IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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  • PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE
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OCTOBER 2018
1

NOVEL TRENDS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Ramling Sugave*, Shraddha Pattewar, Dr. S. S. Thonte, P.H.Bhosale, D.R.kaudewar,
Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College, Kava Road, Latur, Maharashtra.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science devoted to creating computer software & hardware to attempt to mimic human intelligence or human intelligent behavior. AI is digital technology most valuable to companies that tackle to independent and enhance their human workforce. In the current situation AI plays vital role in various fields such as medicine, robotics, etc. A robot is a reprogrammable, an automatically controlled, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications Neural network concepts, like so many important advances in AI. Neural networks have a number of other potentially important medical applications, such as modeling the brain and nervous system functions, speech analysis and synthesis, X-ray and bacterial culture screening (for recognition of special types of disease patterns), patient monitoring, as control units for prosthetic devices, automatic diagnostic systems and the dynamic solution of complex allocation and routine problems in drug dosage administration, hospital resource allocation, and health care service. . Innovative educational technologies have started to open new ways of interacting with students with special educational needs (SEN). Hence, a need for introducing AI techniques arises in order to develop both diagnosis and intervention processes.Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science devoted to creating computer software & hardware to attempt to mimic human intelligence or human intelligent behavior. AI is digital technology most valuable to companies that tackle to independent and enhance their human workforce. In the current situation AI plays vital role in various fields such as medicine, robotics, etc. A robot is a reprogrammable, an automatically controlled, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications Neural network concepts, like so many important advances in AI. Neural networks have a number of other potentially important medical applications, such as modeling the brain and nervous system functions, speech analysis and synthesis, X-ray and bacterial culture screening (for recognition of special types of disease patterns), patient monitoring, as control units for prosthetic devices, automatic diagnostic systems and the dynamic solution of complex allocation and routine problems in drug dosage administration, hospital resource allocation, and health care service. . Innovative educational technologies have started to open new ways of interacting with students with special educational needs (SEN). Hence, a need for introducing AI techniques arises in order to develop both diagnosis and intervention processes 


 


2

MODELING OF DRUG DELIVERY THROUGH THIN LAYER POLYMERIC FILMS IN DOSAGE FORM TECHNOLOGIES: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE CHALLENGES

N. Sumiya*, K. Vanaja, A. Deevan Paul, Chitra Prasanthi, K. Thyagaraju, A. Murali Krishna
SVU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, SV Univeristy, Tirupati.

Orodispersible films have been identified as an alternative approach to conventional dosage forms. The films are considered to be convenient to swallow, self-administrable, and fast dissolving dosage form, out of that it has a versatile platform for drug delivery. This delivery system has been used for both systemic and local action through several routes such as oral, buccal, sublingual, ocular, and transdermal routes. The sublingual and buccal delivery of a drug through thin film has the potential to improve the onset of action, lower the dosing, and enhance the efficacy and safety profile of the medicament. The films are polymeric matrices designed to be mucoadhesive properties and usually formulated with permeability enhancers to improve bioavailability. Among all fast release dosage forms, orodispersible films are successful to attract pharmaceutical industry due to ease of formulation and extension patent life. Films are popular in patients too because of quick onset and user-friendliness of the dosage form. Films rapidly hydrate and then disintegrate and/or dissolve to release the medication. This article provides a framework for further discussion and scientific work to improve orodispersible films.Orodispersible films have been identified as an alternative approach to conventional dosage forms. The films are considered to be convenient to swallow, self-administrable, and fast dissolving dosage form, out of that it has a versatile platform for drug delivery. This delivery system has been used for both systemic and local action through several routes such as oral, buccal, sublingual, ocular, and transdermal routes. The sublingual and buccal delivery of a drug through thin film has the potential to improve the onset of action, lower the dosing, and enhance the efficacy and safety profile of the medicament. The films are polymeric matrices designed to be mucoadhesive properties and usually formulated with permeability enhancers to improve bioavailability. Among all fast release dosage forms, orodispersible films are successful to attract pharmaceutical industry due to ease of formulation and extension patent life. Films are popular in patients too because of quick onset and user-friendliness of the dosage form. Films rapidly hydrate and then disintegrate and/or dissolve to release the medication. This article provides a framework for further discussion and scientific work to improve orodispersible films.Orodispersible films have been identified as an alternative approach to conventional dosage forms. The films are considered to be convenient to swallow, self-administrable, and fast dissolving dosage form, out of that it has a versatile platform for drug delivery. This delivery system has been used for both systemic and local action through several routes such as oral, buccal, sublingual, ocular, and transdermal routes. The sublingual and buccal delivery of a drug through thin film has the potential to improve the onset of action, lower the dosing, and enhance the efficacy and safety profile of the medicament. The films are polymeric matrices designed to be mucoadhesive properties and usually formulated with permeability enhancers to improve bioavailability. Among all fast release dosage forms, orodispersible films are successful to attract pharmaceutical industry due to ease of formulation and extension patent life. Films are popular in patients too because of quick onset and user-friendliness of the dosage form. Films rapidly hydrate and then disintegrate and/or dissolve to release the medication. This article provides a framework for further discussion and scientific work to improve orodispersible films. 


 


3

SCREENING OF BIOACTIVE EFFICIENCY ON CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA (LINN) R. BR LEAVES AND STEMS.

Vijaya Subhashini, Dinakaran .S*
Department of Zoology, The Madura College, Madurai-625011.

 Calotropis gigantea is a milkweed, gigantic Swallow wort. Calotropis species is a common wasteland weed and are widely used as alternative therapeutic tool for the prevention or treatment of many diseases. This study was designed to extract n- heptane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extracts from leaves and stems by Soxhlet method. To screen the presence of the bioactive compounds, was identified by phytochemical screening assays. To evaluate total antioxidant activity by various radical scavenging assays and to investigate the antimicrobial assays and bioassays such as mosquitocidal activity, antibiofilm activity, antiangiogenic assay and cytotoxicity – MTT Assay were performed. This study showed presence of various phytochemicals and the extracts were significantly showed more effective free radical scavenging activity. Out of all the extracts, ethyl acetate extracts of leaves and stems showed good efficiency in antimicrobial activity, mosquitocidal activity, antibiofilm activity, antiangiogenic assay and cytotoxicity assay showed potentially high values on ethyl acetate extract of leaves and stems. From the observed results Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) R.Br leaves and stems can be used as potentially active for various clinical purposes.Calotropis gigantea is a milkweed, gigantic Swallow wort. Calotropis species is a common wasteland weed and are widely used as alternative therapeutic tool for the prevention or treatment of many diseases. This study was designed to extract n- heptane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extracts from leaves and stems by Soxhlet method. To screen the presence of the bioactive compounds, was identified by phytochemical screening assays. To evaluate total antioxidant activity by various radical scavenging assays and to investigate the antimicrobial assays and bioassays such as mosquitocidal activity, antibiofilm activity, antiangiogenic assay and cytotoxicity – MTT Assay were performed. This study showed presence of various phytochemicals and the extracts were significantly showed more effective free radical scavenging activity. Out of all the extracts, ethyl acetate extracts of leaves and stems showed good efficiency in antimicrobial activity, mosquitocidal activity, antibiofilm activity, antiangiogenic assay and cytotoxicity assay showed potentially high values on ethyl acetate extract of leaves and stems. From the observed results Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) R.Br leaves and stems can be used as potentially active for various clinical purposes.


Calotropis gigantea is a milkweed, gigantic Swallow wort. Calotropis species is a common wasteland weed and are widely used as alternative therapeutic tool for the prevention or treatment of many diseases. This study was designed to extract n- heptane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extracts from leaves and stems by Soxhlet method. To screen the presence of the bioactive compounds, was identified by phytochemical screening assays. To evaluate total antioxidant activity by various radical scavenging assays and to investigate the antimicrobial assays and bioassays such as mosquitocidal activity, antibiofilm activity, antiangiogenic assay and cytotoxicity – MTT Assay were performed. This study showed presence of various phytochemicals and the extracts were significantly showed more effective free radical scavenging activity. Out of all the extracts, ethyl acetate extracts of leaves and stems showed good efficiency in antimicrobial activity, mosquitocidal activity, antibiofilm activity, antiangiogenic assay and cytotoxicity assay showed potentially high values on ethyl acetate extract of leaves and stems. From the observed results Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) R.Br leaves and stems can be used as potentially active for various clinical purposes. 




4

PHARMACOKINETIC/PHARMACODYNAMIC MODELING IN DRUG RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Mohammed Haneefunnisa, Akula Prudhvi Sai Krishna
Gitam Institute of Pharmacy, Gitam (Deemed To Be University), Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam-45.

The two domains in analytic pharmacology ambidextrous with optimizing dosing recommendations are pharmacokinetics and pharmaco dynamics. However, the account of these disciplines is bound if beheld in isolation. Pharmacokinetic/pharma codynamic (PK/PD) relationships and modeling builds the arch amid these two classical disciplines of clinical pharmacology. It links the concentration-time profile as adjourned by pharmacokinetics to the acuteness of observed response as quantified by pharmaco dynamics. Thus, the resulting so called chip PK/PD-models acquiesce the description of the complete time advance of the adapted and/or undesired effects in acknowledgment to a biologic therapy. PK/PD-modeling can annotate the adroit accord amid biologic exposure and acknowledgment and accommodate a bigger compassionate of the sequence of contest that after effect in the empiric biologic effect. This advice can again be acclimated to accumulate the biologic development process and dosage optimization. The purpose of this review was to systemize recent approaches on accompaniment of PK/PD modeling from an academic, automated and regulatory perspective.The two domains in analytic pharmacology ambidextrous with optimizing dosing recommendations are pharmacokinetics and pharmaco dynamics. However, the account of these disciplines is bound if beheld in isolation. Pharmacokinetic/pharma codynamic (PK/PD) relationships and modeling builds the arch amid these two classical disciplines of clinical pharmacology. It links the concentration-time profile as adjourned by pharmacokinetics to the acuteness of observed response as quantified by pharmaco dynamics. Thus, the resulting so called chip PK/PD-models acquiesce the description of the complete time advance of the adapted and/or undesired effects in acknowledgment to a biologic therapy. PK/PD-modeling can annotate the adroit accord amid biologic exposure and acknowledgment and accommodate a bigger compassionate of the sequence of contest that after effect in the empiric biologic effect. This advice can again be acclimated to accumulate the biologic development process and dosage optimization. The purpose of this review was to systemize recent approaches on accompaniment of PK/PD modeling from an academic, automated and regulatory perspective 


 


5

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DILUTED FENTANYL, KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND PRIMING DOSE OF FENTANYL CITRATE ON CESSATION OF FENTANYL INDUCED COUGH (FIC)

Dr. Vidhi D Kantesariya, Dr. Kinna G Shah, Dr. Bipin M Patel
Department of Anaesthesia, GCRI Hospital, B J medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Fentanyl is commonly used as a preinduction adjunct to general anaesthesia. Incidence of fentanyl induced cough varies between 18-65%. Aims of the study are to evaluate the occurrence rate and severity of fentanyl induced cough and comparison of effectiveness of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg), priming dose of Fentanyl (0.5 ?g/kg) one min before bolus of Fentanyl and diluted Fentanyl (10 cc with saline) to suppress fentanyl induced cough. 400 patients posted for elective surgeries under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 100 patients. During induction, Group S received saline and Group PK received Inj. Ketamine Hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg) one minute before Inj. Fentanyl 2 ?g/kg. Group PF received Inj. Fentanyl Citrate (0.5 ?g/kg) one minute before Inj. Fentanyl 1.5 ?g/kg. Group DF received Inj. Fentanyl 2 ?g/kg diluted in saline upto 10 cc over 30 sec. Observation was done for occurrence and severity of cough for three minutes and heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 1 min before and 5 min after giving bolus of fentanyl. Incidence of fentanyl induced cough is significantly lower in Group DF (2%) as compared to others (45% in Group S, 10% in Group PK, 14% in Group PF). (p< 0.0001) Severity grade was mild (1-2 episode) in Group DF as compared to others. (p 0.0001) Dilution of fentanyl (10 ?g/ml) with normal saline and prolonged injection time is the simple and cost effective method to prevent fentanyl induced cough 


 


6

DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF STAVUDINE NIOSOMES

B. Ramesh, A. Ankarao, V. Vasu Naik, Dr. A. Seetha Devi, S. Meraj Sultana, A. Susmitha.
Department of Pharmaceutics, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Amaravathi Road,Guntur-522002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles obtained on hydration of synthetic nonionic surfactants, with or without incorporation of cholesterol or other lipids. They are vesicular systems similar to liposomes that can be used as carriers for amphiphilic and lipophilic drugs. The main aim of this study is to formulate niosomes as carriers for delivery of Stavudine. Stavudine niosomes were prepared by ether injection method and thin film hydration method using drug, non-ionic surfactants(Span 20 and Span 80) and cholesterol in the ratio of (1:2:2, 1:4:2). The prepared niosomes were evaluated for the particle size and entrapment efficiency. The four formulations were prepared by thin film hydration and four formulations of were prepared by ether injection method. All eight formulations were compared for the evaluation parameters. The in-vitro drug release studies were performed for all the formulations (F1-F8) in phosphate buffer pH 7.4.Among the four formulations F4 formulation containing span 80 prepared by ether injection method was found to be best with entrapment efficiency of 79.42%, mean vesicular diameter of 4.80 ?m and percentage of drug release was found to be 90.23%. Among the four formulations of thin film hydration technique F8 formulation containing span 80 was found to be best with entrapment efficiency of 83.25%, mean vesicular diameter of 2.41 ?m. The percentage of drug release was found to be 96.12%. The encapsulation efficiency was found to increase when the surfactant concentration increases. The drug release for all the formulations was found to be zero order, which indicated that the drug release is independent of concentration and further the mechanism of drug release was found to be diffution controlled drug release. On comparing the all formulations of these two techniques F8 was considered as best formulation because of its more entrapment efficiency, high in-vitro drug release rate and greater stability 


 


7

REVIEW ON FLUDIZED BED GRANULATION AND COATING USING FLUDIZED BED COATER

Mr. Paresh A Patil1*, Mr. Dipesh R Karnavat2, Ms. Swati V Chavan3.
1Ahinsa Institute of Pharmacy, Dondaicha,Shindkheda,Dhule,425408.
2Ahinsa Institute of Pharmacy, Dondaicha,Shindkheda,Dhule,425408.
3R. C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur.

 Formulation development is the most emerging and upcoming face of pharmaceutical technology in the current era. The day-to-day advancements in the research have provided an edge to this brilliant branch of pharmaceutical sector for not only uplifting the pharmacy profession but also to conquer the diseased state for nurturing the health and humanity. The fluid-bed technology or air-suspension process is the potential tool to develop newer trends and implications in the sector of formulation development with maximum therapeutic efficacy. Fluid bed granulation is a key pharmaceutical process which improves many of the powder properties for tablet compression. Granules of high quality can be obtained by understanding and controlling the critical process parameters by timely measurements. The technology is used for granulation/agglomeration, layering and coating of a wide range of particle size. In addition; the technique can be used for the drying process as well. The three patterns of the fluid-bed processes could be characterized by the position/location of the spray nozzle i.e. top spray, bottom spray or tangential spray. These advanced pelletizing technologies are recently added to complement the actual capabilities of standard fluid bed processing for development of various dosage forms of “Multiple Unit Particulate Systems” (MUPS) with better therapeutic efficacy and economic benefits. The aim of this review is to review some of the general aspect of fluid bed granulation & some common techniques which are utilized in pharmaceutical industry. 




8

A CASE REPORT ON THE ‘SILENT EPIDEMIC’ OF CHLORTHALIDONE INDUCED HYPONATREMIA; ROLE OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST

Dr. Aneesha PK1, Dr. Showjad Mohamed2
1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Hayath Hospital.
2Department of Cardiology, Hayath Hospital.

 Thiazide diuretics are of proven efficacy and substantial benefits for the treatment of uncomplicated hypertension. But the hyponatremia caused by thiazides are often overlooked. This is a case report of 70 year old female patient who was taking chlorthalidone since two months and developed acute sodium deficiency. Factors that influence risk of hyponatremia include advanced age, body weight, renal function, dietary intake and drug interactions. Therefore patients who are at increased likelihood should be identified earlier. Timely intervention by a clinical pharmacist to an extend, can deter these adverse drug events and utilise the health care facility in a cost effective manner. 




9

ENHANCEMENT OF SECONDARY METABOLITE PRODUCTION IN ABRUS PRECATORIUS LINN. VIA GENETIC TRANSFORMATION

Tanvi T. Sambre*1, Tushar K. Sambre1, Shivprasad H. Majumdar2
1Priyadarshani Yashodhara College of Pharmacy Chandrapur, Bengali Camp Mul Road Chandrapur.
2Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara.

 Although Glycyrrhiza glabra is the recognized source of glycyrrhizin, its production in tissue culture has not been successful by tissue culture. Abrus precatorius is an alternative source for glycyrrhizin and was thus taken up in tissue culture technique for glycyrrhizin production. The yield enhancement for the glycyrrhizin production was done by means of genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. When compared with untransformed callus resulted in 8.665±0.144g/l dry cell weight biomass and 0.427±0.0016% glycyrrhizin, which was 2.4-fold times higher in productivity in comparison to control untransformed cultures.




10

STUDIES ON THE PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ARDISIA COLORATA

Rajib Das, Ashfaqur Rahman, Sukumar Bepary
1Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
2East West University, Rampura, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
3Jagannath University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objective: This study was intended to evaluate the phytochemical, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of 70% ethanolic extracts of Ardisia colorata in swiss albino mice and long evans rats. Methods: The ethanolic extract of A. colorata stem and leaves were used to determine the presence of phytoconstituents. The analgesic activity of the ethanolic extracts had been carried out by formalin induced hind paw licking responses at a dosage of 250 and 500 mg/kg by mouth (PO) using swiss albino mice. Ketorolac (1 mg/kg, orally), a clinically used analgesic, was used as standard analgesics. The ethanolic extracts were given at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg by mouth (PO) for testing their anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced hind paw edema on long evans rats. Diclofenac Sodium (10 mg/kg, orally) was used as standard for anti-inflammatory study. Results: The phytochemical screening tests on all extracts showed the presence of a number of pharmacologically important phytochemicals with notably minor traces of flavonoids. The A. colorata stem 500 mg/kg dose showed an increase in % pain inhibition in the first phase (36.47%) as well as the late phase (35.09%) in the formalin induced hind paw licking responses of mice. The largest anti-inflammatory activity (13.46%) was shown between 3 and 4 hours by A. colorata stem at 250 mg/kg dose when compared to standard. Conclusions: The present study indicates that A. colorata stem has moderate analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The other extract (A. colorata leaves) has insignificant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.