Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876


Ghumare Rushikesh Ratnakar*, Pagar Swati Aappasaheb, Dube Shubhada Bhausaheb, Musmade Deepak Sitaram
SDSPM’s Nandkumar Shinde College of Pharmacy, Vaijapur, Tal- Vaijapur, Dist-Aurangabad, MS, India-423701.

Nanoemulsions are colloidal dispersion drug delivery systems that are thermodynamically stable, made up of two immiscible liquids mixed along with emulsifying agents (surfactants and co-surfactants) to form a single phase. Nanoemulsions have broadly been studied as drug delivery systems. This review aims to provide detailed information regarding various formulation and characterization methods developed for nanoemulsions. Nanoemulsions are prepared using two different methods, the the Brute force method and persuasion method. Various characterization techniques for nanoemulsions include particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential determination of entrapment efficiency, as well as characterization through differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Nanoemulsions are further evaluated by studying in vitro drug release, shelf life, dispersibility, viscosity, in vitro permeation, stability and thermodynamic stability, surface tension, friccohesity, refractive index, percent transmittance, pH and osmolarity. The high flexibility of nanoemulsion includes a variety of preparation process options and a combination of widely assorted components such as surfactants, liquid lipids or even drug-conjugates. These features provide novel approach for designing innovative nanoemulsions aiming at high-value applications. This review presents the overview of nanoemulsions with challenges and prospects of different nanoemulsion types and its application. 




Vishal B. Mahajan*, Rahul S. Taywade, Jitendra M. Choudhary, Sneha V. Mahajan, Sayali C. Dudhal*
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, G S Moze College of Pharmacy,Wagholi, Pune.

The disease caused by this virus has different names. The disease is called COVID-19, Coronavirus Diseases 2019 for the year in which it first appeared globally. COVID-19 is also known as “novel coronavirus,” meaning a new type of Coronavirus not previously discovered or identified. COVID-19 is a type (strain) of Coronavirus. A virus is very small (microscopic) type of germ that can cause an infection. Which causes serious respiratory illness such as pneumonia and lung failure, was first reported in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China. COVID-19 is also called SARS-Cov-2 for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2? Current clinical management includes infection prevention and control measures and supportive care including supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilatory support. These drugs and therapeutic agents include antiviral agents (remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, and oseltamivir), and supporting agents (Ascorbic acid, Azithromycin,Corticosteroids, Nitric oxide, IL-6 antagonists), among others. We hope that this review will provide useful and most updated therapeutic drugs to prevent, control, and treat COVID-19 patients until the approval of vaccines and specific drugs targeting SARS-CoV-2. 




Thulasi V S1*, Giby Thomas2
1PG Scholar, Department of Prasutitantra and Streeroga, Government Ayurveda College, Trippunittura, Ernakulam, Kerala, India.
2Associate Professor, Department of Prasutitantra and Streeroga, Government Ayurveda College, Trippunittura, Ernakulam, Kerala, India.

Menopausal transition or perimenopause is the phase of aging process during which a woman passes from reproductive to non-reproductive stage. It is the period around the late reproductive years, usually late 40 s to early 50s. It begins with menstrual cycle irregularity and extends to one year after permanent cessation of menses. Most of the women begin to experience an array of physical, psychological, vasomotor and urogenital symptoms long before they meet the definition of menopause due to gradual loss of ovarian follicular activity. For about 20% of women with perimenopausal symptoms are highly problematic. In Ayurveda the term ‘rajakshaya’ 1is used to denote the condition. As explained in classical references the normal menstrual flow is gradually decreases by the age of 50 yrs“jara pakwa sareeranam yathi panchasata:kshayam”.2 Rajas is considered as the upadhatu of rasa3 or raktha4.1 In perimenopausal period there is gradual depletion in the normal levels of dhatus which result in rajakshaya. Hence it is considered as a Swabhavabala pravrutta vyadhi5 and symptoms of jara or vardhakya are seen. In this period there is agni mandya, pitta kshaya, aggravation of vata along with kapha medo dushti and uttarothra dhatu kshaya occurs which ultimately results in rajakshaya. No direct description about perimenopausal symptoms are available in Ayurvedic classics.Various symptoms mentioned in samhithas in the context of yonirogas can be seen in perimenopausal period. Sometimes these symptoms may be troublesome and may affect the quality of life badly. Ayurveda offers effective modalities and herbal formulations for the management of perimenopausal symptoms. To cope up these and to get symptomatic relief these, the line of treatment should be rasayana, balya, dhatukrith and rasa raktha prasadana. Jwarasamaka or Santhapasamaka treatment principles can be adopted. Life style modifications which include balanced diet, exercises along with specific yogasanas and pranayama can also improve the quality of life in menopausal transition. 




Purohit S.S.*, Kulkarni V.H., Joshi S.D.
S.E.T.’s College of Pharmacy, S.R.Nagar, Near Microwave Tower, Dharwad-580002, India.

A new series of 2, 5-disubstituted-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives were synthesized in good yield by reacting different coumarin hydrazide with carbon disulfide & further reacting with various aryl halides. The reactions were monitored by TLC & all derivatives were purified by recrystallization using suitable solvents. The synthesized derivatives were characterized by IR,1H-NMR, Mass spectral data. Further these derivatives were studied for their in-vitro GSK-3? inhibitory activity by using Kinase-Glo Plus luminescence kinase assay & percentage inhibitions were calculated. The standard compound used was CHIR-99021. Some of the derivatives have shown significant in-vitro activity.