IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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FEBRUARY 2016
1

A REVIEW ON: SCREENING OF DIFFERENT MEDICINAL PLANTS USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF ARTHRITIS

Arif Bashir1, Rakesh Mehta*1, Mahesh Tharani1, Waseem Ahmad2, Tufaila Manzoor3, Hilal Ul Zaman4
*Govt. M G M PG College Itarsi, M.P, India.
1S S L Jain P G College Vidisha, M.P India.
2Govt Benazir College of Science and Commerce Bhopal,M.P, India.
3Department of Bioscience B.U Bhopal.
4Govt M V M College Bhopal.

Abstract

Arthritis is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that principally affects synovial joints. The disease has been estimated to affect about 1% of the world’s population, with women being three times more affected than men. The presently available pharmacological treatments in the market are not only economical but are also associated with severe adverse affects. So, to develop a proper medication which will be eco friendly and has very less side effects, the use of CAM (Complementary Alternative Medicine) such as yoga, extract of medicinal plants is on rise. The remedies for this disease are made from single to multiple herbs. So the present study has been carried out to evaluate different medicinal plants with anti arthritic activity which in turn will lead to the discovery of novel phytochemicals which can offer better treatment options for cure of this affliction.

2

ANTI-OXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA (FLOWERS)

S. Solomon*1, N. Muruganantham2, M. M. Senthamilselvi3
*1Research Scholar, Periyar E.V.R.College (Autonomous), Trichy, Tamilnadu, India.
2Assistant Professor, Roever Engineering College, Perambalur, Tamilnadu, India
3Principal, Government Arts College, Ariyalur, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of the sample isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of flowers of Bauhinia tomentosa. Anti-inflammatory activity of the sample was determined by HRBC membrane stabilization and Albumin denaturation methods. Anti-oxidant activity of the sample was determined by DPPH assay and ABTS method. The results of the study suggest that the sample isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction possesses anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

3

A PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL APPROACH ON PREVALANCE AND PREDICTORS OF POLYPHARMACY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

B Gowthami *, T Spurthi , Soumya Karanam, P. Ramesh Kumar Reddy
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Creative Educational Society’s College of Pharmacy, N.H.7, Chinnatekur, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract

As such polypharmacy refers to the multiple drug usage at the same time. Many authors terms polypharmacy on usage of more than five medications. Chronic disorders lead to the usage of medications for years together. Concurrent usage of past drugs with the present conditions or diseases leads to polypharmacy in patient. Our present study focuses on the prevalence of polypharmacy and its predictors in all the age groups in a tertiary care hospital in Kurnool city. The main reason for conduction of this study was increase in morbidity which represents the reason for the present study. This article or the study also indicates the cause or the factors leading to polypharmacy. A prospective study was conducted for a period of four months from September 2015 to December 2015 in Medicine department of Viswabarathi Hospital, Kurnool, A. P. A total of 273 prescriptions were collected of which 115 (42.12%) were females and 158 (57.88%) cases were males. Out of the age groups categorized, highest percentage was seen among the age group of 55-68 yrs (33.9%) and the least was seen in the age group of 0-13 yrs (2.37%). A majority of prescriptions are with polypharmacy i.e. of 193 in number. Major Polypharmacy was seen in 43 cases of 273 cases. Polypharmacy can be avoided or prevented by minimising the unintended drug use, following rational guidelines of prescription and following the non pharmacological strategies wherever necessary. Finally we conclude that unnecessary medication usage leads to decreased health care of the patient.

4

NOVEL SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PREGABALIN AND ROFLUMILAST IN TABLETS

Gudimitla Raveendra Babu, Ganta Vijay Kumar, Bomma Revathi Krishna, Menni Durga Bhavani, Maruboyina Brahmini, Daram Venkata Subbarao, Gantasala Ramesh
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Department of Pharmacology, Alluri Krishna Rao and Govindamma College of Pharmacy, Nallajerla-534112, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

A simple, specific, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of pregabalin and roflumilast in innovative tablets. This method was developed and the lambda maxima drugs were found to be 201 mm of pregabalin and 210 nm of roflumilast, respectively. The present method was validated to evaluate precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. Beer's law obeyed concentration range 10 to 90 mcg/ml of pregabalin and 35 to 55 mcg/ml of roflumilast, respectively. The percent of the relative standard deviation for all parameters was found to be within the limits, it indicates the present method was validated.

5

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF ERYNGIUM FOETIDUM L. (APIACEAE)

D P Lingaraju1*, M S Sudarshana2, C Mahendra2, K Poornachandra Rao3
1A V Kanthamma College for Women, Hassan, Karnataka, India – 573201.
2Department of Studies in Botany, University of Mysore, Mysoru, Karnataka – 570006.
3Department of Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysoru, Karnataka.

Abstract

Eryngium foetidum L., belonging to Apiaceae is a biannual herb. It is used as an ethno-medicinal plant for the treatment of various ailments. The leaf decoction is used against gastrointestinal disorders and leaf paste as wound healing agent by the ethnic communities in the Kodagu district of Karnataka. Hence a study was designed to examine the antibacterial and antifungal activity of leaves of E. foetidum. The Soxhlet extraction was performed by using organic solvents like petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol. Each extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical tests. The results of phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some active principles like glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and tannins. The antimicrobial activity of isolated extracts was performed with microorganisms like two Gram positive bacteria - Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, two Gram negative bacteria - Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a fungus Candida albicans by agar well diffusion method. The result of the antimicrobial activity revealed that the ethylacetate extract of E. foetidum showed the strongest antimicrobial activity among the five extracts against the four bacterial strains and C. albicans. This is also revealed that inhibition of ethylacetate extract against P.aeruginosa (28mm ) and C. albicans (18mm) was comparatively higher to that of the standard Gentamycin (18mm) and Nystatin (14mm) respectively. The result of present study supports traditional usage of E. foetidum and also suggests that ethyl acetate leaf extract possesses compounds with antimicrobial property that can be used as antimicrobial agents in new drug for the therapy of infectious diseases caused by pathogens.

6

SYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FLAVONES: A REVIEW

Dhruti Bhatt*, Ronak Soni, Gaurav Kumar Sharma, Ashok Dashora
Geetanjali Institute of Pharmacy, Geetanjali University, Udaipur-313002, India.

Abstract

Flavones are a class of flavonoids based on backbone of 2-phenylchromen-4-one. Flavones are synthesized by various methods of synthesis such as solvent free, micro assisted, photocyclization, alkene hydrogen replacement, wacker oxidation, photo- wittig and many more. It contains pharmacological activities- Antifungal, Antibactrial, Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, DNA Gyrase inhibitory activity, Anti-inflammatory, Oestrogenic. The toxicity is likely said to be minimal.

7

MONOTERPENE BIOTRANSFORMATION BY THE YEAST

R. Sirisha Katherine
Govt.Polytechnic College for Women, Kanteshwer, Nizamabad, Telangana-50300, India.

Abstract

Monoterpenes are widely distributed in nature and are the main constituents of essential oils. They are used in large quantities in the chemical and perfumery industry for production of valuable compounds. The present study involves the biotransformation of monoterpene D-limonene by the yeast (S-L) isolated from the rotten lemon. Biotransformation process was carried out by shake flask technique at 28 0C in YMP medium at 150 rpm.GC-MS method analysis of reaction mixture showed 1,2-cyclohexanediol,1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl);7-Oxabicyclo (4.1.0) heptane,1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl);2-cyclohexen-1-ol,1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl);2-cyclohexen-1-ol,2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl )cis as metabolic products having flavor and fragrance nature. These have a significant potential for industrial applications such as perfumery industry.

8

POTENTIAL NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF PIPERINE IN PILOCARPINE INDUCED TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY

Suryakanta Pany, Abhisek Pal, Pratap Kumar Sahu
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha.

Abstract

The administration of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) in combination with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors may be a promising therapeutic strategy in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Piperine, a natural P-gp inhibitor isolated from black pepper possessing antioxidant and antiepileptic effect on its own is thus investigated for its efficacy in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) or pharmacoresistant epilepsy using pilocarpine model. On co-administration of celecoxib as well as piperine there is a significant (p<0.05) increase in brain-plasma phenytoin ratio, Glutathione (GSH) level, percentage of viable neurons and decrease in lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. So, Piperine may possess potential neuroprotective effect against pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in rats. Such neuroprotective activity of piperine may be attributed to its P-glycoprotein inhibition, COX-2 inhibition, Ca++ channel blocking and CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition activities.

9

AN OBSERVATIONAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ACECLOFENAC (ALONE) VS ACECLOFENAC WITH THIOCOCHICOSIDE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BACK PAIN

Marisetti Rajeswari, K. Abhinaya, Shreya Deshpandey, K. Giribabu, Dr. B. V. S. Lakshmi, Dr. Raman
Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Secunderabad, Telangana – 500014.

Abstract

The study was undertaken with the aim of comparing the efficacy of Aceclofenac along with Thiocolchicoside and Aceclofenac alone administered in patients diagnosed of back pain. 100 patients of either sex in the age range of 18 to 55 years diagnosed of back pain were randomly divided into 2 groups of 50 each. Group B was prescribed aceclofenac 100 mg along with thiocolchicoside 4mg (T+A), while the Group A was prescribed aceclofenac 100 mg alone (A) twice a day for 7 days. Severity of pain at rest was recorded using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Muscle spasm was evaluated by hand-to-floor distance and Lasegue´smaneuver. Reading was noted on day 1(baseline), day 7 and on day14. There was a significant decrease in score of pain on day 1, day 7, day 14, was assessed by VAS. There was statiscally reduction in severity of pain in both groups. There was no statiscally significant difference shown between two groups but clinically shown better improvement in Group A. The adverse drug reactions occurring during study showed a statiscally significant better safety profile in Group A than Group B.Conclusion of our study states that Aceclofenac 100mg twice daily for 1 week is best cost effective treatment for mild to moderate severity with less side effects for patients with backpain. than compared to Aceclofenac with Thiocolchicoside. Pharmacoeconomically Dolokind is the most economic brand with efficacy amongst Aceclofenac brands.This confirms that FDC of Aceclofenac is a preferred option for patients with backpain.

10

IS CARICA PAPAYA BENEFICIAL IN DENGUE PATIENTS AS PLATELET ELEVATOR??

Spurthi.T1*, Gowthami.B2, Monika Priya.V2, Razia Khatoon2
1Creative Educational Society’s College of Pharmacy, N.H.7, Chinnatekur, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Ces College of Pharmacy, Viswabarathi Hospital, Kurnool-518002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Dengue is arthropod borne viral infection by a female Aedes aegypti mosquito ought to be caused by any of the four species of Dengue virus (DENV-1, 2, 3, 4). Thrombocytopenia (< 150000 / μl) is one of the significant sign of disease and is the key reason for the haemorrhage in dengue fever. . Lack of specific allopathic drug to increase the platelets other than temporary platelet transfusion or whole blood transfusion made Carica papaya leaf extract(Caripill) as a use full adjuvant to control death rate. Our present study is a prospective interventional study, carried out in serologically positive and suspected dengue patients from August to November 2015. Patients are categorised as group 1,2 and 3 as receiving only blood, caripill+blood and only Caripill respectively and required data for evaluation were collected. A total of 134 dengue patients with serologically positive (54%) and suspected cases (46%) were analysed. Prevalence of disease is higher in males (57%) than females (43%) with notable occurrence in age group 11-20(37%).Percentage of patients in Group 1 (55%), Group 2 (34%) and Group 3 (10%) were observed. The mean platelet counts before administering caripill along with first day and second day of drug were calculated in group 3 patients and found as 8.5 ±1.2 x104 /μL, 9.2±1.2 x104 /μL, 9.8±1.2 x104 /μL respectively. The results observed in patient before and after taking the tablet significantly showed the increase in platelet count, indicating that carica papaya extract act as an adjuvant in management of dengue.

11

A BRIEF SCENARIO ON EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE: INSIDE THE DEADLY OUTBURST

Bhrigu Kumar Das1*, Mandeep Kumar Singh1, Rahul Trivedi1, Jayamma M Kulkarni2, Gaurav Soni1
1B.R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, (A Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Recognized by DSIR, Ministry of Science & Technology, GOI), Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India (458001).
2K.L.E.U’s College of Pharmacy, Hubli, Karnataka, India (580031).

Abstract

A belligerent pathogen, Ebola virus is one that causes a highly fatal hemorrhagic fever syndrome in humans and nonhuman primates. The reservoir of the virus is still debatable and with its hasty succession, complication has further arises to manage the disease and a little optimism with the development of the acquired immunity. A large number of known antiviral drugs are impervious to this virus hence forth a need for a convincing treatment on date is in utmost. Focusing on the worldwide scenario of this virulent disease, a serious life-threatening battle has been played by the people around to combat with it. With the multifaceted and extraordinary Ebola pandemic outburst in West Africa, there is a strong need for reviewing the pathogenesis and regarding the transmission criteria and the intrusions of controlling against Ebola virus disease. After the contagion, precedence for the Ebola Virus disease (EVD) comprises scrutiny in case of revival, overhaul of health, infection control strategy establishment and strengthening the basic public health systems.

12

SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES ON Co(II) COMPLEXES OF N-SUBSTITUTED 2-CHLORO PHENOTHIAZINES.

Madhushree N N1, Chandrashekara P G1*, Umesha S2
1Yuvaraja’s College, University of Mysuru, Mysuru, India.
2Manasagongothri, University of Mysuru, Mysuru, India.

Abstract

The transition metal complexes of Co (II) has been synthesized using 2-chloro phenothiazine derivatives as main ligand and purified by recrystallization in methanol. These have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, molar conductivity measurement, magnetic studies, TGA, UV and mass. These studies were revealed that an octahedral geometry of the type [M(L)(L1).3H2O] and [M(L)(L1).2H2O], Where M = Co(II), L is ligand, L1 is 1:10-phenathroline. All the metal complexes are mononuclear and have octahedral geometry. Synthesized metal complexes were screened for antimicrobial activities (antifungal and antibacterial) against three bacteria and three fungi using In vitro disc diffusion method. The result revealed that most of the synthesized complex compounds exhibited good antimicrobial activities.

13

EFFECT OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE ON THE METABOLIC FUEL MOLECULES AND PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF METHYLCOBALAMIN IN FRESH WATER FISH, LABEO ROHITA

Shamima Akhter*, Dr. Mahesh Tharanie
S.S.L. Jain P.G. College, Vidisha Bhopal, (M.P.).

Abstract

In present study, an attempt has been made to analyse the impact of sub lethal concentrations of heavy metal arsenic on the metabolic fuel molecules in the liver tissues of Labeo rohita and the preventive role of methylcobalamin (vitamin B12) against the changes of arsenic. Liver is a target organ of arsenic toxicity. Fish liver plays an important role in uptake, accumulation, bio-transformation and excretion of arsenic. We observed decrease in protein, lipid and glycogen content in arsenic treated fishes after 30 days and the value decreases more significantly in later part of experiment while as less decrease was found in fishes which were treated with arsenic in accommodation with methylcobalamin, when compared with control group. From the above observation we come to the conclusion that methylcobalamin ameliorates the toxicity of arsenic may be through methylation process.

14

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ROSUVASTATIN CALCIUM AND ASPIRIN IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Akshaykumar Khivasara*, Dr. L. A. Kawale, Lina Shirode, Nanda Badhe, Priyanka Ahire, Shivam Lale
M.V.P Samaj’s College of Pharmacy, Nashik-2, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The objective of this present method is to develop simple, sensitive and precise HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of Aspirin and Rosuvastatin in pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was carried out using Greece C18 (4.6ID × 250mm; 5μm) column and mobile phase comprised of methanol and PDP buffer adjusted to pH 2.8 with Ortho phosphoric acid in proportion of ratio 70:30 v/v and degassed under ultrasonication. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and detection was carried out at 243 nm. The Retention time of Aspirin and Rosuvastatin were found to be 2.84 and 3.46 respectively.The validation of method was carried using ICH guidelines. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. Linearity of Aspirin and Rosuvastatin were in the range of 75 to 375μg/mL (r2 = 0.9966) and 10 to 50μg/mL (r2 = 0.9987) respectively. The % recoveries of Aspirin and Rosuvastatin were found to be in between 99.48 % to 99.55 % for Aspirin and 98.001 % to 100.93 % for Rosuvastatin respectively. The method was also applied for the determination of Aspirin & Rosuvastatin in the presence of their degradation products formed under variety of stress conditions. Degradation products produced as a result of stress studies did not interfere with the detection of Aspirin and Rosuvastatin and the assay can thus be considered stability indicating. The proposed method is suitable for the routine quality control analysis for simultaneous determination of Aspirin and Rosuvastatin in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.

15

INTRA-ARTICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS FOR ARTHRITIC DISEASES: OVERCOMING THE INADEQUACIES OF THERAPY

Santhosh T.R.1, Moin A.2, Gowda D.V.1, Abhilasha T.P.1, Lakshmeesha R.1, Nikhil P. Patil1, Riyaz Ali M. Osmani1
1JSS University, JSS College of Pharmacy, SS Nagara, Mysore -570015, Karnataka, India.
2College of Pharmacy, University of Hail, Hail-81442, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Arthritis is the painful disease caused in the joints of the bone. Rheumatic arthritis and osteoarthritis are the various disorders causes inflammation and pain. Various route of administration like oral, parenteral, topical and nasal routes are used but it may causes damage in gastro-intestinal tract, irritation hence it is administered through intra-articular route. It reduces the side effects and infections because it is given directly to the joints. Drugs are injected directly to the site which shows better action than oral delivery. When it is administered through other routes chances of degradation of drugs may takes place; which decreases the bioavailability of the drug or concentration of the drug. Drugs used for treatment of arthritis include steroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-rheumatic drugs etc. Drugs like corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors are also used for treatment of arthritis which shows quick onset of action on the pain. They show the action as analgesic and antipyretics by reducing the pain in the bone joints and bones. NSAIDs are mainly used in acute and chronic conditions. Apart from the conventional formulations, diverse approaches like hydrogels, hyaluronic acid, microparticles, nanoparticles etc. have been proposed and used in order to improve the sustain release of the drug after administration; thereby improving the efficacy. Present article encloses a comprehensive review of various novel drug delivery systems implied for augmented arthritis therapy.

16

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMBRANES BASED ON CHITOSAN FOR TOPICAL DRUG DELIVERY

Dráulio S. da Silva¹*, Francisca V. C. Canafístula¹, Felipe P. Fernandes²
¹Departament of Chemistry, State University Vale of Acaraú, Sobral-CE, Brazil.
²Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo. São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

Chitosan has been extensively researched for has important features such as: biocompatibility, biodegradability and low toxicity. These properties make it suitable biopolymer for use in the biomedical field, including artificial skin, tissue regeneration and controlled drug release system. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize membranes based on chitosan with the glycerol and gentamicin in different proportions in order to improve the properties of the material. The results of FTIR, TG, DSC and X-rays indicate that the chitosan films containing glycerol and gentamicin are more stable when compared to the pure membranes. The results of SEM, swellings and the mechanical properties showed that the membranes have improved elasticity, making it more pliable, but its tensile strength decreases due to the presence of glycerol. Therefore, studies have shown that membranes prepared with chitosan, glycerol and gentamicin can be used in drug delivery systems and bandages on skin regeneration.

17

SCREENING OF LEAF EXTRACT OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA FOR ITS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

Rangita Tanwar1*, Dr. S. M. A. Naqvi2, Prof. Amiya Pahare3, Anjana Thakur4
1Guajarati Science College Indore, (M.P.).
2Islamia Karimia Science College Indore, (M.P.).
3Swami Vivekananda Career Guidance Scheme, Dept. of Higher Education Govt. of M.P.
4Govt, P.G. College Jhabua, (M.P.).

Abstract

The present study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of Azadirachta indica leaves against the pathogenic Bacterial strain Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using agar diffusion method. The leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica were prepared in the solvent methanol and Gentamycin solution (used as a control) for screening to observed its antimicrobial activity. The methanol leaves extract shown significant inhibition zone. The results shown that methanol extract of neem leaves are significantly effect on the antimicrobial activity against bacterial strain E .coli and S. aureus.

18

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERISATION, ANTIHELMINTIC, INSILICO AND TOXICITY PREDICTIONS OF NOVEL 5-(ARYL SUBSTITUTED)-5-(BENZYLIDENEAMINO) -1H- 1, 2, 4-TRIAZOLE-3-THIOL DERIVATIVES

Kandula Priyanka1, D. Rajesh2, K. Sudharani1, K N V Chenchu Lakshmi*1
1KVSR Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vijayawada-520010, Andhra Pradesh, India
2Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

A series of 5-(aryl substituted)-5-(benzylideneamino) -1H- 1, 2, 4-triazole-3-thiol derivatives were synthesized by condensation of oxazol-5-ones by reaction of Hippuric acid and different aldehydes with thiosemicarbazide. Structures of the compounds were characterized on the basis of IR, C13NMR and H1 NMR. Compounds 1b-12b was screened for antihelmintic activity. Test results revealed that compound 7b and 10b showed high potency with paralysis time of 3.3 and 3.1 min and death time of 4.1 and 4.5 min when compared with the standard drug albendazole with paralysis time of 11 min and death time of 21min, respectively, at the same concentration of 50mg/ml. All compounds were found to posses both antihelmintic properties. The derivatives were also evaluated by Insilco methods predicting that the synthesised compounds exbhit drug like properties,have good enzyme inhibition activities with teratogenic effects providing an approach to develop new potent antihelmintic prototypes for further optimization and development to get new leads in the treatment of helminth infestations.

19

DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ON OVER THE COUNTER USE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN RESOURCE LIMITED SETTINGS OF INDIA

Mr. Rajesh Dharamsoth1, Dr. Mohanraj Rathinavelu Mudhaliar1, Dr. Rajalingam B2, Dr. Yiragamreddy Padmanabha Reddy1
1Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research–RIPER, Anantapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India-515721.
2Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Paramedical Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

AbstractThe dispensing of antibiotics without prescription is seen in many countries. This type of practice is more pronounced in developing and low income countries where legislation and regulations are weak. In these countries antibiotics are dispensed without prescription and without assessing the correct problem where as it resulting in the development of antibiotic resistance. Here, the role of pharmacist in following the basic characteristics of community pharmacy became worsen, moreover the dispensing attitude also became beyond the legislation rules. The main objective of this study is to discuss the description on dispensing of antibiotics without prescription in south Indian resource limited community pharmacy settings, and concluded that a proper education to the pharmacists is essential to dispense the antibiotics because the culture studies must be done for the identification of the route cause for a infection. Meanwhile, patients must also be educated for taking the culture reports and concern the physician for the most effective and definite therapy in order to avoid the resistance pattern of antibiotics. Anantapur district shows that due to the lack of the experience of the pharmacist, lack of concentration in the patients symptoms hearing, lack in taking the previous medical or medication history and restriction to the particular products of antibiotics like amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, azithromycin resulting in the resistance. In conclusion, our study showed a gross report of reduction in dispensing to a greater extent after educating the pharmacist through campaigns and medication history interviews.

20

AN ASSESSMENT OF USE OF ANALGESICS IN POST-OPERATIVE SURGICAL WARD OF A RURAL TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Sathish Kumar B. P, Bipin Kumar Patel*,Vidya Sagar Singh, Prayas Ghimire, Kavya H. B.
Department of Pharmacy Practice Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy B. G. Nagara, India.

Abstract

In the present prospective and observational study conduct in post operative ward in surgical department. Patients were enrolled in the study by considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. The full details of the cases including patient name, sex, age,laboratory investigations, medication charts and other necessary details were brought in to the patient data collection form. All the selected patients were monitored from the date of admission to discharge date for any change in the drug therapy. This study has suggested that the postoperative pain was controlled by the use of NSAIDs like Diclofenac monotherapy itself or in combination with other drugs which is cheap and with less ADR. The opioid analgesic (Tramadol) was prescribed only for few days of initial postoperative period or has been added to the patients for whom pain relief could not be achieved with NSAIDs. The prescription of analgesics was found to be based on the type of surgery and physician’s preference. To achieve the good and effective pain control in postoperative patients, there should be proper and safe use of analgesics.

21

QUANTITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES IN LEAF EXTRACTS OF MANGROVE GRASS MYRIOSTACHYA WIGHTIANA

M. Kiran Kumar, M. B. K. Priyanka, S. J. Mounika, Pola Sudhakar, B. V. Sandeep
Department of Biotechnology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Myriostacya wightiana is a perennial mangrove grass belongs to Poaceae family, occurs in India, Bangladesh and extending to Myanmar, Malaysia and Vietnam. Due to more salinity in its habitat Myriostacya wightiana possess high antioxidant potential. The present study evaluates the phytochemicals, antioxidants and free radical scavenging activities of the Myriostacya wightiana leaf extracts. Specific extraction and estimation methods were used to quantify the phytochemicals and antioxidants. The results of in vitro studies were analysed with Mean ± Standard Deviation (SD) obtained from three independent experiments. Among the phytochemicals flavonoids were found in more concentration. i.e., 416±8.2mg/gm. highest enzymatic antioxidant activity was showed by catalase (32.7±1.555 U/mg protein) whereas lowest activity was showed by peroxidase. Carotenoids occupies the major proportion among the non enzymatic antioxidant i.e., 90.16±0 mg/g and ascorbate has least. Leaf extracts of Myriostacya wightiana shows highest percent of scavenging activity with superoxide radicals (80±6.4%). The present study revealed that Myriostacya wightiana had valuable phytochemicals, antioxidants such as enzymatic and non enzymatic which prevents oxidative damage. Because of these properties Myriostacya wightiana is referred as rich medicinal source.

22

ASSESSMENT OF DIABETIC KNOWLEDGE AND MEDICATION ADHERENCE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS

Judith Basker1*, Jojeena Ann Mammen1, Sreethu P1, Merlin Thomas1, Dr. Mahesh NM1, Dr. Fred Williams2, Dr. P Chandrashekara3
1Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
2Columbia Asia Referral Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
3MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Hosakote, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

The prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus is growing at an alarming rate across the globe. India is considered to have the highest population of diabetics in the world and this is a growing concern. Many of the interventions that have been attempted to improve medication adherence in diabetic patients have been educational; with the presupposition that knowledge regarding their condition may affect one’s adherence to their medication regimen. The study was conducted to assess the diabetic knowledge and medication adherence in patients suffering from Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. A total of 400 diabetic patients from South India were included in this questionnaire based study. Participants who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were approached in person and the necessary study specific data was collected. We used two questionnaires namely Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test and Morisky Medication Adherence Scale to assess the subjects. The scores were totaled and analyzed using statistical tools to provide quantitative results. About 54.75% of the total population had poor medication adherence scores and 13.75% of them had high medication adherence. We were able to find four factors that influenced a patient’s level of adherence which were Forgetfulness (64.25%), Feeling better (75%), Feeling worse (79.25%), and Inconvenience (61.75%). The knowledge levels were analyzed and found that 51.35% showed poor diabetic knowledge and only few (3.25%) showed a better understanding of their medical condition. A significantly higher score of medication adherence was found in those patients with higher diabetes knowledge scores. On applying statistics, a significant relationship was obtained on analyzing the two parameters - knowledge and medication adherence. This study substantiates the fact that knowledge about one’s medical condition is vital to medication adherence. Healthcare professionals as well as patient’s need to be made aware of the relationship between knowledge and medication adherence; sufficient time must be allotted for patient education in healthcare settings.

23

ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ZIDOVUDINE AND NEVIRAPINE BY USING RP-HPLC METHOD

K. S. D. RANJITHA*, S. SRIDIVYA
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, Aditya College of Pharmacy, Aditya Nagar, ADB Road, Surampalem-533437, AP, India.

Abstract

The main object of this work was to develop and validate a simple, precise, fast, and accurate RP-HPLC method for the determination of Zidovudine and Nevirapine, an anti-viral in bulk dosage forms .Zidovudine acts as a chain terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. Nevirapine belongs to the dipyridodiazepine chemical class. Chromatography was carried out on an Symmetry C18 (250x4.6mm, 5μm) column with a mobile phase of water and methanol (40:60 v/v). The flow rate was 0.8ml/min. The detection wavelength was carried out at 250nm. The retention time is 3.837minutes for Zidovudine and 5.016minutes for Nevirapine. The linearity was found in the range of 0.080 - 0.120 mg/ml (r=0.999) and % RSD is less than 2%. The mean recoveries obtained for Zidovudine were in the range of 99.9 – 100.3% and Nevirapine were in the range of 100.0 -100.5%. The method was successfully validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, limit of detection & limit of quantification and solution stability. This method can be successfully employed for the simultaneous determination of Zidovudine and Nevirapine in Bulk forms.

24

ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF LINDERA COMMUNIS Hemsl BY HPTLC FINGER PRINTING METHOD

Rajasekaran. S1*, R. Anandan2
1Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research Center, Bhagwant University, Sikar Road, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India-305004.
2Erode College of Pharmacy, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Lindera communis is a synonym of Lindera formosana Hayata. Belonging to the family of Lauraceae. It includes herbs, shrubs and small trees, The estimation of plant extract is essential to assess the quality of drugs based on the concentration of their active principle. Lindera communis possess a wide variety of activities. The aim of this current investigation is to evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant by various antioxidant assays such as DPPH scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, and also the study, an attempt has been made to develop simple, precise and accurate HPTLC method by using Rutin, Gallic acid and quercetin as a standard marker compound with mobile phase of Toluene-Ethyl acetate-Formic acid-Methanol (3:6:1.6:0.4) The detection of Rutin, Gallic acid and quercetin were performed at 254 nm respectively.

25

A NEW VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF SIMEPREVIR AND SOFOSBUVIR IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

B. Raj Kumar*1, Dr. K. V.Subrahmanyam2
1Kottam Institute of Pharmacy., Erravally X Roads, Mahaboob Nagar.
2Samskruthi College of Pharmacy, Ghatkeskar, Nalgonda.

Abstract

Simeprevir is indicated in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 for the treatment of chronic hepatitis as a combination therapy, which includes peg interferon alfa and ribavirin. Simeprevir is a protease inhibitor for HCV NS3/4A protease, which is required for replication of the virus. Simeprevir functions as a direct-acting antiviral agent because it inhibits hepatitis C viral replication by binding to and inhibiting the protease, hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A. After oral administration, simeprevir reaches its maximum plasma concentrations in 4-6 hours. SOVALDI is the brand name for sofosbuvir, a nucleotide analog inhibitor of HCV NS5B polymerase. The IUPAC name for sofosbuvir is (S)-Isopropyl 2-((S)-(((2R, 3R, 4R, 5R)-5-(2, 4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-4-fluoro-3-hydroxy-4-methyltetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methoxy)-(phenoxy)phosphorylamino)propanoate. It has a molecular formula of C22H29FN3O9P and a molecular weight of 529.45. is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) nucleotide analog NS5B polymerase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection as a component of a combination antiviral treatment regimen A novel reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the quantitative determination of Simeprevir and sobosuvir in active pharmaceutical ingredients and in its Pharmaceutical dosage form by using symmetry X-Terra C18 as stationary phase and a mobile phase containing a mixture of Acetonitrile: Water (75:25% v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and effluent was monitored at 253nm and a peak eluted at .090, 5.289 ±0.02min and column oven temperature was maintained ambient. Calibration curve was plotted with a range from 0-30 μg/ml. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the current International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines for specificity, LOD, LOQ, linearity, accuracy, precision, intermediate precision and robustness. The results of the study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which is useful for the routine analysis of Simeprevir & Sofosbuvir in bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage form.

26

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION THE TRANSUNGUAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF FLUCONAZOLE WITH PENETRATION ENHANCER: IRESINE HERBESTII

Vikram Singh*, Kaushal Kishore Chandrul
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shri Venkateshwara University, Gajraula, Amroha, U.P. (India).

Abstract

The present study was to formulate a transungual drug delivery formulation. We targeted to formulate and evaluate fluconazole film for the nail fungal infection using extracted natural and evaluated penetration enhancer (PE). Model drug fluconazole was formulated with the natural extracted penetration enhancer with different ratios. The solvent for PE extraction was methanol and that extracts were air dried. The cadaver nail plates for study were collected from the same volunteer for negligence in the thickness and chemical composition concentration in the nail plate. The extracted PE (Iresine herbestii) was inspected in the respect of stability before formulation. The human cadaver nail plates were treated with the formulation with and without the extracted PEs. Ex - vitro drug penetration rate was evaluated by Franz diffusion cells using cadaver human nail plate upto 36 hours. The drug filmability was best with the polymer HPMC K4M, Ethyl cellulose and hydroxyl propyle cellulose in the ratio of 1:1:1, mixture of propanol and butanol in 7:3 as solvent and 30% w/w DBP as plasticizer. The formula FT25AI4 shows 89% drug entrapment and 47% more drug penetration across the nail plate when compare to the same formulation but without any penetration enhancer. The “p” value (0.0011) of drug penetration was less than 0.05.

27

PHARMACOVIGILANCE: REPORTING OF ADRS AND ROLE OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST

G. Sarvankumar, Surrender .N, Bhargav .B, Y. Kiran, Venkateshwar Rao
Vikas College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rayanigudem, Suryapet, Nalgonda, Telangana State.

Abstract

Pharmacovigilance also known as Drug Safety, is the pharmacological science relating to the collection, detection, assessment, monitoring, and prevention of adverse effects with pharmaceutical products. The etymological roots for the word "Pharmacovigilance" are: pharmakon (Greek for drug) and vigilare (Latin for to keep watch). As such, Pharmacovigilance heavily focuses on adverse drug reactions, or ADRs, which are defined as any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, including lack of efficacy. (The condition that this definition only applies with the doses normally used for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological function was excluded with the latest amendment of the applicable legislation.) Medication errors such as overdose, and misuse and abuse of a drug as well as drug exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding, are also of interest (even without adverse event itself), because they may result in an ADR. Pharmacists with their immense knowledge of medication use can play role in the detection, prevention, and management of ADRs. The present revised study shows poor knowledge and lack of awareness among healthcare professionals. So there is urgent need to develop awareness about Pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting among Health Care Professionals.

28

AN ANTIBIOTICS OVERUSAGE IN PEDIATRICS

Saisri Reddy.G, Sarvan Kumar.G
Vikas College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rayanigudem, Suryapet, Nalgonda, Telangana State.

Abstract

Antibiotics are considered as one among the most commonly sold drug classes in the developing countries. Besides antibiotic resistance, antibiotics are associated with significant side effects. Although antibiotics have been a major breakthrough in promoting and securing the health of children, the implications of antibiotic resistance are that we are losing antibiotics that are able to treat common infections in children. The successful antibiotic treatment depends on rapid diagnosis, findings of pathogenic organism and appropriate pharmacodynamic applications of antibiotics in childrens. In children and infants below the 18 years of age the absorption distribution metabolism and elimination of drugs may differ in comparison with adults. In this article we are describing unwanted effects of over usage of antibiotics in infants and children and discuss the proper usage of antibiotics in children and the risk factor of being parents having low education and illiteracy and unaware of usage of antibiotics in children .Thus the objective of present study was to assess the use of antibiotics in children regarding the suitability of indication and dose and compare them with the suitable guideline recommendations. Thus the over usage of antibiotics over the years in childrens leads to developments of serious toxicity. Health education should be provided to the parents could in physician’s offices, schools, universities, pediatric clinics. To overcome this over usage of antibiotics in pediatrics three criteria were documented (1) antibiotics are not indicated at all (2) using clinical evidence to justify the need for antibiotics (3) diagnostic testing confirming the need for antibiotics.

29

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP – HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MIZOLASTINE IN BULK AND IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Chusena Narasimharaju Bhimanadhuni*1, Devala Rao Garikapati2, M. Nageswara Rao3
1Annabattuni Satya Narayana Pharmacy College, Burripalem Road, Tenali-522 201, Guntur (Dt), Andhra Pradesh, India.
2K.V.S.R Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vijayawada. Krishna (Dt), Andhra Pradesh, India.
3Prasad V.Pottuluri Siddhartha Institute of Technology, Kanur, Vijayawada. Krishna (Dt), Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of Mizolastine in bulk and in Pharmaceutical dosage form. The separation was effected on a Hypersil BDS C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm; 5μ) using a mobile phase composition was 1.36 gms mobile phase mixture buffer of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and acetonitrile (40:60 v/v) and the PH was adjusted to 6.5 with 1N Potassium Hydroxide at a flow rate of 1mL/min. The detection was made at 287 nm. Calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 5μg/mL – 30μg/mL of Mizolastine. The propose method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The method was accurate, precise, specific and rapid found to be suitable for the quantitative analysis of the drug and Pharmaceutical dosage form.

30

FIRST ORDER DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ESCITALOPRAM OXALATE AND FLUPENTIXOL DIHYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Singh Pinki*1, Dhara Patel1, Dhananjay Meshram1, Sharav Desai2
1Department of Quality Assurance, Pioneer Pharmacy Degree College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Pioneer Pharmacy Degree College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

A rapid, precise, accurate, sensitive and selective first-order derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of escitalopram oxalate and Flupentixol dihydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form. The first-order derivative spectra were obtained and determination was made at 226 nm (ZCP of Flupentixol dihydrochloride) for escitalopram oxalate and at 237 nm (ZCP of escitalopram oxalate) for Flupentixol dihydrochloride. In this method, linearity was observed in the ranges of 20-120 g/mL for escitalopram oxalate and 1-6 g/mL for Flupentixol dihydrochloride. The % recovery was within the range between 98 and 102%, and % relative standard deviation for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2%.The method is validated as per international conference on harmonization guidelines. The method can be successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of both drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms. These methods are simple, accurate and rapid, those require no preliminary separation and can therefore be used for routine analysis of both drugs in quality control laboratories.

31

PHOTO CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF METHYLENE BLUE DYE USING BIOGENIC SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM THE AQUEOUS CLADODE EXTRACT OF Casuarina equisetifolia

Saranya.V.T.K* , S. Uma Gowrie
Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, Ethiraj College for Women, Chennai – 600 008.

Abstract

There is an increasing demand commercially for the bio synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, due to its catalytic property and wider application in medicine, pharmaceutical, agriculture, defense etc. Casuarina equisetifolia is a tree species, with high calorific value which is widely cultivated to improve the soil nutrient, but its evaluation in the field of pharmacology is still under explored. The present study is a novel work where we report the synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Casuarina equisetifolia leaf extract as a potential reducing agent, with the help of 0.1mM of silver nitrate solution. Various optimization parameters like temperature, pH and time for synthesis were optimized. Thus the particles synthesized under this optimized condition were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM). Surface Plasma resonance peak of the synthesized nanoparticles was observed at 418nm, using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FTIR spectrum was analyzed to identify the effective functional molecules, which are responsible for the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract. XRD results confirmed the crystalline structure of the synthesized AgNO 3 . The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was observed to have potential efficacy to degrade methylene blue dye under sunlight irradiation. This was confirmed by the decrease in maximum absorbance of methylene blue dye with respect to time using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The bio synthesized silver nanoparticles , effectively degraded nearly 35.13% of methylene blue dye at 5 hours of exposure time. The results clearly figure out that the biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized from Casuarina equisetifolia can find its applications in textile industries, water treatment plants and also in pharmaceutical industry to prevent the adverse effect caused by methylene blue, like painful micturition, methymoglobinemia.

32

BACOPA MONNIERA MODULATES ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES RESPONSES AGAINST ALCOHOL -INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN RAT BRAIN

D. Veera Nagendra Kumar1*, K. R. Shanmugam2, Ch. Ramakrishna3, G. Venkata Subbaiah3 , K. Sathyavelu Reddy3
1Government Degree College, Pourmamilla, .P -516193.
2T.R.R. Government Degree College, Kandukur, A.P.
3Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati – 517 502, India.

Abstract

The current investigation was conducted to investigate the neuro-protective effect of Bacopa monniera against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rats. We supplimented rats with Bacopa monniera for 7 weeks to evaluate the neuro protective effect against alcohol toxicity. Thirty two Wistar strain rats were divided into 4 equal groups: normal control (NC), alcohol treated (At), Bacopa monniera treated (Bt), and alcohol plus Bacopa monniera treated (At + Bt). Bacopa monniera was given to the At group for 7 weeks and brain antioxidant enzymes were assayed. Brain antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities, and the levels of glutathione were significantly (P <0. 001) decreased, in At group. However, Bacopa monnieri administration to the At group rats reversed these effects and attained the antioxidant status to normal levels. From these results, we conclude that alcohol-induced neuro-toxicity was attenuated by Bacopa monnieri treatment, thus Bacopa monnieri can be used as a regular nutrient to protect the nerve cells.

33

ANALGESIC & ANTI INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL OF POLYALTHIA LONGIFOLIA EXTRACT

Shivani Dhiman, Pankaj Pradhan*, Yogesh Sharma, Rohini Diwedi
Himachal Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Nadaun, Himachal Pradesh.

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intensity of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Polyalthia longifolia on albino rat of either sex. The leaves of Polyalthia longifolia are an important herb used in folk eastern medicines. In this study, the hydro alcoholic extract of Polyalthia longifolia in doses of 200 mg/kg was used. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by measuring the mean decrease in hind paw volume after the sub planter injection of carrageenan. Result of the study shows that hydro alcoholic extract of the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight showed significant inhibition of paw oedema after 3, 4 & 5 hrs respectively. The analgesic activity was tested against acetic acid induced writhing response using albino rats. From this study, it can be concluded that the leaves of Polyalthia longifolia possess marked analgesic activity and is equipotent to standard drug (Aspirin). Polyalthia longifolia possesses several important pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties. The current study describes that leaves of Polyalthia longifolia has significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Conclusion of the study is that this herbal medicine can be used as an alternative therapy for the treatment of minor to moderate types of inflammation and as a painkiller.

34

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF CRINUM JAGUS BULBS IN ALBINO RATS

Olusayo A. Shorinwa*, Omotayo O. Ebong, A.W Obianime, I. M Siminialayi
University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Abstract

Crinum jagus bulbs are used as a form of therapy for various diseases in traditional medicine. Crinum jagus bulbs belongs to the onion family of Liliaceae. This study investigated the acetone extract of Crinum jagus bulbs for its anti-diabetic effects in rats. The plant extract was evaluated at 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg through the oral route for 14 days. Hypoglycaemic activity was evaluated in alloxan induced diabetic rats using glibenclamide as standard drug. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg body weight). The results revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, reducing sugars and saponins. The extract exhibited a significant (P<0.05) reduction in blood glucose level at 250 mg/kg and 500mg/kg at 2hours during the acute study while it showed a significant (P<0.05) reduction in blood glucose level on day 1. The findings of this study show that the acetone extract of Crinum jagus may possess anti-diabetic activity as compared to the control.