PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, HPTLC PROFILING AND ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF VILVADITABLETAGAINST STAPHLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS – AN IN VITRO STUDY
Shakkira. M. Haneefa, Benil .P .B
Department of Agadtantra, VPSV Ayurveda College, Kottakkal.
Background: Antibiotic resistance is a global pandemic of the 21st century estimated to cause 10 million deaths a year by 2050. Bacterial multidrug resistance poses an ever increasing threat to mankind and we are at the dawn of post-antibiotic era. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcusaureus (MRSA) comes under the high priority in the global priority pathogen list by WHO, is a well-recognized public health problem. Alternative medical practices including Ayurveda provides several age old wisdom in conditions of infections and epidemics. An in vitro study was conducted against Staphylococcusaureus(SA) and MRSA to test the efficacy of a common multi-herbal formulation, Vilvadi tablet (VT) which is indicated in Ayurveda for infections. Methodology: Successive solvent extraction with Cyclohexane (CH), Ethyl acetate (EA), Acetone (AC), and Methanol (MET) (70%) along with phytochemical screening and HPTLC profiling was done. The antibacterial activity was assessed using the Well diffusion method against Vancomycin as standard drug.The drug extracts were tested at doses of 15?g/ml, 30 ?g/ml, 60 ?g/ml,120 ?g/ml,240 ?g/ml and 480 ?g/ml. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also determined for the extracts. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett?s multiple comparison test against the standard Vancomycin. Statistical significance was fixed at 5 % level. Results and discussion: Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, phytosterols, glycosides, resins, fixed oils and fats. HPTLC profile showed 12 peaks and 9 peaks at 254nm and 366nm respectively. In SA, AC (21.50+1.22 mm) and EA (21.33+1.55 mm) extracts at 480 ?g/ml showed statistically significant inhibition as comparable to Vancomycin (24.67+1.15 mm). In MRSA, EA extract at 480?g/ml (39.33+3.05 mm), 240 ?g/ml (36.33+1.15 mm) and 120?g/ml (28.67+1.15) and AC extract at 480?g/ml (33.0+1.33), 240?g/ml (28.00+2.00 mm) showed inhibition similar to that of standard drug (22.67+1.15 mm). The MIC for SA in EA extract was 143.9?g/ml and for AC extract was 138.1?g/ml respectively. In MRSA, EA extract showed an MIC of 123.91 ?g/ml and AC extract showed 139.27 ?g/ml respectively. Vancomycin on the other hand was reported to have an MIC of 0.25- 1 ?g/ml for SA and 0.125-1 ?g/ml for MRSA. Conclusion: The present study showed statistically significant inhibition of SA and MRSA by the AC and EA extracts of VT. A higher dose of 123.91?g/ml and 139.27 ?g/ml of EA and AC extracts were found equivalent to that of Vancomycin. These extracts at 480 ?g/ml, 240 ?g/ml and 120 ?g/ml doses produced bacterial growth inhibition at par with standard antibiotic Vancomycin. This study highlights the efficacy of multi- herbal formulations in combating antibiotic resistant infections which can be utilized in clinical condition after thorough research and thus answers a solution for drug resistant infections.