IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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JULY 2013
1

GAMMARETROVIRUS-MEDICATED TRANSFER OF P21SNFT CAUSES MALIGNANT TRANSFORMATION OF MATURE T CELLS

Ashok Kumar1, Saira Baloch2, Lata1, Dr. Syed Muhammad Irfan3, Abdul Malik Tareen4, Manzoor Ali Abro5

1Department of Pathology, Isra University, Hyderabad, Pakistan                                                                                                         

2Medical Research Centre, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan                                                      

3Liaquat National Hospital & Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan                                                                                                                   

4Department of Microbiology, University of Baluchistan, Quetta, Pakistan                                                                                                   

5  Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan  

Abstract

Background. The role of p21SNFT (21-kDa small nuclear factor isolated from T cells) gene was not clear if it exerted its oncogenic effects to cause lymphoma. Previously, it was shown that p21SNFT is up-regulated in primary Hodgkins’ lymphoma and classical Hodgkins’ lymphoma cell lines. Contrary to that, it was also shown that p21SNFT causes decreased production of T cell growth factor IL-2 (interleukin 2) in Jurkat T cell line, which is disadvantageous for the growth of T cells.

Objective. To investigate if p21SNFT gene exerts its oncogenic effects to cause lymphoma.

Design. p21SNFT was cloned into gammaretroviral vector and transduced into murine haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HCSs/HPCs), mature polyclonal T cells (both isolated from wild type C57BL/6 Ly 5.1 mice) and mature monoclonal OT-1 T cells, isolated from T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice (OT-1). Subsequently, the cells were transplanted into Rag-1 deficient mice.

Results. 6 out of 7 mice transplanted with p21SNFT-transduced monoclonal OT-1 T cells developed lymphoma, while only 1 out of 7 mice transplanted with p21SNFT-transduced polyclonal T cells developed lymphoma after characteristic latency periods. None of the mice transplanted with p21SNFT transduced HCSs/HPCs, or from the control groups (transplanted with control vector transduced HSCs/polyclonal T/monoclonal T cells) developed any malignancy.

Conclusion. Results of the present study show that p21SNFT is an oncogene, which causes malignant transformation of mature T lymphocytes.

2

FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GLIPIZIDE SOLID DISPERSIONS USING THE HYDROPHILIC POLYMERS

Godwin Raja,  S.Palanichamy, P.Ramasubramaniyan*, Anusha A. N.Parasakthi

Department of Pharmaceutics, Sankaralingam Bhuvaneswari College of Pharmacy, Sivakasi,INDIA

Abstract

The approach of the present research work is to enhance the bioavailability of  Glipizide by formulating the Glipizide as a solid dispersion using the hydrophilic polymers. The solid dispersions of Glipizide was developed using the hydrophilic polymers like poly ethylene glycol (PEG-6000) in the ratios of 1:2, 1:4, 1:6 and 1:8 by fusion  and kneading method. The characterization of solid dispersions were confirmed by  the estimation of drug content, solubility studies, thermal analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopic analysis, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis, dissolution studies and stability studies. From the results it was concluded that Glipizide: PEG 6000 solid dispersions with higher ratios of (1:8) showed a maximum release when compared to other ratios and the bioavailability of the Glipizide was enhanced by using solid dispersions.

3

FREQUENCY OF ORAL CANCER IN PATIENTS VISITING DENTAL OPD LUMHS, JAMSHORO & HYDERABAD

Saira Baloch1, Bikha Ram Devrajani1, Mirza Arsalan Baig2

1Medical Research Centre (MRC), Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS), Jamshoro, Pakistan.

2Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS), Jamshoro, Pakistan.

Abstract

Introduction: Oral cancer is the tenth most common malignancy worldwide. Although incidence of oral cancer and mortality rates have increased worldwide, these rates have been slowly and steadily increasing in Pakistan. Our community is more prone to oral cancer as compare to rest of world. It is specifically dependent on geography. Study design: Retrospective study. Sample size: 10, 9375 patients. Setting: Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro. Subjects and methods: A retrospective study of Biopsied cases oral lesions were reviewed in Department of Oral Pathology & Oral & Maxillofacial surgery LUMHS Jamshoro from patients records biopsied in Dental OPD LUMHJS & Civil hospital Hyderabad within 1 year (1st June, 2012 to 1st June 2013) prior to the start of the study.  Total numbers of patients visited dental OPD were 10, 9375 from which 745 patients which had been biopsied. From biopsied cases 478 were males and 267 were females. 502 patients were >40 years of age while 243 patients were <40 years of age. Results: The data analysis shows that 0.68% (745/10, 9375) were suspected for oral cancer from total number of patient visited, while 79.1 %(590/745) were diagnosed as oral cancerous form suspected patients.62.2 % were males while 37.8% were females. According to our research Incidence proportion of oral cancer in dental OPD Jamshoro& Hyderabad found to be ±0.54% per year and incidence is 540 cases per 10, 0000 patients. Frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma reported 96.2 %( 568/590).Conclusion: Rising costs of health care and limited sources available for health prevention efforts, favors the rise of disease. There is shocking increase in the fatal disease of oral cancer due to unaware of drawbacks of using risk factors (tobacco chewing, smoking, alcohol, betel nuts, snuff dipping).

4

COMPARATIVE ANTIEMETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF FIVE SELECTED PLANT LEAVES

*Rupa Sengupta

ROFEL, Shri G.M.Bilakhia College of Pharmacy, Namdha Road, Vapi-396191 Gujarat, India.

Abstract

The present study is carried out to evaluate antiemetic activity of the methanol extracts of five selected plant leaves namely Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae), Mesua ferrea (Guttiferae), Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae), Fagonia cretica (Zygophyllaceae) and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae), at a dose of 150 mg/kg of body weight, orally using chick emesis model. Emesis was induced in male chicks by the oral administration of copper sulphate (50mg/kg of body weight). The antiemetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in number of retching as compared with control. All the extracts showed antiemetic activity when compared with the standard drug Cloropromazine (150mg/body weight) orally. Among all extracts Ocimum gratissimum showed highest (95.02%) and Portulaca oleracea showed lowest (22.03%) antiemetic activity. In conclusion, the use of leaves of these five selected plants as antiemetics have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Ocimum gratissimum leaves were found to be best antiemetic among all.

5

UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF FIRST DERIVATIVE METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL FUMARATE (TDF) AND LAMIVUDINE (LAM) IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM

Swapnali S. Nigade1, Vinit Chavhan, Vinay Singh

Departments of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Pharmacy, Kondhwa (Bk), Pune- 411018

Abstract

A simple, accurate, precise, reproducible and economic First derivative spectrophotometric method developed for the simultaneous estimation of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and Lamivudine in bulk and tablet dosage form. The solution of the both drugs and tablet were prepared in 0.1N NaOH. Quantitative determination of the drugs was performed at 260nm and 270nm (N = 1. ∆λ = 1) for TDF and LAM respectively. This method obeys Beer-Lamberts law in concentration range of 8-48µg/ml and 4-24µg/ml for TDF and LAM respectively. Methods were validated as per ICH guidelines in terms of accuracy, linearity and precision.

6

SYNTHESIS, DOCKING AND ANTIPSYCHOTIC ASSESSMENT OF SOME 11-(4-SUBSTITUTED BENZYL)-PIPERAZIN-1-YL DIBENZO [B, F] [1, 4] THIAZEPINE

Pawar Sarita S.*1, Roy Akhilesh2 and Wagh Sanjay B.2

1 Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, Sanjivani college of pharmaceutical education and research, Kopargaon, Ahmednagar-423603-India

2 Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, NDMVPS’s college of pharmacy, Gangapur Road, Nashik-422001-India.

Abstract

In search towards novel antipsychotic agent with high efficacy, low toxicity and minimum side effects,  a series of some quetiapine analogues i.e. some 11-(4-(substituted benzyl)-piperazin-1-yl dibenzo [b, f] [1, 4] thiazepine was synthesized. Homology model of serotonin (5-HT2A) based on the high-resolution structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor and turkey β1 adrenergic receptor was built. Docking was performed for the dibenzothiazepine series.The title compounds were obtained by condensation of 11-piperazinyl-dibenzothiazepine with the substituted benzyl halides. The representation of model shows an interaction of important residues with the ligands (fig IV). The antipsychotic activity of the synthesized derivatives was evaluated using haloperidol induced catalepsy and lithium induced head twitches.. In SSP-9 treated group, maximum catalepsy was noted 30 min after haloperidol. Lithium induced 40.2 +1.655 head twitches in 1 h. Clozapine (5 mg per kg) and SSP-9 (5mg per kg) reduced the number of head twitches to 10 ± 0.7071 and 14.8 ± 0.8602, respectively. Compound SSP-9 has better antipsychotic potential amongst all. This may be considered as a prototype of potent antipsychotic agent for further developing new atypical antipsychotics.

7

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

G.N. Renuka Devi*1, V.Prathyusha 2, K. Shanthakumari3 , S. A. Rahaman4

Department of pharmaceutical Analysis, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhrapradesh, Nirmala College of pharmaceutical sciences, Atmakuru (vill), Mangalgiri (Mdl), Guntur 522503, Andhrapradesh. 

Abstract

A simple efficient, precise and accurate spectroscopic method has been developed and validated for quantitative estimation of Dexamethasone sodium phosphate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. Dexamethasone sodium phosphate is soluble in distilled water, so it was used as solvent. Dexamethasone sodium phosphate is dissolved in distilled water the resulting solution was then scanned in the UV range (200-400nm) in a 1cm quartz cell in a double beam UV spectrophotometer. The λmax of Dexamethasone sodium phosphate was found to be 242nm.The method obeys Beers law in the concentration range from 5-25 μg/ml. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999 (r2═ 0.999). The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.78 and 2.3μg/ ml respectively. The result of estimation of marketed formulation (Demisone) was found to be 94.19%. The accuracy of the method was determined by recovery studies. The percentage recovery was found to be 93.3%. The method was validated statistically as per ICH guidelines. The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with % RSD less than 2. So, the proposed method was found to be simple, specific, precise, accuracy, linear, and rugged. Hence it can be applied for routine analysis of Dexamethasone sodium phosphate in bulk drug and the Pharmaceutical formulations.

8

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF CEFUROXIME AXETIL AND ITS ASSOCIATED INTERACTION STUDY WITH ANTI-OXIDANTS USING RP-HPLC

K. Pavankumar1*, M. Jagadeeswaran1, A. Caroline Grace1, M. Sankar2, S. Arulantony2, T. Prabha1 and T. Sivakumar1

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Nandha College of Pharmacy and Research Institute, Koorapalayam Piruvu, Erode – 638 052, Tamil Nadu, India

2 Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Presidency College, Wallajah Road, Chepauk, Chennai - 600 005, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract

The antibiotics of Cephalosporins are more prone to undergo drug interactions with anti-oxidants by metal-ion complexation, ionic interactions, chelation, etc. Hence, the present study deals to develop a simple, precise and convenient RP-HPLC method for cefuroxime axetil estimation and its associated interaction study with anti-oxidants. The chromatograms were eluted using Phenomenex C18 column (250×4.6 mm, 5µ) with acetonitrile: water (70:30 v/v) as mobile phase at 1.5 ml/min flow rate. The eluted peaks are detected at 277 nm. The method has been validated according to guidelines of ICH and USP-NF. The approximate run time was found to cefuroxime axetil (2.12 min), Ascorbic acid (1.25 min) and sodium metabisulfite (1.52 min). The calibration plot of 5-25 µg/ml was to be linear with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.99. The accuracy was found to be highly recovered with low % RSD confirms the suitability procedure. The recommended procedure was applied to drug-interaction studies with anti-oxidants of ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulfite. These interactions were monitored at 37±5 ºC for different intervals viz., 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, and 1 hour. The results suggested the percentage availability of cefuroxime axetil with ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulfite was found to be decreased to 48.12% and 37.28% at 1 hour. The study was concluded based on the results on the interaction results, an appropriate interval time required for co-administration of cefuroxime axetil with anti-oxidants is essential to achieve the better efficacy and recovery of the antibiotic.

9

A SIMPLE AND VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OFCLOPIDOGREL BISULPHATE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM

M.P.Mahajan*, S.D.Sawant, Y.B Deulgaonkar,

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Smt. Kashibai Navel College of Pharmacy Kondhwa (Bk.) Pune-48

Abstract

A novel, simple and economic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the estimation of Clopidogrel bisulphate in bulk and tablet dosage form with greater precision and accuracy. Separation was achieved on C18 column (250X4.6mm i.d., 5μm) in isocratic mode with mobile phase consisting of methanol, acetonitrile in the ratio of 80:20(v/v) at a flow rate 1 mL/min. The detection was carried out at 226nm. The retention time of Clopidogrel bisulphate was found to be 3.81min.The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Validation studies demonstrated that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, specific, rapid, reliable and reproducible. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation confirm the suitability of the proposed method for the estimation of the drug in bulk and tablet dosage.

10

SYNTHESIS OF SOME NEW BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE HALOGEN SUBSTITUTED FLAVONE DERIVATIVES

Madhav M. Kendre and Mohammad A. Baseer*

Organic Chemistry Research Laboratory, Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya, Nanded-431602, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

A new series of biologically active halogen substituted flavones (2a-j) were synthesized by oxidative cyclization of corresponding halogen substituted 2’-hydroxychalcones (1a-j) using conventional method with excellent yield and in less reaction time using dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent. The structures of these compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data. All the newly synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four different pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and antifungal activity against four different fungi, namely Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium moneliforme and Aspergillus flavus which reflects moderate to good activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi employed.

11

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CLOPIDOGREL BISULFATE ORODISPERSIBLE TABLET BY INCLUSION COMPLEXATION

Jain Aarti M*, Mohd Nasir A.S, Manoj M.Bari, Dr. S.D.Barhate

Department of Pharmaceutics, Shree Sureshdada Jain Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Jamner, Dist. Jalgaon, (M.S) India

Abstract

Clopidogrel bisulfate is a BCS class IInd drug used for treatment of hypertension. Poor water solubility is the main constraint for its oral bioavailability. The rationale of this study was to enhance the solubility & dissolution rate of the drug by preparing its complex with PVP K-30, PEG 4000 and HP-β-CD. In the present study attempt has been made to prepare, formulate and characterize inclusion complexes of clopidogrel bisulfate with PVP K-30, PEG 4000 and HP-β-CD. The inclusion complexes were prepared by kneading method. The inclusion complex containing clopidogrel bisulfate: PVP K-30, PEG 4000 and HP-β-CD was further formulated into tablets by direct compression technique using Superdisintegrants like crosspovidone, crosscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. The prepared inclusion complex were characterized using FTIR, DSC and PXRD & finally the prepared tablets were evaluated for various pharmaceutical characteristics viz. Hardness, % Friability, Weight Variation, Drug Content and In-vitro dissolution profiles.

12

FORMULATION, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF BILAYER TABLET OF NEBIVOLOL AND INDAPAMIDE

Rajkumar Purohit1*, Puspendra Singh Naruka1, Chetan Singh Chauhan1, Deepak Bhatt2

1 Bhupal Nobles` College of Pharmacy, Udaipur (Rajasthan)

2 Cadila Pharmaceutical Limited, Dholka, Ahmadabad (Gujarat)

Abstract

The present study deals with optimization and evaluation of bilayer tablet formulation in which first layer consist of sustained release formulation of diuretic drug while second layer consist of immediate release of selective β-1 blocker. Here sustained release formulation of diuretic drug avoids the side effects  associated with the immediate release formulation & also provides effects for longer period of time & when it combines with the immediate release formulation of selective β-1 blocker, combinations of both drugs provides synergistic effects against hypertension. The result of the project would provide a process that would provide stable formulation of bilayer tablets of antihypertensive drugs. In the bilayer tablet, sustained release part was tried to prepare by direct compression & by wet granulation, but finally wet granulation method was selected. Immediate release part was also optimized using wet granulation method. Among different trials with wet granulation, the trial I-11 showed satisfactory in vitro drug release profile as compared to that of innovator for sustained release formulation while the trial N-6 showed satisfactory in vitro drug release profile for immediate release formulation as compared to that of innovator.

13

ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF HOLOSTEMMA ANNULARIS K. SCHUM ROOT EXTRACTS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

Srinivasa Rao Avanapu1, Sudharshan Reddy Dachani*2

1Bhaskar Pharmacy College, Department of Pharmacology, Yenkapally (Vi) Moinabad (Mo), Hyderabad.

2Department of Pharmacology & Pharmacognosy, Nizam Institute of Pharmacy, Deshmuki (Vi), Pochampally (Mo), Nalagonda (Di) 508284, Andhra Pradesh, India.  Hyderabad.

Abstract

As incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide, besides it is associated with complications. The aim of present study is to investigate the Antihyperglycemic activity of chloroform and alcoholic extract of Holostemma annularis (CEHA) and insulin sensitivity in STZ induced diabetic wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Extract was orally administered to diabetic rats for a period of 16 days. Animals were divided into seven groups (n=6) respectively Group I: Normal (Control), Group II: Diabetic (control), Group III: Standard drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, orally). Group IV and Group V: Chloroform Extract of Holostemma annularis (CEHA 150 and 300 mg/kg) and Group VI and Group VII Alcoholic Extract of Holostemma annularis (AEHA 150 and 300 mg/kg). Blood serum was analyzed for the following biochemical parameters like serum glucose, serum insulin, Urine creatinine, total proteins in urine and histopathological study of pancreas was examined. Significant results were observed in the estimated parameters concludes that Chloroform and Alcoholic extracts of Holostemma annularis shows reduced serum glucose levels, increase in insulin levels, improved urine creatinine, total proteins in urine and also improvement in regeneration of β-cells of langerhans of pancreas in rats. Hence, it is proved that Holostemma annularis extracts is having potent anti-diabetic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

14

CHARACTERIZATION OF CORIANDER SATIVUM FRUIT MEDIATED SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND EVALUVATION OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL AND WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY

Hemashenpagam.N1, Enamala Narmadha1, Sathiya Vimal.S2 Vasantha Raj.S2*

PG and Research Department of Microbiology,  Hindusthan College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore-28.

Abstract

To meet the increasing demands for commercial nanoparticles new eco-friendly “green” methods of synthesis are being discovered. Plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles offers single step, easy extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles.  We report the synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using leaf broth of medicinal herb Coriander sativum. The completion of the formation of silver nanoparticles was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy. The particle size of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was found and confirmed by SEM analysis. The silver nanoparticles stabilized by Papaya leaf extract were found to have enhanced antimicrobial activity against well-known pathogenic strains Klebsiella pneumoniae sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp , staphylococcus sp, Proteus sp and E.coli.

15

UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF EPALRESTAT IN BULK AND DOSAGE FORMS BY DIFFERENCE AND AREA UNDER CURVE METHODS

Sharath Chandra Seelam*1, Swarna Mayuri R1, Priyanka G1, Priyanka M2, Nidhi Nk3

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, *1 KLR pharmacy college, New Paloncha, Khammam Dist, Andhra Pradesh, 507115 India.

Post Baccalaureate, 2Mallareddy college of pharmacy, Hyderabad.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and quality assurance,3CMR college of pharmacy, Hyderabad.

Abstract

Two advanced UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of Epalrestat in dosage form. Method A - Differential spectrophotometric and Method B -Area under curve method. Beers’ law was obeyed in the concentration range 1-5 μgm/ml with regression coefficient of 0.9982 for method A and 0.9995 for method B. Method A was carried out in water and methanol and method B with water. The %RSD was found to be less than 2%. The two methods help in rapid analysis of pharmaceutical formulation with % recovery 109.67 to 129.67 and 110.80 to129.77 for method A and B respectively. The LOD and LOQ were 0.2, 0.6 and 0.7, 1.2 for both methods respectively. Methods were validated for various parameters according to USP guidelines.

16

PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND IDENTIfiCATION OF ACTIVE COMPOUNDS USING GC-MS OF PLEUROTUS FLORIDA MUSHROOM

Menaga D1, Ayyasamy P M1*, Rajakumar S 2, Sureshbabu A 1, Rubalakshmi G 3

1 Department of Microbiology, Periyar University,    Salem - 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India.

2 Department of Marine Biotechnology,   Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024, India

3 Department of Life Sciences, Sri Amman GRD Research Services, Rasipuram - 637408, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

The phenolic constituents were isolated and purified from Pleurotus florida mushroom and their antioxidant activity were determined. Methanolic extract of P. florida were subjected to phytochemical analysis and purified the phenolic fractions using preparative thin layer chromatography. The concentrated methanolic fractions were further subjected to GC-MS analysis. Methanolic extract showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and terpenoids. In the GC-MS analysis, the fractions 4, 6 and 7 determines the presence of phytochemical compounds such as Heptanoic acid; 3,6 Nonadien-1-ol, (E, Z); 1,1- Dimethyl -2-[2-(Methoxycarbonyl) Prop-2yl] hydrazine and 2- Pyrrolidinone, 1-(1-oxo-2-propenyl). The scavenging activity of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power in different concentrations were higher in fraction 4 followed by fraction 6 and 7. From the study the results revealed that the methanolic extract of P. florida extract were found to exhibit maximum free radical scavenging and these compounds may be used as a good natural antioxidant and it may be an alternative source to existing synthetic antioxidant.

17

ROLE OF CARBON MONOXIDE/ HEME-OXYGENASE PATHWAY IN DIABETIC NEUROPATHIC PAIN

Ankit Dhir, Gursimranpreet Singh*, Neha Machhan, Manveen Bhardwaj, B.V. Krishna Reddy

Department of Pharmacology, I.S.F. College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, India

Abstract

Carbon monoxide known to be one of the environmental pollutant is now believed to play an crucial role in cellular functions like vasodilation and circardian rhythm. Heme Oxygenase is an enzyme which is responsible for CO production. This review will cover the effect of CO in periphery, also its toxicity. Then relation of CO with MAPK pathway will be discussed through which the protective role is exhibited. Finally, this review will throw a light on role of CO in various neurological diseases like multiple sclerosis and also in neuropathic pain. In the end, we discuss the role of Heme oxygenase in different neurological disorders like PD and AD.

Abbreviations: HO- heme oxygenase, CO- carbon monoxide, IRP- iron regulatory protien,    VSMC- vascular smooth muscle cells, MCI- mild cognitive impairment.

18

PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR CHRONOPHARMACOLOGICAL DISORDERS

N Surendra *, R Rajalakshmi, U Aruna, V Vinesha, R Vishnu Vardhan, D Ragini Ramesh

Department of Pharmaceutics, Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Affiliated to JNTUA University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Now a days oral drug delivery is the gold standard in the pharmaceutical industry where it is regarded as the safest, most convenient and most economical method of drug delivery having the highest patient compliance. Pulsatile drug delivery system (PDDS) gained a lot of interest as they deliver the drug at the right place at the right time and in the right amount, thereby providing spatial and temporal delivery of drugs.These systems were designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body and the drug is released as a pulse. Number of diseases like asthma, peptic ulcers, cardiovascular ailments, arthritis and attention deficit syndrome in children and hypercholesterolemia can be cured by drugs, released by PDDS. The current article focused on the reasons for development of pulsatile drug delivery system, diseases requiring PDDS, classification of pulsatile drug delivery system, current situation, future scope and PDDS product currently available in the market. Therefore pulsatile drug delivery system deals with the medical treatment according to the human biological life and thus it provides a unique way of delivering drugs to the target site and minimizes the undesired effects.

19

QUINALPHOS (ORGANOPHOSPHATE) INDUCED HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE LIVER AND BEHAVIOURAL MODIFICATION IN THE FISH - CLARIAS BATRACHUS (LINN.)

Bashir Ahmad, Arun K Raghuwanshi and Vinoy K. Shrivastava*

Laboratory of Endocrinology, Department of Bioscience, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (M.P.) 462026.

Abstract

The present study was conducted to determine the toxicity of commercial grade organophosphate insecticide i.e. quinalphos (25% EC) on liver and behavioral activities of fresh water fish, Clarias batrachus. The estimated LC50 value of quinalphos with 95% confidence levels were found 1.09 (0.84 - 1.42) ml/l for catfish, at 96 h. The fishes were divided into three groups of ten each.  Group I served as control which received normal fish diet and normal environmental conditions, while, Group II and III received 10% of LC50 for fifteen and thirty days respectively and their body weight, behavioral activities and hepatic histopathological changes were studied. The fishes displayed disrupted shoaling behaviour characterized by irregular and swift swimming activities, followed by altered opercular movement. Fishes also tried to jump out of the aquarium and were hanging vertically in water in comparison to the control group, meanwhile, variation in their body colour and weight were also observed. Apart from this, quinalphos induced histopathological impairment in hepatic tissue after fifteen and thirty days characterized by degenerative hepatic cells, hepatocytic vacuolation, intercellular vacuolation and infiltration of lymphocytes around the central veins, these effects were more prominent in later part of the experiment. All these results suggest that the quinalphos induced behavioural changes and dysfunction of hepatic cells in Clarias batrachus. These changes are dose and duration dependent

20

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF GLIPIZIDE

*G. Naresh Kumar1, Shubhrajit Mantry2, Arpita Ghosh3, L. Rajesh Patro4, A.Hemanth5

   1Research Analyst, Formulation R&D, Comprime Labs, Hyderabad, Andhrapradesh, India- 500072

2,5Dept. Of pharmaceutics, Kottam Institute of Pharmacy, Andhrapradesh, India – 509125

3Dept. Of pharmaceutics, Bojjam Narasimhulu Pharmacy for Women, Andhrapradesh, India – 500059

4Dept. Of pharmaceutics, Avanthi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhrapradesh, India – 501505

Abstract

Design of a controlled release formulation for a water insoluble drug is very difficult. A controlled oral delivery may be needed to achieve prolonged exposure or time-based release for a water-insoluble drug under certain circumstances. It could offer advantages in improving efficacy, reducing side effect, or achieving a more desirable dose regimen. Glipizide is a poorly water soluble drug but it shows better solubility in biological fluids. Different formulations were prepared by varying the concentration of HPC and EC used as polymers. The effect of varying concentration of hydrophilic & hydrophobic polymers (HPC and EC) was studied on the release pattern of Glipizide. Controlled release Glipizide matrix tablets were prepared by wet granulation and compression of hydroxyl propyl cellulose, drug and other excipients mixture. The release rate of a Glipizide from matrix tablet was controlled by using combination of polymer.

21

ANALYTICAL METHOD VALIDATION OF EPALRESTAT AN ANTIDIABETIC DRUG IN BULK AND TABLET FORMULATIONS BY UPLC - A NOVEL TECHNIQUE

Sharath Chandra Seelam*1, Dhana Lakshmi K, Dr.Nagarjuna Reddy.G, Dr.Sreenivasa.S2

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, *1KLR pharmacy college, New Palvoncha, Khammam Dist, Andhra Pradesh, 507115 India.

Department of Studies and Research, 2Tunkur University, Karnataka, 572103 India.

Abstract

A new, novel, sensitive and effective UPLC method has developed and validated for the analysis of Epalrestat in bulk and formulation as per USP guidelines. The separation of chromatogram was achieved on Agilent C18 column 5 x 2.1mm (1.8micron) at a detection wavelength of 293nm with a mobile phase of 0.5% Ammonium Acetate Buffer, methanol and acetonitrile in the ratio of 40:40:20, pH was adjusted to 3.0 by using O- Phosphoric acid. The retention time was found at 4.033 ± 0.01 min. and Linearity was observed in nominal concentration range of 250-1500mcg with a correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9998. The coefficient of variation value for precision was 0.07. Mean recovery was 99.96-129.98 with %RSD 0.38. The amount of drug in the formulation was in good agreement with label claim and the percentage purity was 99.96%. The developed method is more accurate and precise than RP-HPLC and routinely used for the analysis of tablet formulation.

22

CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN BULK AND FORMULATION

Vineeta Khanvilkar, Atmaram Tambe, Vinayak Dalvi,  Daksha Parmar, Dr. Vilasrao Kadam

Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

A simple, selective, rapid and economical High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Tramadol Hydrochloride (TH) and Diclofenac Sodium (DS) in bulk and formulation. Chromatographic separation and estimation was achieved in a run time of 10 minutes on HiQ C18HS column (5µ, 4.6mmX250mm) using ammonium acetate buffer (10mM, pH 4.5 and 0.1% TEA v/v) and Methanol (40:60 v/v) at flow rate of 1ml/min. UV detector set at 273 nm was used for detection.  The linearity range for both TH and DS was found to be 1-20µg/ml with coefficient of linear regression greater than 0.999. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines for accuracy, precision, selectivity, linearity, system suitability and robustness. The method could be successfully applied for simultaneous estimation of TH and DS from bulk and tablet dosage form for routine analysis.

23

ASSOCIATION OF ANXIETY WITH OXIDATIVE STRESS AND INFLAMMATION

Avik Das1, Dr. Sunit kumar Mukhopadhya1

Department of Pharmacology, Gupta College of Technological Sciences, Ashram More, Asansol-713 301. India

Department of  Veterinary Pathology, West Bengal University of Veterinary & Fishery Sciences, Belgachia, Kolkata. India

Abstract

Anxiety is a normal emotional trait which if disarrayed gives rise to anxiety disorder. In spite of extensive research the definite pathology of the disorder is yet to be elucidated. Oxidative stress which is an important causative factor for a plethora of diseases is envisaged to play a role in the pathology of anxiogenesis. Here we have thrown light on the latest literature available on the topic to justify the role of oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation in the pathology of anxiety disorder.

24

ESTIMATION OF ORLISTAT BY VARIOUS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC TECHNIQUES

Priyanka gaddam*1, Dr. Nagarjuna reddy. G, Dhanalakshmi. K, Dr. sreenivasa.S2

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, *1KLR pharmacy college, New Paloncha, Khammam Dist, Andhra Pradesh, 507115 India.

Department of Studies and Research, 2Tunkur University, Karnataka, 572103 India.

Abstract

Three advanced UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of Orlistat in dosage form. Method A- Derivative spectrophotometric, Method B- Differential spectrophotometric method and Method C- area under curve. Beer’s Lambert’s law was obeyed within the range of 10-30 μgm/ml for zero, first, second orders and 30-50 μgm/ml for third, fourth orders of method A, 10-30 μgm/ml for method C of Orlistat respectively in methanol. Method B was carried out in 0.1N NaOH and 0.1N HCl. All the three methods allowed rapid analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms. The results of analysis for methods A, B and C were tested and validated for various parameters according to USP guidelines. The methods were linear, accurate, precise, economic. These are the advanced methods compared to absorbance maxima method.

25

RECENT ADVANCEMENT IN GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM – A REVIEW

Archana D. Kajale*,  Dr. Anil V. Chandewar

Department of Pharmaceutics P. Wadhwani College of Pharmacy Yavatmal. (M.S). 445001, India.

Abstract

Gastro retentive systems can remain in the gastric region for several hours and hence significantly prolong the gastric residence time of drugs. Prolonged gastric retention improves bioavailability, reduces drug waste, and improves solubility for drugs that are less soluble in a high pH environment. Gastro retentive systems (GRDDS) are designed on the basis of delayed gastric emptying and CR principles, and are intended to restrain and localize the drug delivery device in the stomach or within the upper parts of the small intestine until all the drug is released. Various mechanisms (approaches) of achieving gastric retention include floatation or buoyancy, mucoadhesion, sedimentation, expansion, and geometry. Other approaches include co administration of drugs or fatty acid salts, or sham feeding of indigestible or enzyme-digestible hydrogels that convert the motility pattern of the stomach to a fed state. GRDDS have great potential in improving the bioavailability of drugs that exhibit an absorption window. The single unit dosage form increase the bioavailability of some drugs but have some disadvantages and these disadvantages can be overcome by formulating the drug in multiple unit floating drug delivery system which have all the advantage of single unit system. Due to complexity of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics parameters, in vivo studies are required to establish the optional dosage form for a specific drug. Another promising area of research for gastro retentive drug delivery system is eradication of Helicobacter pylori, which is now believed to be causative bacterium of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers.

26

EFFECT OF ROOT OF COCOS NUCIFERA LINN IN URINARY TRACT INFECTION

M. Komala1*, K.P.Sampath Kumar2

1.Karpagam University, Coimbatore-641 021, Tamil Nadu,  India .

2. Department of Pharmaceutics, Coimbatore medical college, Coimbatore- 600 114, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Root of Cocos nucifera Linn.was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against  urinary tract infection causing pathogen,  Escherichia coli in swiss albino mice. Both laboratory and clinical strains of E.coli were obtained from different sources and examined for its virulence. On the basis of virulence, the strains were selected for the study. Once the model was established, different doses of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Cocos nucifera Linn. root (200mg/kg  and 400mg/kg /po) were administered orally. Blood samples were collected and the concentration of urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT were determined in serum. From the biochemical studies, a significant reduction in concentration of urea, creatinine in serum was observed in group treated with the extract when compared to reference control group .The number of bacteria in urine were found lower than the reference control group. It is concluded that administration of aqueous extract of Cocos nucifera Linn. root proves its anti microbial action against common urinary tract infection causing pathogen like E.coli.

27

ARE UNDIAGNOSED POPULATIONS AT RISK FOR HYPERTENSION BASED ON THEIR FAMILY AND MEDICAL HISTORY?

Rajesh Venkataraman, Kumaraswamy M, Meenu Pandey, Sharath V, Rajveer Singh Chopra,  Priyank Tripathi*, Job V George, Satish Kumar BP, Patel Vaibhav, Prasanna Dahal

1(Department of Pharmacy Practice, Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy/ RGUHS University, India)

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide in which hypertension is responsible for an annual death of 7.1 million. Family history of early-onset disease is found much more predictive of in families with a positive family history of hypertension. All family members share the same positive family history as a risk factor, but they often share other risk factors as well. The risk of becoming hypertensive for an individual with a family history of hypertension has been estimated to be up to four times higher than average. Medical History of diseases also play a vital role in development of hypertension as it was proved that patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 are 1.5-2 times more likely to present hypertension compared to the general population.   This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of hypertension and risk factors associated, concentrating on Medical History of hypertension and other diseases and the family history of hypertension in rural population. It was a questionnaire based study carried out in two phases with Blood Pressure measurement. The study results showed high prevalence of hypertension and risk of its development (i.e. pre-hypertension) amongst the individuals with family history of hypertension and diabetes. The study also showed that the ratio of hypertensives and pre-hypertensives was high amongst the study group with a family history of hypertension. The study concluded with the positive relationship between risk factors although the margin of association was small.

28

QUALITY BY DESIGN: A MODERN APPROACH TO PHARMACEUTICAL DEVELOPMENT

Subhashis Debnath, V. Prudhvi Raj*,G Prasanth, M. Niranjan Babu

Department of Pharmaceutics, Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Venkatramapuram, Tirupati – 517 561

 

Abstract

Quality by design (QbD ) has become the answer to assist both industry and FDA to move towards a more scientific, risk based, holistic and proactive approach to pharmaceutical development. The concept promotes industry’s understanding of the product and manufacturing process starting with product development, basically building quality in, not testing it. Under this concept of QbD during designing and development of a product, a company needs to define desire product performance profile [Target product Profile (TPP), Target Product Quality Profile (TPQP)] and identify critical quality attributed (CQA). On the basis of the information company then design the product formulation and process to meet the product attributes. This leads to understand the impact of raw materials [critical material attributes (CMA)], critical process parameters (CPP) on the CQAs and identification and control sources of variability. The use of QbD principles during product development provides opportunities to facilitate innovation and continual improvement throughout the product lifecycle, compared to traditional approaches hence it is systematic way to product and process development. This systematic approach to product development and manufacturing has received a great deal from traditional approach, which was extremely empirical. Implementation of QbD is enabling transformation of the chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review of Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs) into a modern, science and risk based pharmaceutical quality assessment.

29

EVALUATION OF ANGIOGENIC ACTVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA AND BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA BY CHICK-CHORIO ALLANTOIC MEMBRANE ASSAY (CAM ASSAY)

K.Chandana*, O. Mounika Gayathri, A.Gnana Sunny, G.Ujwal Reddy, M. Shiva Reddy, Sudheer kumar Vallala

Holy Mary Institute of Technology & Science (College Of Pharmacy)

Abstract

Angiogenesis means the growth of new capillary blood vessels in the body, which is an important natural process used for healing and reproduction.  Insufficient angiogenesis occurs in diseases such as coronary artery disease, stroke, and chronic wounds. Therapeutic angiogenesis aimed to stimulate new blood vessel growth is being developed to treat these conditions. This present study is aimed to evaluate and quantify the Angiogenic potential of Annona Squamosa and Bambusa arundinacea. Angiogenic activity of ethanolic extract of these two leaves by CAM assay was determined, after 14 days of incubation, angiogenic response, was visible under the microscope as a spoke-wheel-like pattern of blood vessels. It was observed that this ethanolic extract significantly promotes the development of capillary networks in CAM and these newly synthesized vessels participated actively in the circulating of blood cells in-ova. Further study is required to define more precisely the molecular mechanisms by which the extract modulates endothelial cell function and gene expression as well as the pathological relevance of these findings.

30

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TOPICAL GEL OF ACELOFENAC CONTAINING PIPARINE

Vijay Kumar Singh1*, Praveen Kumar Singh1, Purnendu Kumar Sharma2, Peeyush Kumar Srivastava2, Ashutosh Mishra3

1Kamla Nehru Institute of Management & Technology, Sultanpur, India

2Technocrats Institute of Technology (Pharmacy), Bhopal, India

3Acharya Narendra Dev College of Pharmacy, Babhnan Gonda, India

Abstract

The present investigation involves formulation of Acelofenac topical gel having linseed oil and piparine. Aceclofenac has been shown to have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, similar to indomethacin and diclofenac and due to its preferential cox-2 blockade, it has better safety than conventional NSAIDs with respect to adverse effects on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular system. Aceclofenac is used in treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute lumbago, and dental pain condition. The formulation of Acelofenac topical gel was prepared using HPMC, Carbopol 974 P and Sodium CMC in three different batches. Piperine was isolated from major alkaloids of the pepper fruits and was used as a penetration enhancer in formulation. Formulated gel was evaluated and compared with marketed Nusaid gel for pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability, drug content, in vitro drug diffusion, ex-vivo bio-adhesive test and skin irritation test. Topical gel having best drug releasing profile was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic potency by animal paradigms.

31

EVALUATION OF BINDING EFFICACY OF MUCILAGE OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM

V. Hema Faith*, Subhashis Debnath, M. Niranjan Babu

Department of Pharmaceutics, Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Tirupathi 517-561, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The objective of the present research was to evaluate the mucilage of Cissus quadrangularis as a tablet binder employing paracetamol as a model drug. The mucilage was isolated from stems of Cissus quadrangularis. Physicochemical characteristics of mucilage were studied. Different formulations of tablets using Cissus quadrangularis mucilage were prepared by wet granulation method. The binder concentrations in the present tablet were1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%. Tablets were prepared and subjected for evaluation of hardness, friability, drug content uniformity. Preliminary evaluation of granules showed that 27.07° to 28.51º angle of repose and 15.10 to 20.18 compressibility index %. Tablet hardness was found to be in the range of 4.01 to 6.7 kg/cm2, 0.42 to 4.21 min disintegration time and more than 90.00% dissolution in 120 min. Tablets at 6% w/v binder concentration showed optimum results as tablet binder. The Cissus quadrangularis mucilage was found to be useful for the preparation of tablet dosage form.

32

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PADINA DISTROMATICA HAUCK

JOHN PETER PAUL J, YUVARAJ, P.

Research Department of Botany, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous),

Palayamkottai – 627 002, Tamil Nadu, India.

 

Abstract

In the present study, an attempt has been made to explore the phytochemical constituents present in Padina distromatica Hauck collected from the south east coast of Tamil Nadu, India. The phytochemical analysis of different extracts was estimated using the standard procedure for UV-Vis spectroscopic and HPLC. The UV-Vis phytochemical profile of various extracts of Padina distromatica Hauck was analyzed. The qualitative HPLC fingerprint profile of methanol extract of Padina distromatica Hauck was chosen at a wavelength of 660nm due to sharpness of the peaks and proper baseline. There are six compounds were separated from Padina distromatica Hauck. The profile displayed one prominent peak at the retention time of 1.553min and five moderate peaks were also observed at a retention time of 2.100min, 2.400min, 2.600min, 2.800min and 6.200min respectively. The present study on Padina distromatica Hauck fashioned novel phytochemical markers in standardization as useful analytical tools to check not only the quality of the powder but also the presence of adulterants in ayurvedic drugs.

33

STATISTICAL EVALUATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF INFLUENCE OF TYPE AND CONTENT OF POLYMERS ON MICROSPHERES OF BACLOFEN

Mali Snehal D*1, Nitalikar Manoj M1, Raut Indrayani D 1

1 Department of Pharmaceutics, Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy, Kasegaon, Tal. Walwa, Dist Sangli. (India).

 

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to develop microspheres of Baclofen to establish an optimum method and polymer system for sustained release microsphere delivery of Baclofen. The drug has been selected basically due to its water solubility and short half life.  The microspheres were prepared by non aqueous solvent evaporation method using different polymers such as hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M), Eudragit S100, Eudragit L100-55 and also using their mixtures. A 32 factorial design was employed in formulating the microspheres with type of Eudragit polymer (X1) and Eudragit: HPMC K4M ratio (X2) as independent variables. Three dependent variables were percentage yield, mean particle size and drug entrapment efficiency. The main effect and interaction terms were quantitatively evaluated using a mathematical model. The prepared microspheres were characterized by polymer compatibility, percentage yield, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Regression analysis and numerical optimization were performed to identify the best formulation. The optical and scanning electron microscopy shown that microspheres had a spherical shape and smooth surface. The percentage yield of microspheres of all formulation was in the range of 94.01% to 99.12%. The drug content determination showed that even if the polymer composition was changed the solvent evaporation process was highly efficient to give microspheres having maximum drug loading. The prolonged sustained release time might make contribution to its use. The predicted values agreed well with the experimental values, and the results demonstrate the feasibility of the model in the development of microspheres.

34

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ISOLATED FLAVONOIDS FROM ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF MAPPIA FOETIDA MIERS LEAVES

Kamurthy Hemalatha1*, Ramya R1

1*Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Maisammaguda, Dhulapally, Secunderabad-14. Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of isolated flavonids from ethyl acetate extract of Mappia foetida leaves on acute inflammation (carrageenan-induced paw edema) and sub-acute inflammation (cotton pellet granuloma) in animal models. Group I (control) received saline (5 ml/kg) and group II rats were treated with indomethacin (10 mg/kg). Isolated compounds like, apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucopyranoside and diosmetin at a dose of 200 mg/kg was given orally to group III, IV and V rats respectively. 1.0 ml of carrageenan was injected s.c. to plantar region of right hind paw of each rat, 1 hour after the drug administration. The change in paw volume was measured at 0, 1, 2 and 3 hours intervals. For sub-acute model of inflammation, sterilized cotton pellets, weighing 10 mg each, were implanted, one on each side of the groin, under light anaesthesia. Drug treatment was given for 7 days. On the eight day, cotton pellets along with granuloma were removed surgically, and wet pellets were weighed, after that dried at 60 ºC overnight and then the dry pellets weight was taken. The results indicates that, Apigenin and apigenin-7-O-glucopyranoside compounds from ethyl acetate extract of M. foetida at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant inhibition (P<0.01) in acute and sub-acute inflammation models, which was comparable with standard. Whereas diosmetin showed marked inhibition (P<0.05) in both the models. Hence, we can conclude that, apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucopyranoside and diosmetin compounds present in M. foetida leaves has significant anti-inflammatory effects in both acute and sub-acute inflammatory conditions and this may be possible to explain use of plant in traditional medicine.

35

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANTS OF HIMALAYAN REGION

Savita Goyal Aggarwal1*, Sachin Gupta2, Anshu Sisodia3, Neetu Sharma4

1Head, Department of Chemistry, Uttaranchal College of Technology & Biomedical Sciences, DDun

2Faculty, Department of Chemistry, UCTBMS, DDun

3Faculty, Department of Chemistry, UCTBMS, DDun

4Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Graphic Era University, DDun

Abstract

Nature has been a source of Medicinal agents for thousands of years and an impressive number of Modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources. The plant-based, traditional medicine system continues to play an essential role in health care.   Herbal drugs constitute a major part in all traditional systems of medicines. Herbal medicine is a triumph of popular therapeutic diversity plants above all other agents have been used for medicine from time immortal because they have fitted the immediate personal need, easily accessible and inexpensive.  The use of plant extacts and phytochemicals both with known antimicrobial properties is of great significance for exploring the traditional Ayurveda system. Keeping this in view the antibacterial activity of some plants were taken for the consideration. All the plants sample taken for study were distributed in hilly region of India Specially in Himalayan region.  The plant was collected and authentification & identification of plant species was carried out. The plant sample was dried under shade and stored.  The air dried leaves of sample were extracted on the basis of increasing polarity of solvent. After the completion of process the extracts were evaporated to dryness. The different solvent extracts were then examined for their antibacterial properties. The results were reported as a mean value. Among the extract chloroform and ethanol extract show more pronounced antibacterial activity.

36

NEUROPROTECTIVE PROPERTY OF BROMELAIN ON FOCAL ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION INDUCED CEREBRAL INJURY IN RATS

Sindhu Priya E S1, Darshan Raj C G2*, Shyam Prasad K2, Lingaraju H B3

1Department of Preclinical Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd, #101, Jigani II phase, Bangalore-560078, Karnataka, India

2Department of Biomedicinal Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd, #101, Jigani II phase, Bangalore-560078, Karnataka, India

3Department of Phytochemistry Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd, #101, Jigani II phase, Bangalore-560078, Karnataka, India

Abstract

Bromelain is an extract of pineapple associated with different proteases which are fibrinolytic, antithrombotic agents. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of Bromelain on cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats. Focal ischemia and reperfusion were induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Bromelain dose was fixed based on acute toxicity studies. The neuroprotection property of Br was determined through enzyme antioxidant, oxidative stress markers, toxicity markers and histopathology studies. Pretreatment­ with Bromelain significantly reversed and restored the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Na+K+ATPase activity. There was a significant reduction in the levels of MDA, NO, PGE2 and calcium levels in Middle cerebral artery occlusion rats.  These results revealed that there was a prevention in the stroke induced changes in the brain to near normal in the groups pre-treated with Bromelain. Further the results were supported by histopathology studies. The neuroprotective effect of Bromelain might be attributed to its fibrinolytic, anti platelet, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

37

AN UPDATED PRECISE REVIEW ON SUPERDISINTEGRANTS

Sandipan Dass*1, Shakir Ahmed Mazumder2

1Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India.

Abstract

Superdisintegrants are an emerging trend in the Pharmaceutical field. In the application oral disintegration tablets (ODTs), fast-dispersible tablets, capsules, mouth-dissolving films superdisintegrants have found to be an important existence especially for ODTs and fast dispersible tablets based on their decentralization time. Thus these formulations always achieved a better patience compliance in case of Pediatric, Geriatric or Psychiatric Patients suffering from Dysphasia as Dysphasia has grown to be an alarming concern all over the Globe. The superdisintegrants works on mechanisms like wicking, swelling, deformation etc. The superdisintegrants are used at a very low concentration in  solid dosage forms. With the rapid demand of novel drug delivery, the  drug  delivery  system  has  become  one  of  the mile  stone  of  present  research. The use of super disintergants is not new. Only with the recent development of superdisintegrants agents it has become possible to manufacture ODTs.

 

38

Drug-drug interactions in patients distress from Hypertension in particular hospitals of Hyderabad Pakistan

Naheed Memon1*, Abdullah Dayo1, Muhammad Ali Ghoto1, Mohsin Ali Baloch1

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

 

Abstract

Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs) is an important issue and now it is also realized that many of them can be explained by change in the enzymes involve in metabolism that are present in the liver and other outside liver. Many of the pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs are due to cytochrome P450 enzymes which may be affected by administration of other drugs. Co-administration of some drugs act as enzyme inducers, whereas some are inhibitors of enzyme which results undesirable effects .Hypertension (HTN) is a most common cardiovascular disease which can be defined as “consistently elevated blood pressure (arterial) or average systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg”. It is a disease which has a high global burden which is a worldwide public health challenge as well as a leading risk factor of mortality. The analysis of 500 out-doors HTN patient’s ℞ were collected from two different Hospitals of Hyderabad city Pakistan. It is concluded that, Out of 500 prescriptions collected, 195 prescriptions showed DDIs. ℞ collected from Charitable hospital were 230, 35% of ℞ show DDIs and 65% did not contain DDIs. ℞ were evaluated using Standard Drug Interaction Software i.e.  Lexi-comp’s Lexi-Interact to check the Degree of DDIs. It was found that 54% of ℞ showed minor of DDIS, 45% of ℞ showed moderate DDIs and 1% of ℞ showed major DDIs. ℞ collected from government hospital were 270. 42% of ℞ showed DDIs and 58% did not contain DDIs. ℞ then evaluated using Standard drug interaction software i.e.  Lexi-comp’s Lexi-Interact to check the degree of DDIs. It was found that 40 % of ℞ showed minor DDIs, 56 % of ℞ showed moderate DDIs and 4 % of ℞ showed major DDIs.

39

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS ARTESUNATE AND HYDROXYCHLOROQUININE BY VALIDATED HPLC METHOD IN COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

Jaya Agnihotria*, Shrikant Boharupia, Subhini Sarafb, Shobhna Singhc, Papiya Bigoniyad

* aH. K. College of Pharmacy, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India;

bDeptt. Of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, UP, India;

cDepartment of Pharmacy, MJP Rohilkhand University, Bareilly, UP, India.;

dRadharaman College of Pharmacy, Ratibad, Bhopal, MP, India.

Abstract

Combination therapy has remained as standard of care in malaria treatment, since it is a rationale strategy to increase response and tolerability and to decrease resistance. Recent reports in the literature suggest that chloroquinine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquinine (HCQ) could regain its usefulness after a prolonged absence associated with a disappearance of the drug resistance genotype in falciparum malaria and can be combined with artesunate (ART) in formulation to achieve optimum therapeutic response. Separate analysis methods for ART and HCQ are available but simultaneous quantitative estimation of both the drugs is a difficult task as ART lacks extensive chromophores for UV absorption whilst HCQ absorbs highly. In the present study an accurate, precise, simple method has been developed, optimized and validated as per the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) for co estimation of these drugs in formulation as well as for clinical studies. The chromatographic conditions were established by trial and error and were kept constant throughout the experimentation using HPLC isocratic system on C18 column. After trial and error it was found that artesunate peak resolution is maximum in acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) in the ratio of 50:50 v/v with flow rate 1.0 ml/min at 222nm.Linearity was observed over concentration range of 1-5 μg/ml for ART and 500-2500 μg/ml for HCQ. HCQ and ART were eluted at retention time (Rt) 2.51 and 5.1 min respectively. The Limit of detection and Limit of quantitation were 0.109 and 0.330 μg/ml for ART, and 0.012 and 0.037 μg/ml for HCQ. The method has potential to be applied for the analysis of these antimalarial drugs in combined pharmaceutical formulation with sensitivities in the nano gram-per-milliliter range. The method gave good resolution between ART and HCQ within short analysis time of 14 min with no interfering peaks found in the chromatograms.

40

IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY TESTING OF CURCUMA AMADA ROXB USING OXIDATIVELY STRESSED SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE CELLS

Sivaprabha, J., Dharani, B., Padma, P.R. and Sumathi,S*.

Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics,

Avinasilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher education for Women, Coimbatore- 641 043.

Abstract

Free radicals are generated in the human body as by-products of normal metabolic reaction and body’s defence mechanism. Antioxidants present in the system which includes enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants act as scavengers and protect the normal cells from oxidant mediated damage. There is a delicate balance between the production of free radicals and the antioxidants produced in the system. If this balance is disturbed then oxidative stress results. Furthermore humans are exposed to various oxidative stresses through exposure of chemicals, radiation and other toxic substances in the present century. So, there is need for exogenous supply of antioxidants through natural sources. Plants provide excellent sources of antioxidants which prevent free radical mediated damage. So, in the present study the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) which is an eukaryotic model organism was exposed to oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide treatment and the ability of the methanolic extract of leaves and rhizomes of Curcuma amada Roxb to combat the oxidative stress was analyzed by various cytotoxicity assays and staining techniques. The results indicated that both the extracts efficiently reduce the oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide treatment in yeast cells. The extract by itself did not induce any toxic effect on the yeast cells.

41

GC-MS STUDIES OF CLITORIA TERNATEA L. - A MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANT

Swati Deshmukh1, Varsha Jadhav2

1 Research Student, Dept. of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.

2Assistant professor, Department of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur.

Abstract

Medicinal plants are sources of important therapeutic aids for alleviating human ailments. Clitoria  ternatea L.var ternatea  is one of medicinally important plants belonging to the family Fabaceae, commonly known as ‘Neela Gokern’ in Maharashtra. Through GCMS study different compounds analyzed from these plants. Nineteen chemical constituents have been identified, among that the major constituents are Z, Z- 8, 10-Hexadecadien-1-ol (28.69%), n-Hexadecanoic acid (26.60%), Pentadecane 2, 6, 10, 13- tetramethyl (15.87%), 9-Octadecenoic acid (z)-2-hydroxy-1(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester (14.51%), Hexacontane (12.88%) and other minor constituents were also identified. The presence of these constituents in the plant extract provides the scientific evidences to justify the use of whole plant for various ailments by traditional practitioners and enhances usage of C.ternatea which contains some identified and unidentified compounds. By separating and identifying these compounds formulated new drugs to treat various diseases.

42

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPTLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MONTELUKAST AND DOXOFYLLINE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

Hitesh. J. Vekaria1, Dr. B. D. Patel

1Research Scholar, Department of Pharmacy, JJT University, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India 333001

2Department of Quality Assurance , Smt. R. B. Patel Mahila Pharmacy College-Atkot, Dist-Rajkot, Gujarat, India 360040.

Abstract

A simple, precise, specific and accurate high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Montelukast (MONT) and Doxofylline (DOXO) in pharmaceutical dosage form. The separation was carried out on Merck HPTLC aluminum plates of silica gel G60 F254, (10 × 10 cm) with 250 μm thickness using Toluene : ethyl acetate : methanol : Glacial aceticacid (6 : 3.4 : 3 : 0.1, v/v/v/v) as mobile phase. HPTLC separation of the two drugs followed by densitometric measurement was carried out in the absorbance mode at 280 nm. The drugs were resolved satisfactorily with Rf values of 0.82 ± 0.01 and 0.72 ± 0.01 for MONT and DOXO, respectively. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with R2=0.9998 and 0.9986 for MONT and DOXO, respectively in the concentration range of 200-1000 ng/spot for MONT and 8000-40000 ng/spot for DOXO. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness. The limit of detection and quantitation were 100.54 and 304.66 ng/spot, respectively for MONT and 1333.79 and 4041.78 ng/spot, respectively for DOXO. The proposed developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of DOXO and MONT in bulk drug and drug formulation.

43

Phytochemical evaluation and anthelmintic activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Passiflora foetida Linn.

N.M.A. Rasheed1, Tarannum Fatima2 & M.A. Waheed1

1Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Opp. E.S.I. Hospital, Hyderabad 500038

2Sultan-Ul-Uloom College of Pharmacy, Road No. 1, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad 500038

Abstract

Passiflora foetida Linn. (Fam-Passifloraceae) is traditionally used by the tribes and native medical practitioners for the treatment of various ailments including liver disorders, tumors, asthma, itches and dressing for wounds. Folklore claims reported its use in diarrhoea, throat and ear infections, liver disorders, tumours, skin diseases. The present study is an attempt to explore the phytochemical constituents and in-vitro anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves. Preliminary phytochemical screening carried on ethanolic extract of leaves showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides (cyanogenetic glycosides), tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, etc. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis was also carried for determination of number of components present. Further, Anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract was evaluated on Indian earthworms; Pheretima postuma showed significant activity upon comparison to the standard drug albendazole at 10 mg/ml concentration.

44

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BILAYER MATRIX TABLETS OF CARBAMAZEPINE

S.Duraivel1*, Harish.G1, B. Pragati Kumar1, Debjit Bhowmik1, S. Ashwini2

1.Nimra College of Pharmacy, Ibrahimpatnam, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh

2.Jayamukhi college of Pharmacy, Narsampet,Warangal, Andhra Pradesh

Abstract

Carbamazepine is the drug of choice for the treatment of partial and  clonic seizure disorder. Consequently, chronic drug therapy in epileptic patients requires steady state plasma concentration with minimal fluctuation below the maximum effective concentration .Extended release system of carbamazipine with controlled and predictable release kinetics, when compared to conventional dosage form are likely to result in improved drug therapy. Hence in the present study an attempt has been made to develop the bilayer matrix tablets of CBZ using Eudragit RLPO, Eudragit RSPO and HPMC K100M and the sustained pattern of CBZ was evaluated by invitro drug release for 24 hrs.  Result of the study revealed that hydrophilic polymer polymethacrylate copolymer(Euthagit RSPO and RLPO) could  produce extended sustain release and hydrophilic polymer (HPMC K100M)  resulted extended release. Among all the formulations F11 formulation showed the maximum release up to 24 hr and it is selected as the best formulation. It concluded that sustained release matrix tablets of carbamazepine containing 10 % HPMC K100M provide a best  option for extended release of drugs.

45

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM, RAMIPRIL AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN BULK AS WELL AS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

S. Ashutosh Kumar*1, Manidipa Debnath1, Dr. J.V.L.N.Seshagiri Rao2

1 A.K.R.G College of Pharmacy, Nallajerla, West Godavari, 534112, A.P

2Prof. Pharmaceutical Analysis, Yalamarty College of Pharmacy, Tarluwada Visakhapatnam, 530052, A.P

Abstract

HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Losartan Potassium, Ramipril and Hydrochlorothiazide in bulk as well as in pharmaceutical dosage form using Symmetry C18 column (4.6 x 150mm, 5mm, Make: Hypersil) in isocratic mode. SUMMARY: The mobile phase was consisting of Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and Acetonitrile [HPLC Grade] in the ratio of 68:32(%v/v). The detection was carried out at 210 nm. The % mean recoveries of Losartan Potassium, Ramipril and Hydrochlorothiazide were found to be 98.0 to 100.8%, 98.9-100.7%and 98.3 to 101.2% respectively. The method was linear over the concentration range for Losartan 50.0 ppm-110.0 ppm, Ramipril 1.255ppm-2.75ppm & Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5ppm-27.5 ppm. The Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification of the method were calculated basing on standard deviation of the response and the slope (s) of the calibration curve at approximate level. The Limit of Detection for Losartan, Ramipril and Hydrochlorothiazide were found to be 0.07, 0.078 &.01μg/mL respectively and Limit of Quantification for Losartan, Ramipril and Hydrochlorothiazide were found to be 0.24, 0.27 and 0.05μg/mL respectively. The bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient was subjected to  thermal,  photolytic,  hydrolytic  (acidic  and  basic)  and  oxidative  stress  conditions  and  stressed  samples  were analyzed by the proposed method. The resultant stressed  samples  were  analyzed  by  the  proposed  method  and  was  established  to  provide high resolution among the degradation products and the analyte.  All the peaks of degraded product  were  resolved  from  the  active  pharmaceutical  ingredient  with  significantly  different retention time and the peak purity of analyte peaks in the stressed samples was confirmed by photodiode  array  detector.  CONCLUSION: The validation of method was carried out utilizing ICH-guidelines. The described HPLC method was successfully employed for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing combined dosage form. The method was effectively separated the drug from its degradation product and it was employed as a stability- indicating one.

46

ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVLOPMENT AND VALIDATION: REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGAPHY

Shikha Jakhotiya, Dr. B. Shrivastva

School of pharmaceutical sciences Jaipur National University.

 

Abstract

RP-HPLC method is use for the determination of drugs in single or in combination with other component. RP-HPLC technique is widely use for the separation and analysis of drugs that is present in combined formulation. This technique is also used for the separation of drug from the excipients that are present in the formulation. Analytical method is developed to carry out the determination of drugs or component present in the formulation. Validation studies are performed in order to assess the validation parameters for analytical method developed in accordance to ICH guideline. In this article we can understand steps of method development and validation for the new drug or component by using RP-HPLC technique.

47

VALIDATION OF A DISSOLUTION METHOD WITH HPLC-UV ANALYSIS FOR ESTIMATION OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL, AMLODIPINE BESYLATE AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMULATION

Solanki T.B., Shah P.A., Patel K. G.*, Shah D.S.1, Gandhi T.R.

Department of Quality Assurance, Anand Pharmacy College, Opp. TownHall, Anand-388001, Gujarat, India.

1Baroque Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd., Khambhat, Gujarat, India

Abstract

A simple, precise, sensitive and specific liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), amlodipine besylate (AMLO) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in tablet dosage form. Separation was achieved with Purospher ®-STAR, RP-C18, 5μ, 250 mm x 4.6 mm column, using simple isocratic mode with mobile phase containing acetonitrile: potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer adjusted to pH 3.0 with orthophosphoric acid (48: 52 v/v). The flow rate for analysis was 1.0 mL/min andUV detection at 238nm for hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine besylate and olmesartan medoxomil. The selected chromatographic conditions effectively separated hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine besylate and olmesartan medoxomil with retention time of 3.3, 3.9 and 7.7 minutes, respectively. Percent release for all three drugs achieved in dissolution study was more than 92% of labeled amount upto 60 min under optimized dissolution conditions. The HPLC method and dissolution method were validated with respect to system suitability, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness.The results of the method were acceptable confirming that these methods can be applicable, without any interference from the excipients. In conclusion, a novel, simple, accurate and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and can be useful in routine quality control, dissolution study and pharmaceutical dosage form analysis.

48

ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL AND PHYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF CARALLUMA TUBERCULATA

Kafeel Ahmad1, Farah Shireen1, Muhammad Atif1, Mehreen1, Shaista Bahar1

1Center of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan

Abstract

Medicinal plants have played a vital role in drug production. Using plant extracts directly has proved to be risk-free. Caralluma tuberculata is a perennial succulent, branched herb. Traditionally, the plant has been used for its therapeutic properties for treating many diseases for example diabetes mellitus, weight loss, cancer and rheumatoid arthritis etc. In the current studies, Crude ethanolic extracts of Caralluma tuberculata stem were used to investigate its antibacterial, antifungal, haemagglutination, phytotoxic properties. Antibacterial assay was carried out by agar well diffusion technique. Zones of inhibition around the bacterial colonies showed the antibacterial properties of plant extract. Extracts of Caralluma tuberculata stem were effective against all test organisms (Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Staphylococcus aureus) except Staphylococcus epidermidis. Antifungal assay was carried out using agar tube dilution method. Among the fungal species (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Trichoderma harizanum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasitica and Penecillium spp) only Fusarium oxysporum was moderately affected. Haemagglutination assay was carried out to check the presence of Phyto-glutinin in crude plant extract, however, no haemagglutination activity was found. Phytotoxic assay was used to investigate the phytotoxic properties of Caralluma tuberculata stem extracts against Lemna minor. The plant extracts showed highest phytotoxic activity at concentration of 1000 µg/L against the test plant. Our findings necessitate further investigations to be conducted for the isolation and characterization of active ingredients in pure form. These compounds could then be utilized in the formulation of antimicrobial drugs which are cheaper, safer and more effective.

49

RECENT ADVANCES IN NANO-CARRIERS FOR THE TREATMENT OF CANCER

Mitkare Sachin1*, Dawalbaje Atul1, Dolare Sachin1

1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwad University

,Nanded- 431 606 (MS), India.

Abstract

Now a day in the area of Nano technological research there is huge investment of companies is taking place because of limited use, availability and more toxic side effects of conventional anticancer drugs. Hence development of new Nanocarriers which will increase the bioavailability of anticancer drugs to targeted site and which will decrease the cytotoxicity of drugs is of greatest interest. In present condition family of Nano carriers such as polymer conjugates, polymeric nanoparticle, lipid based Nano carriers such as liposomes, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, super paramagnetic iron oxide particle, and polymer oil nanostructured carrier. In short this review explain that how Nanocarriers can be targeted i.e. active targeting and passive targeting, what are the parameters that would affect the drugs solubility, stability, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters i.e. renal clearance, retention time on tumour targeted site. This review will also explain that how the modifications of Nano carriers for treatment of cancer like changing the particle size, particle shape and surface chemistry bypasses the reticulo-endothelial barriers to increase bioavailability and specificity to tumour targeted site. Hence we can say that the application of newer strategies during last few years has developed new opportunities in the field of cancer Nano technological research. Although there are many of Nanocarriers being clinically approved or successfully marketed.

50

GC-MS ANALYSIS OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF BUDS OF SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM

C. Mercy Bastine, S. Mohanapriya, R. Caroline Jeba*

Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Dr.M.G.R Educational and Research Institute, University, Maduravoyal, Chennai-600 095.

Abstract

The aim of the present study is to identify the essential compounds of the methanol extract of Syzygium aromaticum(cloves). From the previous study ‘Comparitive studies of antidandruff activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale’ we have opted  the methanol extract of Syzygium aromaticum for GC-MS study from among ethyl acetate and hexane extracts since a high range of antidandruff activity was exhibited in the methanol extract. The methanol extract of Syzygium aromaticum was extracted using Eloff’s method. The extract was analyzed by GC-MS using a Hewlett Packard 5890 II GC, equipped with a HP-5 MS capillary column and a HP 5972 mass selective detector. GCMS analysis of the methanol extract of Syzygium aromaticum revealed 5 active compounds of which the compound with the highest retention time 12.52 was identified as Cyclohexane, 1, 1’-dodecylidenebis.This compound may be found to exhibit an effective antidandruff effect.

51

Validated RP-HPLC Method as a Tool for the Estimation of Lornoxicam in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

Atul R. Bendale*1, Sushil P. Narkhede1, Sandesh Palande2, Akhil A. Nagar3, Shailesh V. Luhar4 G. Vidyasagar5

1Research Scholar, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,  Suresh Gyan Vihar Universe, Jaipur, Rajsthan

2Research Scholar, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,  Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan

3Research Scholar, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Singhaniya Universe, Jaipur, Rajsthan

4Smt. BNB Swaminarayan Pharmacy College, Salvav, Vapi.

5Dean (Pharmacy Department) Kutch University, Bhuj, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

A simple reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated as per the ICH guidelines for the quantitative determination of Lornoxicam in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was simple, precise, specific and accurate. The mobile phase consists of pH 3.2 phosphate buffer, methanol and acetonitrile ( 3:1:1 v/v/v ). The proposed RP-HPLC method utilizes a 5μm Luna C18 phenomenex column (250 mm ×4.6 mm) at ambient temperature. The eluent was monitored at 273 nm and retention time of Lornoxicam was 3.910 min. The linearity was observed from 12.5-75μg/ml with r2= 1. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.75μg/ml and 1.5μg/ml respectively. From the results obtained, it was worthwhile that the provided methods were robust for small and deliberate changes in experimental conditions.

52

CATIONIC SUBMICRON EMULSION IN OCULAR DRUG DELIVERY -A REVIEW

H.R.  Desai,   P. D. Amin

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, N.P. Marg, Matunga-400 019, India

Abstract

The current review focuses on the advantages offered by a cationic submicronic oil-in-water emulsion over conventional formulations in delivering a poorly soluble drug to eye. The submicronic oil globules in a cationic oil-in-water emulsion act as vectors for poorly-soluble drug to eye. The positively charged oil globules are electrostatically attracted to the negatively charged conjunctival mucous membrane.The drug uptake occurs by receptor-mediated endocytosis of the cationic oil globules.The drug shows a controlled release by above mechanism. This phenomenon aids in decreasing the frequency of administration of the formulation and enhancing patient-compliance. The aqueous phase of oil-in-water emulsion can also be utilized to target a water- soluble drug. The submicronic size of oil globules aid in enhanced stability profile of the emulsion. Furthermore the lowered size of the globules makes the formulation non-irritant to the delicate ocular surface. The use of non-toxic, non-irritant surfactant systems to emulsify the oil aids in lowering the surface tension of the aqueous phase thus increasing the wetting of the ocular surface by the formulation. The formulation  approach comprises of applying a synergism of stirring along with high speed homogenisation or high pressure homogenisation to give the desirable submicronic globule size. Medium chain triglycerides (most preferred oil phase) are stabilized in the aqueous phase by utilizing a combination of non-ionic surfactants (Poloxamers, Polysorbates, etc) and cationic lipids(Stearylamine, Oleylamine etc). Miscellaneous additives like preservatives, tonicity modifiers and viscosity modifiers can be added to impart the system with enhanced ocular compatibility.The emulsion stability depends on the formulation method, nature of cationic lipid and the aqueous phase composition. The emulsion formulation when delivered in the form of eyedrops provides a patient-friendly means of delivering a poorly-soluble drug to the anterior as well as the posterior segment of the eye.

 
53

DIABETIC ANIMAL MODELS TO STUDY NEUROPATHY

Deshmukh Santosh A1, Upasani Chandrashekhar D2, Aasim Kazi3

1Department of Pharmacology, Nashik gramin shikshan prasarak mandal’s college of pharmacy , anjaneri ,  tal – trambakeshwar Dist Nashik

2Department of Pharmacology, SNJB’s SSDJ college of pharmacy , Neminagar , chandwad , Nashik.

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sandip foundation ’SIPS College of pharmacy, Trimbak road, Nashik-422213, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Diabetic neuropathy is a general term encompassing many conditions, each characterized by peripheral nerve dysfunction in the presence of diabetes. We reviewed the diabetic animal models used to investigate the pathogenesis of neuropathy and for testing experimental treatments. The pathogenic process underlying diabetic neuropathy has been studied using a variety of in vitro models, induced in vivo models such as the streptozotocin or alloxan treated rodent, and many different genetic models representing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Diabetic animal models are differ from the clinical condition to varying degrees, so the conclusions from observations obtained in these models should be drawn with care and validated in more than one model or condition. This contribution of investigated rodent models of T1DM and T2DM for a better understanding of diabetic neuropathy could be used for the enhancement of clinical care. Though therapies are available to alleviate the symptoms but few options are available to eliminate the root causes of diabetic neuropathy. The immense physical, psychological, and economic cost of diabetic neuropathy underscore the need for causally targeted therapies. This review suggests the need of significant advances in diabetic neuropathy knowledge in future from these models leading to the development of potential therapeutic agents that should provide better outcome in diabetic patients.

54

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION & BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NEWER 4-(4-SUBSTITUTED ARYL) SEMICARBAZONES AS ANTICONVULSANT AND ANTI-MICROBIAL AGENTS

Rohitashav Sharma, Shikha Mudgal, Dr. Birendra Shrivastava, Dr. Pankaj Sharma

 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur. Rajasthan, India

Abstract

In the present study, a series of semicarbazones were synthesized from substituted anilines and evaluated for their anticonvulsant and antimicrobial activities. The anticonvulsant activities were established by using experimental animal, albino mice and rats (150-250 gm) and screened against electroshock seizure. T1 came out to be the best synthesized compound against epilepsy among all newly synthesized compounds in MES test. The antibacterial activity of newly synthesized 4-(4-substituted aryl) semicarbazones evaluated against gram (+)ve bacteria viz Bacillus subtillis and gram (-)ve bacteria viz Escherichia coli. Results signify that semicarbazones are potential antibacterial agents and T2 came out to be the best synthesized compound against B.subtillis at concn 50 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml with 83.33% and 82.14% activity respectively while T3 came out to be the best synthesized compound against E.coli at 50 µg/ml concn with 84.61% activity. The antifungal activity of newly synthesized 4-(4-substituted aryl) semicarbazones evaluated against two micro-organisms Aspergillus niger and Penicillium marneffei. Results of the antifungal assay elicited that T2 and T3 gave the same and maximum activity against A.niger at 50 µg/ml concn with 77.77% activity while T2 gave 84.21% activity against P.marneffei at 100 µg/ml concn. This study has highlighted the importance of distal alkyl chain which influences the anticonvulsant activity

55

DEVELOPMENT OF UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF LETROZOLE IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Siddharth M. Patil1*, Sunil T.Galatage1, Avinash U.Choudhary2

Department of Pharmaceutics, KLE’S College of Pharmacy, Nippani, Karnataka, India

 

Abstract

In this present research work we have developed a validated UV spectrometric method for estimation of Letrozole in pure and pharmasutical dosage form. The developed method is accurate, fast, cost efficient and reproducible  for the estimation of Letrozole in pure and pharmaceutical dosage form. Based on measurement of absorption of UV light, the spectra of Letrozole in acetonitrile as a solvent showed maximum absorption wavelength (max) at 240 nm. The calibration curve was plotted over the concentration range from 1-24 μg/ml of Letrozole with correlation coefficient 0.999. Validation was performed as per ICH Q2  guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision, and recovery. This method has good reproducibility with % RSD less than one. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification were found to be 0.0470and 0.1424 respectively by simple UV spectroscopy. Thus this  proposed validated method can successfully applied for estimation of Letrozole in quality control ,routine analysis work,and in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

56

EFFECT OF CO-ADMINISTRATION OF GABAPENTIN & ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENT IN DIABETIC CONVULSIVE MICE

K.V.Zagade1, V.R.Undale2, A.V.Bhosale3, G.V.Pawar4

Department of Pharmacology, PDEA’S S.G.R.S College of Pharmacy, Saswad, Pune (M.S.) 412301, India

Abstract

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects of insulin secretion or increased cellular resistance to insulin. When abnormal glucose levels, whether too high or too low, can cause seizures. The problem is especially pertinent to individuals with diabetes, whose blood glucose levels can fluctuate widely over the course of a day, as a result of intercurrent illness, variations in insulin levels, or other metabolic factors.A convulsion is an abnormal violent and involuntary or series of contractions of the muscles. It occurs when the brain cells become too active and disorganized in their electrical properties. Though very less number of cases of diabetes associated with convulsions is reported, the risk of the mortality and morbidity increased due to the associated condition. For efficacious and safe therapy of diabetes associated with convulsion the study of interaction between OHAs (oral hypoglycemic agent) and Anticonvulsant is needed. Most commonly preferred oral hypoglycemic agent (metformin & glipizide) & anticonvulsant (Gabapentin) were selected for studied. Effect of combination of above drug on WBC’S, BODY WT, GHb, BSL and SCL were evaluated. Results obtained in study indicates more significant reduction (P<0.001) in glycemic control by combination of glipizide & Gabapentin as compared with combination of Metformin with Gabapentin and single administration with Gabapentin , metformin & glipizide & also significantly (P<0.001) change in hematological parameters ,body weight was observed in group treated with combination of glipizide & Gabapentin as compared with combination of Metformin with Gabapentin and single administration with Gabapentin , metformin & glipizide.

57

A VALIDATED SIMULTANEOUS RP-HPLC MEHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF PARACETAMOL, ENALAPRIL MALEATE AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM.

G.Kumara Swamy*1&2 , JMR Kumar1, J.V.L.N. Seshagiri Rao3

1Research scholar- JNTUK Kakinada, School of Pharmacy. A.P.India.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Trinity College of Pharmaceutical sciences, Peddapalli, Karimnagar (dist) - 505172.A.P.INDIA.

3Yalamarty College of Pharmacy, Visakhapatnam.

Abstract

A simple, Accurate, Precise and rapid RP-HPLC   method   has   been   developed   for   estimation   of   Enalapril   Maleate,   (EM), Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and paracetamol in its pure and tablet dosage form. The mobile phase used mixed buffer consisting of(KH2PO4 and K2HPO4) and ACN  in the ratio of (75:25%v/v) was delivered at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection was carried out at 210 nm. The separation was achieved using BDS C8 Hypersil column (Hi-Q 250x4.6mm ID; particle size 5µ m).The validation of method carried out as per ICH guidelines. The method was tested for linearity, accuracy, recovery study and specificity.Calibration curves were linear in the range of 10-60 for PCM, 5-30 ENM and 4-24 μg/ml for HCTZ respectively. Recovery studies for PCM, ENM and HCTZ were performed and the percentage recovery for both the drugs was obtained in the range of 98.59-99.35 % and 98.02-99.17 % respectively. The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with % RSD less than 2. The proposed method can be successfully applied for the determination of PCM, ENM and HCTZ in pharmaceutical formulations and is validated according to ICH guidelines.

58

SIMULTANEOUS FIRST ORDER DERIVATIVE SPECTRPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF PARACETAMOL, ENALAPRIL MALEATE AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM.

 
G. Kumara Swamy1*, JMR Kumar2, J.V.L.N. Seshagiri Rao3
 
1Research Scholar- JNTUK Kakinada, School of Pharmacy.A.P.India.
 
2Mylan Laboratories Limited, Plot no 31, 32, 33&34-A, Anrich Industrial Estate, Bollaram, Medak (Dist) 502325, India.
 
3Yalamarty College of Pharmacy, Tarluwada, Visakhapatnam- 530052, India.
 

Abstract

A simple, Accurate, Precise and sensitive UV spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Paracetamol (PCM), Enalapril maleate (ENM) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. This method employs solving of first order derivative spectroscopic method at the λ max values of PCM (278.60), ENM (250.80nm) and HCTZ(302.80).Calibration curves were linear in the range of 2-12 μg/ml for PCM and ENM and 4-24 μg/ml for HCTZ respectively. Recovery studies for PCM, ENM and HCTZ were performed and the percentage recovery for both the drugs was obtained in the range of 98.30-99.15 % and 98.5-99.27 % respectively. The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with % RSD less than 2. The proposed method can be successfully applied for the determination of PCM, ENM and HCTZ in pharmaceutical formulations and is validated according to ICH guidelines.

59

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF ANTIASTHMATIC DRUGS ON QUALITY OF LIFE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ASTHMATIC PATIENTS

P.R. Anand Vijaya Kumar*, Delphin  Lent and Jenny Varghese.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS University, J S S College of Pharmacy, Rocklands, Udhagamandalam-643001

Abstract

Background:

 In the management of asthma, combination therapy has been observed to produce significant effect than monotherapy for the improvement of Quality of Life (QoL) and cognitive function.

Purpose of the Study: 

To assess the Quality of Life and cognitive function in asthmatic patients receiving monotherapy and combination therapy of antiasthmatic drugs.

Methods:

This is an open comparative study conducted in 235 asthmatic patients of age 35-60 years for duration of 6months. The RAND 36 scale was used for assessing Quality of Life and MMSE score for assessing cognitive function. The data obtained were analyzed with graph Pad Instat V 3.06 software, Inc USA with 0.05 level of significance.

Result:

Asthmatic patients who had undergone the combination therapy deriphylline with salbutamol showed improvement in body pain, social functioning, physical health and total RAND 36 score. This combination therapy showed significant improvement in social functioning than deriphylline with dexamethasone combination. None of this combination showed significant effect on MMSE scores

Conclusion

In this study, quality of life of asthmatic patients was significantly improved with the combination therapy deriphylline with salbutamol than deriphylline with dexamethasone. Either combination or monotherapy was not found to be effective in improving cognitive function in these patients. 

60

INHIBITORY AND SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPEUM EXTRACTS ON CLINICAL AND STANDARD STRAINS OF MICROORGANISMS AND ITS BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS

K.M.Thara1«, Fathimath Zuhara2, Raji T.K 3

1Department of Biotechnology, University of Calicut, Thenjippalam, Malappuram District,Kerala,India.Pin-673635

2Professor, Department of Life Sciences, University of Calicut

3Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Calicut

Abstract

The different fractions of extract from the plant Pterocarpus marsupeum were collected and biological activities were tested. Active components were biochemically analyzed for the different bioactive components. LC-MS analysis showed the presence of compounds like pterocarpin (16%) and marsupin (2%). Different biochemical properties of this plant extract were evaluated. On testing some fractions showed significant antimicrobial effect also against tested microbes both clinical and standard strains. Antimicrobial activity against gram positive organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 87and gram negative organisms like Escherichia coli MTTCC 41, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426 (ATCC 6380),  Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 424(ATCC 25619) and Candida albicans MTTCC 183(ATCC 2091) and found to have significant inhibitory effect. The high level of antimicrobial activity observed in case of P. marsupeum can be attributed to the combined action of the phenolic compound - chlorogenic acid, flavonoid compound - pterocarpin and the stilbenes – marsupin. P.aeruginosa, the most susceptible organism to the extract of P. marsupeum (MIC-117.4 µg/ml), was inhibited by the synergistic effect of a concentration of 31.58 µg/ml of marsupin +8.2µg/ml of chlorogenic acid + unquantified pterocarpin.  The minimum inhibitory concentration obtained against the resistant strain Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 187.5µg/ml. The chloroform extract of P.marsupeum also showed significant antimicrobial activity. The synergistic effect in combination of the extract with antibiotics also tested and proved to have synergistic effect reducing the MIC value of the drug to two-fold.