Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
APRIL 2023


Esha Yadav, Janey Alam*, Shiva, Sadaf Arfi, Mohammad Khalid, Pallavi Pal2, Shahanuwaz Ahammad, Sadaf Hashmi
1Axis Institute of Pharmacy, Kanpur-208001. Uttar Pradesh, India.
2Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor.

The purpose of this research was to see whether Wistar male rats might be protected against paracetamol-induced liver damage by ingesting Embelin-loaded phytosomes complex (EMBP) (PCM). Multiple pharmacological impacts of embelin have been identified, and this study aimed to reduce the required dose while increasing its bioavailability. The hepatotoxicity of paracetamol in Wistar male rats was reduced by belinostatin-loaded phytosomes complex (EMBP) (PCM). Animals group I were treated with 1% CMC for 8 days. PCM was given orally as a single dosage on the eighth day, after a seven-day treatment regimen of "1% CMC," 1 ml/kg per day of EMBP, 50 mg/kg per day of EMBP, 100 mg/kg per day of EMBP, and 100 mg/kg per day of silymarin. Following 24 hours, the animals were sacrificed and their blood was collected via the retro-orbital plexus while under light anaesthesia. In order to determine the hepatoprotective potential, many biochemical markers were analysed. Rats in group IV had significantly lower levels of ALP, AST, ALT, LDH, saturated fat, Total bilirubin, hepatic mass, and comparative hepatic mass contrasted to rats in group II, and higher levels of final body weight, total protein, and alanine aminotransferase (ALB) contrasted to rats in group II. Both silymarin and EMBP, at 100 mg/kg/day, have hepatoprotective potentials similar to those of the gold standard medication, silybin. The study's findings were supported by the histology analysis. Burmese Embelia ribes contained the active component embelin. We employed an innovative method of drug delivery called a phytosome. Six Embelin-loaded phytosome complicated compositions (EMBP1, EMBP2, EMBP3, EMBP4, EMBP5, and EMBP6) were made by combining soy lecithin and chitosan in different proportions and then utilising the anti-solvent precipitate technique as well as the Rotary evaporation technique. Characterization of the phytosome included (SEM) scanning electron microscopy, in vitro release studies, documented drug release kinetic investigations, particle size estimate, percentage output, as well as entrapment efficiency. Among the six formulas, EMBP5 was the most optimised. EMBP5 has the smallest diameter of 345.45±1.231. The immobilization of embelin inside the phytosome complex distinguish from 64.99±1.546 to 81.78±1.151%. The highest entrapment efficiency, 81.78±1.151%, is achieved using the formation of embelin-loaded phytosome complex (EMBP5). The optimal formulation of embelin-loaded phytosomes (EMBP5) was found to contain phytosomes that were less spherical, had a rough and smooth surface, as well as were somewhat aggregated. The phytosomes' in vitro dissolution research revealed a pattern of release. It was determined that fickian diffusion and first order kinetics were involved in the release of embelin from the complex of phytosomes containing embelin (concentration dependant).According to this study, EMBP has hepatoprotective properties equivalent to those of standard silymarin because it showed similar protective potential against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in male wistar rats.



Shaik Heena*, Rasheedunnisa, Aliya, Natta Prathibha

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Vijaya Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences for Women, Enikepadu, Vijayawada – 521 108, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrinopathy with unknown origins that is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and ovarian cysts. Obesity, insulin resistance, and systemic low grade inflammation are all common in women with PCOS. In 2012, tremellen and pearce proposed the idea that dysbiosis of the intestinal (gut) microbiota is a contributing factor to PCOS metabolic and reproductive manifestations. The gut microbiota has been shown to play a role in the onset and progression of many diseases, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, coronary heart disease, and so on. In the past five years, studies in both human and animal models have determined that alterations in the taxonomic composition of gut bacteria are associated with PCOS. It sheds light on the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study provided the link between gut microbial composition and serum metabolites contributing to the occurrence and development of PCOS. Altogether, these results suggest that dysbiosis of the gut microbiome may be sufficient to develop PCOS-like symptoms, and the modulation of gut microbiota may be a potential therapeutic target for PCOS.



Omkar B. Tipugade*, Shobhraj B. Malavi, Sipora S. Gaikwad
Department of Pharmaceutics, Genesis Institute of Pharmacy, Sonyachi Shiroli, Tal: Radhanagari, Dist: Kolhapur Maharashtra - 416212, India.

Carbon nanotubes are one of the most important fields in nanotechnology. Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical in shape with unique characteristics which makes them used in nanotechnology applications. Their various properties like surface area, strength, and stiffness which have led them excitement in pharmacy field. CNTs are classified into two type’s i. e. single walled nanotubes and multiple walled nanotubes. For the preparation of CNTs there are various methods like arc discharge method, laser ablation method, and chemical deposition method. These nanotubes are used in diagnostic as well as medicine delivery system. It is important to be aware of the toxicities of carbon nanotubes due to their wide range of uses in medication administration and to learn how to deal with any issues resulting from toxicities. The biodegradation mechanism of carbon nanotubes has recently been the subject of numerous studies. The delivery of drugs using single and multiple walled carbon nanotubes has to be a safer and more efficient option.



Avinash Bichave*, Aiman Shaikh, Harsh Gurav, Lalit Choudhary, Shrutika Patil

Lokmanya Tilak Institute of Pharmacy, Kharghar 410210.

Kombucha beverage is made by fermenting sugared tea using a culture containing a symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts. Though the origin of Kombucha is obscure, it has gained popularity among consumers as a fermented drink from the last decade. This beverage offers many health benefits including anticancer, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, probiotics, and many more. Though Kombucha beverage has shown persistent health benefits among the consumer worldwide, there are just a few experimental records to support it. The main purpose of this review is to study the literature available on Kombucha with a pharmaceutical perspective.



Dr Vamseekrishna G*, Anusha Ch, Sindhu M, Sneha K, Mamatha Madhuri Ch, Jagadeeswari S, Neha Sri G

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, NRI College of Pharmacy, Pothavarappadu, Agiripalli, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Prucalopride succinate is a selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist. Two simple UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the estimation of Prucalopride succinate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The absorption maxima (?max) of prucalopride succinate in Acetate buffer (PH-5.0) and 0.1N NaoH was found to be 222nm and 228nm respectively and Beer-Lambert’s law was obeyed over the concentration range 2- 16µg/ml. LOD and LOQ values of prucalopride succinate was found to be 0.143 µg/ml, 0.472 µg/ml and 0.112 µg/ml, 0.369 µg/ml in Acetate buffer and 0.1N NaoH respectively. The validation parameters were treated statistically with ‘t’ test and significant differences were noted. The study clearly revealed that the solvents influence the determination of Prucalopride succinate. The methods described were rapid and easy can be applied for the estimation of Prucalopride succinate in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.



Sandu Rajesh1*, Shaik Khaza Mohiddin2*, Shaik Syed3*, Ramineni Abhivardhan4, Myla Gowtham5, Namburi Hemanth6, Puppala Sri Sai Akhil7
Department of Pharmaceutics, Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur.

Liposomes are derived from Greek word lipo means fat and soma means body, composition of phospholipids these are made up of phospholipids bi layer, encapsulated in both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs and safe guard from decoration these formulations due to its biodegradable and biocompatible characteristics, many drug delivery applications have been fully examined over the last decade. Acyclovir is BCS Class ? drug with low permeability. To enhance the permeability of acyclovir drug by liposomal drug delivery system by thin film lipid hydration by hand shake method. Acyclovir liposomes are penetrated to biological membrane and enhance their pharmacological action and drug release. Enhance the rate of drug permeability is enhanced there by increases the Bioavailability of poorly BCS class ? drug – Acyclovir and improved therapeutic efficacy and compliance of the patient. Recent trends so many students and research scholars desire and signifance will increase for this technology mainly because of wide range of therapeutic applications in targeting delivery of several enzymes’ antibiotics anti virals,anti-parasite transdermal transports and diagnostic tools and vaccines. The goal of topical liposome delivery approaches is to get access by combining different polymers.



Rasheedunnisa1*, Shaik Heena1, Aliya1, Natta Prathibha1 and Kantamaneni Padmalatha2

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Vijaya Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences for Women, Enikepadu, Vijayawada – 521108.

2Department of Pharmacology, Vijaya Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences for Women, Enikepadu, Vijayawada – 521108, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is the biggest health concerns in the world today, due to its restricted and expensive treatment options. The severity and burden of MDR-TB differ significantly from nation to nation & region to region. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) most recent study, there are approximately 4,50,000 MDR-TB cases worldwide, with the majority occurring in China, India, Eastern Europeans and Central Asian Countries. MDR-TB is tuberculosis which is resistant to atleast isoniazid & rifampicin, the two most potent anti-TB drugs. Using second line medications, MDR-TB can be managed and cured. However, there are few choices for second line therapy, and requires prolonged chemotherapy(lasting at least 9 months & sometimes up to 20 months), using pricey and toxic drugs. The treatment is challenging for MDR-TB, as it requires administration of at least four antitubercular medications, many of which are held with frequent adverse reactions. Drugs should be selected based on the past medication history, known resistance patterns, and drug-susceptibility testing (DST) data, if available.



Vishal D. Yadav, Shrawani P. Shinde*, Smita P. Borkar

Department of Pharmaceutics, Arvind Gavali College of Pharmacy, Jaitapur, Satara 415004, Maharashtra, India.

Transdermal patches are adhesive patches which provides controlled release action over period of time This review concentrates on the microneedles transdermal patches & their application. Microneedle patches are the 3D structure that bypass the skin barrier & produce local effect .We study the development of the microneedle patches .Types of microneedle patches & their material gives the information about the formulation microneedle patches. Recent application of the microneedle patches with different delivery system.



Kolage Sakshi, Shrutika Mote, Amol Supekar, Saurabh Saudar

Abasaheb Kakade College of B. Pharmacy, Bodhegaon, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Shevgaon 414502, Maharashtra, India.

Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, affecting millions of people, including family members who often act as caregivers. This devastating disease is believed to account for 8% of total US healthcare spending, with medical and nursing costs amounting to approximately $29 billion. . Alzheimer. The first monoclonal antibody,, to recently receive US FDA accelerated approval for moderate AD is aducanumab. Future therapies could be the first chemical approved to treat AD since 2003. The amyloid (A) pathway is becoming increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of AD as it has evolved over time from a pathogen to a disease. - biological structure.The approval of aducanumab is based on the reduction of the A-load in the brain, which serves as a direct marker for this signaling pathway. The fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody aducanumab (BIIB-037) specifically binds to aggregated form A, inhibiting its matrix function and helping to clear plaque. There are three human trials that ended prematurely. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and risk factors are discussed in this review, and currently aducanumab is the only drug approved for food and drug administration that slows disease progression.



Muhammad Fahaam Javidakhtar Shaikh
Doctor of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Shree dhanvantary Pharmacy College (GTU), Gujarat, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affects up to 50 million people globally today, is one of the biggest mysteries in medical science and public health systems. This complex brain condition is characterized by apathy, mood and neuropsychiatric abnormalities, as well as gradual cognitive impairment. Ageing is the primary risk factor for AD; it is a normal biologicalprocedure connected to a continuous dynamic that involves a progressive loss of people's physical capabilities, but with a reliable, lived-in perspective on life. According to studies, AD differs from healthy ageing in that it causes changes in the processes that safeguard neurons as well as their powerful functioning capabilities. Given the components of nutrition, regular exercise, and avoiding certain substances, a significant route has been created towards preventing AD in this environment. Avoiding harmful chemicals and narcotics, maintaining an active social life, engaging in meditation, and managing stress are all necessary for healthy ageing. Here, we examine how these elements are involved and how to reduce environmental risk factors for a higher standard of living. both proactive and creative, the use of trustworthy biomarkers in screening programs for early disease identification is becoming increasingly important for disease management.Additionally, the failure of conventional pharmaceutical therapies and the search for new medications have sparked the development of nutraceutical compounds in the context of "multi-target" therapy, as well as mindfulness techniques that are effective in the management of AD and ageing.All of these preventive measures combined with cutting-edge pharmaceutical techniques should form the basis of an integrated strategy for the eventual control of the illness. According to studies, AD is different from healthy ageing in that it causes alterations in the processes that safeguard neurons while maintaining their great functioning capabilities. Given that daily exercise, healthy eating, and avoiding harmful chemicals are all critical components of AD prevention, an important road has been opened in this regard.drugs, a bustling social life, meditation, and stress management are all necessary for good ageing. Here, we examine how these elements are involved and how to reduce risk factors from the environment for a higher standard of living. The control of the illness is increasingly dependent on prevention as well as cutting-edge screening programmes for early diagnosis of the disease utilizing accurate biomarkers. Additionally, the ineffectiveness of conventional pharmaceutical therapies and the quest for novel medicationshas sparked the development of nutraceutical substances in the framework of a "multitarget" therapy, as well as methods of mindfulness that have been shown useful for the management of ageing and AD. All of these protective factors coupled with an integrated strategy,The future management of the condition should be made possible by innovative pharmaceutical techniques.



Dr. Dhanapal Venkatachalam

Sree Sastha Pharmacy College, Chembarambakkam, Chennai-600123.

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the major known active principleembelin of Embeliaribes for possible antidepressant activity..EmbeliaribesBurm (Family: Myrsinaceae) is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine for treating various disease conditions including chronic inflammatory disorders, heart and urinary conditions, snake and insect bites and tumour. Methodology: Fractionation of the methanlic extract of dried powdered fruits using column chromatography over silica gel afforded embelin. Experimental depression was induced by subjecting mice to tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) experimental models. Intraperitonial administration of embelin (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) 30 min prior to induction of experimental depression resulted in dose-dependent reduction of immobility under both test conditions. Results: The effects of embelin on immobility time of mice in the TST at the doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, embelin induced antidepressant-like effect with significance level of p < 0.05; p < 0.001 respectively when compared with the control group. The positive control, imipramine, administered at the dose of 15 mg/kg did also show antidepressant-like effect comparable with that of 5 mg/kg embelin (p > 0.001).As with the FST, treatment of mice with 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of embelin given by intra peritoneal route significantly decreased immobility in the FST. The data obtained at these two doses were significantly different from the control group (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively). The positive control, imipramine, did also shorten immobility time in the FST (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The result concludes that,the major bioactive constituent of Embeliaribes, embelin, exhibited significant activity in mice TST and FST experimental models. The observed potent activity at doses lower than the standard antidepressant drug, imipramine, suggests the potential of embelin and Embeliaribes for treating mental depression.



Madhu Gudipati, P. Gayatri Manogna, G. Divya, R. Hema, K. Pavan Sai Kiran, M. Vamsi Krishna and P. Srinivasa Babu

Department of Pharmaceutics, Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi-522 213, Chebrole Mandal, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.

The idea of cosmetics dates back to prehistoric times. Cosmetics are used to purify, enhance, and encourage attractiveness. Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics are combined to create cosmeceuticals. These are cosmetic products that also have medical purposes. The scientists searched for a natural alternative because the chemical agents utilised in the production of cosmetics have unfavourable effects and/or toxicity. Herbal cosmetics were born as a result of this natural alternative. Herbal cosmetics have gained widespread popularity recently in the field of fashion and beauty because these are free from chemical agents and suitable for every individual.To further enhance their effectiveness, novel techniques in herbal cosmetics were developed which includes the use of novel carriers such as liposomes, phytosomes, niosomes, ethosomes, etc. In this review article, we will discuss novel techniques in herbal cosmetics and some common disorders that can be treated with herbal cosmeceuticals.



Ekjot Kaur1*, Saloni Narula2 and Mahesh Kumar Kataria1

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education, Gagan Path, Sri Ganganagar (Raj.) 335001, India.

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Om Sterling Global University, Hisar, Haryana, 125001, India.

A drug delivery process is the method for the administration of any pharmaceutical compound to achieve maximum therapeutic effect in humans and animals. It may be defined as a system comprising of Drug formulation, Medical device or dosage form /technology which carries the drug inside the body. A drug carrier is any substrate used in the process of drug delivery which serves to improve the selectivity, effectiveness and safety of drug administration. Drug Carriers are primarily used to control the release into systemic circulation. A wide variety of drug carrier systems have been developed and studied, each of which has unique advantages and disadvantages. The popular drug carriers include liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles etc.