide some additional insight into the in vivo cytotoxicity activity of the plants with a view to obtaining useful chemotherapeutic agent. Hence the leaf  extract is proved the herbal use of cytotoxic activity and it is recommended as anti-cancer drug further to isolate the bioactive compound and drug designing.

2

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF VALSARTAN FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS BY DIRECT COMPRESSION METHOD

N. G. Raghavendra Rao1*, Durga Bhavani2, Shwetha1

1Jyothishmathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Karimnagar - 505481, Telangana, India.

2Luqman College of Pharmacy, Gulbarga-585 102. Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Valsartan is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist indicated in the treatment of hypertension and mild to moderate heart failure of ischamatic or cardiomyopatheic origin. The bioavailability of valsartan is 23% indicating extensive first pass metabolism in liver. In the present research work an attempt has been made to prepare fast dissolving tablets of valsartan by using direct compression technique using sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, kyronT-314 and crospovidone are used as a superdisintegrants. The prepared tablets were evaluated for pre and post-compressional parameters. The values of pre-compression parameters evaluated were within prescribed limits and indicated good free flowing property. All the post compression parameters are evaluated were prescribed limits and results were within IP acceptable limits. The drug content uniformity was in between 97.90 to 99.90 %, water absorption ration were found between 51 to 80% and wetting time between 13 to 61 sec. Rapid disintegration within several minutes was observed in all the formulations. The in-vitro disintegration time of fast dissolving tablets were found to be 17 to 71 sec. which is in the range of fulfilling the official requirements. By the addition of superdisintegrants the disintegration time increased significantly (P<0.05) tablets prepared.IR spectral analysis the pure drug characteristic absorption bands of formulations absorption bands have shown all most same range. As there is no variation and shift in the position of characteristic absorption bands it can be justified there is no interaction between drug and polymer. The DSC results shows that there was no drug interaction with the formulation additives of the tablet, drug. After three month the tablets were again analyzed for the hardness, friability and disintegration time. Short term stability studies on the formulations indicated that there are no significant changes in hardness, friability and dispersion time (p<0.05). The above results concluded that, although differences existed between the superdisintegrants, the fast dissolving Valsartan tablets could be prepared by using any of the superdisintegrants used. Among all the formulation DCP4 (6 % CP) were found to be promising and showed a disintegration time of 17 sec, 50 % of drug released in 7.52 min, and 90 % of drug released in 12.60 min.

3

EVALUATION OF COAGULANT AND ANTI COAGULANT ACTIVITY OF SOME SPICES.

L.C.Potey, S.U.Kannao, Dr. S.B.Kosalge

Hi-Tech College of Pharmacy, Chandrapur.

Abstract

Spices do a whole lot more than liven up food. New research has found that the active ingredients in several common spices prevent platelet aggregation and blood clot formation without the side effects. Some spices when evaluated for anti blood coagulation the effect of the principle spice active compounds eugenol, piperine, pinene, alpha terpinol, borniol, geraniol , cinnamaldehyde, sinigrine, thymol, on human platelet aggregation. Demonstrated that each compound evaluated was able to significantly inhibit blood clotting. Furthermore, the compounds performed their anti-platelet aggregation activity against several different factors that promote the clotting of blood. Pinene, terpinol and borniol and geraniol the principle constituents of cumin and coriander respectively, were found to be the most potent inhibitors of arachidonic acid induced platelet aggregation. This ability was shown by the other tested compounds in the declining order of sinigrine, eugenol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde, and piperine.

4

LIPID DROPLETS: A DYNAMIC ORGANELLE IN HEALTH AND DISEASE

Dr. Shikhaa Mahajan1*, Dr. Neeru Bhaskar1, Dr. Harnam Kaur2, Dr. Rajesh Pandey1, Dr. Sunita Manhas3

1* Department of Biochemistry. M.M.I M.S.R, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India.

2Professor & Head, ESIC Medical College Faridabad Haryana, India.

3Department of Biochemistry, M.M. Medical College and Hospital, Kumarhatti, Solan, Himachal Pradesh.

 Abstract

Obesity is a global epidemic and most common disorder in the world. It refers to an abnormally high proportion of total body fat. Metabolic diseases like obesity and diabetes are characterized by excessive lipid storage. The basic biology of these diseases is linked to Lipid Droplets (LDs). LDs, lipidbodies, oradiposomes is made up of a highly hydrophobic lipid ester core, the surface of a phospholipid monolayer and associated proteins like PAT, caveolins, CIDE, FSP27 and FIT1 & FIT2. The LDs is not a static organelle at all but a dynamic organelle that plays active role in lipid homeostasis. They are a different entity than lipoproteins andalteration in the regulation of LDs physiology and metabolism influence the risk of developing metabolic diseases. Besides Obesity, many other diseases are also associated with LDs like atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathies and lipodystrophies. Greater understanding of LDs biogenesis, composition, and heterogeneity will provide new insights in understanding the role of LDs in health and disease.

5

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC FINGERPRINT ANALYSIS OF ACACIA LEUCOPHOLEAROXBMETHANOLIC LEAF AND BARK EXTRACT BY HPTLC TECHNIQUE

Wankhade M.S.,Mulani, R. M*.

Department of Botany, DST-FIST,UGC-SAP Sponsored School of Life Sciences, Swami RamanandTeerth Marathwada University Nanded 431606.

Abstract

The plant Acacia leucophloeaRoxb is reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine.The plant bark cures inflammation, bronchitis useful in biliousness, thirst, vomiting, burning sensation and an astringent.The bark is used as antihelmentic, blood purifier, antimicrobial and expectorant. Bark extract shows significant antipyretic activity against the yeast induced pyrexia model. It is also used in skin diseases treatment (leprosy), ulcer, gum bleeding, mouth ulcer, fever, dry cough, dysentery, diabetes, and Snake-bite. Bark decoction and gum is used for contraception and menstrual complaints. Dyes and tannins are manufactured from inner bark of the plant. It also shows antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponnins, glycosides, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. In the present study, an attempt was made to quantify the flavonoid quercetin and rutin in the bark and leaf extract. Quantification of quercetin and rutin was carried out from the methanolic extract using the solvent system of Toluene:Ethyl acetate:Formic acid (6:4:0.8 v/v/v). The Rf values of quercetin and rutin are 0.56 and 0.06 respectively. Present method is useful for the quantitative estimation of these two compounds in the plant. HPTLC fingerprint analysis of leaf and bark extract of Acacialeucopholeacan be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of the plant.

6

IN-USE TESTS FOR HOSPITAL DISINFECTANTS AND ANTISEPTICS.

Kamaljeet 1*, Mohit Thalquotra 2, P S Grover 3, Varsha A Singh 3.

1Devi lal Dental College, Sirsa, Haryana, India.

2Government Medical College, Jammu, J&K, India.

3Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Science and Research (MMIMSR), Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India.

Abstract

An attempt has been made to evaluate the efficacy of different disinfectants and antiseptics being used in the various departments of Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, District Ambala (Haryana). Of the total 100 samples of disinfectants and antiseptics tested 5(5%) have been found to contaminated of bacteria. The contamination arrived from the longer used, uncovered containers, prolonged use to the dilution without change, insufficient time allowed for the appropriate action and dipping in of dirty instrument constitute the other problem in the use of disinfectants / antiseptics and the reasons have been spell out.

7

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL FILMS LOADED WITH PROPRANOLOL

Sujay Betageri*, Dandasi Jayachandra Dev, Shailesh Thirumaleshwar, Parthasarathi K Kulkarni

JSS College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS University, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagar, Mysuru-570015, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

The aim of the present study is to prepare and evaluate transdermal films of propranolol (PL) by using sodium alginate (SA) & xanthan gum (XG) as biopolymer to prevent adverse effects related to oral administration. Transdermal films were prepared by solvent casting method by varying ratios of different blends of PL with sodium alginate and xanthan gum SA/XG. The compatibility studies have been carried out between drugs and polymers by using FTIR (Fourior transform infrared radiation) & differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) to determine any interactions between the drugs and the polymers. Films containing drugs were evaluated for the physicochemical properties such as weight uniformity, thickness, folding endurance, % moisture absorption studies, drug content uniformity, physical appearance, tensile strength and in vitro diffusion studies were carried out by Franz diffusion cell. In vitro permeation through skin of optimized formulation was compared with conventional gel of PL. various formulated patches were tested for their efficiency to cause skin irritation in rats. Smooth, thin, flexible & transparent film of PL were prepared by various concentration blends of sodium alginate & xanthan gum SA/XG. The compatibility studies were carried out through the FTIR & DSC which shows that there was no interaction between the drug and polymer hence they are compatible with polymers. Physicochemical properties such as weight uniformity, thickness, folding endurance, % moisture absorption studies, drug content uniformity, physical appearance, tensile strength were found to be uniform and reproducible. The in vitro diffusion studies is compared with the conventional gel which shows optimized formulation (A3) have better efficiency than the conventional gel formulation. The highest flux & diffusion ratio was found better in (A3) formulation it was about 0.266±0.043 mg/cm2/h & 8.39 mg/cm2/h hence better therapeutic effect was found in the A3 formulation therefore it is considered as optimized formulation. The skin irritation test was carried out in animals hence the optimized formulation did not show any kind of irritation and was found to stable and safe. By the above studies we can conclude that transdermal films of PL which were prepared by using biopolymers are effective vehicles for better transdermal delivery of PL to provide effective therapeutic response.

8

GUILLAIN - BARRE SYNDROME- A COMPLICATED NEURAL DAMAGE

Hari Babu Ramineni*, M Chandini , A S K L Manogna, S Vidyadhara

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Chebrolu Hanumaiah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guntur, India.

Abstract

Guillain - Barre Syndrome is also known as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and it is an inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nerves. Primary etiology is respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. We report this rare syndrome in a 40 year old male who presented with complaints of weakness of both lower limbs followed by weakness of the upper limbs. He had a history of slippage of footwear, unable to climb stairs, inability to buttoning of the shirt, inability to mix food, abdominal tightness, epigastria pain, swelling of both legs. Based on history, clinical examination patient was diagnosed as Guillain - Barre Syndrome. Using IVIG and symptomatic care is considered as a treatment. In our case the patient responded well with the treatment schedule.

9

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND TELMISARTAN IN A PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION BY RP-HPLC METHOD

Putchakayala Purnachandra Rao, Dondeti Mogili Reddy and D.Ramachandran*

Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India-522510.

Abstract

An isocratic Simultaneous estimation by RP-HPLC Method were developed and validated for the quantification of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE and TELMISARTAN in tablet dosage form. Quantification was achieved by using a reversed-phase C18 column (INERTSIL C18 Column , 5μ, 250 mm × 4.6 mm) at ambient temperature with mobile phase consisting of Mixed Phosphate buffer(pH:4.0) : Acetonitrile (55:45). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. Measurements were made at a wavelength of 252nm. The average retention time for HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE and TELMISARTAN were found to be 2.85 min and 4.09. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. The assay methods were found to be linear from 15-35μg/ml for HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE and 48-112μg/ml for TELMISARTAN. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The developed method was successfully applied to estimate the amount of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE and TELMISARTAN in tablet dosage form.

10

COMPARATIVE PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS VARIOUS DIFFERENT PARTS (STEM, LEAF AND FRUIT) OF CAYRATIA TRIFOLIA (L.)

Sundaram Sowmya, Palanisamy Chella Perumal, Palanirajan Anusooriya, Balasubramanian Vidya, Prabhakaran Pratibha, Deivasigamani Malarvizhi And Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan*

Department of Biochemistry, Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India 641 021.

Department of Bioinformatics, Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India 641 021.

Abstract

Medicinal plants containing active chemical constituents with high antioxidant properties play a significant role in the prevention of various degenerative diseases. Cayratia trifolia possesses a good free radical scavenging activity which may be due to the presence of secondary metabolites. The aim of the present study is to investigate the presence of phytoconstituents in the different parts like stem, leaf and fruit of Cayratia trifolia. The stem, leaf and fruit were extracted using successive solvents like petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. The preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out in sequential extracts of different parts of Cayratia trifolia. The results show that the stem ethanolic extract establish more number of phytochemical constituents when compared with leaf and fruit ethanolic extracts. Based on the above results, this plant could possess natural antioxidants that may have great importance as therapeutic agents in preventing oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, inflammation and diabetes mellitus.

11

PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANDROGRAPHIS LINEATA NEES ON HEPATOTOXICITY INDUCED RATS

E. Nikhil Chakravarthy*, D. Sudharshan Reddy, G.Venkataiah, Mary Razina

Smt. Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Sheshadrinagar, Mahabubnagar-509001, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Liver handles metabolism and excretion of drugs and other xenobiotics from the body thereby providing protection against foreign substances by detoxifying and eliminating them. Chemicals or toxicants like D-Galactosamine shows hepatotoxicity. Hepatic disease is a term that affects the cells, tissues, structures, or functions of the liver. Liver has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemical reactions necessary for digestion and synthesis as well as breakdown of small and complex molecules, many of which are necessary for normal vital functions. Some indigenous plants that have hepatoprotective properties such as Andrographic paniculata,, Silybum marianum, Coccinia grandis, Jatropha curcas, etc. Andrographis lineata Nees can be used for hepatoprotective activity since traditional use of medicines. It contains chemical constituents like saponins, triterpenoids, flavonoids at a major concentration, hence we selected for the study to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of A. nees leaf extract based on the phytochemicals and traditional use of the plant. D-Galn disrupts the synthesis of essential uridylate nucleotides resulting in an organelle injury and ultimate cell death. Silybum marianum, commonly known as ‘milk thistle’ is one of the oldest and thoroughly researched plants in the treatment of liver diseases. Silymarin is a complex mixture of four flavonolignan isomers, namely silybin, isosilybin, silydianin and silychristin. A.nees plant contains the chemical constituents like flavonoids, terpenoids, and glucopyranoside etc. The leaves of the plant is rich in tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, saponins etc. The present study proved the medicinal plant with supportive therapeutic efficacy. Albino wistar rats of either sex are induced by D-Galactosamine orally at a dose of 400 mg/kg for a period of 14 days, and were treated with ethanolic extract of the stems of A. Nees (EEALN) orally at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day. The biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, Total protein, and serum total & direct bilirubin were estimated to assess the liver function. Ethanolic extract of the stems of A. Nees showed the hepatoprotective activity by decreasing the levels of serum hepatic marker enzymes. Histopathological studies were performed. The extract with 2000 mg/kg b.wt. is considered as the safe dose.

12

STUDY OF IN VIVO ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM SCHRAD. & WENDL. ON TRITON INDUCED DYSLIPIDEMIA IN RATS

Anitha Mary Mathews1*, Arockiasamy Josphin Maria Christina 2
 
1Department of Pharmacology, Pushpagiri College of Pharmacy, Thiruvalla-689101, Kerala, India.
2Department of Pharmacology, Taylor’s University, No. 1 Jalan Taylor's, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Abstract

Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl.(solanaceae) is otherwise called Indian nightshade or yellow berried night shade.Decoction of root is used as febrifuge, effective diuretic and expectorant. The aerial parts and fruits were subjected to our study using triton induced model of dyslipidemia in rats.The aerial parts in the dose of 400mg/kg produced significant alteration in lipid profile whereas fruit in the dose of 400mg/kg produced significant positive alterations in the lipid profile of rats though at a lesser extent compared to the aerial parts. The in- vitro studies showed that the aerial parts of the plant produced considerable inhibition of fat formation .Since adipogenesis and abnormal lipid profile are risk factors for the development of T2DM, the progression of its cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications and insulin resistance, the present study was directed towards seeking the possibilities of the plant in the treatment of dyslipidemia as well. The aerial part of the plant in the dose of 400mg/kg was found to possess antidyslipidemic activity comparable to the standard drug gemfibrozil. The fruits too possess comparable effects.

13

A PRECLINICAL STUDY ON PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC DRUG INTERACTION BETWEEN MEXILETINE AND METFORMIN

Dr. K. Abedulla Khan1*, Satyanarayana S2 and Eswar Kumar K3

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Sultan ul uloom college of Pharmacy, Hyderabad.

2Avanti Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cherukapally (V), Vizianagaram (Dt), A.P.

3A.U. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, A.P.

Abstract*

Chronic diabetic may cause secondary complications like cardiac problems which require multiple drugs may cause probability of drug-drug interactions between antidiabetic and antiarrhythmic drugs. Our aim of this study is to find out the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between metformin and mexiletine in rabbits. In this study oral doses of metformin, mexiletine and their single dose combination and multi dose combination was administered with appropriate wash out periods in between the treatment in rabbits. Blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose by GOD/POD method, serum insulin by radioimmunoassay and serum metformin levels estimated by HPLC method. The insulin resistance index and β cell function were determined by homeostasis model assessment. In multiple dose study of mexiletine with metformin were found that the utmost of 39.21 ± 02.12 % drop in blood glucose level at 3rd h and acme plasma insulin level is 12.76 ±07.58 μU/ml at 3rd hour and increase in insulin production by increasing the pancreatic β-cell activity is found significant, but changes in pharmacokinetic parameters of metformin in single dose combination and multiple dose combinations compared to metformin control not found significant. There was no significant change in pharmacokinetic parameters of metformin in combination therapy compared to metformin. So the interaction appeared to be pharmacodynamic only.

14

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE FROM UPASI SELECTED CLONE OF Camellia sinensis (L.) O. KUNTZE

Ramkumar Samynathan 1*, Chella Perumal Palanisamy2, Sudhakar Gandhi3, AbulKalam A. Mandal4, Mohankumar Padmanabhan4, Suresh kumar Perisamy3 and Gopalakrishnan Velliyur Kanniappan2
 
1Dept of Biotechnology, Centre for plant molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, TN, India. 2Dept of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, Karpagam University, Coimbatore 641021, TN, India.
3Dept of Biotechnology, Anna University, BIT campus, Trichirappalli - 620024.
4Plant Physiology & Biotechnology Division, UPASI Tea Research Foundation, UPASI Tea Research Foundation, UPASI Tea Research Institute, Nirar Dam BPO, Valparai 642 127, Coimbatore District, TN, India.

Abstract

Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO), a major enzyme responsible for manufacture of black tea from tea leaves (Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze). Objective: To isolated and characterize the Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme from UPASI selected clone of Camellia sinensis (L.). PPO was purified via ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography resulted in a recovery of 28.89% of total enzyme activity. Purified PPO was a monomeric protein of molecular weight 32 kDa. The most preferred substrate for PPO was catechin (10 mM) followed by catechol, caffeicacid, L-Dopa and pyrogallol. The Km and Vmax for PPO was1.22 mM ± 1.45 mM and 249.71 ± 1.86 U/ml/min using catechin as a substrate. Thermal stability of PPO was at 62°C. The enzyme activated monovalent cations namely, K+, and Na+. The most effective inhibitor was β - mercaptoethanol followed by EDTA and SDS. Activation energies were E(a) of PPOΔH* ( 1.3517 kJ mol-1), ΔG* ( 55402.96 kJ mol-1) and ΔS*(-185.82 J mol-1 K-1). Based on the results, this study can be concluded that the purified PPO showed greatest substrate specificity towards catechin (10 mM), high activity in the presence of K2+, Na2+ and greatest inhibition with β-mercaptoethanol. Thus, isolated PPO enzyme from the selected clone of Camellia sinensis (L.) may be a potential source for pharmacology and functional food.

15

CL-IBMECA ACTIVATED ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTOR ELEVATES MRNA LEVELS OF ENOS AND NOX 4 IN DIABETIC MICE AORTA

Shamama Nishat, Luqman A Khan, Seemi F Basir

Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia,New Delhi-110025, India.

Abstract

Rise of diabetes is one of the major threats to human health worldwide and is a high risk factor for many cardiovascular complications. The vascular damage results in functional, biochemical, and morphological abnormalities in the aorta. Some of these changes may be attributed to altered action of adenosine receptors which might be due to changes in the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidases. The present study investigates the role of adenosine A3 receptor in mediating vasoconstriction response in wild type diabetic mice. Streptozotocin treated mice aorta were exposed to adenosine A3 receptor agonist 2-Chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-N-methyl-5-carbamoyladenosine and antagonist 2,3-diethyl-4,5-dipropyl-6-phenylpyridine-3-thiocarboxylate-5-carboxylate to measure the dose-response relationship. Further mRNA expression was done by real time polymerase chain reaction, and lipid peroxidation and total Nitrate/Nitrite levels were measured by colorimetry in control and diabetic groups. We observed an increased vasoconstriction response in diabetic group which was diminished in the presence of adenosine A3 receptor antagonist. This study also explores the effect of adenosine A3 receptor agonist on the mRNA expression of various nitric oxide synthase isoforms. The results suggest that adenosine A3 receptor is responsible for promotion of vasoconstriction response in diabetes. There is alteration in the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase-4 which might be mediated by adenosine A3 receptor, which in turn may be responsible for vascular dysfunction during diabetes.

16

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR ESTIMATION OF FENOFIBRIC ACID BY RP-UPLC

V.Niraimathi*, A.Jerad Suresh1, P.Saravana Muthukumar2, A.Alageswaran1

1*Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Madras Medical College, Chennai-600003, India.

2Department of Analytical research and development, Ordain Health Care Global Private Limited, Chennai-600073, India.

Abstract

Fenofibric acid is an unofficial drug for which analytical methods for pharmaceutical dosage forms have not been reported till date. UPLC method has been developed and validated for estimation of fenofibric acid in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The separation was carried out by using a column with BEH C18 (50 x 2.1mm, 1.7μm) and further elution was optimized using degassed mobile phase containing a mixture of 585 volumes of ammonium acetate buffer, 360 volumes of acetonitrile and 50 volumes of tetrahydrofuran; pH was adjusted to 4.0 by using glacial acetic acid.The retention time for fenofibric acid (FFA) was found to be 1.276 min. The validation results were found to be linear in the concentration range of 8.87-62.09 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient R2= 0.999. The intra-day and inter-day variation, as RSD (%), was found to be 0.3. The percentage mean recovery was found to be 99.8-100.1% for the fenofibric acid. The amount of drug in the formulation was found to be in good agreement with label claim and percentage purity was 99.1%. The results showed, that this proposed UPLC method to be specific, linear, precise, accurate and robust for determination of fenofibric acid in pharmaceutical dosage form. The validation of method was carried out utilizing ICH guidelines.

17

DETECTION & QUANTIFICATION OF MELAMINE RESIDUE IN PASTEURIZED MILK BY RP-HPLC

V.Niraimathi*, A.Jerad Suresh, T.Ananthakumar

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College Of Pharmacy, Madras Medical College, Chennai-600 003, India.

Abstract

Melamine is a toxic triazine used as an adulterant in milk & milk related products to increase the protein content. RP-HPLC method has been developed using water as mobile phase to detect and quantify the melamine residue in pasteurized milk. In September 2008 , the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that there have been six infant deaths, and more than 1lakh of infants and young children in China were hospitalized for urinary problems , with possibility of renal tube blockages and possible kidney stones which were attributed to the consumption of melamine contaminated infant formula and related dairy products. The melamine was extracted by precipitation of milk protein at its isoelectric point with dilute acids. Samples were purified by using membrane filter at 0.45μm pore size, AmChemteq ACI C18 (4.6mmx250mm, 5μm) column as the stationary phase. The linearity curve was constructed for the concentration of melamine ranging from 1mg/kg to 25 mg/kg.The correlation co-efficient was found to be 0.99998. Seven marketed milk brands were studied by this method. It was observed that all the seven were found to contain melamine residue ranging from 0.028 mg/kg to 0.071 mg/kg. The results were below the limits set by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. This is the first study to confirm the existence of melamine residue in pasteurized milk marketed in Tamilnadu.

18

A REVIEW ON EBOLA VIRUS

RANJU. R. KONDEKAR, SMITA .M. MESHRAM, SUVARNA. A.GOHANE

Hi-Tech College of Pharmacy, Chandrapur -442401, India.

Abstract

Ebola virus disease (EVD), Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), or simply Ebola is a disease of humans and other primates caused by an ebolavirus. Symptoms start two days to three weeks after contracting the virus, with a fever, sore throat, muscle pain and headaches. Typically, vomiting, diarrhea and rash follow, along with decreased functioning of the liver and kidneys. Around this time, affected people may begin to bleed both within the body and externally. The virus may be acquired upon contact with blood or a bodily fluid of an infected animal.Spreading through the air has not been documented in the natural environment. Fruit bats are believed to be a carrier and may spread the virus. There are no specific treatments for Ebola. Patients are isolated and then supported by health care workers, "which consists of hydrating the patient, maintaining their oxygen status and blood pressure and treating them for any complicating infections.

19

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Atrabotrys Hexapetalus

S. Suman*1, H.G. Raghavendra1, M. Suresh Babu1
 
Department of Pharmacology, Creative Educational Society’s College of Pharmacy, NH-7, Chinnatekur, Kurnool-518218, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.

Abstract

The leaves of Atrabotrys hexapetalus L. (Family: Acanthaceae) is used in folk medicine for treating ulcerative stomatitis, skin diseases, ulcers, wounds, etc. Anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Atrabotrys hexapetalus L. was evaluated by carrageenan induced acute paw oedema model and papaya latex induced acute paw oedema models in albino rats. The effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Atrabotrys hexapetalus L. (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, b.w., orally) on paw volume in the carrageenan and papaya latex induced acute paw oedema models induced rats was studied for the assessment of anti-inflammatory activity. There was a significant (P < 0.01) dose-dependent decrease in the paw volume produced by Carrageenan and papaya latex induced acute paw oedema models in albino rats as compared to the standard drug Indomethacine (20 mg/kg, b.w. orally). The reduction in paw volume in Carrageenan and papaya latex treated rats proved the anti-inflammatory activity of leaves of Atrabotrys hexapetalus L

20

Development and Characterization of Nanoparticle Based Oral Delivery of Insulin

Anisha Agrawal, Sunisha Kulkarni, Shyam Bihari Sharma, Anshul Jain
 
School of Studies in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Nanoparticles are colloidal carriers composed of biodegradable polymers which have been emerged as a potential and novel carrier for controlled drug delivery of various therapeutic agents such as insulin through the oral route. Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death in many developed countries. Insulin, a polypeptide hormone, is commonly used in treatment of diabetes, administered subcutaneously. This treatment involves immense pain, inconsistent pharmacokinetics leading to poor patient compliance and compromising the quality of life of diabetic patients. The possibility of administering insulin through alternative routes were also considered such as oral, nasal and transdermal patches but is associated with limitations such as enzymatic degradation; poor intestinal transport and transmucosal absorption; skin impermeability to insulin. The aim of this study was to develop a formulation of natural polymer based, insulin-loaded nanoparticles for oral delivery of insulin. These nanoparticles were prepared by emulsification in situ polymer cross-linking method. Insulin encapsulated natural polymer based nanoparticles when administered orally will induce hypoglycemic effects for several days. Various formulations as well as process parameters were optimized to get stable nanoparticles of natural polymer. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with sizes in the range of 150-200 nm. Drug entrapment efficiency was found to be greater than 90%. These polymeric nanoparticles fulfill the criteria of nanocarriers to be employed for oral delivery of insulin as they offer minimum release of insulin at gastric pH while optimum release noticed at intestinal pH.

21

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND TELMISARTAN IN BI-LAYERED TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC

Mohammad Badrud Duza1*, S. Ashutosh Kumar1,G.Vijay Kumar1, Vara Prasad Saka2, Nayeem Malik2 *

1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assuarence, A.K.R.G.College of Pharmacy, Nallajarla, W.G. dist., A.P.

2Department of Pharmacy, Nimra College of pharmacy, Vijayawada.

Abstract

A simple, precise, rapid, validated method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in bi layered tablet dosage form using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with Waters e2695 system equipped with Empower 2 Software with PDA Detector Hypersil ODS C18 column (4.6x 150*5μm particle size) was operated in isocratic mode using water and methanol (30:70v/v) as mobile phase and pumped at rate of 1.0ml/min and eluent was monitored using UV-Visible detector at 230nm.The linearity was found in the range of 50-150 μg/ml and shows a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The retention times of hydrochlorothiazide and telmisartan were noted to be 1.782 and 2.956 mins, respectively. This study concluded that the proposed method was found to be accurate, reproducible and consistent and could be effecti0vely used for the routine analysis of these drugs in marketed formulations.

22

ORAL SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS OF METFORMIN HYROCHLORIDE USING NATURAL POLYMERS

M.Vijaya laxmi*, P.Mamatha Rani, V. Dashavarna chary, C.V.S. Raghu Kiran, A.Madhu sudhan.

*Department of Pharmaceutics, Teegala Krishna Reddy College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Abstract

The purpose of this research study is to formulate and evaluate Metformin HCl sustained release matrix tablet using natural polymers like xanthan gum and guar gum as release retarding agents by means of wet granulation method. Metformin HCl, a biguanide, has relatively short plasma half life and low absolute bioavailabity. In order to increase half life and bioavailability of the drug, it has formulated as sustained release dosage form and natural polymers were selected to achieve this objective. Total nine formulations were prepared by varying composition of the polymers. All the batches were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, drug content and invitro drug release. Invitro Dissolution studies showed that either Xanthan gum or guar gum alone could not control the Metformin release for 12 h; whereas the combination of these polymers (F9) slowed down the release rate of drug and thus can be successfully employed for formulating sustained release matrix tablets. The drug release from F9 was found to be 98.57% in 12 hours. So, F9 was considered as optimized formulation among others. Fitting the data into Korsmeyer - peppas equation indicated the diffusion along with the erosion could be mechanism of drug release. Hence, it can be concluded that, use of natural polymers in novel drug delivery systems play a significant role in along with synthetic polymers and found to be economic.

23

ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEUCAS ASPERA AND CASSIA TORA ROOTS

Sandip Shelke1, Dr. Chandanam Sreedhar2, Dr. K.B. Chandrasekhar3

1 SATS College of Pharmacy, Miraj, Maharashtra India. (Ph.D. Scholar, JNTU, Anantapur, A.P. India)

2HOD of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Karnataka College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, India.

3Director of OTRI, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur, A.P., India.

Abstract

Unrelieved pain increases cardiac work, increases metabolic rate, interferes with blood clotting, leads to water retention, lowers oxygen levels, impairs wound healing, alters immune function, interferes with sleep and creates negative emotions. Thus analgesic potential of Leucas aspera and Cassia Tora L were evaluated by using Acetic acid induced writhing in mice model. The extracts were produced analgesic effect. The extracts also decreased the abdominal constriction and hind paw stretching in the Acetic acid writhing test significantly (p<0.001- 0.05) relative to control.

24

NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CYNODONDACTYLON AND PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE SYSTEM IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

Manju Bhaskar*, ChinmayKinkar and Harshdeep Grewal

Department of Pharmacology, SPP School of Pharmacy & Technology Management.SVKM’s NMIMS, Vile Parle, Mumbai-400056.

Abstract

Herbs have been found to be very effective in ameliorating the harmful effects of oxidative stress induced in Alzheimer’s disease. Cynodon dactylon and Phyllanthus amarus have been reported to possess myriad pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Cynodondactylon and Phyllanthus amaruson the antioxidant enzymes inducing in Alzheimer’s disease. The experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats, divided into control rats, rats receiving aluminium chloride (10 mg/kg, i.p.), donepezil hydrochloride (3 mg/kg, p.o.), methanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon and Phyllanthus amarus (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, p.o.), respectively for a period of seven days. The influence of extracts on the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and NADH dehydrogenase were estimated using rat brain homogenate. The methanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon and Phyllanthus amarus at the doses 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, p.o. significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and NADH dehydrogenase in comparison with the control group. The medicinal use of methanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon and Phyllanthus amarusas antioxidant is likely to bring these herbal drugs to the cutting edge of therapeutic agents in the treatment of oxidative stress induced Alzheimer’s disease.

25

D-GALACTOSAMINE/ LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE INDUCED HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF TERMINALIA PALLIDA

Shalaka D. Kadam1, Dr. Chandanam Sreedhar2, Dr. K.B.Chandrasekhar3

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anatapur, India.

2HOD of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Karnataka College of Pharmacy,India.

3Director of OTRI, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur, India.

Abstract

Terminalia pallida brandis is most commonly found plant in the south India. Methanolic and nHexane extract of Terminalia pallida roots was assayed for hepatoprotective activity. Present study provides focus on hepatoprotective activity of the roots in both the extracts by D-Galactosamine/ Lipopolysaccharide induced hepatotoxicity model. Physical parameter, liver functioning, antioxidant levels and hisopathological study of the liver was conducted to asses’ hepatoprotective action. Treatment with Terminalia pallida root extracts has protected liver from induced hepatotoxicity. This was demonstrated by reducing the elevated levels of biochemical markers and additional histopathological observations have shown that there is an improvement in the structural design of liver due to induced hepatotoxicity. Present study is a contribution to the literature about hepatoprotective action of Terminalia pallida roots.

26

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LOZENGES TABLET OF FLUCONAZOLE

*V.B.Bharkad1, V. S.Kada2, S. G. Shinde1, S.B.Jadhav2 Md.Zameeruddin2, G.R.Shendarkar3

1SSS College of pharmacy, Vishnupuri Nanded, Maharashtra India.

2Indira College of pharmacy, Vishnupuri Nanded, Maharashtra India. 3Nanded College of pharmacy, Nanded . Maharashtra India.

Abstract

To provide slow release medicament for the treatment of oral thrush in patients fuconazole was formulated as a tablet lozenge. There are many dosage forms in the market like syrups, tablets, but still there is a need for new dosage forms which acts effectively and locally. So the present investigation aims to design, prepare and evaluate compressed tablet lozenge of Fluconazole. The lozenges were prepared using sucrose as base and gelatine solution as a binder. Lozenges were prepared by wet granulation method using different concentration of maize starch, acacia, HPMC E50.The benefits of these prepared lozenges are increased bioavailability, reduction in gastric irritation by passing first pass metabolism. All the formulations prepared were subjected to various physicochemical parameters like hardness, content uniformity, friability, weight variation etc. The prepared formulations have a hardness of of 3.5-10.2 Kg/cm², with good taste. The formulation batches F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9 showed percentage drug release 80%, 84%, 96%, 90%, 97%, 90%, 96%, 95%, 96% respectively, Among all the formulations F5 shows 97 % drug release at 30 min. Stability studies of selected formulations were carried out at 300 C and 400C for a period of three months.

27

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 1,2-BENZISOXAZOLE AMIDE DERIVATIVES

B Sreedhar1, T Veera Reddy1, C Nagaraju2*, V Padmavathi2, Ch Vijaya1, H Sudhamani2

1Vikrama Simhapuri University, Nellore 524 003, India.

2Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi 517 502, India.

Abstract

A series of novel derivatives of 6-fluoro-4-piperdinyl-1,2-benzisoxazole (3) amides were synthesized by the condensation of different acid chlorides with 3 in the presence of N-methylimidazole as a base in THF with amended yields. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, NMR and Mass spectral analysis. These molecules were evaluated for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents in vitro by disc diffusion method. Analogues 4c-4f showed better inhibitory activity than that of other analogues. Compound 4f showed the highest inhibition against all tested strains.

28

DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIFUNGAL LOZENGES FOR TREATMENT OF OROPHARYNGEAL CANDIDIASIS

Shivprasad Majumdar1, Vaibhav Jogi2

1Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara.

2SVKM’s NMIMS, School of Pharmacy & Technology Management, Shirpur (Dhule).

Abstract

Topical treatment for Oropharyngeal candidiasis is considered preferable to systemic treatment in various individuals. However, there are some limitations for traditional topical therapies including short contact time with the oral mucosa and multiple dosing each day. The current investigation is designed to improve patient compliance and its efficacy by delivering anti-fungal drug in the form of lozenges. Miconazole being BCS class II drug has low solubility and high permeability so in order to increase its solubility, commercial technique for enhancement of drug release by water soluble carriers like PEG (400,6000,4000) either alone or in combination were used. Taste masking of a bitter drug like Miconazole was done by adding maltodextrin along with sucralose and peppermint flavor. Drug release was calculated by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique and based on various parameters like disintegration time, drug release and its taste masking efficiency batch was finalized. Drug release from finalized batch was 91% and it gives pleasant mouth feel effect. In an era were patient compliance and efficacy are given much importance such formulation shows promising results as per commercial aspects are concern.

29

FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EPIGALLOCATECHIN GALLATE NANOPARTICLES

Ramkumar Ponnuraj1*, Janakiraman K1, Sivaraman Gopalakrishnan2, Senthilnathan K2, Meganathan V2, Saravanan P2

1Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram, 608002, India.

2apex Laboratories Private Limited, Alathur, Kanchipuram, 603110, India.

Abstract

Epigallocatechin gallate is a type of catechin has many therapeutic advantages, but its scope is limited due to its poor bioavailability. Most of the ingested Epigallocatechin gallate apparently does not get into the blood, since absorption takes place in the small gut and substantial quantities pass from the small intestine to the large intestine, where it undergoes further degradation by the action of local microbiota [1-4]. Chitosan, a polymer of linear polysaccharide, enhances transport of drug across epithelial surfaces and is biocompatible and biodegradable. The aim of this study is to formulate and characterize Epigallocatechin gallate loaded Chitosan nanoparticles prepared by ionic-gelation method. This increases the abosorption and bioavailaility of Epigallocatechin gallate. The resulting nanoparticles tend to aggregate in biological fluid which can be minimized by addition of poloxamer 188. The nanoparticles obtained were evaluated for percentage yield of drug, drug entrapment efficiency, particle size and morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), compatibility studies using Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and in vitro release kinetics. Among the four different ratios of drug to polymer, 1:0.5 ratio showed high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency. The resulting nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a smooth surface. The particle size range was 197.84 ± 21.45 nm to 385.45 ± 15.87 nm. The prepared nanoparticles proved to be promising dosage form of Epigallocatechin gallate, with improved bioavailability.

30

DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL DISPERSIBLE FILMS OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE USING BOX-BEHNKEM DESIGN

Shivprasad H. Majumdar 1 *, Ketan P. Shroff 2

1Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara.

2SVKM’s NMIMS, School of Pharmacy & Technology Management, Shirpur.

Abstract

In the present work, fast dissolving oral dispersible films of Sildenafil citrate were prepared by using water soluble polymers with the aim to improve drug delivery and patient compliance. A 2-factor, 3-level design used is appropriate for exploring quadratic response surfaces and creating polynomial models with 3 centre points per block Design Expert version 8.0.7.1. The 2 independent variables such as HPMC 15 cps (X1) and polypropylene glycol (X2) were chosen on the basis of preliminary trials which were carried before executing Design expert 8.0.7.1 Effect of independent variables like Concentration of HPMC 15 cps and propylene glycol on the dependent factors called response factors Y1 (% Drug Release) and Y2 (Disintegration time) of films were evaluated. Box-Behnkem statistical design was used for DOE which generated an optimized drug model for formulation of oral dispersible films. Optimum formulations were given and based on the desirability the optimum result was selected. The polynomial equation is generated based on Y1 and Y2 responses the independent variables like X1 and X2 in the formulation of the film was optimized. The Maximum desirability was found to be 0.831 for FF15 batch. Formulated films were evaluated for various parameters like thickness, folding endurance, weight variation, moisture content, disintegration time, percentage drug release and permeability studies, and it was found that all the results shown were found to be satisfactory.

31

NEW PIPERAZINE-DERIVED NNRTIS AS ANTI-HIV AGENT: SYNTHESIS, BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION AND MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES

Ram Najar Kushwaha1, Utsab Debnath1,4, Pankaj Singh2, Reshu Saxena3, Satish Kumar Gupta2, Raj Kamal Tripathi3, Hefazat Husain Siddiqui4 and Seturam Bandhacharya Katti1,*

1Medicinal & Process Chemistry Division, & 3Toxicology Division,CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Lucknow-226 031, India;

2National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110 067, India;

4Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow-226 026, India.

Abstract

A new series of piperazine-derived compounds were synthesized and evaluated as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) inhibitors. Flexibility of the piperazine structure plays an importance role for its diverse pharmacological properties and medicinal potentialities. Compounds having better inhibitory activities against HIV-1 RT were tested for their anti-HIV activity in TZM-bl cell line. Among tested compounds, 9k exhibited better anti-HIV activity with an IC50 value of 13.18 ± 1.62 μg/ml and a therapeutic index value of 2.26 in TZM-bl cell line. Furthermore, molecular docking analysis revealed the similar binding modes of 9k and delavirdine with HIV-1 RT in which carbonyl group of 9k established hydrogen bonding with Lys103 residue as delavirdine, and other hydrophobic groups were stabilized with hydrophobic area (TRP229, LEU100, TYR188, PHE227, VAL106, PRO236, TYR181, TYR188, TRP229, and TYR318 residues) of HIV-1 RT. Present study suggests that compound 9k may serve as a new lead template for further modification to obtain therapeutically useful molecule for the treatment of HIV infection.

32

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA LEAVES AGAINST D-GALACTOSAMINE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS

Ashish Dixit1*, A.K.Jain2, Naveen Sharma3, Gurudeep Singh Saluja4, Manutosh Acharya4, Dheerendra Rathore5, Ramakant Joshi5, Pankaj Sharma5, Yogendra Singh5

1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Shri Ramnath Singh Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Gwalior (M.P.)-474011. 2Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmacology, Gajraraja Medical College, Gwalior (M.P.)

3Department of Pharmacology, Shri Ram Pharmacy College, Gwalior (M.P.)

4Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Shri Ram Pharmacy College, Gwalior (M.P.)

5Department of Pharmaceutics, SRNSIPST, Gwalior (M.P.)

Abstract

The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of phytoconstituents of methanolic extract of leaves of Wrightia tinctoria against D-galactosamine induced liver damage in albino rats. The phytoconstituents (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to the animals with hepatotoxicity induced D-galactosamine (400 mg/kg for two days). Silymarin (50 mg/kg) was given as standard hepatoprotective drug. All the test drugs were administered orally in the suspension form to the animals. The combination of silymarin and methanolic extract of Wrightia tinctoria leaves were also given to animals to compare with individual groups as well as toxicant group. Combination of silymarin and methanolic extract of Wrightia tinctoria leaves were effective in protecting the liver against the injury induced by D-galactosamine in rats. This was evident from significant reduction in serum enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. These biochemical observations were also supplemented by Histopathological observations of livers sections. It was concluded from the results that the combination of silymarin and methanolic extract of Wrightia tinctoria leaves reduces the hepatoprotective activity against D-galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

33

CHANGES IN PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST (PFT) BEFORE AND AFTER ADDING TIOTROPIUM BROMIDE TO THE ONGOING THERAPY OF SEVERE PERSISTANT ASTHAMATICS

Dr Osman Ahmed1*, Mehruq Fatima1, Juveriya Parveen1, Asma Farheen1, Ayesha Binth Saleh1, Dr. Syed Mahmood Ahmed2

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, INDIA.

2Consultant Pulmonologist, Owaisi Hospital & Research Centre, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Telangana. INDIA.

Abstract

An attempt is made to measure the improvement in the Pulmonary Function Test (especially the FEV1 and PEFR parameters), upon the addition of tiotropium bromide to the ongoing therapy of severe persistent asthmatics. The study is a Single blind prospective study within subject comparison carried out in a teaching hospital of Hyderabad during a time period of 6 months i.e., from July 2013 to January 2014. Severe persistent asthmatics were enrolled for the study and the data collection of the enrolled patients was done in the properly designed data collection forms. Spirometry and Peak Expiratory Flow rates of the enrolled patients before and after the addition of tiotropium bromide to the therapy were performed. Tiotropium in a dose of 18 mcg per day in a Metered Dose Inhaler and Rotahaler forms were used for nearly 5 weeks before performing the after Pulmonary Function Test (PFT). Out of 40 patients enrolled, 8 showed non-compliances, 9 patients showed very less improvement in the spirometric and clinical outcomes which is statistically not significant. Subjects (n=23) showed significant improvement in both clinically as well as spirometrically, in spirometric assessment, FEV1 is improved by 0.54L (Mean difference of percentage predicted=17.65%) and morning PEFR improved by I.96L (Mean difference of percentage predicted=22.32), with respect to baseline which is statistically significant (P<0.001). Clinically, the mean score reports showed 60-70% improvement when compared to baseline. In patients with poorly controlled asthma despite the use of inhaled glucocorticoids and LABAs, the addition of Tiotropium in the dose of 18 mcg once daily via dry powder inhaler resulted in 24 hr broncho dilation as well as consistent and sustained improvement for severe persistent asthma.

34

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF IN SITU RAFT FORMING SUSPENSION OF RABEPRAZOLE SODIUM

Faizanurrab Saudagar*, Furquan Sayyed.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Ali-Allana college of Pharmacy, Akkalkuwwa, DIst. Nandurbar (MS) India.

Abstract

The aim of the study is to prepare anti-reflux formulation of potential proton pump inhibitor (PPI) such as Rabeprazole sodium (RPS). RPS is a potential PPI, only 20 mg once in day is sufficient and also has some anti-microbial activity against H. Pylori. The anti-reflux formulations are type of GRDDS which used to prevent Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disorder (GERD) known as Esophagitis. The esophagitis occurs due to the over exposure of refluxate of the stomach. Thus anti-reflux formulations are used to which inside the stomach forms the mechanical barrier above the chymes and below the lower esophageal sphincture. Thus for effective raft formation various raft forming agents are used; out of which two are selected and studied for anti-reflux formulation. The formulation was evaluated for the suspension as well as raft formed by the suspension in vivo. Raft forming used was Sodium alginate and Guar gum, both are from natural origin and have marked advantage as compared to other raft forming agents. Along with raft-forming agent other excipients such as gas generating agents, divalent cation generator and preservatives were used. The pH of the suspension was made at neutral pH as RPS is unstable in lower pH.

35

EVALUATION OF VARIATIONS IN THE LIPID FRACTIONS AND CONVENTIONAL RISK FACTORS IN POST MI NON-DIABETIC PATIENTS

Dr. Sheikh Ishaq1, Dr. Harnam Kaur2*, Dr. Rumana Farooq Mir1, Dr. Neeru Bhaskar4, Dr.Shikhaa Mahajan5, Dr. Sheikh Afaq6.

1Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir.

2Department of Biochemistry. ESIC Medical College Faridabad, Haryana.

4Department of Biochemistry. M.M.Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana.

5Department of Biochemistry, M.M. Medical College and Hospital, Kumarhatti, Solan, Himachal Pradesh.

6Department of Emergency Medicine, King Abdullah Medical City, Holy Makkah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is one of the commonest causes of mortality affecting both sexes worldwide. It is expected that by 2020, CVD would prevail as the foremost cause of fatality and disability over infectious diseases globally. The estimation of lipids, lipoproteins has long been recognized as indispensable for the diagnosis and clinical management of disorders of lipoprotein metabolism. On the basis of this, the present study evaluation of variation in the lipid profile and conventional risk factors in patients with coronary artery disease was performed. The present hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry, MMIMSR, Mullana, Ambala on 426 subjects over a period of two years. Blood was collected from the subjects after an overnight fast of 12 hours and estimation of lipid profile, Lp(a),and fasting blood glucose was done. Conclusion: It is difficult to predict which individual with dyslipidaemia will develop CHD; early detection, evaluation and aggressive treatment are vital components of the strategies to control CHD. It is advised to correct the anticipatory factors such as diet, exercise, weight loss and smoking cessation, in order to lessen the toll from heart diseases.

36

FORMULATION AND RELEASE DISTINCTIVENESS OF A NOVEL MODIFIED DRUG DELIVERY DEVICE: GUM GHATI MATRIX TABLETS CONTAINING METRONIDAZOLE

Ajay Aseri 1,2*, Shiv Garg1, Anjali Nayak 2, Sanket Trivedi1, Jitesh Katewa2

1Maharishi arvind College of Pharmacy, Ambabari, Jaipur Rajasthan, India.

2B R Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Metronidazole is an oral synthetic antiprotozoal and antibacterial agent, 2-methyl-5nitroimidazole-1-ethanol. Metronidazole is bactericidal against anaerobic bacteria. It is physically available in white to pale yellow crystals or crystalline powder with 159-1630C melting point. Matrix tablets containing 500 mg Metronidazole were developed using two different polymers; one is natural origin Gum Ghatti (GG) whereas second polymer is synthetic Ethylcellulose (EC) with different drug polymer ratios of the polymers respectively. These tablets were prepared by Direct compression method. Metronidazole was used as a model drug. Matrices were found to be highly influenced by amounts of Gum Ghatti and Ethylcellulose incorporated. Drug release studies were carried out in 0.1 N HCl and PBS 7.4 to ensure that the prepared matrices retard the drug release in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and undergo enzymatic hydrolysis by the colonic bacteria. Matrix tablets containing 10 % to 30 % Ethylcellulose and Gum Ghatti were analyzed. In conclusion the release profile shows that Gum Ghatti was found to be comparable with Ethyl cellulose and emerging as a natural alternate of Ethyl cellulose as it prolonged the release of Metronidazole upto 18 hours means Gum Ghatti matrices retard the drug release more than Ethylcellulose matrices.

37

COMBINATION OF FT-IR, NMR AND LC-MS FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF TECOMARIA CAPENSIS

E. Tamil Jothi*1, K. Pavankumar1, V. Suba2
 
1NRK and KSR Gupta College of Pharmacy, Burripalem Road, Tenali, Andhra Pradesh, India – 522201.
2National Institute of Siddha, Thambaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu,, India--600045.

Abstract

Tecomaria capsensis commonly known as “Cape honeysuckle or Tecoma capensis” belongs to the family of Bignoniaceae. Normally, it is used as the ornamental garden plant but pharmacologically it is used as a traditional medicine for the purpose to relieve the pain and sleeplessness. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical constituents by using the analytical techniques of FT-IR, 1H-NMR and LC-MS present in the leaves of T. capensis. The chemical constituents are isolated by using the ethyl acetate extract by using the technique of soxhlet extraction. The four chemical constituents are isolated and analyzed through by the analytical techniques and is of 3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-benzochromene-5,6-dione, 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo quinazoline-3,7-diol, 3,7-dimethyloct-6-en-1-ol and 2-amino-4-[(carboxycarbonyl)amino]butanoic acid. In Conclusion, this study clearly illustrates for the further ongoing procedures in setting of diagnostic indices in related to modern health care sciences.

38

A VALIDATED STABILITY-INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ABACAVIR SULFATE IN THE PRESENCE OF DEGRADATION PRODUCTS, ITS PROCESS-RELATED IMPURITIES AND IDENTIFICATION OF OXIDATIVE DEGRADANT BY LC-MS/MS

Pramod Kumar Ragham1, Kothapalli B Chandrasekhar2, J Rudraprasad Reddy3, Krishna Mohan Kasturi4

1Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada- 533003, India.

2Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur- 515002, India.

3Gitam Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam-530045, India.

4Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, India.

Abstract

The objective of the current study was to develop a validated specific LC-MS compatible stability-indicating reverse phase liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of Abacavir sulfate and its related substances. Significant degradation was observed during oxidation, and the major degradant was identified by LC–MS analysis. The chromatographic conditions were developed and optimized using an impurity-spiked solution and the forced degradation samples with a resolution of >2. The chromatographic separation was achieved on YMC Pack Pro C18, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3μ particle size column. Using 0.05% TFA in water as mobile phase A and the 0.05% TFA in Acetonitrile as mobile phase B with 1.0mL/min flow rate in gradient mode. The column temperature was maintained at 25◦C, detection wavelength was set at 220 nm and the injection volume was 10 μL. Water and Acetonitrile in the ratio 90:10(v/v) was used as a diluent. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to ICH guidelines. In this method the LOD and LOQ values for Abacavir and all its related impurities were ranged from 0.0033μg/mL to 0.013μg/mL and 0.010μg/mL to 0.040μg/mL respectively. The percentage recovery for all impurities was ranged from 99 to 102 % w/w. The test solution and mobile phase were observed to be stable up to 48 h after preparation. The validated method produced good results of precision, linearity, accuracy, robustness and ruggedness. The proposed method was found to be suitable precise, sensitive and accurate for the quantitative determination of related impurities in the bulk samples of Abacavir sulfate API.

39

APTI ASSESSMENT OF PLANT LEAVES COLLECTED NEAR MAGNESITE MINES, SALEM, TAMIL NADU, INDIA

M.Krishnaveni*, M.sabari, V.Eswari, G.Silpavathi, V. Silambarasan, R.Senthil kumar

School of Bio–Sciences, Periyar University, Salem-11.

Abstract

The study of plants is very much needed for today’s world, as the pollution increases more and more. Considering the significance of plants in abating pollution, it was decided to study the following plants: Azadirachta indica, Santalum album, Casuarina equisetifolia, Annona squamosa, Wrightia tinctoria, Ailanthus excelsa, Tectona grandis, Millettia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Mangifera indica, Syzygium cumini, Morinda pubescens, Albizia amara, Prosopis juliflora, Ficus religiosa. All the plants analyzed show air pollution tolerance index value below 16. Hence, all the plants were classed under sensitive species. And soil analysis showed, that the mineral content present was sufficient for the growth of plant.

40

A STUDY TO ASSESS IMMUNIZATION STATUS OF CHILDREN ATTENDING A&U TIBBIA COLLEGE & HOSPITAL

Paras wani1,FakhraTalat1,M.J.Sidiqui2,Arshi Riaz3,Aarti Mal1

1A&U Tibbia College,Karol Bagh,New Delhi/Delhi University,India.

2Jamia Hmadard/Delhi,India.

3AKTC,AMU,Aligrah,India.

Abstract

A study to Assess Immunization Status of Children Attending A&U Tibbia College & Hospital was conducted on 60 subjects.Objective of the study was was to assess the immunization status of children.The sample was collected by convenient sampling technique. Data was complied and analyzed used percentage and chi square test.It was found that more than half (55%) of the participants were properly immunized. There was no association of immunization status with Socio economic status , religion and gender.

41

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF NOVEL HERBAL HAND SANITIZER

Mithun A. Thombare*, Babaso V. Udugade, Tushar P. Hol, Manoj B. Mulik, Dnyaneshwar A. Pawade

Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara - 415004. (M. S.) India.

Abstract

Herbal hand sanitizer was prepared using leaves extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Eugenia caryophyllus and Cymbopogon flexuous. The antibiotic sensitivity test of the prepared herbal hand sanitizer against skin pathogens was checked using disc diffusion method and results were compared with commercially available synthetic hand sanitizer. Results depicted that the herbal hand sanitizer gives larger inhibition zone than the commercially available synthetic hand sanitizer against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The efficacy of herbal hand sanitizer was evaluated using microorganism suspensions; which revealed that the herbal hand sanitizer is efficient in reducing higher number of microorganism from the hands as compared to commercial synthetic hand sanitizer. Thus, owing to higher antimicrobial activity and efficacy these herbal extracts can be used in the preparation of herbal hand sanitizers on commercial scale.

42

ANALYSIS OF MARKETED CASTOR OIL ACCORDING TO AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING MATERIALS (ASTM) STANDARD AND STUDY OF ITS EFFECT ON FORMULATION ASPECTS OF EMULSIONS

Pimpodkar Nayana Vinayakrao

Principal, College of Pharmacy (D. Pharm.), Plot No. 1539, New Additional MIDC, Behind Spicer India Ltd. Degaon, Dist. Satara, Pin – 415004Mahatarshtra, India

Abstract

Quality of final formulation is affected by quality of raw material used in it. The reasons for adulteration in the raw materials are plenty, but to keep a control on its quality is required to get quality product. In the present study one such example was undertaken to see the effect of raw material (Castor oil) on its final formulation (emulsion).Three marketed Castor oil samples namely A, B and C were analyzed for detection of adulteration. Various physicochemical parameters were tested to check purity of oils as per American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standards. Analysis of Emulsion from the oil samples was carried out and comparative analysis was carried out to study effect of different grades of castor oil on formulation aspects of emulsions. The saponification values for sample A and C were quite comparable to the Standard such as177.1 and 178.2 respectively. Acid values for A and C found to be 1.9 and 1.5. The study of formulation aspects showed that sample B does not comply with the ASTM Standards whereas emulsion formulated with oil sample A and C complies with all ASTM Standard. The mean globule size and centrifugation test value for the most stable emulsion were 30.01μm + 0.93 μm, 0.4 + 0.1cm respectively. Sample A was found to be best suited quality raw material amongst all tested sample and its effect on final emulsion was indicated by the formulation aspects as globule size.

43

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ION EXCHANGE RESIN BASED TASTEMASKED SUSPENSION OF LEVOFLOXACIN HEMIHYDRATE: A FLOUROQUINOLONE ANTIBIOTIC

Ajay Bilandi1* and Amiya Kanta Mishra2

1Research Scholar, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India.

2Principal, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Puri, Orissa, India.

Abstract

Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. Certain drugs that have very bitter taste can be made relatively tasteless by adsorbing the drug on ion exchange resin although all the ion exchange resins can be useful for this purpose, the proper selection on ionic character of drug and release characteristics. The main objective of the present invention is to provide an oral composition which can deliver a pharmacokinetically acceptable dosage of a beneficial agent, or to at least provide the patient with a useful choice and to provide a taste masked composition. Levofloxacin hemihydrate is very bitter in taste and mostly used for pediatric suspensions to treat the infections.Tulsion-335, ion exchange resin, was used to mask the bitter taste of drug. In this research work firstly prepare the drug resin complexes in different ratios by batch method and evaluated for various parameters including tastemasking. After successful preparation of DRC, the complexes were used to formulate taste masked suspension. Taste masked suspension was also evaluated for taste masking and in-vitro release study. Formulated suspension was compared with marketed levofloxacin syrup and calculated the similiarity factor. Accerlated stability study was also performed for one month. Based on the evaluation data obtained after one month stability study, it was concluded that the formulated suspension with SDRC was successfully taste masked, stable and reproducible in nature.

44

INHIBITORY AND SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF Moringa oleifera EXTRACTS ON CLINICAL AND STANDARD STRAINS OF MICROORGANISMS AND ITS BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS.

K.M.Thara1, K.F. Zuhara1, Raji T.K.2

1University of Calicut, Thenjippalam, Malappuram District, Kerala, India.Pin-673635.

2Government Medical College, Calicut.

Abstract

Context: The emergence of resistant strains of microorganisms has undermined the effectiveness of existing antimicrobial agents and hence renewed the interests in the discovery of new plant derived antimicrobial compounds. When some compounds are added to the common antibiotics used, it can enhance the inhibitory effect on microbial growth. Objectives: The study was conducted with objectives like biochemical profiling of the extract, inhibitory effect against gram positive and negative, drug resistant and clinical strains of microorganisms and also to understand the synergistic effect between the extract and antibiotics against microorganisms. Materials and methods: Plant leaves were collected from different geographical locations and extract was prepared. The inhibitory effect against different microorganism were tested using micro dilution method. The synergistic effect of the extract along with standard antibiotics were also tested against gram positive and negative microorganisms. Results and discussion: The MIC values against bacterial ranged from 150 to 350 μg/ ml for the aqueous extract. The MIC of the methanol extract was 280μg/ml against both Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia. It showed significant activity against the clinical strain with a minimum MIC value of 120 μg /ml. Aqueous extract was found to more effective than methanol extract against most of the standard strains tested. Extract has shown additive effect when used with the antibiotics - gentamicin and penicillin, against E.coli and S. aureus respectively. Conclusions: We can conclude that Moringa oleifera has the potential source to develop into an antimicrobial agent.

45

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MICROBALLOON DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR VALSARTAN

Tina Raju*, Tanushree Sarkar, Bhagyashree S. Patil, Mangesh A. Bhutkar

Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Kasegaon, Dist. Sangli, State. Maharashtra.

Abstract

Gastroretentive dosage forms have potential use as controlled-release drug delivery systems. A controlled release system which is designed to increase its residence time in the stomach without contact with the mucosa was achieved through the development of Microballoon drug delivery system using emulsion solvent diffusion method. The effect of various formulation and process variables on the internal and external morphology, micromeritic properties, in vitro buoyancy, physical state of the incorporated drug, drug loading and in vitro drug release was studied. Formulation (BT3) demonstrated favourable buoyancy,drug loading,drug release characteristics and encapsulation efficiency. The designed system, which has excellent buoyant ability and suitable drug release pattern, will possibly be useful in terms of increased solubility and bioavailability of Valsartan. The prepared Valsartan loaded Microballoon were found to be stable at various conditions.

46

EVALUATION OF ANTIUROLITHIATIC ACTIVITY OF THE AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF ROOTS OF BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA

Balaji L G1*, David Banji2, Otilia J. F. Banji2

1Research Scholar, JNTU, Hyderabad, India .

2Nalanda College of Pharmacy, Nalgonda, Telangana, India.

Abstract

Objective of the current study is to evaluate the antiurolithiatic activity of the root extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa and validating the indigenous use of B. diffusa in propulsion of calculi (urinary stones). Calculi were induced in Wistar male rats using calculi producing diet (CPD, ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days). Urolithiatic rats were treated with various doses of aqueous extract of B. diffusa and alcoholic extracts of B. diffusa for 30 days. The 24-hour urine samples were collected for analyzing the stone forming constituents calcium, oxalate and phosphorous. Also, magnesium concentration was estimated in the urine samples. Cystone, an ayurvedic medicine approved for management of calculi was used as a standard reference. Administration of CPD induced calculi in all experimental rats. Treatment with aqueous extract of B. diffusa and alcoholic extracts of B. diffusa significantly decreased the concentrations of stone forming constituents calcium, oxalate and phosphorous in the urine. In addition, both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of B. diffusa increased the magnesium levels in urolithiatic rats. Changes in stone forming constituents and magnesium levels were considerably higher (although not significant) with alcoholic extracts than aqueous extract of B. diffusa. Therefore we conclude that the root extracts of B. diffusa possess antiurolithiatic activity and justifies its use in indigenous medicine for propulsion of urinary stones.

47

TRANSDERMAL PATCHES: A REVIEW ON NOVEL APPROACH FOR DRUG DELIVERY

Chauhan Shubhangi *, Sharma Piush, Aseri Ajay, Garg Kumar Shiv

Research Scholar, Dept. of Pharmaceutics Maharishi Arvind College of Pharmacy, Ambabari, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Abstract

Transdermal drug delivery represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas and established itself as an integral part of novel drug delivery systems. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect without producing any fluctuations in plasma concentration of the drug. Drugs that are given by transdermal route may enhance the potency as well as safety of drugs. A transdermal drug delivery device (pharmaceutical preparation of varying sizes, containing, one or more active ingredient), which provides an alternative route for administering medication defined as self contained, discrete dosage forms which, when applied to the intact skin, deliver the drug, through the skin at controlled rate to the systemic circulation therefore system can improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the drugs. These devices allow for pharmaceuticals to be delivered across the skin barrier. An advantage of a transdermal drug delivery route over other types of medication delivery such as oral, topical, intravenous, intramuscular, etc. is that the patch provides a controlled release of the medication into the patient, usually through either a porous membrane covering a reservoir of medication or through body heat melting thin layers of medication embedded in the adhesive. Transdermal drug technology specialists are continuing to search for new methods that can effectively and painlessly deliver larger molecules in therapeutic quantities to overcome the difficulties associated with the oral route.

48

MICROBIAL NANOGOLD SYNTHESIS

Madhuri Chandrakant Shinkar1*, C.G.Kulkarni1, C.D.Patil2

1Government college of Pharmacy, Vidyanagar, Karad, Maharashtra, India-415109.

2Gaurishankar College of Pharmacy, Limb, Satara, Maharashtra, India-415109.

Abstract

Developing the techniques for controlled synthesis of metal nanoparticles of defined morphology and composition is an area of a great challenge. The great importance of metal nanoparticles in various fields is because of their novel applications and due to unique and distinct magnetic, electronic, optical and catalytic properties exhibited by them. Development of reliable, clean, nontoxic and eco friendly methods for nanoparticles‟ synthesis is very important, considering their biomedical applications. Microbial synthesis of nanoparticles has thus promising future. Intracellular and extracellular bacterial and fungal biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been reported by many researchers. Influence of incubation conditions, irradiation, nature and concentration of compound etc., is observed and studied in details. Microbial synthesis of gold nanoparticles is also investigated with respect to the mechanism. A focussed approach of the delineation of specific genes and characterization of biosynthetic process of nanoparticles is thus envisaged. Microbial biosynthesis can produce nanoparticles with unique optoelectronic and physicochemical properties as required in various industrial fields. A systematic approach towards this is thus the need of an hour. This review addressed the ecological approach for synthesizing gold nanoparticles.

49

CONVENTIONAL AND MICROWAVE ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF 2-AMINOTHIAZOLES AND OXAZOLES AND THEIR ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY

Rajendran Kumar* Subban Ravi, Kaveri Sundaram, Senniappan Venkatachalapthi and Sulaiman Ali Muhammad

Department of Chemistry, Karpagam University, Coimbatore-641021, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

A series of novel 2-aminothiazole (1,3,5,7,9) and 2-aminooxazole (2,4,6,8,10) derivatives were synthesized by microwave assisted method as a green chemistry approach and were characterized by spectral methods (UV-visible, IR, and NMR) and elemental analysis. Molecular docking studies for the synthesized compounds were carried out against HPV 16 proteins. Further they were screened for their anticancer activity against HeLa cell lines by MTT assay. Compound 9, 5 and 2 showed marked binding scores in the docking studies and exhibited anticancer activity with an IC50 value of 19.5, 31.20 and 52.43 respectively.

50

A REVIEW ON HAIR DYE POISONING

Dr. s. Chandra babu1 K. Siva Teja Reddy2 M. Sriharsha2

1Department of general medicine , Rajiv gandhi medical science (RIMS), Kadapa. AP.

2Department of pharmacy practice, P. Rami reddy memorial college of pharmacy, Kadapa. AP.

Abstract

Hair dye is an emulsion based cosmetic agent commonly used in India as an intentional, accidental and homicidal cause of poisoning having deleterious effects with multisystem involvement. The main objective of the study is to review effects of hair dye poisoning .the common clinical manifestations are air way obstruction with severe edema of face, neck, pharynx and larynx following respiratory distress. The urine turns to chocolate brown color due to methemoglobinemia, rhabdomyloysis, and acute tubular necrosis. If this proceed further it may lead to fatal complications such as arrhythmias and intravascular haemolysis. Most common cause of death is air way obstruction if not relieved by intubation. No specific antidote is available till today, but symptomatic treatment can be given with continuous monitoring.

51

INFLUENCE OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ZEA MAYS LEAVES AGAINST CCL4 AND H2O2 INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

Kiruthika Balasubramanian, Jincy, P.A. and Palghat Raghunathan Padma

Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Deemed University, Coimbatore - 641 043, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Drosophila melanogaster is a popular experimental animal because it is easily cultured in mass, has a short generation time, and mutant animals are readily obtainable. In our present work, we studied the antioxidant activity of Zea mays leaves using Drosophila as a model system under conditions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative stress. This study was conducted to analyze the differential response elicited by the two oxidants and leaf extracts under in vivo conditions. The study clearly demonstrates that the exposure to oxidants (H2O2 and CCl4) causes a significant depletion of the major antioxidant components in Drosophila melanogaster. Administration of Zea mays leaf extract restored the depleted levels of both enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants. The female flies showed significantly higher activities of antioxidants compared to the males in all the groups including the controls. These results show that the leaves of Zea mays exert a significant antioxidant action against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 and CCl4 in vivo.

52

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME NOVEL BIOACTIVE THIAZOLIDINONE DERIVATIVES OF 3-SUBSTITUTED COUMARIN

Sanjay K Patil1, Bhushan P Langi2 and Hrushikesh P Deokar*1

1C.K. Thakur ACS College, New Panvel, Maharashtra, India-410206.

2Dnyanasadhana College, Thane, Maharashtra, India-400604.

Abstract

Literature survey of coumarin reviles that coumarin showed various biological and therapeutic applications. Five membered heterocycles like thazolidinones are also important, because it show various applications. Present scheme comprises ofsynthesis of thaizolidinone heterocycles of coumarin. For total synthesis previously prepared1,2,4- triazole derivative of coumarin used as a basic molecule. This triazole derivative treated with choloroacetyl chloride to give chloro-acetyl derivative which on further treatment with KSCN generate thiocynate. Obtained derivative of thiocynate condensed with DMF and then with 2% HCl to yield thiazolidinone. The synthesized compounds have been confirmed by their elemental and spectral techniques. All the synthesized derivatives have been found significant to moderate activity against tested bacterial strains. Results obtained after spectral technique and antimicrobial study proves that we able to synthesize thaizolidinone derivatives of coumarin which also exhibit antimicrobial activity.

53

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A SIMPLE UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND ISOCRATIC RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF EDARAVONE IN BULK AND ITS INJECTION FORMULATION

Suraj K. Fanse, Dr. Sadhana J. Rajput*

Quality Assurance Laboratory, Centre of Relevance and Excellence in Novel Drug Delivery Systems, Pharmacy department, Shri G.H. Patel Building, Donor’s plaza, The Maharaja SayajiraoUniversity of Baroda, Fatehgunj, Vadodara-390002, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

The present work includes a simple, inexpensive, rapid, accurate and precise UV spectrophotometric method and isocratic RP-HPLC method for estimation of Edaravone in bulk and its formulation. Estimation was done at 243nm which was the λmax of Edaravone. The simple, isocratic RP-HPLC method involves separation of Edaravone on Reverse phase C18 Kromasil column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm ) with a Mobile phase of Water: Acetonitrile = 55:45. The developed methods were validated successfully according to ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines. Both methods showed a good linear response with r2 values of 0.999 and 0.9994 respectively. The percentage Relative Standard Deviation for both methods was found to be less than two, indicating that the methods were precise. The mean percentage recovery for UV and RP-HPLC method was between 99-102% and 99-101% respectively. Edaravone in its injection formulation could be accurately determined with assay values ranging from 100- 101.5 %. Both the developed methods were specific, selective and robust. The methods could be successfully applied for analysis of injection formulation of Edaravone.

54

IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMIAL SCREENING OF SELECTED INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

Madhura M. Pawar, Shrutika D. Patil, Dr. A. P. Jadhav* and Dr. V. J. Kadam

Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai- 400614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Four medicinal plants Grewia asiatica L., Caesalpinia bonducella L., Syzigium samarangense (Blume), Asteracantha lonfigolia L. were tested against four bacterial strains; Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Staphyloccocus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), Salmonella typhi (ATCC 23654) and a fungal strain Candida albicans (ATCC 2091) by agar well diffusion method. Amoxicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin were used as standards for antibacterial activity while tioconazole was used as standard for antifungal activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and Minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined for each of the plant extracts. Phytochemical evaluations were done for each extracts. The extractions were done using two solvents ethanol and chloroform. Three of the four tested plants show antimicrobial activity for both extracts. Lowest MIC value was recorded against E. coli for chloroform extract of S. samarangense, S. typhi and C. albicans for S. samarangense indicating significant antimicrobial potential of extract. Lowest MBC was found against S. typhi for chloroform extract of C. bonducella. Qualitative phytochemical screening indicates the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates in all plants.

55

STUDY TO DEVELOP A CORRELATION OF SLEEP PATTERN OF CHILDREN WITH PRAKRITI(CONSTITUTION) AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN CHILD REARING

Aarti Mal1*, Abhimanyu Kumar2, Paras wani1,Durgesh Nadni1

1Lecturer,A&U Tibbia College& Hospital,Karol Bagh New Delhi.

2HOD,D/O Kaumarbhritya, NIA ,Jaipur.(Presently,Director General CCRAS).

Abstract

Nidra is a special state of mind in which the mind is not associated with any type of indriyas. The detachment from bahya vishya is resulted from tiredness of body as well as mind.There are 4 stages of Nidra accepted by School of Indian literature.The objective of present study was to study the correlation between the sleep pattern and Prakriti for various stages of childhood period and to develop guidelines for sleep pattern in Children according to Prakriti. Total 225 children were enrolled to study the sleep pattern according to the age. Sleep was assessed by self made 5 point scale which was in the form of close ended questionnaire.The children with Insomnia, and who used hypnotic and sedative drugs were excluded from the study.It can be concluded that there is variation in sleep according to Prakriti -Since vata prakriti children are more prone to develop Slow wave sleep(SWS) during night due to poor sleep and more night awakenings need long hour sleep. They need to go early to bed in nights. They also need sleep in day time up to for 2 hours. In pitta children the pattern of Sleep is Rapid eye movement(REM) type. This doesn‟t vary and have less night awakening need 1-2 hrs sleep less than vata prakriti. Kapha children having the SWS for 1-2 hours and then change to REM sleep during whole night. They need average amount of sleep and should avoid sleeping in day time. So it can be concluded that there is variation in sleep according to Prakriti -Since vata prakriti children are more prone to develop Short Wave Sleep during night due to poor sleep and more night awakenings need long hour sleep.

56

IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AYURVEDIC EYE FORMULATIONS

Suyog D. Mali1, Rucha S. Dhamankar, Dr. A. P. Jadhav*

Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, C. B. D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Jiwadaya Netraprabha ayurvedic eye drops and ItisTM eye drops are widely used in management of ophthalmic diseases. These eye drops are made from extracts of various Indian herbs. Herbs present in the formulation help in rejuvenation of tissues, useful for effective treatment of eye disorders including infection and inflammation. Free radicals are generated subsequently in response of inflammatory changes and these formed reactive oxygen species causes oxidative damage to the cells. Natural antioxidants play a vital role in treatment of such cytotoxic oxidative damage

 

57

IMPROVED AMLODIPINE BIOAVAILABILITY USING NASAL CHITOSAN MICROSPHERES

Hend Mohamed Abdel-Bar*, Amal Youssef Abdel-Reheem

Department of Pharmaceutics, National Organization of Drug Control and Research, Giza, Egypt.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to formulate nasal amlodipine chitosan microspheres with enhanced bioavailability. The microspheres were prepared by spray-drying method and characterized regarding particle size, morphology, drug entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release. Bioavailability of amlodipine was studied in rabbits and compared to intravenous and oral solutions. Results showed that the prepared microspheres characters were dependent on polymer: drug ratio. Microspheres were spherical and had particle size in the range of 2-10 µm. The prepared microspheres were able to sustain amlodipine for 6 h. Nasal chitosan microspheres revealed superior bioavailability over oral solution. Therefore, nasal mucoadhesive chitosan microsphere is promising strategy to improve amlodipine bioavailability via circumventing first-pass metabolism, prolonging nasal residence time and enhancing nasal absorption.