IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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APRIL 2015
1

A CASE REPORT ON CORTICOSTEROIDS INDUCED CUSHINGS SYNDROME AND NSAIDS INDUCED ACUTE BRONCHITIS

R. Siddarama*, Y. Hrushikesh Reddy, Gangula Amareswara Reddy, P Gowtham, H Shree Hari, R Phanindra Nayak, M. Javeed Baig
P Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India – 516003.

Abstract

Corticosteroids are the steroid hormones, which are mainly used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatic fever, gout, allergic reactions, renal disease, haematological disorders and shock. The use of glucocorticoids in supra physiological doses for more than 2-3 weeks causes a number of undesirable effects. Most of the adverse effects are extension of pharmacological actions such as hyperglycaemia, Cushing syndrome, oedema, hypertension, CCF, steroid myopathy, glaucoma, various fungal infections etc. Diclofenac is a Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drug; it is high potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug. The mechanism of acute bronchitis due to the diclofenac still not known but increased production of leukotrienes may cause bronchitis. Here we report a 45 years old female patient was experienced moon face, pedal oedema, increased RBS, LDL, total cholesterol, abdominal striae, acute bronchitis and increased blood presser due to the prolonged using of corticosteroids and NSAIDs since 2 years regularly.

2

SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM BOVINE MASTITIS IN THE REGION OF NORTH KARNATAKA, INDIA

Sadashiv S. O., B. B. Kaliwal*
Davangere University, Shivagangothri, Davangere – 570 002, INDIA.

Abstract

The present investigation was carried out to screen the Escherichia coli ( E.coli ) strains from Bovine mastitis milk and to determine antimicrobial resistance. The samples were collected from North Karnataka, India (09 districts) from March 2012 to August 2012. A total of 392 Milk samples suffering from mastitis were screened and a total of 97 E.coli strains were recovered and confirmed by molecular characterization. The isolates were subjected to the antibiotic resistance screening. The antibiotic resistance test showed that the isolated E.coli strains were resistance to Methicillin (100%) followed by Penicillin G (94.84%), Oxacillin (73.19%), Cefpodoxime (62.88%), Ampicillin (49.48%), Cefaclor and Ceftriaxone (42.26%), Cefixime (38.14%), Amoxyclav, Gentamicin and Streptomycin (31.95%), Amikacin (23.71%), Erythromycin (12.37%), Chloramphenicol (9.27%), Tetracycline (7.21%), Norfloxacin (6.18%), Ciprofloxacin (4.12%), Ofloxacin (2.06%) and least to Azithromycin (1.03%). The higher prevalence of E. coli in the present study indicates poor hygienic conditions of the farm and animal environment in the study area. The present study demonstrated the presence of alarming level of resistance of frequently and commonly used antimicrobial agents to the isolated bacteria. Therefore, the present study recommends frequent use of an in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity test of mastitis pathogens to choose appropriate antibiotic for treatment and prevention of Bovine mastitis.

3

ROLE OF CLINICAL PHARMACISTS IN IDENTIFICATION OF DRUG RELATED PROBLEMS

Mallesh. M, Purushothama Reddy. K, A. Nagaraju
P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, A.P – 516003.

Abstract

To identify the drug related problems in a tertiary care teaching hospital a Prospective observational study was carried out in Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences an 800 bedded tertiary care teaching hospital, kadapa for six months. A total of 508 patients were recruited based on inclusive criteria. Out of 508 patients 255(50.2%) were male and 253 were female (40.8%), infectious diseases cases have been found to be highest in number, 165 (32.48%) followed by cardiovascular diseases 67 (13.4%), a total of 2454 medicines were prescribed for 508 patients. Anti-ulceratives were the most prescribed drugs (17.2%) followed by antibiotics (16.9%), basing on the Naranjo’s algorithm majority of the reported adverse drug reactions were rated as possible 33 (78.5%), followed by probable 9 (21.5%). Clinical pharmacists can contribute improved patient outcomes by monitoring the drug therapy and can also promote rational use of drugs. Clinical pharmacists can provide reactive intervention involving in the patient care and also can offer services like drug information to the other members of the health care team so that effective therapeutic decision can be made.

4

COCRYSTALS OF IRBESARTAN WITH HIPPURIC ACID

Monika Nijhawan1, 2, P.R. Sathesh Babu2, C.V.S. Subrahmanyam2
1Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, INDIA.
2Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, INDIA.

Abstract

API that are non ionizable or demonstrate poor salt forming ability traditionally present poor opportunities for creating crystalline solid forms with desired physical properties. Cocrystals are an additional class of crystalline solid that can provide options for improved properties. Irbesartan is practically insoluble in water and its absolute bioavailability is 60-80%. Pharmaceutical cocrystallization represents a promising approach to generate novel crystal forms to improve aqueous solubility and dissolution. Pharmaceutical co-crystals of irbesartan were successfully engineered with hippuric acid as coformer by liquid assisted grinding method. A new solid phase (cocrystals) was characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). Physical characterization showed that irbesartan hippuric acid cocrystalline phase had unique thermal, powder X-ray diffraction property. The physicochemical properties of pure irbesartan and corresponding co-crystals were accessed in terms of melting point, drug content uniformity, dissolution studies. The rapid rate of dissolution of cocrystals was observed in initial 10 min. The extent of dissolution was also enhanced on account of cocrysatllization.

5

ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF BENZAL DERIVATIVES SYNTHESIZED FROM C-(4-HYDROXYPHENYL) - N-PHENYL NITRONE AND THEIR QSAR STUDIES

Anju Makkar1*, Megha Mittal2, Sonal Agnihotri3, Veena Nathani4, Kishor Arora5
1Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.
2Manav Rachna University, Faridabad, India.
3Government SMS Model Science College, Gwalior, India.
4Govt. K.R.G. P.G. College, Gwalior, India.
5Government Autonomous Postgraduate College, Datia, India.

 Abstract

Condensation of active methylene compounds (1-8) with C-(4- hydroxyphenyl)-N-phenyl nitrone resulted in the formation of addition-elimination products 1a-8a respectively. The products were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, melting point determination, IR and NMR studies. The mechanism for the formation of addition-elimination products has been proposed and discussed. The products were screened in vitro for antifungal potential against four phytopathogenic fungi. Five compounds (2a-6a) possessed ED50 value less than 800 ppm showed moderate to promising potential against all the four fungi. 4-Hydroxybenzalmalanonitrile (3a) has been found to possess promising potency against Myrothecium roridum with ED50 value of 70 ppm. Quantum structure activity relationship was analyzed for the series of synthesized compounds and revealed that out of four descriptors used in this study, PM3 descriptors for Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum and AM1 descriptors for Myrothecium roridum and Ustilago tritici showed positive acceptable results and all four parameters can be used effectively for such studies.

6

EVALUATION OF INTRINSIC STABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF DAPOXETINE AND TADALAFIL IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM

Atul T. Hemke , Krishna R.Gupta*
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, SKB College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur, India.

Abstract

The proposed work describes intrinsic stability of drugs by applying force degradation studies and to develop validated RP-HPLC method for estimation of Dapoxetine and Tadalafil in their combined dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 Kromasil column (250X4.6mm, 5μ) using a mobile phase comprised of 0.2% Triethylamine and Acetonitrile (35:65 v/v). The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 3.0 with orthophosphoric acid; flow rate was 1mL/min at ambient temperature and UV detection at 229 nm. The retention time by proposed method were found to be 3.325 and 4.198 min for Dapoxetine and Tadalafil respectively. The drugs show linearity in the range of 12-72 μg/mL for Dapoxetine and 4–24 μg/mL for Tadalafil with correlation coefficients 0.999. The accuracy of the proposed method was determined by recovery studies and found to be 100.08% for Dapoxetine and 99.92% for Tadalafil. The proposed method was validated as per ICH guideline, obtained results were found to be within limits. The force degradation studies provide a better understanding of the drug and its product stability and information regarding the degradation pathways. The inherent stability of drugs observed under forced degradation study indicates degradation of drugs with good resolution between the peaks corresponding to degradation products and analyte. The study shows that degradation of Tadalafil was found to be higher as compared to Dapoxetine in acid, alkali, neutral and oxidative conditions and also former drug was found to be succeptible when exposed to uvlight, humidity and dry heat conditions. The observed degradation was in the range of 0.3%-25% meeting the requirements of a good stability indicating method. The proposed HPLC method for the estimation of Dapoxetine and Tadalafil in tablet dosage form was found to be accurate, precise and robust. The developed stability indicating method recommended for analysis of these drugs and degradation products in stability samples.

7

IN VITRO RESPONSE OF PHYTOHORMONES AND MULTIPLE SHOOT INDUCTION OF TYLOPHORA SUBRAMANII HENRY. : AN ENDEMIC MEDICINAL HERB FROM SOUTHERN WESTERN GHATS

Greeshma Murukan2, J M Aswathy2, VS Anil kumar1, K Murugan2*
1Govt. College Kottayam, Thiruvananthapram, Kerala, PIN 695014, India.
2Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University College, Thiruvananthapram, Kerala, PIN 695034, India.

Abstract

The high demand for plant material from Tylophora subramanii Henry. in the production of herbal medicines by local inhabitants turns the technique of plant-tissue culture into one of the alternatives for the improvement of crops over a short period of time. T. subramanii an endemic medicinal plant distributed along certain pockets of Southern Western Ghats. An efficient protocol is described for the rapid in vitro multiplication of an endemic medicinal plant, T. subramanii via enhanced from nodal explants collected from young shoots of wild plant. The physiological effects of growth regulators [6-benzylamino purine (BAP), kinetin (K), coconut milk (CM), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3- butyric acid (IBA) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)], different strengths of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and various pH levels on in vitro morphogenesis were investigated. Callus formation occurred from nodal segments, leaf and stem explants (internodal segments) of T. subramanii when planted on different combinations of auxins and cytokinins. MS agar medium supplemented with NAA (4 ppm) + K (1 ppm) turned out to be optimal for initiation and sustained growth of calli from all the three parts. Callus was also obtained on 2, 4-D (4 ppm) + Kinetin (1 ppm) and BAP (1-6 ppm) but time taken for its formation was long. The calli thus formed were green, solid and fast growing. The calli induced from different parts on the same medium were more or less identical in morphology. The results showed pronounced rooting from the shoots, as well as a greater elongation of shoots and leaves. The highest rate for rooting was obtained using IBA. Through in-vitro propagation, healthy T. subramanii plants were obtained with roots which can acclimatize, allowing the continuous supplement of raw material.

8

SYNTHESIS OF OXAZOLINES MEDIATED BY CARBONYLDIIMIDAZOLE AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

Shilpa C. Patil, Ravikumar N. Naik, Sudha B. Satyanarayana
Yuvaraja’s College, University of Mysore, Mysore- 570 005, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

An expedient method for a direct approach to the synthesis of oxazolines mediated by carbonyldiimidazole is described. A carbonyldiimidazole promoted cyclization of hydroxyl amide to give oxazolines in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. The reaction of N-(4-(2-(2-hydroxyethylamino)-2-oxoethoxy) phenyl) benzamide derivatives (5a-i) with carbonyl diimidazole (CDI) in MeCN at reflux conditions yields N-(4-((4,5-dihydrooxazol-2 yl)methoxy)phenyl)benzamide (7a-i) derivative with good yields The antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds were investigated against E. coli , S. aureus, K. pneumonia. Compounds 7a-i revealed that the compound 7i was proven as better antibacterial agents. Here in a simple procedure for the synthesis of benzamide carrying oxadizole moiety is reported.

9

“FACILE SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL FUSED BENZO[4,5]THIAZOLO[3,2-a]PYRAZOLO[3,4-d]PYRIMIDINES AND SCREENING OF THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY”

Balasaheb D. Kalyankar, Prashant N. Ubale, Sambhaji P. Vartale*
Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya Nanded-431602 (MS) India.

Abstract

In the present research, a series of novel benzo[4,5]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives (5a-h) have been synthesized by condensing 4-cyano -3-(methylthio)-5-oxo-2H-pyrazole-1(5H)-carbothioamide (3) with 2-amino 1/2/3/4-substituted benzothiazoles (4) in presence of catalytic amount of potassium carbonate by using DMF as a solvent. Compound (3) was prepared by condensing ethyl-2-cyano-3,3-bis (methylthio)acrylate (1) with thiosemicarbazide (2). The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, Mass spectral analysis. Antimicrobial study of series of these compounds was implemented with respect to Gram positive and Gram negative micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. The result of antimicrobial activity reveals that benzo[4,5]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines can act as template for further development through modification to design more effective antibacterial agent.

10

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY OF NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI DC- AN UPDATED REVIEW

Ramprasad Kl, Krishna Kl*, Ramesh B. Nidavani, Mahalakshmi Am
JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Sri Shivarathreeswara Nagar, Mysuru-570015, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

The Nardostachys jatamansi DC. (Jatamamsi) is known to be a popular ayurvedic herb and its formulations have been used for multiple purposes. It is a critically endangered species and is restricted to specialized habitats in high altitudes of Himalaya ranging from 3000 – 5000m. This herb has been mentioned in the Quran and Holy bible. This species is traditionally employed in treatment of various disorders. The roots and rhizomes of Jatamamsi exhibit various pharmacological activities. They have been used in the treatment of epilepsy, Parkinsonism, mental weakness and hysteria. It also acts as a cardioprotective, promotes sleep, alleviates cough and breathing difficulties, promotes hair growth and is used in the treatment of neural disease. The essential oil from the roots has various pharmacological activities which include antimicrobial, antifungal, antiarrhythmic and anticonvulsant activity. The roots contain essential oils rich in sesquiterpenes and coumarins. Alkaloid actinidine has also been reported. In future further investigations are required to assess molecular level mechanistic aspects to understand its pharmacological activities. The present review article is focused on phytochemical and ethno-pharmacological investigations of the Jatamamsi.

11

SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS POTENT ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

CH.V. Mallikarjuna Rao, Muttineni Siva Sruthi, V. Gopinadh, S. Siva Rama Krishna, K. Renuka Sowjanya, Gollapalli Naga Raju*, Nadendla Rama Rao
Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guntur-522 034, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Oxadiazoles are an important class of bioactive and industrially important organic compounds. Oxadiazoles are five membered heterocyclic compounds, containing one oxygen and two nitrogen atoms. Literature indicates that compounds containing this nucleus have wide range of pharmacological activities include anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-HIV, antiparkinsonian, antiproliferative, anticonvulsant, antimalarial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antitubercular, sedative-hypnotic, hypoglycemic etc. Oxadiazoles are also used as photosenstizers, brighteners, lipid peroxidation inhibitor, genotoxic, spasmolytic, diuretic, antiemetic, hypnotic, sedative, hypotensive, hypoglycemic, herbicidal, pesticidal, insecticidal, nematocidal, amoebicidal agents and plays an important role in agricultural chemistry. In the present research work, a series of 2, 5-substituted 1, 3, 4 -oxadiazole derivatives are synthesized and screening for their antimicrobial activity against various strains containing both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The various micro organisms used are Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis (Gram positive), E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative), Serratia marcescens and Miero lutin using Ampicillin as standard. The chemical structure of newly synthesized 2, 5-substituted 1, 3, 4 -oxadiazole derivatives are characterized by the spectral studies ESMS and IR.

12

ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF PETROLEUM - ETHER EXTRACT OF BETA VULGARIS L. IN MICE

Balida Mallikarjuna Rao
Dr. Vasant Rao Pawar Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Adagon, Nasik, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The present study was designed to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity of petroleum ether extract of Beta vulgaris in mice. Acute toxicity study was carried out in Swiss albino mice. Antinociceptive activity of petroleum-ether extract of Beta vulgaris was evaluated by well established models like acetic acid induced writhing, formalin test and tail immersion method in mice. The acute anti-inflammatory effect was studied by carrageenan induced hind paw edema method in rats. Acute toxicity study showed that the extract was non-toxic upto a maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Petroleum-ether extract of Beta vulgaris exhibited significant inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing, reduced the paw-licking response time significantly in formalin test and increased the withdrawal latency time in tail immersion test. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema was significantly reduced in rats. The present study indicates that the petroleum-ether extract of Beta vulgaris has potential antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity.

13

AN AGILE SYNTHESIS OF 5-PHENYL-1, 2, 3-SELENADIAZOLES BY USING DABCO AS AN EFFICIENT CATALYST AND THEIR ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY

Ashok B1, Kumar Naik. K. H1, Jameel Ahmed S. Mulla2, Nagaraja Naik1*
1University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore, Karnataka, India.
2K.L.E. University College of Pharmacy, Vidyanagar, Hubli, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

An efficient route to series of 1,2,3-selenadiazoles by an oxidative cyclisation of 2-(1-phenylethylidene)hydrazinecarboxamide using 1,4-diazabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (DABCO) as an efficient catalyst. The advantages of this methodology are the ease of workup, simple reaction conditions, ecofriendly and mainly time-efficient process. The synthesized compounds 3(a-n) were evaluated for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity by using diclofenac sodium as a standard drug. Elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectral data confirmed the structure of the synthesized compounds. The synthesized compounds 3g, 3n, exhibit effective activity as compared to standard drug diclofenac sodium.

14

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING REVERSE PHASE LC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF QUINAPRIL AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN PHARMACEUTICALS

Mohammad Yunoos*1, D.Gowri Sankar2
1Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla-522101, Guntur (Dist.), Andhra Pradesh, India.
2College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003.

Abstract

A simple and precise stability indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Quinapril and Hydrochlorothiazide in pure drug and Pharmaceutical marketed formulation. Chromatography was carried out on Hypersil ODS C18 (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 particle size) column in an isocratic mode with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 4.8 with dilute orthophosphoric acid) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 45:55% v/v at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min. The analyte was monitored using PDA detector at 210 nm. The retention time was found to be 2.214 min and 3.942 min for Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and Quinapril respectively. The proposed method was found to be having linearity in the concentration range of 10-60 μg/ml for Quinapril and 12.5-75.0 μg/ml for Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) with correlation coefficient value of 0.999 respectively. The mean % recoveries obtained were found to be 99.74-99.92 % for Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and 99.42-100.02 % for Quinapril respectively. Stress testing which covered acid, base, peroxide, UV light, neutral and thermal degradation was performed on under test to prove the specificity of the method and the degradation was achieved. The developed method has been statistically validated according to ICH guide lines. Thus the proposed method can be successfully applied for the stability indicating simultaneous determination of Quinapril and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in bulk and pharmaceuticals and in routine quality control analysis.

15

MESOTHERAPY: AN OVERVIEW

Mahadik Jayashree V, Joshi Yadhunath M*, Dhande Swati R, Kadam Vilasrao J.
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Sector-8, C.B.D, Belapur, Navi Mumbai, Maharastra, India.

Abstract

Mesotherapy involves various intradermal or subcutaneous injections of a cumulation of compounds in diminutive doses utilizing fine gauge needles to treat local and cosmetic conditions. The intended mechanism of action of mesotherapy is that solutions that are injected intracutaneously remain in the area longer than they would if distributed via deeper injection; as they are cleared more gradually by the general circulation.This study includes all the material and techniques used during the therapy. Mesotherapy is used for several cosmetic conditions such as aging skin and body contouring. It is also used in management of hair loss. Study also includes the lipolytic potential of solution used in the practice of cosmetic mesotherapy to stimulate lipolysis causing local fat reduction. This technique is useful when other therapies for above mentioned condition are ineffective. Mesotherapy require less time for treatment hence it is preferred over therapies. It is primarily used for the cosmetical purpose but it has found its way in the pharmacological field as well.

16

A REVIEW ON DETERMINATION OF ADULTERANTS FROM MARKETED HERBAL PRODUCTS BY QUANTITATIVE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES

Raja S*, Sri Anusha M
GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam- Andhra Pradesh, India-Pincode-530 045.

Abstract

Adulteration of herbal supplements with undeclared synthetic drugs or by mixing the analogues of prescription can cause a significant risk to the public health. Consumers of such adulterated products are at risk of developing serious adverse reactions. The herbal manufacturers have made it more difficult for the analysts to detect these undeclared pharmaceutical analogues in to their products. Therefore, a current need arises to check these practices for the proper quality control of the herbal formulations. Due to the advancement in hyphenated techniques like liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and other conventional tools, it has become possible to detect synthetic drugs and their structural analogues as adulterants even if they are present in small quantities. The main focus of review is to highlight newer analytical tools used to detect adulteration. It helps us understand how different analytical techniques are used for detection of adulteration along with an idea about possible adulterants used in different herbal formulations.

17

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NOVEL DICHALCONES CONTAINING CORE S-TRIAZINE RING

Firdous G. Khan, Manjusha V. Yadav, Sunil R. Khapate and Ashok D. Sagar*
School of Chemical Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Dnyanteerth Vishnupuri, Nanded- 431606 Maharahstra, India.

Abstract

A series of ten new dichalcones containing core s-triazine ring were synthesized using 2,4-bis(4-formylphenoxy)-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine as a template. The intermediate 2,4-bis(4-formylphenoxy)-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine was synthesized by the reaction of 2,4-dichloro-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine with sodium salt of 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde using phase-transfer catalyst. Thus, the prepared 2,4-bis(4-formylphenoxy)-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine has been subsequently treated with various acetophenones to afford title compound in excellent yields. We have developed a new method for the synthesis of intermediate 2,4-bis(4-formyphenoxy)-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine (5) using phase-transfer catalyst. The structures of intermediate and newly synthesized dichalcones were confirmed by physical and spectral analysis. All the dichalcones were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Selected dichalcones showed good to excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities with reference to the well-established standards. Chloro-substituted compound (7b) showed highest antibacterial activity whereas methoxy-substituted compound (7i) showed highest antifungal activity.

18

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L. – AN ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANT

Chowdhury Habibur Rahaman*, Kumaresh Pal
Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan- 731235, India.

Abstract

Present investigation deals with the phytochemical and antioxidant studies of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a medicinally important plant. Quantitative phytochemical studies highlighted the presence of quite good amount of antioxidant substances including two antioxidant enzymes in the leaf as well as fruiting calyx of this plant. In leaf, amount of ascorbic acid is 272 μg/g ; in calyx, it is 629 μg/g. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoids in leaf are of 45.1 μg/g, 8.7 μg/g and 12.5μg/g, respectively. Carotenoid content in calyx is almost double of the leaf content where it is 24.6 μg/g. The content of antioxidant enzymes like catalase and peroxidase in leaf is 3.72 EU/g and 3.21 EU/g , respectively. In calyx, amount of these enzymes is 3.98 EU/g and 4.19 EU/g. DPPH radical scavenging activity in leaf is 31.39 % and it is higher in calyx where the value is 36.87%. Total phenolic content of the calyx part is 38.7 mg/g which is higher than the phenolic content of leaf (32.8 mg/g). From the results it has clearly been observed that calyx part of this plant is more potent than leaf in respect of its antioxidant potential which can be used in health drink, as food additive or as nutraceuticals.

19

ANTI-DANDRUFF ACTIVITY OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTS OF ROSEMARINUS OFFICINALIS AND GMELINA ASIATICA

Chandrika Mahendra1*, D.V Gowda2, M. Vijayakumar1, U. V Babu1
1The Himalaya Drug Company, Makali, Bangalore, Karnataka – 562 162, India.
2JSS College of Pharmacy, Mysore, Karnataka – 570 015, India.

Abstract

Dandruff is one of the commonest ailment which is manifested by fungus Malassezia. The indicative symptoms are scaly and itchy scalp. Supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction technique is ideal choice for solvent free cosmetic ingredients. The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-dandruff property of supercritical fluid extracts of Rosemarinus officinalis leaves and Gmelina asiatica stem against dandruff causing fungi Malassezia furfur. Results showed that minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R. officinalis (15.6 μg/ml) is significantly lower than MIC of G. asiatica (250 μg/ml) hence, SCF extract of R. officinalis has been taken for phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis. This findings suggest that SCF extract of R. officinalis possesses potent antidandruff properties against M. furfur.

20

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AEGLE MARMELOS BARK EXTRACT AGAINST CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED GENOTOXICITY IN MOUSE BONE MARROW CELLS

Nirmala Gupta1*, Pushpa Prasad2, Anita Narwariya3, R C Agrawal1
1Institute for Excellence in Higher Education (IEHE), Bhopal (MP).
2Faculty of Pharmacy, Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Raipur (CG).
3Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital & Research Centre, Bhopal (MP).
1Priyamvada Birla Cancer Research Institute, Satna (MP).

 Abstract

Aegle marmelos, plant known for its medicinal importance since ancient times and every part of the plant has been used for curing different diseases. In the present set of investigation, antimutagenic effect of Aegle marmelos bark (AMB) extract against Cyclophosphamide (CP) has been evaluated using in vivo Micronucleus (MN) and Chromosomal aberrations (CA) assay. Mice were categorized in to 6 different groups. Three groups were administered intraperitoneally (i.p) with different doses of AMB i.e. 450, 675 & 900 mg/kg body weight (b.w) 24 hours prior to CP treatement. The CP treated group, vehicle alone group and AMB control group were also included. AMB pretreatment resulted in a decreased frequency of MN and CA, whereas CP treated groups showed significant increase in DNA damage in the bone marrow as evidenced by an increase in the number of micronuclei and CA. AMB extract alone group could not induce any kind of gentoxicity. The protective effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract was found to be more protective at the test dose of 900 mg/kg b.w, indicating a dose dependent protective effect against CP induced gentoxicity. Thus, the present study revealed the antigenotoxic activity of AMB extract on micronuclei formation and chromosomal aberrations induced by CP.

21

EVALUATION OF PRESCRIPTION APPROPRIATENESS IN GERIATRIC HYPERTENSIVE POPULATION BY USING BEERS CRITERIA

Nataraj G R1*, Moulya M V1, K N Sasidhar1, Arathy S G1, V Sharath Kumar1, Bharathi D R1, S R Vagesh Kumar2
1SJM College of Pharmacy, Chitradurga-577502 Karnataka, India.
2Basaveshwara Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chitradurga-577502 Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Hypertension or high blood pressure is defined as having persistent, elevated systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg or above and/or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg or above. Hypertension is a silent killer disease. In India, the majority of the population are poor including the elder people. According to American Geriatrics society (AGS), geriatric patients ≥ 65 years, as the age proceeds front it give rise to social, economic and health issues. Hence in such a scenario it is necessary to survey the proper drug utilisation in order to achieve rational therapy in geriatric population. To evaluate appropriateness of prescription in hypertensive geriatric patients using Beers criteria 2012. A prospective observational study done for a period of six months at General Medicine inpatient department of Basaveshwara Medical College & Hospital, Chitradurga. A total of 130 geriatric patients aged ≥65 years in which 67 were males and 63 are females. According to Beers criteria 2012, Potentially Inappropriate Medications (PIM) was more prevalent in 65-74 years age group. 104(80%) patients were prescribed appropriately. The PIM most commonly belong to Category A and Alprazolam is the most common drugs. Inappropriate medications are most common in geriatrics patients. A Beers criterion is one of the well-established method for evaluating appropriateness of prescribing.

22

A SURVEY ON ASSESSING THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR OF PHARMACY TEACHERS TO ADVERSE DRUG REACTION RELATED ASPECTS

P.Sharmila Nirojini, Sai Priya.Marrapu, Mounica.Sanaka, Rama Rao. Nadendla
Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur-522034, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Adverse drug reactions (ADR) contribute significantly in health care cost through increased patient morbidity and mortality. Thus, there is an urgent need to create awareness among health care professionals towards ADR monitoring and reporting. A Prospective cross sectional survey based study, questionnaire were distributed to the pharmacy faculty in and around Guntur. A total of 105 faculty members were included in the study out of which 65(61.9%) are males and 45(38.09%) are females. A good number of faculty 30 (28.5%) have answered that ADRs reporting may have legal consequences. Only small number of these faculty, 25 (23.8%) have reported ADR that come across during their professional career. We conclude that the knowledge regarding ADRs was found to be not up to the mark and there was good awareness on reporting of ADRs, but most of them were not reporting. Hence more ADR related awareness is needed.

23

EFFICACY OF A UNANI FORMULATION ON VIRAL LOAD IN CHRONIC HEPATITIS B

Mohammad Akhtar Siddiqui, Shabnam Ansari*
Department of Moalejat Faculty of Medicine (Unani), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

Unani system of Medicine is documented with several forms of hepatitis along with their treatment through traditional drugs. The purpose of our study was to assess the effect of a formulation of Unani Medicine in the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) cases and to collect data to warrant further clinical trials. We conducted a case series with five patient of CHB, subsequently treated with a Unani formulation as the main medicine. Cases were confirmed with standard hepatitis antigen and viral measurements. Patient were treated for 6 months with measurement of HBV DNA quantitative value. CVR (complete virological response) was observed within an average 14 weeks of treatment marked by undetectable HBV DNA in the blood. We reviewed the literature related to the Unani formalation used for the treatment in this cases. Its constituents have exhibited antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities, could be the possible mechanisms of action in this cases. The preliminary findings indicate the potential therapeutic role of this Unani formulation. Further studies should be conducted to explore the mechanism and action of this Unani formulation.

24

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL AZOBENZENE DICARBOXYLIC ACID ALLYL ESTER POLYMERS FOR COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY

P.L. Gorde, A.P. Pingle, S.B. Wagh
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, MVP Samaj’s College of Pharmacy, Gangapur Road, Nashik (MS)-422002, INDIA.

Abstract

A novel synthetic pathway for synthesis of azobenzene-4,4’-dicarboxylic allyl ester as core linker is presented together with procedure for copolymerization of this linker with monomers methyl methacrylate and n-butyl methacrylate. The structure of synthesized cross linker was elucidated by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. The comparative study of copolymers was done using In-vitro drug release of budesonide from capsule formulation through degradation in colonic media. From results it was concluded that Budesonide capsules coated with PMB1:1:2:A and PMB1:1:3:A showed maximum drug release in colon in a sustained release form.

25

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF POLYETHYLENE OXIDE BASED CHRONOTHERAPEUTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL

Chaithanya Krishna Mylangam*, Lohithasu Duppala , Venkata Sirisha Boidapu, Midhun Kumar Duddu,Anu pravallika Janipalli, Janaki Devi Sirisolla, Kolapalli Venkata Ramana Murthy
A.U. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the two different viscosity grades of Polyethylene oxide (PEO WSR 1105 and PEO WSR COAGULANT) as compression coating polymers in chronotherapy of hypertension. Solubility enhancement of the olmesartan medoxomil was performed by incorporating disintegrant (crospovidone) and surfactant (Poloxamer 188) in the core formulation and were compressed to tablets by direct compression technique. Compression coating technique involves the preparation of core tablet which contains drug and compression coating of hydrophilic or hydrophobic rate controlling polymers around the coat. Tablets were evaluated for physico-chemical characteristics as per the methods described in the Indian Pharmacopoeia and United States Pharmacopoeia. Significant increase in the solubility of the olmesartan medoxomil was observed compared to pure drug further, the drug release of the optimized formulation was comparable to commercial tablet (OLMEZEST). Desired release profile corresponding to formulations designed for chronotherapy of hypertension was achieved with both grades of polyethylene oxide. Less concentration of PEO WSR COAGULANT (high viscosity) was required compared to PEO WSR 1105 (low viscosity) to achieve the desired release profile, indicating the effect of viscosity on drug release retarding capacity of polymer. FTIR studies of the optimized formulation had shown no interaction between the drug and polymers.

26

AN OVERVIEW ON THE ROLE OF SIDDHA PRACTICES IN THE PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF AGE RELATED NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SENILE DEMENTIA

Chitra B *1, Ramaswamy R S2
1National Institute of Siddha, Chennai-600047,India.
2Central Council for Research in Siddha, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600106, India.

Abstract

Siddha science is the oldest one, generated from Dravidian culture. Siddha medicine grew out of empirical observations that were handed from generations to generations. In Siddha system there is still lot of incognito fields which is unexplored to the present day scenario. People rely entirely on native medicine, before the invention of modern medicine practices. From the social occurrence, an individual encounters relatively unchanged disease conditions as of now. In siddha system, the physicians skillfully managed every condition with specialized procedures. There exist Kirigai maruthuvam, kayakarpa procedures and techniques are of great current value in preventive and curative aspects of geriatric health care. The context of Kayakarpa therapy and its attanga yogam and karpa avizhtham components are largely unexplored part of ancient wisdom. There is a great need to make aware the professionals as well as the public about the use of Siddha Kayakarpa remedies given in Siddha texts. There is also a need to carry out applicable research plans in the Siddha field to develop an evidence-based approach to treat senile individuals with neuro psychiatric issues. This article reviews the pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in Siddha system for the management of senile dementia and throws some scientific light on the age-old practices to bring that into current-day clinical practice. The modern approach has some downsides, in which the Siddha system can fill the gaps in natural way, especially in the cases of dementia in elderly.

27

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY OF PRESS COATED LANSOPRAZOLE TABLETS

B.Ramu *, M.Satish S.Manasa
K.V.K College of Pharmacy , Department of Pharmaceutics,JNTUH Hyderabad India.

Abstract

The basic aim of the present investigation is to formulate and evaluate colon specific press coated tablets of lansoprazole .lansoprazole tablets were successfully prepared using enteric coated polymers ethyl cellulose and HPMC pthallate by first preparing the core tablets and then press coated with polymers. study of the preformulation charcteristics and FTIR studies indicates that there was no interaction between lansoprazole and excipients used in the formulation .Invitro release profiles of optimized form of F6 were found to showed delayed release pattern in a very customized manner which was very much required for the colon specific drug delivery. In vitro release profiles of optimized formulation of lansaprazole controlled release tablets (F-6) were found to be improvised and followed zero-order kinetics, hence the release of the drug from the dosage form was independent of concentration and followed Higuchi model, and hence release of drug from press coated tablet was by diffusion mechanism. The drug delivery system was designed to deliver the drug at such a time when it was needed nocturnal time.

28

GAUGING PLACEBO USAGE AMONG PAKISTANI PRESCRIBERS

Seemab Amjad Fateh Khan1,2, Batool Pirooz1,2, Sarmad Ul Haq1
1College of Pharmacy, Government College University Faisalabad.
2University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

Abstract

Placebo is prescribed despite meaningful deceit in its usage. Objective of the study was to find out prescribing trend of placebo among physicians. A single page prospective study, 430 questionnaire pages were distributed. A single page data collection form comprised of 7 questions was prepared. Questionnaire was distributed among 430 medical community participants by hand. And collected afterwards. Among 430 participants, 399(92%) were respondents. 290(73%) affirmed prescribing placebo. Reason for placebo prescription was most inclined by all physicians to patient satisfaction 179(62%). The use of placebo in acute diseases 179(63%) and chronic disease 153(53%) was checked. Drug class which mostly used as placebo was antibiotics 154(53%). Our Study helped in measuring up placebo prescription trends in Pakistan. Nearly 73% of physicians acknowledged to prescribe placebo. Better understanding and scientific debates are required before considering it licit in contemporary era.

29

STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF GASTRO-RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

Ayesha Tariq1, Irfan Bashir1,2, Imtiaz Majeed1
1University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
2The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Abstract

Increasing number of novel drug delivery systems are being employed for therapeutic use. Gastro retentive drug delivery systems have potential to permit improved penetration through the mucus layer which results in better concentration of drug at the specific site , ensuring optimal bioavailability of a poorly absorbed drug with a desired release profile. This drug delivery system potentially overcomes the drawback of non-site specificity and short gastric resident time that are usually associated with oral route of administration. At present, numerous approaches are being utilized to prolong the gastric residence time, including floating systems, magnetic system swellable/ expanding systems, gastric mucohedhesive systems, sedimentation/ high density system by incorporating suitable polymers in dosage form. This study describes the different structural components like polymers and other excipients (formulation variables) that can be used to formulate the suitable and effective gastro-retentive drug delivery system. In the light of recent developments, different formulation variables that have direct effect on gastric residence time like floating, high density, bioadhesion, expending and magnetic properties of GRDDS are discussed in detail in this review.

30

STUDY OF DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS IN POLYPHARMACY

Ruqayya Nawaz , Sehrish Hayat , Ayesha Khursheed , Rukhsana Yusuf , Imtiaz Majeed
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Abstract

Polypharmacy is defined as the concomitant usage of multiple medications. It can be related with the use of multiple or avoidable drugs at frequency or dosage greater than therapeutically needed and it can also be associated with prescription. At present, polypharmacy has gain importance as recipient of healthcare in older ages globally. In elderly patients polypharmacy is connected with numerous adverse reactions & drug-drug interactions leads to significant morbidity. Geriatrics is a rising specialty in south Asia, most importantly in Pakistan, where there are several reasons for the existence of polypharmacy. The drugs e.g. NSAIDs, cardiovascular, antibiotics which are commonly prescribed may cause adverse reactions when prescribed to the old age patients. Morbidity & the quality of life in elders can be affected by the drugs. Understanding of pharmacology & physiology of the elders besides the prescribing approach can be helpful in lowering the complications related to drugs used commonly in this age group.

31

DRUG FOOD INTERACTIONS IN VARIOUS THERAPIES

Sundas Islam, Imtiaz Majeed, M. Nadeem Alvi
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Abstract

The advancement in clinical research has encouraged the scientists to focus on development of the measures that could enhance the therapeutic outcome of the dosage regimen. This is being achieved by bypassing the possible interactions amongst the drugs as well as with food. Food can affect the clinical effects of the drugs by indirectly interacting with bioavailability of the drugs. The interactions can significantly result in increased therapeutic effects or failure of the medication therapy. This review has been assembledwith special reference to the drug food interactions. The thread attempts to focus on interactions of food with drugs in different therapies providing relevant and concise information in this regard.

32

PROBLEMS OF USING HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE DIURETIC IN ADULT DIABETIC PATIENT IN DIABETIC CLINIC OF ADAMA HOSPITAL MEDICAL COLLEGE,EAST SHOA ZONE ,OROMIA REGIONAL STATE, ETHIOPIA

Omer Aliyi*, Mohammed Hussien, Belayneh Kefale
College of Medicine and Health Science, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia. P.O box, 19.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. Half century ago hydrochlorothiazide has been associated with a diagnosis of diabetes in hypertension treatment containing hydrochlorothiazide during long term therapy. This explained by association between glucose, potassium, and hydrochlorothiazide induced hyperglycemias and plasma insulin level. The objective of this study was to assess the problem associated with use of hydrochlorothiazide among adult diabetic patient in diabetic clinic of AHMC. A cross sectional study was carried out by reviewing patient information sheet and physician diagnosis card with a period from March, 25-May, 28, 2014. Data was collected from patient information sheet and physician diagnosis card by using check list and collected data was analyzing by using SPSS-20. In this study population the total of 1,200 patient cards with hypertension and type-2 diabetes were observed, from which only 60 patient have a problem associated with hydrochlorothiazide diuretic. Among these patient 55 % were female and 38.3 % were in the age group of 40-50 years and mean age was 51 years. Most of patient, 82% patient had increased FBS after HCT administration and around 90% of patient had decreased FBS after HCT discontinuation. Among the total number of the cases only in 5% showed high response to insulin and 37% low response to insulin. Most of the patient around 70% develop problem associated with HCT within start to six month. In general in this study indicated that elevated fasting serum glucose level was the main problem associated with the use of HCT in adult diabetic patient.

33

ASSESSMENT OF ANTIEMETIC POTENTIAL OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF VIGNA TRILOBATA (LINN.) AGAINST DIFFERENT EMETOGENIC STIMULI; AN IN VIVO STUDY

Musaddique Hussain1*,2, Shahid Masood Raza1, Muhammad Razi Ullah Khan1, Hazoor Bukhsh2, Abdul Majeed2
1School of Pharmacy, The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
2Faculty of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Abstract

Vigna trilobata (Linn.) is used in traditional system for the treatment of many ailments in Asia. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the antiemetic activity of V. trilobata (50 and 100 mg/kg of body weight) by using the chick emesis model. Different emetogenic stimuli such as, copper sulphate (CuSO4, oral), fresh juice of Brasica compestris (oral) and cisplatin (I.V) were used to induce emesis in 10-15 days old chicks of either sex. Antiemetic activity was assessed by calculating the mean decrease in number of retching in contrast with those of control. V. trilobata showed a significant antiemetic activity (p<0.05), when compared with standard antiemetic drugs, metoclopramide, domperidone and chlorpromazine. Further studies are under process, regarding the isolation and purification of active constituents responsible for the antiemetic activity of V. trilobata.

34

EVALUATION OF COTRIMOXAZOLE USE IN THE OUT PATIENT WARD OF SEKA CHEKORSA HEALTH CENTER, JIMMA ZONE, OROMIA REGION, ETHIOPIA

Jaleta G.Tsadik, Wote Amelo, Eshetu Mulisa
Hospital Pharmacy Unit,College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to assess drug use evaluation of cotrimoxazole in the out patient ward of Seka Chokersa health center. Medical records of cotrimoxazole drug indication were analyzed using cross sectional study from one year (June 1, 2012 to June 2, 2013) cards prescribed with cotrimoxazole by systematic random sampling technique. A total of 120 patient cards were reviewed. Of 120 patient records, majority of them were under 15 (76, 63.33) and males (64, 53.34%). From the total females’ medical records, 7.14% were pregnant and 5.36% were lactating. In the use of cotrimoxazole, 79% and 86.67% were with correct dose and duration, respectively. Majority of the treatment were consistent with the national guideline for duration (89.16%) and contraindication (86.67%). Majority of the indications, durations and contraindications of cotrimoxazole were in line with standard treatment guideline even though deviation occurs with respect to the dose and drug interaction. Therefore, system for monitoring of drug use should be implemented to take corrective measures and to promote rational drug use.

35

A CASE REPORT ON SCORPION BITE INDUCED MYOCARDITIS: A RARE CASE REPORT

R Siddarama*, Gangula Amareswara Reddy, R Rohith, P Gowtham, Shaik kaleemulla, R Phanindra Nayak, M Venkata Subbaiah
P Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, India.

Abstract

Scorpion stings are more common in our India as well as other countries. 1.23 million Scorpion bite cases are diagnosed per annum, among that 32,000 cases may be fatal. Majority of scorpions proceeds similar cardiovascular effects. Scorpion venom contains number of toxins like alpha and beta toxins etc., which activates both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurotransmitters. Morbidity and mortality rate of scorpion envenomation is high in rural areas due to the lack of medical facilities. Generally, scorpion stings are harmless but in some times they have both local (pain, burning sensation at the site of sting and swelling, redness) and systemic (pulmonary edema, myocardial damage, hypertension, hyperglycemia, priapism and arrhythmias.) manifestations including death also. Prazosin is most important antidote for scorpion sting. In our case, 45 years male patient was admitted in general medicine department with scorpion sting, he was administered with parenteral hydrocortisone100 mg and antihistamine Pheniramine maleate 22.7 mg after washing the site of sting. On 3rd day we observed abnormal heart sounds (S3) and ECG changes suggests early Myocarditis, after considering the patient’s past medical history and social habits we confirmed that the patient had developed Myocarditis due to scorpion sting. As there are very few cases of scorpion sting induced Myocarditis, it is necessary to monitor closely the electrocardiographic changes of the patient periodically.

36

SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF NOVEL BIS AND MONO HETEROCYCLES OF THIENOPYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES

Kerru Nagaraju, Nallapaneni Harikrishna, Kasturi Vasu and Chunduri Venkata Rao*
Sri Venkateswara University Tirupati 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

A new series of structurally diverse thienopyrimidines have been synthesized with the annulations of heterocyclic structural pharmacophores. All the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H and 13C NMR and LC-MS spectral studies and tested for their antioxidant and antibacterial activity. The 3-amino-4-(1-phenyl-2-(thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-ylsulfonyl)ethyl)isoxazol-5(4H)-one (14) showed excellent radical-scavenging activity when compared with the standard BHT. Hence the novel thienopyrimidine derivatives are considered as potent antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

37

A NEW STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF GEMCITABINE AND CLARITHROMYCIN IN TARCEVA TABLETS

B. Koteswara Rao1, K.R. Manjula2, M. Nageswara Rao3, K.Suresh Babu4, C. Rambabu1*
1Acharya Nagarjuna University, A.P, India.
2Y.V.N.R Govt Degree College, Kaikaluru, A.P, India.
3P.V.P.Siddhartha College of Engineering, Vijayawada, A.P, India
4Satavahana College,Vijayawada,A.P,India.

Abstract

A simple, accurate, specific and rapid stability indicating RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Gemcitabine and Clarithromycin in combined dosage form. A Novapack symmetry, C18, 150mm x3.9mm, 5μ column was used for the complete separation of the drugs. A mixture of potassium dihydrogenorthophosphate and dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate in dilute phosphoric acid at a pH of 3.5 was used as buffer solution and a 55:45 ratio mixture of buffer and acetonitrile was used as mobile phase ( diluent ) .The chromatograms were taken at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, temperature of 300 C and detection wave length of 212 nm with isocratic elusion . The retention time for Gemcitabine standard (sample) was 2.373 min and for Clarithromycin standard (sample) was 5.995min respectively. The linearity range for Gemcitabine was 18.75 -112.50 μg/mL and for Clarithromycin 12.5 -75 μg/mL The recovery of Gemcitabine was in the range 99.86 – 99.95 % and for Clarithromycin 99.94 – 99.97 %. Gemcitabine degraded from 15.45% to 37.01% and Clarithromycin degraded from 9.51% to 37.46% under varied stress conditions. The present stability indicating RP-HPLC method can be used for the accurate, precise, and rapid simultaneous determination of Gemcitabine and Clarithromycin in the combined dosage form. No co eluting peaks were obsereved with main peaks and the method is specific for the estimation of both the drugs in presence of their degradation products.