Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
APRIL 2019


Merin Titus*, Shana Bency, Sruthi Syam, Steffi Jose
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davangere, Karnataka, India.

The objective of the study is to evaluate the rational use of antibiotics among patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital. A prospective observational study was conducted, in which the antibiotic prescriptions in the medicine department were analysed. 128 case records of patients were identified and evaluated for the rational use of antibiotics for a period of 6 months. Overall 1269 drugs were prescribed in 128 prescriptions, out of which 287(22.62%) were antibiotics. Out of 128 prescriptions, there were 105(36.59%) Cephalosporins, 41(14.29%) Penicillins, 29(10.10%) Macrolides, 25(8.71%) Fluoroquinolones, 19(6.62%) Tetracyclines, 17(5.92%) Metronidazole, 11(3.83%) Aminoglycosides, 10(3.48%) Carbapenems, 7(2.45%) Lincosamides, 5(1.74%) Nitrofurantoin, 5(1.74%) Azoles, 4(1.39%) Sulphonamides, 3(1.05%) Rifamycins, 3(1.05%) Oxazolidones, 2(0.70%) Albendazole and 1(0.35%) Glycopeptides. 39(30.47%) prescriptions were prescribed with single antibiotic, 46(35.94%) and 25(19.53%) prescriptions were respectively prescribed with 2 and 3 antibiotics, 13(10.15%) prescriptions were prescribed with 4 antibiotics and 5(3.91%) prescriptions were prescribed with >4 antibiotics. 79(61.72%) prescriptions were rational and 49(38.28%) prescriptions were irrational. Out of 128 cases, 113(88.28%) were empirical, 9(7.03%) were prophylactic and 6(4.69%) were definite therapy. Prescriptions were analysed and rationality of prescriptions were assessed for parameters such as untreated condition, duplication of therapeutic group, inappropriate drug, contraindication, treatment without indication and inappropriate dose, duration and frequency of antibiotics respectively. Thus the study concludes that 61.72% of prescriptions were rational. 




Dinta Maria*, Hephzibah Sara, Jasmin Jacob, Jeena Joy
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davangere, Karnataka, India.

The term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) reflects the impact of the disease upon a person's quality of life. 3 Chronic liver disease patients experience symptoms of fatigue, anxiety, depression, loss of self-esteem, etc. as a result of disease progression including side-effects of treatment specific therapy, which have a huge impact on their HRQoL. Moreover rising medical costs and declining socio-economic conditions further contribute to the deterioration of the patient’s mental health and subsequently, HRQoL. [2] CLDQ gave a better understanding of HRQoL in patients with different forms of chronic liver disease and also disease progression. Age and sex did not affect CLDQ scores. Medication nonadherance is a highly prevalent obstacle to achieve and maintain wellness in liver diseased patients.The objective of this study is to to assess the impact of chronic liver disease on quality of life and to determine whether non adherence is a factor for impaired QoL in patients with liver disease. A prospective observational questionnaire based study was conducted in hepatic impaired patients on drug dosing for a period of 6 months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The degree of hepatic impairment was calculated using Child-Pugh classification .Self-reported medication adherence was examined using the 8-Question Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8).From the 52 CLDQ responses obtained, higher mean scores were found for emotional function [37.01(7.19)] while lower mean scores for activity [11.21(3.72] and abdominal [11.40(3.56)]. The overall CLDQ scores for patients belonging to Child C [4.82(0.73)] and Child B [4.15(0.80)] were higher compared to patients belonging to Child A [3.61(0.80)]. Out of 52 patients, 43 (83%) were observed with an overall CLDQ scores less than five and 9 (17%) patients with an overall CLDQ scores more than or equal to five. Out of 52 patients, 33 had a score less than two and 19 patients with score between 1 or 2 for MMAS-8. Of the 43 patients with an overall CLDQ scores less than five, 27 of them had an MMAS-8 score more than 2 and 16 of them had an MMAS-8 score of 1 or 2. Among the 9 patients with an overall CLDQ score greater than five , 6 patients scored more than 2 and 3 patients scored 1 or 2. The most affected domains were activity and abdominal symptoms whilst the least affected was Emotional function. In conclusion to our study, the domains like Activity, Abdominal and Fatigue were equally affected in Child A, Child B and Child C categories. These findings had statistical significance with P-value <0.05.Our objective on determining the impact of adherence on QoL was successful in highlighting a positive correlation between low medication adherence and poor QoL. This finding was statistically significant with P-value of 0.048. Our conclusion from the CLDQ responses collected is that a major population had poor HRQoL. 




Thakkalapally Lakshmi*1, Kasth Kranti2, Gupta Krishna R2, Ganorkar Anvesha V2, K.Parameshwar1
1Gurunanak Institutions Technical Campus-School of Pharmacy, Ibrahimpatnam, Hyderabad, TelanganA, India-501506.
2Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee-441002, Nagpur (MS).

An accurate, precise and reproducible reverse-phase HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Ibuprofen and Pseudoephedrine in combined dosage form. Separation was achieved using Eclipse Phenyl 3.5?, column (150×3.0mm) and Methanol: 0.05% Triethylamine Buffer (4:96) pH adjusted to 7.0 with o-phosphoric acid as mobile phase which shows sharp and resolved peak at a flow rate 0.7 mL/min and UV detection at 210 nm. The linearity of the proposed method was evaluated for the concentration range of 12-240 ?g/mL(r = 0.9999) for Ibuprofen, 7.2-145 ?g/mL(r = 0.9999) for Pseudoephedrine. The retention time for IBU and PSD were found to be 8.26 and 4.999 respectively. The mean % estimation and recovery of the drugs was found near to 100 % representing the accuracy of the method. Validation of the proposed method was carried out for its accuracy, precision, specificity and ruggedness according to ICH guidelines. The proposed method can be successfully applied in routine work for the determination of Ibuprofen and Pseudoephedrine in combined dosage form. 




Shrishail M. Ghurghure, Surwase Priyanka*

D.S.T.S. Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Solapur -413004 Maharashtra. India.

The present work is to enhance bioavailability of drugs from BGS class II drugs like simvastatin by incorporating them in Nano sized drug delivery. Nano sponges are mesh like structures with a size range of below 1µm. Due to their small size and porous structure they can easily bind poorly soluble drugs, which leads to improve the solubility and ultimately the bioavailability of the same. Nanosponges is water soluble. This does not mean the molecules chemically break up in water, but it means that Nanosponges particles can mix with water and use it as transport fluid, for example to be injected. So, in theory Nanosponges has several advantages over other delivery methods. In this work poorly soluble drug i.e. simvastatin is formulated in Nanosponges for solubility enhancement.it is formulated in four batches by using Pluronic F68 and PVA.in this article preparation and evaluation of Nanosponges is described as per obtained result



Shrishail M. Ghurghure, Kamalapurkar Ka, Thorat Ys, Pathan Ma*

P. G. Department of Pharmaceutics, D.S.T.S. Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Solapur-413004 Maharashtra. India.

Itraconazole is an imidazole derivative and used for the treatment of local and systemic fungal infections. It is a BCS Class II drug having very low solubility in water i.e. 1-4ng/ml.  T he oral use of Itraconazole is not much recommended as it has many side effects. The present research has been undertaken with the aim to develop a topical hydrogel formulation of Itraconazole loaded nanosponges to increase the solubility, permeability and stability of itraconazole. Itraconazole loaded nanosponge was prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method by using different concentrations of ethyl cellulose as a polymer, Polyvinyl alcohol as surfactant and dichloromethane as cross linking agent. Physical characteristics of the nanosponges as well as the drug entrapment efficiency, percentage drug content, Percent yield, drug polymer compatibility, solubility studies of the nanosponges were investigated. Particle size analysis and surface morphology of nanosponges were performed. The scanning electron microscopy of nanosponges showed that they were spherical in shape and spongy in nature. Drug entrapment efficiency was found to be in the range of 42.75 % to 73.10 %. The optimized nanosponge formulation was loaded into hydrogel using carbopol 940 and studied for pH, viscosity, in vitro drug release. Of the nanosponge formulations prepared, F4 was found to show drug release of 70.62%. It was concluded that Itraconazole nanosponge hydrogel may have increased solubility, and drug release.



Jadhav Apurva Vinodkumar*, Godse Kirti Chandrahar, Deshmane Prajakta Pradip
Arvind Gavali College of Pharmacy, Jaitapur, Satara-415004, Maharashtra, India.

The lip care products for everyday basis contain harmful heavy metals and preservatives. Other than leaching through the pores on your lips, these heavy metals and other chemicals can also be accidently ingested. Lead affects heart and brain, Cadmium and Chromium can cause cancer, Preservative could cause breast cancer. Lip balms are formulations applied onto the lips to prevent drying and protect against adverse environmental factors. Organic lip balms nourishes the lips and help to get hydrated and protect lips affected by chapping and dryness. They help to protect the natural health and beauty of the lips. Lip balms are not gender specific products and both men and women can use them. In the present study many organic products like Ghee and Honey, can help to keep lips hydrated and healthy. Prepared lip balm was evaluated for organoleptic characteristics, melting point, spreadability, pH measurement and stability studies. After performing stability studies at room temperature (25.0 ± 3.0 ºC) ,refrigeration (4± 2.0 ºC) and oven temperature (40.0 ± 2.0 ºC) for 30 days. It was concluded that prepared lip balm shows uniform nature, perfect application, without any deformation at room temperature (25.0 ± 3.0 ºC) and at refrigeration (4± 2.0 ºC) .Mean melting point was 69 ºC. Mean pH was 7.2, which is near to the neutral pH. Storage in the oven (40.0 ± 2.0 °C) is not recommended because of loss of product functionality observed during the normal Stability. Organic lip balm can be a better option for treatment of various lip issues. 




Dr. Navanil Roy, Dr. Mrinal Gupta*
Department of Biochemistry, Shri Shankracharya Institute of Medical Sciences, Junwani Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India.
Department of Biochemistry, Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Medical college & hospital, Rohini, New Delhi, India.

BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia (PE) , a pregnancy specific disorder is the most common cause of foetal and maternal death. Yet no specific prevention and treatment is available. Ischemia Modified Albumin (IMA) has emerged as a marker in different diseases where ischemia is the origin or consequence behind disease pathology. Reliable biochemical markers for prediction and diagnosis of PE can have a better impact on maternal health and several of the markers have been suggested till now. MATERIALS & METHODS: 30 patients with PE were selected for the study and compared with 30 pregnant healthy controls. IMA were estimated in these patients. The results were then statistically analysed. RESULTS: IMA levels were found significantly raised in PE patients as compared to normal pregnant controls (p value<0.001). CONCLUSION: IMA which is generated by hypoxia/ischemia driven oxidative stress is also raised in PE and hence can be used as a biomarker in PE. Further studies are needed to establish the relationship between IMA and the disease process and its association with severity of disease. 




Yogesh S. Thorat1, Naushad N. Mirza1*, Parikshit D. Shirure1, Avinash H. Hosmani2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, D.S.T.S. Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Solapur, Maharashtra,India
2Department of pharmaceutics, Government College of Pharmacy, Ratnagiri.

Objective: The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate liposomes loaded with extract of Cynodon dactylon linn. Methods: Liposomes containing extract of Cynodon dactylon linn were made by thin layer film hydration method. Soya lecithin and cholesterol were used to make multiliamellar vesicles. Nine batches of liposomes were prepared based on the different weight ratio of Soya lecithin and cholesterol. Scanning Camera microscopy, IR, Drug entrapment, Dug release, Diffusion study, Stability study were conducted. Results: The prepared liposomes were evaluated by particle size analysis, entrapment efficiency, release study and stability study. Particle sizes were determined from the scanning Camera microscopy (SCM) photographs. It showed that F2, F5 and F8 batches had a good release results and smaller liposomes while F1, F3, F4, F6, F7 and F9 shows a poor release result with a mean at 269 ?m. The percentage entrapment efficiency was found to be 76.13, 83.78, 73.44, 79.81, 86.19, 81.43, 74.32, 83.79, and 71.54 % respectively. The satisfactory batches F2, F5, and F8 was packed in containers and stored at 4°C temperature for one month. At the end of one month, the samples were analyzed for their physical properties, drug entrapment and in vitro release profile. The percentage release was found to be 77.4, 79.24, and 74.9% after 5 hrs. Conclusion: The formulation of Liposomes containing extract of Cynodon dactylon was carried out. The batches F1 to F9 were evaluated for Scanning camera microscopy, drug entrapment, drug release, diffusion study and stability study, the results are shows, The F2, F5, and F8 batches showed most promising results compared to other batches. No significant change was found during one month’s stability study of final batches.