IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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  • PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE
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SEPTEMBER 2013
1

ESTIMATION OF DIMENHYDRINATE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM: METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION

Yuvraj G. Jadhav, Upendra C. Galgatte*, Pravin D. Chaudhari

*Department of Pharmaceutics, P. E. Society’s Modern College of Pharmacy, Sector 21, Yamunanagar,     Nigdi, Pune – 411 044, Maharashtra, India

Abstract

A simple, accurate and precise spectroscopic method has been developed and validated for quantitative estimation of dimenhydrinate in bulk and pharmaceutical tablet dosage form. Dimenhydrinate was found to be soluble in phosphate buffer pH 6.8; hence, all validation parameters were carried out in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 as a solvent. Dimenhydrinate was dissolved in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and then solution was scanned in the range of 200 – 400 nm in a 1cm quartz cell in a double beam Shimadzu UV spectrophotometer. The λmax of drug was found to be 278 nm. The method obeys Beer’s law in the range of 2-20 µg/ml concentrations. The correlation coefficient (R2) was found to be 0.999. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.75 and 2.272μg/ ml respectively. The accuracy of method was carried out by recovery studies. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with % relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 2. The developed method was found to be simple, precise, accurate for the estimation of dimenhydrinate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Hence, it can be carried out in routine analysis for validation of dimenhydrinate in bulk and marketed formulation.

2

ESTIMATION OF RUTIN, QUERCETIN AND GALLIC ACID IN PTEROSPERMUM ACERIFOLIUM (L) WILLD. BY PLANNER CHROMATOGRAPHY

ESTIMATION OF RUTIN, QUERCETIN AND GALLIC ACID IN PTEROSPERMUM ACERIFOLIUM (L) WILLD. BY PLANNER CHROMATOGRAPHY

Rasika D. Bhalke *1, Deepak S. Musmade1 and Subodh C. Pal2

1Department of Pharmacognosy, SRES’s Sanjivani College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Kopargaon, Affiliated to University of Pune, Pune, Maharashtra, India-423603.

2N. D. M. V. P. S’s College of Pharmacy, Nashik, (MS), India-422002.

Abstract

Species of Pterospermum acerifolium by comparing the information based on literature. A simple high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for the determination of rutin, quercetin and gallic acid in leaves, bark and wood extract of Pterospermum acerifolium. Total methanolic extract of the leaves, bark and wood of Pterospermum acerifolium (TMPAL, TMPAB and TMPAW) and Ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extract of the leaves, bark and wood of Pterospermum acerifolium (EAPAL, EAPAB and EAPAW) was used for the experimental work. Separation was performed on silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates. Mobile phase for rutin, gallic acid and quercetin was ethyl acetate: formic acid: glacial acetic acid: water (10:1.1:1.1:2.6); cyclohexane: ethyl acetate: formic acid (4:6:1) and toluene : ethyl acetate : methanol  (4.4 : 5 : 0.6) respectively. The determination of rutin, gallic acid and quercetin was carried out using the densitometric absorbance mode at 254 nm, 298nm and 380nm respectively. The linear regression data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with r = 0.9937, 0.9970 and 0.9943 for rutin, gallic acid and quercetin respectively. The concentration of rutin in EAPAL, EAPAB and EAPAW was found to be 2.87 %, 6.7 %, 7.99 %w/w.

Conclusion: The proposed HPTLC method for the quantification of rutin was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive and accurate and can be used for quality control of raw materials.

3

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF VOGLIBOSE AND METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM.

Sadhana B. Todkar*, S.K. Mohite, Snehal Mali, Sucheta Rananavare.

Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy, Kasegaon-415404, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Two simple, rapid, accurate, precise, and economic Spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of Voglibose and Metformin hydrochloride in bulk and tablet dosage form have been developed. Method A is a simultaneous equation method and method B is Area under Curve method. Voglibose after derivatization with Taurine and Sodium periodate shows λmax at 222 and Metformin hydrochloride shows absorbance maximum at 233 nm respectively, For the AUC method, the wavelength ranges between 217-227 nm and 228-238 nm for Voglibose and Metformin hydrochloride were selected with reference to the absorbance curves plotted between the wavelengths of 200-400 nm. Both drugs obey the Beer lamberts’ law in the concentration range of 0.003-0.018μg/ml and 2-12μg/ml for Voglibose and Metformin hydrochloride respectively. Amounts of drugs estimated from tablet formulation were in good agreement with label claim. The methods were validated statistically and by recovery studies and these methods are economical and sensitive for the estimation of Voglibose and Metformin HCl in bulk and tablet dosage forms. The proposed methods can also be used for routine quality-control analysis of these drugs in combination tablets.

4

DIFFERENT METHODS FOR DETERMINING ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY: A REVIEW

Neha Sahu*, Jyoti Saxena

Department of chemistry Sarojini Naidu Government Girls (Post Graduate Autonomous) College, Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal, M.P, India.

Abstract

Antioxidants in food play an important role as a health protecting Factor. Main characteristic of an antioxidant is its ability to trap free radicals .There are different types of methods published in the literature for the determinations of antioxidant activity of foods. Antioxidant assays may be broadly classified as the electron transfer (ET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) based assays. The results obtained are hardly comparable because of the different mechanisms, redox potentials, pH and solvent dependencies, etc. This  minireview discusses critically the principles, advantages and limitations of the most frequently used methods of estimation of antioxidant activities.

5

Serum Magnesium Levels in Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetes

Ali Raza Memon1, Muhammad Yousuf Memon1 Faiza Memon1

1 Department of Biochemistry, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS) Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

Abstract

Magnesium deficiency has been proposed as a novel factor implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Hypomagnesaemia can be both a consequence and a cause of diabetic complications. The aim of our study was to know the relationship between magnesium levels in type-1 and type-2 diabetes as compared to the control subjects One hundred cases from which 50 cases of type-1 and 50 cases of type-2 diabetes mellitus were taken for the study after satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria and 50 non diabetic patients were taken as controls. All the patients were evaluated in detail and serum magnesium levels were estimated using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer. The mean serum Magnesium levels were decreased in both type of diabetes as compared to the control subjects. There was significant reduction in serum magnesium levels in type-1 and type- 2 diabetics compared to the controls. So hypomagnesaemia and uncontrolled glycemic index one of the risk factor for development of retinopathy.

6

SOLID DISPERSIONS OF TELMISARTAN FOR ENHANCING SOLUBILITY, DISSOLUTION RATE AND ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY

1Kothawade Pranita C. 2Belgamwar Veena S., 3Deshmukh Santosh A.

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Nashik gramin shikshan prasarak mandal’s college of pharmacy , anjaneri,  Tal – trambakeshwar

Dist . Nashik

2Head of Department, Department of Pharmaceutics and Quality Assurance, R.C.Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Near karwand naka, Shirpur-425 405, Dist-Dhule (India)

3Department of Pharmacology, Nashik gramin shikshan prasarak mandal’s college of pharmacy , anjaneri,  Tal – Trambakeshwar Dist . Nashik

Abstract

The purpose of present investigation was to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug telmisartan by formulating solid dispersions (SDs) using spray drying method and to carry out in vivo study in rabbits to study the extent of bioavailability enhancement. Telmisartan was selected as a model drug due to its poor and pH dependent solubility. Meglumine has been used as an alkalizer in SDs to increase the solubility of telmisartan. HPMC E5LV and PVP K-30 were used as polymers for preparation of solid dispersions. The prepared SDs were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study,  Solubility  study, in vitro drug release study and in vivo study. SEM, DSC and XRD study showed partial conversion of crystalline telmisartan to amorphous form. The solubility of telmisartan has been found to be increased by more than 300 folds when formulated as SDs using PVP K-30. In vitro drug release study showed marked enhancement in the drug release, SDs showed 100 % drug release within 30 min while pure telmisartan showed within 120 min. In vivo study showed significant enhancement in bioavailability of telmisartan from SDs with PVP K-30 than plain drug. Prepared solid dispersion using spray drying technique showed significant enhancement in drug solubility, drug release and bioavailability. This may aid in improving bioavailability to a greater extent requiring less amount of the drug.

7

SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW PYRAZOLO[3,4-B]PYRIDINE AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

Raviraj B. Deore, Bhupendra S. Rane, Someshwar V. Deshmukh, Madhukar N. Jachak*

Organic Chemistry Research Center, K.T.H.M. College, Gangapur Road, Nashik-422 002, Maharashtra, India

Abstract

A series of new pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives have been synthesized by Friedländer condensation of 5-aminopyrazole-4-carbaldehyde with the corresponding active methylene compounds. The synthesized compounds have been screened for antibacterial activity by employing bacterial stains. From the antibacterial activity data, it was observed that compounds 11 and 13 were the most active among all the tested compounds against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. For the antifungal activity data, compound 7e-7h, 11, 13, 17 and 21 are the most active among all the synthesized compounds. The thiophene substituted pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine ring showed the best antibacterial and antifungal activity.

8

IN VITRO CHARACTERISTICS AND IN VIVO SITE SPECIFICITY OF PACLITAXEL LOADED SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES FABRICATED WITH COMBINATION OF LIPID AND PHOSPHOLIPID

Sidharth M.Patil*, Hemant P.Joshi1

* K.L.E.Society’s College Of Pharmacy, Nippani, Karnataka. INDIA

1 Dr.Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd.Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. INDIA          

Abstract

The present study was undertaken in perusal of developing alternate formulation of paclitaxel, with improved specificity to tumors by using combination of lipid and phospholipid. The solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by using lipid (stearic acid) and its combination with phospholipid(DpPC/DPPG,Na) and were characterized by in vitro and in vivo methods. Microemulsification method was used to prepare the SLN. The formulated SLN were characterized for particle size distribution, entrapment efficiency, percentage yield, SEM and in vitro dissolution study. In vitro cytotoxicity study was performed using MCF-7 cell lines. Tissue targeting study and tumor growth inhibition studies were performed on mice using EAC cell lines. The results shown that SLN were having smooth surface and were spherical in nature. Percentage yield was high in formulations G1 and G2.The particle size of SLN prepared with single lipid was found to be smallest and less entrapment efficiency in comparison to other formulations. The combination of staearic acid  with DPPG,Na showed high entrapment efficiency. The high zeta potential value indicated better stability of product. Nanoparticles prepared with stearic acid shown 82.54% - 85.14% drug release after 48 hours. Combination of stearic acid with DpPC showed drug release of 74.89 % - 77.82% while combination of stearic acid with DPPG, Na showed release of 74.34%- 78.11% after 48-hrs.When lipid was combined with phospholipid, high mortality of EAC cell was seen. SLN in batch F2 and G2 showed presence of drug in plasma up to 24 hours. The biodistribution of drug from formulations F2 and G2 were found to be more promising. Formulations developed with combination of lipid and phospholipid shown more inhibition in tumor growth in comparison with other SLN formulation loaded with PTXand marketed product Taxol. The present study resulted that an alternate formulation of paclitaxel can be developed in the form of SLN by combining the lipid with phospholipid and with desired characteristics of tumor specificity.  In conclusion, this preliminary experimental work to identify applicability of combination of lipid and phospholipiod for SLN fabrication with site specificity of paclitaxel should be further strengthened by more in vivo experimentation.

9

STANDARDIZATION, DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF PIPERINE IN AYURVEDIC VATI FORMULATION

Imran Khan Pathan1*, Rakesh K Patel2, Anil Bhandari2, Rajesh Verma3, Sanjay Sharma3, Amit Kumar3.

1Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur.

2Dept. of Pharmacognosy, SKPCPER, Ganpat  University, Mehsana, Gujarat

3Dept. of Pharmachemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur.

Abstract

A new simple Spectrophotometric method for estimation of Piperine in Piper nigrum, Piper longum and Marichyadi Vati was investigated. The λmax of Piperine was found to be 342 nm in 0.1 N HCl. The method obeys Beers law in the concentration range from 2-16 μg/ml. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9973 (r2═ 0.9973) adherence to good linearity. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The result of estimation of Piperine in Piper nigrum, Piper longum and Marichyadi Vati were found to be 1.60 %, 1.05 %, 2.16% respectively. The proposed method was validated for linearity, accuracy and application for assay as per ICH guidelines. The study showed that the developed method was simple and accurate and would be suitable for the estimation of Piperine in Piper nigrum, Piper longum and Marichyadi Vati. Hence it can be applied for routine quality control analysis of Piperine in various Ayurvedic formulations.

10

VISIBLE-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

K. Bhargavi*, S.A.Rahaman

Department of pharmaceutical analysis, Nirmala College of pharmaceutical sciences, Atmakuru (village), Mangalagiri (Mandal) 522503 Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract

A simple, sensitive, precise and accurate visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of paracetamol in bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulations. The 2, 2’-bipyridyl method, is based on the oxidation of the drug with Fe (III) and the estimation of Fe (II) produced after chelating with 2, 2′-bipyridyl is done at 522.6 nm. Reaction conditions were optimized to achieve the maximum color intensity. Linearity obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range of 2-10μg/ml and coefficient of correlation was found to be 0.998. The developed methods have been validated statistically as per ICH guidelines. The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with % RSD less than 2. So, the proposed methods were found to be simple, specific, precise, accuracy, linear, and rugged. Hence it can be applied for routine analysis of Paracetamol in bulk drug and the Pharmaceutical formulations.

11

ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ACALYPHA INDICA LINN IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

Sonwane Pradeep*1, Navghare Vijay2, Ingole Parag2, Pawale Sachin2, Khadbadi Somshekhar1, Gond Namdev3.

1Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Government College of Pharmacy, Kathora Naka, Amravati – 444604, Maharashtra, INDIA

2SSS, Indira College of Pharmacy, Vishnupuri, Nanded.

3Nanded Pharmacy College, Nanded.

Abstract

The present study was performed to evaluate fractions of Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae) for its antidiabetic activity in alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p.) induced diabetic rats. The effects of two fractions of Acalypha indica in pet ether (PAI) and in ethyl acetate (EAI) on fasting blood glucose level (BGL), histopathology of pancreas were observed. Two fractions of Acalypha indica (150 mg/kg/day and 300 mg/kg/day p.o.) was administered to a group of diabetic rats (n=6) for 10 consecutive days and the observed data was compared with glibenclamide (10 mg/ kg/ day p.o.). Administration of fractions of Acalypha indica causes a significant reduction of BGL (p< 0.01), (p<0.001), (p<0.05) of pet ether and ethyl acetate fractions of Acalypha indica vs diabetic control. Based on our data it can be concluded that fractions of Acalypha indica possess moderate anti hyperglycemic effect and has mixed effect on body weight.

12

RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CLOPIDOGREL BISULPHATE AND ATORVASTATIN CALICIUM IN A CAPSULE DOSAGE FORM

Neeharika.M*, K. Shantha kumari2, S.A .Rahaman3, Maheswari.G4, Revathi.S5

Department of pharmaceutical Analysis, Nirmala College of pharmaceutical sciences, Atmakuru (vill), Mangalagiri (Mndl)-522503,

Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract

A Reverse phase -HPLC (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of Clopidogrel bisulphate (CLO) & Atorvastatin calcium (ATR) in their pharmaceutical preparation. The chromatographic separation was achieved by gradient elution technique on (reverse phase) X-BRIDGE C18 column (150X4.6 mm, i.d, 3.5µ particle size) maintained at a temperature of 40◦C with a mobile phases A &B consisting of 0.1% Trifluoro acetic acid in water & 0.1% Trifluoro acetic acid in acetonitrile respectively with a gradient program of (Time/ %B) 0/30, 15/80, 20/80, 21/30, 25/30. The retention times were found to be 5.1& 10.5 min for CLO &ATR respectively. Quantization was achieved with UV detection at 215 nm based on peak area. Linearity was observed over concentration range of 1 – 112.5μg mL-1 for CLO and 1 - 15 μg mL-1 for ATR.The developed method were successfully applied for laboratory prepared mixtures as well as commercially available capsule formulation of CLO& ATR

13

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF E.TRIPLINERVE (VAHL) AND ITS FRACTIONS: POSSIBLE MECHANISMS

Binoy Varghese cheriyan1*, S Viswanathan1, N Jagan1, K Parimala1, S Vijaykumar1, V Venugopal2

1Department of pharmacology, Meenakshi Medical College and RI, Kanchipuram, TN.

2Chairman Ph.D, Meenakshi Medical College and RI, MAHER, Kanchipuram, TN.

Abstract

The study was designed to evaluate the possible anti-inflammatory activity of alcoholic extract of E.triplinerve and its fractions and to further investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects by in vivo and in vitro models. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma test in albino rats were employed to study the anti-inflammatory activity. The mechanism of anti-inflammatory was explored by observing the amount of malonaldehyde formation in the granulomatous tissue and invitro membrane stabilization. The alcoholic extract of E.triplinerve and its fractions showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced hind paw edema model and cotton pellet granuloma at varying degrees. The predominant anti-inflammatory activity is observed with ethyl acetate fraction and n-hexane fraction respectively. The alcoholic extract and its fractions showed significant reduction in malonaldehyde levels in the granulomatous tissues and possessed high membrane stabilization activity. These observations indicated that the alcoholic extract of E.triplinerve had potential anti-inflammatory activity.

14

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMULTANEOUS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE AND DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE IN BULK DRUG AND ITS FORMULATION

Prachi A. Shahu*, Dr. Vaishali V. Potnis, Pankaj V. Dangre, Lokesh T. Thote.

Kamla Nehru College of Pharmacy, Butibori, Nagpur -441108, Maharashtra, India

Abstract

Simple UV-Spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous determination of Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and Dexamethasone sodium phosphate in pharmaceutical formulation. Distilled water was used as a solvent for analysis. The methods used are simple and have been tested for accuracy, precision and reproducibility for the estimation of both the drugs. One method used is Simultaneous equation, wavelength selected for quantitation are 271 nm for Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and 242 nm for Dexamethasone sodium phosphate. The other method used is Multicomponent mode of analysis, involves measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths i.e.242 nm of Dexamethasone sodium phosphate and 271 nm of Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride. In both methods, Dexamethasone sodium phosphate and Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride followed linearity range at 2-20µg/ml and 6-60 µg/ml respectively at their respective λmax. The developed methods were economical in terms of time taken and amount of solvent consumed for analysis. The methods were validated and successfully applied for simultaneous determination Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and Dexamethasone sodium phosphate in bulk drug and its formulation.

15

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PIPERINE AND FERULIC ACID FROM MARKETED HERBAL FORMULATIONS BY HPTLC

Archana A. Sonawane1, Shruti B. Sathe1, Sameer H. More1, Aruna P. Jadhav1 and Vilasrao J. Kadam1

1Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai - 400614, Maharashtra, India

Abstract

The present work deals with development of HPTLC method for simultaneous quantification of ferulic acid and piperine in ayurvedic formulation containing asafoetida and long or black pepper as one of the ingredients. Chromatographic separation of the drugs was performed on Merck TLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase. The mobile phase selected was toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol: formic acid (7:2:1:0.1v/v/v/v). The samples solutions were prepared in methanol and linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber and scanned at 327 nm using Camag TLC scanner. The two drugs were satisfactorily resolved with Rf values 0.34±0.02 and 0.57±0.02 for ferulic acid and piperine, respectively. The linear  regression  analysis data  for  the calibration  plots  for ferulic acid and piperine  showed  good  linear  relationship  with  regression  coefficient  (r2) 0.995 and  0.997  in  the  concentration  range  of  25-175  ng/spot  and  10-70  ng/spot, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, specificity, recovery, precision, robustness as per ICH guidelines. Limits of detection and quantitation were recorded as 2.32 and 7.05 ng/spot, respectively for ferulic acid similarly 2.29 and 6.9 ng/spot, respectively for piperine. The developed method was found to be rapid, simple, precise, specific and reliable for the determination of ferulic acid and piperine from formulations containing asafoetida and black pepper.

16

GLUCOSAMINE: A BOON TO OSTEOARTHRITIS

Archana A. Sonawane 1, Shruti B. Sathe1, Sameer H. More1, Aruna P. Jadhav1 and Vilasrao J. Kadam1

1Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai - 400614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Glucosamine is an amino-monosaccharide (protein + carbohydrate) made in the body from glucose and glutmamine by the chondro­cytes (cells in the cartilage). Glucosamine stimulates the production of molecules that provide joint strength and elasticity. Glucosamine does this by enhancing the production of collagen, glycosaminogly­cans, and proteoglycans in the joint matrix. Glucosamine is a nutritional supplement that may be useful in the treatment of moderate-severe forms of osteoarthritis. Athletes have used glucosamine as part of their rehabilitation to sustain or repair articular cartilage. This review is an effort to summarize the detailed prospects of glucosamine and its effectiveness in treating osteoarthritis.

17

PHENYTOIN INDUCED ERYTHEMATOSUS RASH IN A DIABETIC SEIZURE PATIENT

Mir S Adil*1, S Amir2, Amer K1, M Faqruddin1, A Haadi1, M Nassir1, M Shahid1, M Javeedullah1

1Pharm.D, Department Of Pharmacy Practice, Deccan School Of Pharmacy. Hyderabad –01, A.P

2M.Pharm, Department Of Pharmacy Practice, Deccan School Of Pharmacy. Hyderabad –01, A.P

Abstract

This is a case report of 1 year old male patient, who has experienced rashes after the use of phenytoin for the treatment of seizures. The blood glucose level of the patient was high, which may have triggered seizure in the patient. This type of seizure is known as diabetic seizure. Phenytoin is a hydantoin compound related to the barbiturates that are used for the treatment of seizures. It is one of the most commonly used anticonvulsant drugs. These drugs frequently cause cutaneous eruptions, especially during inception of new therapy. In addition to causing common and usually limited morbilliform and urticarial eruptions, which have often mild morbidity. In this case, the patient has developed erythematosus rash all over the body on the fifth day after administration of phenytoin. This ADR (Adverse drug reaction) has scored 6 points on naranjo scale of causality assessment. The possible reason for the adverse drug reaction was found to be the drug over-dose.

18

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF BAMBUSA BAMBOS DRUCE LEAVES

Aakruti. A. Kaikini1, Swati R. Dhande1, Aruna P. Jadhav1, Malvika S.Gursahani1, and Vilasrao J. Kadam1.

1Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Sector-8, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614, Maharashtra, India

Abstract

Bambusa bambos Druce. belonging to family Graminae is a graceful, spinous bamboo distributed throughout most parts of India. The tree has many folk uses in various systems of traditional medicine in India. The present study reveals the detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of Bambusa bambos leaf. The study includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical screening and physicochemical evaluation of the leaf. Microscopic evaluation of the leaf revealed the presence of starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals, epidermis with sunken stomata and vascular bundle. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts of the leaf revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, tannins, glycosides and flavonoids. Physiochemical evaluation of leaf revealed total ash (11.46%), acid-insoluble ash (5.81%), water-soluble ash (2.66%), sulphated ash (9.25%), loss on drying (15.77%), petroleum ether extractive (1.85%), chloroform extractive (2.11%), ethyl acetate extractive (2.98%), ethanol extractive (26.77%) and water extractive (18.56%).  The results obtained can be utilised for quick identification of the drug.

19

RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION DUE TO CLONAZEPAM AND FLUCONAZOLE INTERACTION: CASE REPORT AND DISCUSSION

MD Amer Khan *1, Nematullah K1, Mohammed Omer1, Aamer K1, Md. Javeedullah1, Md. Nasir1, M.S Adil1, Maazuddin M1

PharmD, Clinical Pharmacist, Department Of Pharmacy Practice, Owaisi Hospital And Research Deccan School Of Pharmacy (DSOP) Hyderabad – 500024, Andhra Pradesh

Abstract

This is a case report focusing on a 22 years female patient who experienced respiratory depression after the concurrent use of clonazepam and fluconazole. Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine drug having anxiolyticanticonvulsantmuscle relaxantsedative, and hypnotic properties and is metabolized by CYP3A  iso-enzyme. Fluconazole is an antifungal used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic fungal infections and is known to inhibit the CYP 3A iso-enzymes. Pharmacokinetic studies have established that fluconazole inhibits clonazepam metabolism which may lead to toxicity when these two drugs are given concurrently. One needs to be aware that this drug combination predictably causes adverse side effects hence, closely monitoring should be done in patient receiving long-term clonazepam therapy. We report a case of respiratory depression induced by the concurrent administration of clonazepam and fluconazole. Naranjo's causality assessment algorithm was used to assess the adverse effect and it indicated that concurrent use of clonazepam and fluconazole as probable cause of respiratory depression. Although information is available regarding an interaction between clonazepam and fluconazole, there are no large randomized controlled studies reporting this interaction. This is the first report of clonazepam and fluconazole interaction causing respiratory depression. Hence further detailed pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic studies are needed before one a truly determine the possible effects of this interaction.

20

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC ACIDS IN FRUIT JUICE OF CITRUS MEDICA L. BY RP-UHPLC

Umesh Talekar* 1, Dr.D.N.Vora1, Dr. Shridhar Gawade2, Dr. Anil Gopala2

1Department of Chemistry, Mithibai College (Vile Parle), Mumbai,

 PerkinElmer (India) Pvt. Ltd., Thane

Abstract

A simple, precise, sensitive, rapid and economic Reversed Phase-Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-UHPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of oxalic, malic, ascorbic, citric and succinic acid in Citrus medica L. fruit juice. The method was developed on PerkinElmer UHPLC system equipped with UV detector. The separation and analysis was carried out on PerkinElmer C-18 AQ Analytical Col­umn (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) using potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH 2.5) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min and UV detection at 214nm. Calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficient (r2)  > 0.999 over a concentration range of  10-1000 mg/Lit (oxalic acid), 2-200 mg/Lit (ascorbic acid), 20-2000 mg/Lit (malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid). The all organic acid elutes in less than 4 min and retention time for oxalic acid- 1.31 min, malic acid- 1.63 min, ascorbic acid-1.79 min, citric acid-2.39 min, succinic acid-3.21 min. The relative standard deviations for peak area and retention time were found to be < 2%. The limit of detection for oxalic acid- 2.5 mg/Lit, malic acid-1.0 mg/Lit, ascorbic acid-0.1 mg/Lit, citric acid-1.0 mg/Lit, succinic acid-1.0 mg/Lit. The proposed RP-UHPLC method was found simple, fast, linear, precise, and sensitive for routine analysis and quality monitoring of fruit juice.

21

POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF ‘KING OF FRUITS’ (MANGO)

Purnachandra Reddy M1, K V Saritha2*

1Department of Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517 502

*2Department of Future Studies, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517 502

Abstract

Mango is the most important tropical fruit in the world referred as “The king of the fruits”. In India mango is a national fruit which is nutritionally rich - with unique flavor, fragrance, taste, and thus promoting health benefits to humans. Looking at its properties it is also called as super fruit and having potential applications. Globally mango production is approximately 39,984.57 metric tons - per year of which 45% mango production is contributed by India. India ranks first in mango production with its production of 11.7 metric tons per hectares whereas average world’s production levels are 7.7 metric tons per ha. In India, Andhra Pradesh stands in at first position in mango production. The varieties of mango processed products are slice, chop, dice, and mango puree which can be preserved by dehydration, canning, bottling, freezing, and pickling. These mango products have many forms like dried fruits in trail mixes, canned fruit slices in syrup, nectars, juices or blends in tropical fruit punches, jams and jellies, mango chutney. Chutney is prepared from salted green mango slices and constitutes the largest commercial volume of processed mango products.  Beyond being delicious and rich in vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants, mango processing industrial waste can be utilized as substrate for production of various industrially important enzymes such as cellulases, pectinases, ligninases, hemicellulases, and chitinases. Mango is one of the most popular fruits with its good nutraceutical qualities.

22

UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CHLORTHALIDONE IN BULK AND ORAL DOSAGE FORM

V.Niraimathi*, A.Jerad Suresh, I.Senthil Kumar

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy,

Madras Medical College, Chennai-600003, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Simple, precise and economical spectrophotometric methods ( Method A ,Method B and Method C and Method D ) have been developed for the estimation of  chlorthalidone bulk as well as in tablet dosage form . MethodA involves the determination of chlorthalidone by standard absorbance method at 275nm and the Beer’s concentration range was found to be 40-160µg/mL. Method B involves the determination of chlorthalidone  by Area Under Curve(AUC) method and the linearity was established. Method C involves the determination of chlorthalidone by first order derivative method. In Method D the difference between two absorbances  at 275nm  and at 284 (Q-absorbance) were used for quantification .The results of analysis  have been validated statistically  by ANOVA method and by recovery studies.

23

RESPIRATORY TRACT IS THE EPICENTRE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

Maazuddin Mohammed*1, Md. Amer khan1, Mohammed Mohiuddin2, Mir Shoeb ulla Adil1, Muhammed Nasir Mohiuddin1, Mohammed Javeedullah1, Md. Shahid Hussain1.

1Pharm.D, Department of Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy Practice, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, AP, India

2M.Pharm, Department of Pharmacology, Deccan school of pharmacy, Hyderabad, AP, India.

Abstract

Respiratory tract contains large number of bacteria, these bacteria becomes resistant by different mechanisms to antibiotics due to Improper or/and overuse. There is a major threat to public health due to Increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR), as it reduces the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment, which may leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. For example, MRSA increased from approximately 70% in Japan and the Republic of Korea, 40% in Belgium, 30% in the United Kingdom, and 28% in the USA. These resistant organisms may remain for months in the tract of the carrier without causing any symptoms, and can undergo cross-transmission to other individuals, and cause limited outbreaks. certain bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, developes resistance to majorly used antibiotics in respiratory infections. Antibiotic resistance can be detected and charecterized by some diagnostic methods like simple and multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, DNA sequencing. Certain strategies like, use of formal protocols, guidelines, narrow-spectrum antibiotics, combination antibiotic therapy, shorter courses of antibiotic treatment, antibiotic cycling and restricting hospital antibiotic prescriptions need to be followed to overcome and prevent the antibiotic resistance.

24

POST MENOPAUSAL QUALITY OF LIFE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS—A REVIEW

1Preeti Kothiyal, 1Monika Sharma٭.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology and Science Patel Nagar, Dehradun- 248001, U.K

Abstract

Appraisal of quality of life has become a crucial component of clinical practice, so that clinicians can obtained a comprehensive picture of women’s subjective perception of menopause. Due to less availability of the study on quality of life of menopausal women in developing counties, more descriptive study is required to assess the risk and benefit relation of potential factors which may help out to get better health at advanced age. During menopause variety of clinical characteristics of women like social lifestyle, smoking, drinking habit and psychological status may influence the eventual timing of the menopause transition and post menopausal quality of life of women as well. The main aim of writing this article is to assemble the literature on menopause with special emphasis on the factors which influence the health related quality of life of menopausal women by both ways either positive or negative consequence. A number of studies show the significant association of these factors and health related quality of life of menopausal women like regular physical activity, balanced BMI, sexual satisfaction, education and awareness status improve the quality of life among post-menopausal women. Some personal habit like smoke and alcohol consumption may influence positively and negatively the quality of life because of the complex interaction of smoke and alcohol with female reproductive hormones. Smoke may cause early onset of menopause and high incidence of osteoporosis but also have lower risk menopausal endometrial cancer.

25

FREEZE AND THAW CREATES OXIDATIVE STRESS AND DNA DAMAGE IN FROZEN HUMAN SPERMATOZOA

Kamala Katepogu1, Pallavi Chittor, 1 Divya Kurumala1, Venkataswamy Mallepogu1, Venkateswarlu Kamity2 and Thyaga Raju Kedam*1

1Dept. of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, AP, India

2 Invitro fertility Centre, Tirupati,  AP,  India

Abstract

Oxidative stress plays a major role in induction of cell structural damage, cellular dysfunction, and loss of cell survival. Semen cryopreservation is an important part of the work of many clinical laboratories, particularly those associated with infertility clinics. Most of the studies conducted on semen storage have demonstrated a beneficial effect of in vitro antioxidant supplements in protecting spermatozoa from exogenous oxidants and cryopreservation. In contrast, the effect of antioxidants in protecting spermatozoa from endogenous ROS and sperm processing have not been established conclusively. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the oxidative stress induced cryopreserved sperm quality, DNA intactness and lipid peroxidation of human semen that was stored at -1960C. The semen sample stored at -1960C has showed significant increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO), and super oxide dismutase (SOD), and slightly, compared with fresh samples, the decrease in catalase and glutathione peroxidase (P≤0.004) activities. In addition to these the DNA damage was also found on using electrophoresis and comet assay. In conclusion ejaculates collected from donors were subjected to cryopreservation and thawing. These samples on experimental analysis conclude that the cryopreservation induces oxidative stress in the spermatozoa due to increasing rate of lipid peroxidation and suppression of the antioxidant enzyme defense mechanism. These effects further may provide an evidence for cryopreservation induced spermatozoa damage including nucleic acids.

26

THE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF VOGLIBOSE AND METFORMIN HCL IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM WITH THE PRE-COLUMN DERIVATIZATION OF VOGLIBOSE

Miss. Sadhana B. Todkar*1, Dr. K. A. Wadkar2, Dr. S. K. Mohite1, Snehal Mali1

1Department of Quality Assurance, Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy, Kasegaon, Maharashtra, India.

2Department of Pharmacognosy, Appasaheb Birnale College of Pharmacy, Sangli, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Simultaneous determination of Voglibose and Metformin HCl has been accomplished using a high performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection at 226 nm for both drugs. Separation was achieved on a Inertsil ODS (150mm×4.6 mm) and The column was equilibrated with mobile phases consisted of acetonitrile: 0.01M phosphate buffer pH 3 (85:15, v/v) and The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min. and the total elution time was 10min. The selected chromatographic conditions were found to effectively separate Voglibose and Metformin HCl with retention time 2.11 ± 0.015 and 4.62 ± 0.020 min. Voglibose was derivatized by using Taurine and Sodium Periodate. This method was applied to combination of standard bulk drug and marketed formulations. The linearity range was found to be 0.01-0.06µg/ml and 10-60µg/ml for Voglibose and Metformin HCl respectively. The proposed method was found to be accurate, precise, reproducible and specific and it can also be used for routine quality-control analysis of these drugs in combination tablets.

27

MICROWAVE ASSISTED IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SUBSTITUTED BENZIMIDAZOLE UREA DERIVATIVES

Chakradhar D. Hadole a, Umesh D. Pete a, Chetan M. Zade a, Jitendra D. Bhosale a, Megharaj S. Kadam b and Ratnamala S. Bendre *a

aSchool of Chemical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon - 425 001, (MS) India.

bSchool of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon - 425 001, (MS) India.

Abstract

A series of ten novel substituted Benzimidazole urea derivatives [5a (I-VIII), 5b and 7] have been synthesized by two different methods. In the first method (Conventional Method A) Benzimidazole urea derivatives 5a (I-VIII), 5b and 7 were prepared by reacting substituted 1R-benzimidazol-2-amine 4(a-c) with substituted phenyl isocynates, in toluene. In the second method (Improved Method B), the above reaction was carried out under microwave assistance. Various 1R-nitro anilines 2(a-c) were prepared by reacting 1-fluoro-2-nitrobenzene with cyclohexyl amine, 2-methoxy benzyl amine or 3,4-dimethoxy benzyl amine in ethanol by Method (A) and Method (B). Compared to the conventional method, the microwave-assisted syntheses demonstrated several advantages, in terms of reaction time and overall yield. 1R-nitro anilines 2(a-c) were further reduced and cyclized to form 1R-benzimidazol-2-amine 4(a-c). The structures were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, CHN, and Mass spectral data. The synthesized compounds [5a (I-VIII), 5b and 7] were screened for their antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms: antibacterial strains viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spisizenii, Escherichia coli and fungal strains Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus brasiliensis and Curvilaria lunata. The compounds were found to exhibit good to moderate antimicrobial activity. Among the compounds tested, compound 5a (VI) i.e. 1-(1-cyclohexyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-4-methoxy-3-phenylurea showed highest activity.

28

SIMPLE UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ISONIAZID IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

R.Ramaprabha, A.Jerad Suresh, V. Niraimathi*

Department Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College Of Pharmacy,

Madras Medical College, Chennai-600003, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract

Simple, precise and economical spectrophotometric methods (Method A, Method B and Method C and Method D ) have been developed for the estimation of isoniazid bulk as well as in tablet dosage form . Method A involves the determination of isoniazid by standard absorbance method at 262nm and the Beer’s concentration range was found to be 10-40 µg/mL. Method B involves the determination of isoniazid by Area Under Curve (AUC) method and the linearity was established. Method D involves the determination of isoniazid by first order derivative method. In Method D the difference between two absorbances at 226nm and at 262nm (λmax of isoniazid) were used for quantification .The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

29

ISOLATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF A BACTERIAL KERATINASE ISOLATED FROM POULTRY FEATHER WASTES

Vidhya.D and Palaniswamy. M*

Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Karpagam University, Coimbatore – 641 021, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract

Keratinase enzymes are known to degrade the insoluble keratin protein that is found largely in the abundant feather wastes. The enzyme plays a prominent role in the improvement of feather as poultry feed. The present study was aimed at isolating a potential keratinase producing bacteria from chicken feathers collected from poultry waste sites in and around Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India; and optimising the factors that affect the keratinase enzyme production by the isolate. The strain was isolated based on feather degradation and identified as Bacillus subtilis KMBVP based on 16srRNA gene sequencing. Optimum conditions for the enzyme production were analysed. The strain produced maximum keratinase at pH 8.0, temperature 40oC and in 8 days of incubation. The suitable carbon and nitrogen sources for high keratinolytic activity are feather meal and yeast extract. PMSF and EDTA partially inhibited the enzyme activity. The produced keratinase enzyme is found to be alkaline serine protease.

30

HPTLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ELLAGIC ACID AND GLYCYRRHIZIN IN HERBAL FORMULATION

Varsha B. Bagade*, Varsha M. Jadhav, Vilasrao J. Kadam

Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, C.B.D Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614, Maharashtra, India

Abstrac

A simple, precise and accurate high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Ellagic acid (EA) and Glycyrrhizin (Also known as Mono Ammonium Glycyrrhizinate-MAG) in the developed herbal formulation. The separation was carried out on Merck TLC aluminum sheets of silica gel G60 F254 of 200 µm thickness, using Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (5:5:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase and densitometric analysis of compound was carried out in absorbance mode at 265 nm. The aforesaid mobile phase gave well defined peaks at Rf value of 0.12 ± 0.03 for Glycyrrhizin and 0.45 ± 0.03 for Ellagic acid.  The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots for EA and MAG showed good linear relationship with regression coefficient (r2) of 0.997 and 0.996 respectively; in the concentration range of 200-700 ng/spot for both the compounds. The limit of detection and quantitation were 16.94 and 51.35 ng/spot, respectively for EA and 24.71 and 74.88 ng/spot, respectively for MAG. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) as per ICH guidelines. In conclusion, the statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for estimation of both compounds. The proposed developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of EA and MAG in their extracts and herbal formulat.

31

SIMPLE RP- HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ASPIRIN AND ROSUVASTATIN CALCIUM IN CAPSULE DOSAGE FORM

Tejaswi. P*,  Avanthi. K, Sudheer Kumar. D, Sreekanth. G

Department of pharmaceutical analysis, Care College of Pharmacy, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract

A simple, sensitive, specific & cost-effective RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Aspirin and Rosuvastatin Calcium in the combined pharmaceutical dosage form has been developed and validated. The separation of the analytes was performed on a YMC ODS RP-C18 column of dimensions 250×4.6mm, 5µm., with a mobile phase consisting of mixed buffer : Methanol (35:65 v/v) adjusted to pH 6.8 with dilute ortho phosphoric acid, set at a flow rate of 1ml/min and separation was monitored by UV detector, at a detection wavelength of 241 nm. Chromatogram showed a peak of Aspirin at 3.0min & a peak of Rosuvastatin Calcium at 5.0min.  Validation of the method for linearity, system precision, method precision, ruggedness, accuracy, specificity, robustness was performed. The method was found to be linear over the range of 2.5-15mg/ml& 18.75-112.5µg/ml for Aspirin &Rosuvastatin calcium respectively. Recovery of Aspirin & Rosuvastatin calcium was found to be in the range of 98.93-101.03%& 99.97-100.65% respectively. Proposed method was fast, precise, accurate & was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of Aspirin & Rosuvastatin calcium in combined pharmaceutical dosage form.

32

INCIDENCE OF RICE BLAST CAUSED BY PYRICULARIA GRISEA SACC ON NLR-34242 AND BPT-5204 VARIETIES AND THEIR INTERACTION WITH NITROGEN LEVELS

O. Sireesha, N. Venkateswarlu

Department of Botany, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, A.P, India

Abstract

Field trials were conducted under irrigated conditions during rabi season of 2008 and 2009 on two rice varieties NLR-34242 and BPT-5204 to compare the incidence of rice blast disease with the interaction of nitrogen levels at different doses (0 kg, 120 kg, 160 kg, 200 kg and 240 kg per hectare). The incidence of blast increased as the nitrogen dose increased from 0 kg to 240 kg. However the maximum grain yield was observed in the plots treated with 120 kg and 160 kg nitrogen per hectare.

33

RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF TAPENTADOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN NASAL FORMULATION

*A.V. Bhalerao1, S.V.Shirolkar1

1Padm. Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Sant Tukaram Nagar, Pimpri, Pune-411018

Abstract

An attempt was done to develop simple, precise and accurate  reverse phase HPLC method for the estimation of tapentadol hydrochloride in bulk and in nasal formulation using Agilent C18 (TC-C18 (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 3.5 5µ particle size) column. Water: methanol: acetonitrile (pH 3.5 adjusted using acetic acid) (60:10: 30 v/v/v) was used as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min and detection was done at 272.0 nm. The retention time for tapentadol hydrochloride was found to be 3.01 min. Linear regression analysis revealed a good linear relationship (r2 = 0.9995±0.0003) between peak area and concentration in the range 20-200µg/mL. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.048µg/mL, and 0.146µg/mL, respectively. The method was validated for precision, recovery, and robustness as per the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonization. The result of assay, recovery studies and its statistical validation data indicate high degree of precision and accuracy of the method.  The method is a simple cost effective and fast (retention time 3.01min) and can be successfully used for analysis of tapentadol in bulk and in nasal formulations (developed in –house).

34

CHEMO-PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF TURMERIC AND SPIRULINA ON CISPLATIN INDUCED TOXICITY IN REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF MALE ALBINO RAT, Rattus norvegicus

Haafiza Shaikh*1, Vinoy K Shrivastava2, Renu Shrivastava3, Mohammad Amir4

*1, 2Laboratory of Endocrinology, Department of Bioscience, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, MP, India

3Department of Zoology, Sri Sathya Sai College for Women, Bhopal, MP, India

4J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere, Karnataka, India

Abstract

Although Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic drug, but generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction has limited its usefulness due to its toxicity to normal cells including testis cells. This research was designed to investigate the toxicity of chemotherapeutic drug Cisplatin and possible chemo-protective effect of Turmeric and Spirulina on Cisplatin induced toxicity on reproductive system of male albino rat. In the result, it is found that, Cisplatin targets rapidly dividing germ cells and it therefore results in the impairment of spermatogenesis leading to the depletion in sperm motility, sperm count and alteration in biochemical and testicular histology. Turmeric and Spirulina shows chemo-protective effect in rats treated with Cisplatin, as amelioration is found in all the parameters. However, Spirulina shows more chemo-protection than Turmeric. It is known that, antioxidants are present in Turmeric and Spirulina (Curcumin in Turmeric and C-phycocyanin and β-carotene in Spirulina) which acts as a free radical scavenger, is might be the reason behind ameliorative role. Altogether, after the findings of this study, beneficial effects of using a free radical scavenger such as Turmeric and Spirulina are suggested, to minimize the Cisplatin-associated testicular toxicity.

 

35

RENO PROTECTIVE ROLE OF ALOE VERA AGAINST RADIATION AND CADMIUM INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL ALTERNATIVE IN THE SWISS ALBINO MICE

Aruna Chakrawarti 1, Shikha Ojha2, Om Kanwar3, Tulsi Ram4, Manisha Agarwal5, K.M. Bhartiya6, R.K. Purohit7

Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar Colege, Bikaner (Raj.)

Abstract

The present study is planned to evaluate the renoprotective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the kidney of Swiss albino mice. For the present experiment healthy male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks) were selected and maintained under standard conditions of temperature and light. Aloe vera leaf extract fed orally at the dose rate of 0.01ml/animal/day. The animal were divided into 7 groups according to the treatment i.e. cadmium chloride solution as drinking water (group-II)or exposed to 6.0 Gy gamma radiation (group-III) or combine treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride (group-IV). The alterations in the biochemical parameters of all these groups were compared with that of sham irradiated animals (group-I). The animals of experimental groups were administered aloe vera seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment (group V, VI & VII) respectively. All biochemical parameters of the control groups were compared with the respective experimental groups. And increase in the value of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphtase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA was observed up to day-14 in the nondrug treated group and day07 in the Aloe treated groups, thereafter value declined up to day-28 without reaching to normal, whereas the value of cholesterol and DNA showed a decreasing trend up to day-14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 Aloe vera treated groups. Thus, it showed that cadmium and radiation produced toxic effect on kidney and Aleo vera  minimizes these effects. The result of present will shed light upon radioprotective effect of Aloe vera.

36

ANTIBIOTIC USE EVALUATION IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS: A PROSPECTIVE, BSERVATIONAL STUDY IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, INDIA.

1Mohammed Aamer Khan*, 1Abdul Haadi,1 Mohammed Faqruddin, 1Mohammed Omer, 1Mir Shoebullah Adil, 2Shaik Abdullah,1 Mohammed Nematullah Khan, 1Md. Amer Khan.

1Department of Pharm.D, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad

2Department of Pharmacology, St Peter’s Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Warangal

Abstract

Drug utilization is the marketing, distribution, prescription, and use of drug in a society, with special emphasis on the resulting medical, social and economic consequences. Irrational drug use is a common practice in developing countries. In India clinician often prescribe three or four drugs to treat the most trivial conditions for the sake of satisfying the patients need to receive drugs or the drug sellers need for profit. Thus DUE studies are required for all drugs in general and particularly for antibiotics This is a single centered, prospective, observational study undertaken for 6 months duration. The data was collected in Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) from the in-patient department of pediatrics in Princess Esra Hospital, Hyderabad.    Patients of age less than six months (78.9%) were found to be more prone to infectious diseases. Aminoglycosides (77.5%), cephalosporins (66.3%), penicillins (33.6%) were the choice of drugs. Amikacin (77%) was the most prescribed drug followed by ceftriaxone (45.7%), amoxicillin (30.49%) and cefotaxime (19.20%). Most patients (65.02%) were prescribed with two antibiotics. The study concludes that the treatment regimen implemented in most of the cases is without doing any culture sensitivity test which may lead to wide spread of irrational prescription. Inappropriate empirical and inappropriate definitive therapy antibiotic prescription was more frequent than appropriate empirical and appropriate definitive prescription, respectively. Inappropriateness was mostly due to wrong antibiotic choice, mistakes in dosing, and duration of antibiotics administration that was too long.

37

DESIGNING AND EVALUATION OF COMPRESSED MINI-TABLETS OF RAMIPRIL AS A BIPHASIC DELIVERY SYSTEM

Kiran V Mahajan*,1 Anup M Akarte1, Mangesh K Sapate1, Dheeraj T Baviskar1, Dinesh K Jain 2.

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmaceutical Education, Boradi, Shirpur 425 428(M.H.) India

2College of Pharmacy, I.P.S. Academy, Rajendra Nagar, Indore, 452 012, (M.P.), India

Abstract

Compressed mini-tablets systems are tablet-in-tablet technology which present as a biphasic delivery system; these are premeditated for zero-order sustained drug release. The outer layer that fills the void spaces between the mini-tablets was expressed to release the drug in a very short time fast release, although the mini-tablets delivered a prolonged release. The formulations contained several type of ratio with ramipril and Ethyl cellulose is 1:9, 1:8, 1:7, 1:6, 1:5, 1:4, 1:3, 1:2 and 1:1. As well as ramipril and HPMC is 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, 1:8 and 1:9 for mini-tablets in order to extend the release of ramipril throughout 12hr designed for mini-tablets was used to obtain different drug release rates, whereas the drug enclosed in the mini-tablets was released at different rates, depending up on calculated formulation which based on the released kinetic parameters. In vitro performance of these systems exhibited the anticipated biphasic behaviour: the drug contained in the fast releasing phase (powder enrobing the mini-tablets). Batch F5 at the end of 2 hrs near about half percent release found 47.88±0.55%  after 12hrs found 96.23±1.41%,  it can be concluded that mini-tablets containing HPMC were predominantly suitable impending to zero-order (constant) release over 12 h time periods. Concludes that 1:5 Ethylcellulose and 1:5 Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose was better ratio for drug released hence avoided repeated administration of drug. 

38

CEFEXIME LOADED MUCO-ADHESIVE MICRO SPHERE PREPARATION USING SODIUM ALGINATE POLYMER

Indupriya.P*, Shahid Mohammed S, Subhashis Debnath, Niranjan Babu M

Seven hills college of pharmacy, Tirupathi-517561, Andhra pradesh , India

Abstract

Micro-particals have many advantages over their macro-scale counterparts. In the present research work, muco adhesive microspheres containing cefexime were prepared and evaluated for in-vitro performance of cefexime. Microspheres containing cefexime were prepared by Ionic-gelatin technique. The morphological characteristics of muco-adhesive microspheres prepared by using sodium alginate polymer were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The polymer ratio, stirring speed and the temperature affected the particle size, shape and surface morphology of the microspheres. The mucoadhesive property of micro-spheres was evaluated by an in vitro adhesion testing method known as wash-off method. The in-vitro drug release was carried out using USP paddle type dissolution rate test apparatus (XXIII) in 0.1N Hcl dissolution medium at 291nm. The microspheres exhibited good mucoadhesion and showed good drug entrapment efficiency. The percentage yield of the all the formulations was above 90%, confirming the method of formulation produced better yielding micro-particles. The bioadhesive study performed suggested that a majority of the microparticles remained on the gastric mucosa even after rinsing with the fluid. Finally, the in vitro release profile results obtained from mathematical Korsmeyer peppas model of the formulations indicated that the rate of drug release was higher for formulations Fe4. By, above results it was concluded that cefexime loaded muco-adhesive microspheres prepared by sodium alginate polymer showed reproducible results, with good Mucoadhesive properties and good surface morphology.

39

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND ESTIMATION OF ELETRIPTAN HYDROBROMIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC

Gadi Raju Ramalinga Raju1*, Raju V.K Vegesna1 and G S Prasad2.

1Versa Pharm Inc, Warminster, Pa, 18974, USA.

2Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608002.

Abstract

A simple, precise, rapid and accurate RP- HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Eletriptan Hydrobromide (ETP) in tablet dosage forms. An Inertsil ODS 3V, 250x4.6 mm, column with 5 μm particle size and the Mobile Phase consisting of 0.03M Ammonium Acetate in water adjusting the pH-3.2 with dilute O-Phosphoric Acid & TEA (0.5%) mixed in Methanol & Water in ratio of 40:60 v/v & Acetonitrile & Buffer solution (50:50 v/v) was used as a diluent in the gradient mode. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the effluents were monitored at 222 nm. The retention time was 4.762 min and the detector response was linear in the concentration range of 50-600 µg/mL for ETP successively. The respective linear regression equation being Y= 10312.358x + 237007.9858 for ETP. The Limit of Detection (LOD) & The Limit of Quantification (LOQ) was found to be 2.5 & 7.5 µg/mL for ETP. The percentage assay of ETP was 99.93%. The method was validated by determining its accuracy, precision and system suitability. The results of the study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which is useful for the routine determination of ETP in bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage forms.

40

GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Lavanya.Mandapati*, P.C.Jayanth, Debarshi Datta, M.Niranjan Babu.

Department of pharmaceutics, Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Venkataramapuram

Abstract

The purpose of writing the article on gastroretentive drug delivery systems was to compile the recent literature with special focus on various gastroretentive approaches that have recently become leading methodologies in the field of site-specific orally administered controlled release drug delivery. In order to understand various physiological difficulties to achieve gastric retention,In this article we have summarized important factors controlling gastric retention. Gastroretention would also facilitate local drug delivery to the stomach and proximal small intestine. So, gastroretention could help to provide greater availability of new products and consequently improved therapeutic activity and required benefits to patients. Controlled gastric retention of solid dosage form may be achieved by the mechanisms of floatation, mucoadhesion, sedimentation, expansion or by a modified shaped system.

41

ETHANOLIC VESICLES OF NYSTATIN FOR ENHANCED TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY: IN VITRO AND EX VIVO EVALUATION

1K. Srikanth*, 1V.  Rama Mohan Gupta, 2N. Devanna

1 Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Pulla Reddy Institute of Pharmacy, Medak, Andhrapradesh, India.

2 Dept. of Chemistry, JNTUA, Ananthapur, Andhrapradesh, India

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to develop the nystatin ethosomal gel for transdermal delivery of nystatin. Nystatin loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized in terms of morphology (size, shape, Texture), % entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, diffusion behavior, etc.  Morphology of vesicles was studied using SEM and optical microscopy techniques. % entrapment efficiency of all formulations was determined by ultra centrifugation method. In vitro drug release of all formulations was carried out using exhaustive dialysis method and the release data was fitted in various release models viz, zero order, first order, higuchi, hixon-crowel and korsmeyer-peppas. Formulations were optimized on the basis of entrapment efficiency and release pattern. Zeta potential and stability of optimized formulation were determined. Ethosomal and conventional gels were prepared using optimized formulation and pure drug respectively. Ex vivo drug release from both gels was carried out and flux of the drug from both gels across the biomembrane (rat skin) was measured and compared with each other.  The results shown that ethosomal delivery systems are effective tool in enhancing the transdermal delivery of nystatin. The study also revealed the effect of ethanol, lecithin and cholesterol concentration on drug release from ethosomes.

42

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF DESVENLAFAXINE IN EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS

Geetharam. Y1, 3, Praveen srikumar P2, Rushyendra G.V1, Ramamohanagupta.V1

1. Department of pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, Pullareddy institute of   pharmacy, Hyderabad

2. Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, Hindu college of pharmacy, Guntur, Andhrapradesh,India

3. College of Pharmaceutical sciences, Acharya Nagarjuna university, Guntur,

Andhrapradesh,India.

Abstract

A simple, precise, accurate and rapid stability indicating High performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of Desvenlafaxine in bulk and tablet dosage forms. Chromatographic separation was achieved by using Mobile phase "A"(phosphate Buffer pH6.5& Methanol in the ratio 80:20) and mobile phase "B"(phosphate Buffer& methanol in the ratio10:90) with Hypersil Gold C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 3μm) as stationary phase. Diluent 1 with composition of water and Methanol in the ratio 30:70, Diluent 2 with composition of water and Methanol in the ratio 60:40 is used for dilutions. Flow rate was optimised to 1.3 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 225 nm.The retention time was around 2.17.Linearity was observed over a concentration range of 25-150 μg/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.999.stress conditions of degradation in acidic, alkaline, peroxide, thermal and UV radiation was studied and found that desvenlafexine is sensitive to acidic comparative to other stress conditions. The method is validated as per ICH Guidelines and the results were well within the limits.

43

INVITRO GLUCOSE UPTAKE ASSAY OF HYDRO METHANOLIC LEAVES EXTRACT OF SYZYGIUM JAMBOS (L) ALSTON IN RAT SKELETAL MUSCLE (L6) CELL LINES

Yarasu Nagamuni Reddy*1, P.Smana Reddy1, R.Pavan kumar2, R.N.B.S Nareshchandra2, V.Vinil Kumar2.

1Department of Pharmacology, Jyothishmathi College of Pharmacy, Turkapally,

Ranga Reddy (Dist), Andhra Pradesh,  India

2Department of Pharmacology , K.K College of Pharmacy , Gerugambakkam, Chennai , Tamilnadu, India

Abstract

The purpose of the present study to investigate the Invitro glucose uptake assay of hydromethanolic leaves extract of Syzygium jambos (L) Alston (SJM) on L6 Cell lines. Syzygium jambos (L) Alston Commonly known as rose apple belongs to family Myrtaceae , It is one of the most important medicinal plant in India, Brazil. In Brazil decoction of leaves used for diabetes. Hydromethanolic leaves extract of SJM shows cytotoxic concentration (320µg/ml) in normal cells. In the present study we demonstrated that SJM enhance glucose transport in L6 myotubes, the extract possesses significant glucose uptake (%of glucose uptake 113±12.26) compared with standard Insulin (%of glucose uptake 131±17.57) if these effects can be confirmed clinically, SJM Extract may used for prevention of DM.  The presented data about hydromethanolic leaf extract of Syzygium jambos (L) Alston having activity such as enhancing glucose uptake in skeletal muscle (L6) cell lines. To conclude, this study supports by using natural plant sources (SJM leaves) we can prevent diabetic complications such as diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic cancer.

44

STUDY OF ANTI-ANXIETY ACTIVITY OF FLACOURTIA INDICA LINN BY ELEVATED PLUS MAZE AND HOLE BOARD (HEAD DIPPING) METHODS

Gnanasekar. N. 1, Dr. C. Uma Maheswara Reddy2, Dr. N. Narayanan3
1Department of Pharmacology, Kamalakshi Pandurangan, College of Pharmacy, Tiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu, India,

2Professor & Head, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

3Director, Jaya College of Pharmacy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Benzodiazepines (BZD’S) are commonly used anxiolytics but they have many side effects.  Therefore new anxiolytics from traditional system of medicine have to be developed with no side effects.  Among various medicinal plants Flacourtia Indica has been used to cure various illnesses including psychopathy.  But it lacks scientific validation.  Therefore the present study aims to evaluate the anti-anxiety activity using Elevated plus maze and Hole board method by using the alcoholic extract of leaves of Flacourtia Indica along with acute toxicity tests.  A dose of 100 mg. / kg. body wt. showed significant anti-anxiety activity and acute oral toxicity test performed revealed that LD50 of the test drug was found to be greater than 2000 mg/kg body wt.  The results suggest that Flacourtia Indica could be used as a potential anti-anxiety drug in future.

45

EVALUATION OF SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF RISPERIDONE AND OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS (EPA: EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID AND DHA: DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID) IN SCHIZOPHRENIA-INDUCED RATS

Pandya Bhaumik. U1, Noor Zahra2, Venkata Archana Kossireddi3

1Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen college of Pharmacy, Bangalore.   

2Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen college of Pharmacy, Bangalore.

3Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen college of Pharmacy, Bangalore.

Abstract

Schizophrenia, a disabling psychological disorder, is manifested by multifold pathophysiology. Abnormal membrane phospholipid metabolism related to abnormal essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (EPUFA) metabolism has also reported in recent studies. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in symptom control in up to two-thirds of patients, but in at least one-third of patients the response is poor often accompanied by side effects. Omega-3-fatty acids (OMG) are known to reverse lipid peroxidation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the synergistic activity of OMG in combination with reduced dose (1.5 mg/kg) risperidone (RISP) in ameliorating symptoms in rat model.Male Wistar rats were injected with Amphetamine (5 mg/kg) to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms. Following induction, the rats were administered intraperitoneal risperidone (3mg/kg), oral omega-3-fatty acids (EPA: DHA, 180:120) and combination of risperidone (1.5mg/kg) and Omega-3-fatty acids (EPA:DHA, 180:120) over 21 days. Two behavior models - motor coordination (Rota rod test) and catalepsy (catalepsy test) - were used to evaluate the schizophrenic behavior of the animals. Lipid profiles and schizophrenic symptoms were evaluated on Days 7 and 21, while antioxidant levels and dopamine levels in the rat brain were measured on Day 21 using spectrofluorimeter. On Day 21, brain dopamine decreased significantly in AMP+RISP and AMP+RISP+ OMG (p<0.01 for both) compared to AMP group, while no significant change was observed AMP+OMG group. Latency time increased significantly from baseline to Day 21 in AMP+RISP group , AMP+OMG group and AMP+RISP+OMG group compared to AMP (p<0.01). The total cholesterol and LDL-C levels decreased significantly from baseline to Day 21 in AMP+OMG and AMP+RISP+OMG groups (p<0.05 for both) compared to AMP. Our findings suggest that in schizophrenic rats, Omega-3-fatty acids co-administered with the reduced dose of risperidone provide beneficial effect to improve the diseased state. A lower dose seems to avoid side effects caused by long-term treatment with high dose of risperidone.

46

NANOGELS - AS A DRUG DELIVERY CARRIER

L.Divya1, V.Ravichandiran2, S.Janardhan3, M.Niranjanbabu4, E.Mohana Roopa5, C.Sowmya6 and V. Lavakumar7*

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Tirupathi, AP,India.

2Director,School of Pharmacy, VISTAS, Chennai, India.

3Faculty, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, RIPER, Anantapur, AP,India.

4Principal, Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Tirupathi, AP.India.

5Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Tirupathi, AP.India,

6Faculty, Department of Pharmaceutics, OMER EL MUKHTAR University, Al-Beida, Libiya

7Research Director, Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Tirupathi, AP. India.

Abstract

Here, we provide a comprehensive insight into current advances regarding nanogels. Nanodelivery system has emerged as versatile building blocks in developing materials for biomedicine and there has been a great deal of attention towards the increase in chemical diversity and complexity of nanogels. These are the hydrogel nanoparticles with diameters in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers and these nanogels had proved to be more efficient in controlled drug release. They are the hydrogel nanoparticles with diameters in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers. Nanogels are intramolecularly cross linked macromolecules, which are formed during the aqueous / non- aqueous polymerization of polyfunctional precursor Biological agents and drugs can be loaded into nanogels via a spontaneous process including interactions between the agents and the polymer matrix, forming hydrophilic particles high dispersion stability. These nanosized hydrogels, had their wide applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering and diagnostics. The design of functional nanoparticles must include a high degree of control of product properties through both process and material nature. This design and preparation of hydrogels have attracted a great deal of interest in Nanoscience because of their applications and this 3D structure with suitable properties along with its biocompatibility.    The availability of inexpensive and robust preparation methodologies is at the basis of the development of effective nanogel based therapeutic and diagnostic devices. Thus, nanogels are emerging drug carriers for the delivery of drugs.

47

PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO GENISTEIN AFFECTS SPERM QUALITY IN ADULT SWISS ALBINO MICE, MUS MUSCULUS.

Arunima Datta Banik*, Shushovan Banik and Vinoy K. Shrivastava

Laboratory of Endocrinology, Department of Bioscience, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (M.P.), India

Abstract

Soy derived, non-steroidal Phytoestrogenic compound Genistein is able to induce reproductive problems in mammals. In this research the effects of genistein on male mice with specific interest on semen quality and the hormonal milieu of gonadotropins and testosterone has been determined. Adult male mice received genistein (10mg/kg body weight/day) dissolved in 1:4 DMSO: PBS (vehicle) for 30, 60 and 90 days along with mice feed and water ad libitum. Control mice were kept on feed and water ad libitum and dosed with vehicle only. Post sacrifice sperm count, motility, morphology and sperm vitality index (SVI) were analyzed using cauda epididymal sperm suspensions and serum level LH, FSH and testosterone (T) levels were estimated opting appropriate ELISA techniques. Results showed significant (p < 0.01 to 0.001, via two way ANOVA analyses) chronological decrease in sperm count and motility along with increase in abnormal as well as dead sperms (Sperm Vitality Index, i.e., Live : Dead sperm ratio). LH, FSH and testosterone hormone levels also decreased chronologically throughout the experiments indicating male reproductive impairment due to prolonged intake of genistein. These effects are either directed on the testes or mediated via the hypothalamo-hypophysial gonadal axis.

48

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF SIMVASTATIN IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Suddhasattya Dey1, Anjan De1*, Sudip Mondal1, Prasanna Kumar Pradhan2,  Chilka Patel2, Shreya Shah2 and Bhavini Lad2

1 Dr. B.C. Roy College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Bidhan Nagar, Durgapur-713 206, W.B. India

2Sigma Institute of Pharmacy, Bakrol, Vadodara-390 019, Gujarat, India

Abstract

The present study indicates a simple, accurate and precise HPLC method for the estimation of  Simvastatin, inhibitor of 3-hydroxy 3-methyl glutaryl  coenzyme A. HMG- CoA reductase, responsible for catalyzing the conversion of HMG- CoA to mevalonate, is an early and rate limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis.  The mobile phase used was acetonitrile:water in a ratio of 60:40 at a wavelength of 240 nm. The separation was carried out using a C18 Phenomenex Luna column (250mm × 4.6mm×5µm). This method obeyed linearity in the Beer’s Lambert range for the concentration range of 10-100μg/ml for Simvastatin. The proposed method has been validated statistically as per the ICH guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, LOD and LOQ. The above method was validated and  the results were well with in the limit of accuracy 100±2 and % RSD is with in 2. The  above method developed and validated successfully for the quantitative routine analysis of Simvastatin in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. This study thus exploits the possibility for determining Pharmacokinetic data of  Simvastatin which may be required in clinical study in near future.

49

FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF CELLULOSE BASED HYDROPHILIC AND HYDROPHOBIC POLYMERS LOADED WITH LOXOPROFEN SODIUM

Muhammad Zaman1*, Sherjeel Adnan1, Muhammad Asad Saeed1, Muhammad Farooq2, Zeeshan Masood2, Sajid Ali Chishti2, Junaid Qureshi3, Rao Sajid Mehmood Khan4

1* Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakista

2Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan

3College of Pharmacy, G. C. University Faisalabad, Pakistan

4Islamia University Bahawalpur, Pakistan

Abstract

The main objective of the study was the formulation and in-vitro evaluations of sustained release matrix tablets of Loxoprofen sodium. Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) was used as hydrophilic and ethyl cellulose (EC) was used as hydrophobic polymer. Wet granulation technique was used for the tablet compression. Both pre-compressional and post compressional studies were carried out for all the formulations. Bulk density was found to be 0.285±0.03 to 0.301±0.02, tap density 0.327±0.02 to 0.339±0.01, car’s index 10.67±1.38 to 12.99±1.28, Hausner’s ratio 1.11±0.01 to 1.14±0.01 and angle of repose 25.31±0.54 to 27.56±0.47. Thickness was found to be 4.09±0.011 to 4.13mm to 4.12±0.012, weight 248.9±0.18mg to 251.0±0.28mg, hardness 9.9±0.25 to 11±0.18kg/cm2, % friability 0.11±0.04 to 0.16±0.05 and % drug contents 97.3±0.31-102.6±0.13. Dissolution studies were carried out in phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. F6 with maximum concentration of EC (75 mg) showing better sustained effect with 83% drug release. F1 formulated with 25 mg HPMC released maximum drug amongst all the formulations that was 97% in 12 hourrs studies. F3 and F9 showed good resemblance with the reference formulation. Similarity and difference factors was f2>70 and f1<10 respectively. FTIR studies were evident that there is no drug and polymers interaction. It was concluded that both hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers have the ability to control and retard the drug release for longer duration of time either used individually or in combinations.

50

THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII SPRENG (RUTACEAE)

Hemant Dhongade*, Hemant Sawarkar, Bhushan Muley, Vishal Deshmukh, Ajit Pande

Department of Phytopharmacognosy, SRI Institute of Pharmacy, Kumhari, Durg, C.G, (India)

Abstract

Murraya koenigii spreng (Rutaceae) commonly known as curry tree, is native to Asia and is found throughout the Indian subcontinent. In several ancient systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani, M. koenigii, has vast number of therapeutic applications such as in bronchial disorders, piles, vomiting, skin diseases etc. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for leaf, stem, bark and oil. The leaves of M. koenigii are used as tonic, stomachic, carminative, internally in dysentery, antiemetic, antihelminthic, and analgesic. Following various claims, efforts have been made by the researchers to verify the efficacy of the plant through scientific biological screening. A scrutiny of literature reveals notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as antidiabetic antihyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiarrheal, and phagocytic. Its leaves are widely used in Indian cookery for flavouring foodstuffs. Curry leaves are used to treat burn, bruises and skin eruption. It can be used in preventing premature graying of hair. Curry leaf oil, produced from the plant has uses in the soap industry. The well studied pharmacology, phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of this plant needs to be compiled in form of review for its potential as a valuable therapeutic agent in the treatment and management of various ailments and diseases in humans. Thus the present review aims to compile the work done by various researchers on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, preclinical, clinical, toxicological and recent studies on M. koenigii plant.

51

A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTION

1MD Amer Khan *, Haadi A, Aamer K, Adil M.S, Nematullah.K, Maazuddin MD, Omer MD, Ihtisham sultan.

1 PharmD, Clinical Pharmacist, Department Of Pharmacy Practice, Owaisi Hospital And Research Centre, Deccan School Of Pharmacy (DSOP) Hyderabad – 500024, Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract

Under reporting is the major drawback of adverse drug reaction. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of adverse reaction monitoring and reporting system in order to assess the effective reporting of adverse drug reaction to reduce the underreporting. The rapid development of new drugs to diagnose and treat human illness increases the incidence of adverse reactions which produces mortality and morbidity. 0.40% of patients were identified as having ADRs which are directly linked with high costs. ADR is considered to be the fourth and sixth leading cause of death. Type A ADRS are predictable from their pharmacology and are dose dependent, they are readily reversible on reducing dose or withdrawing treatment. Type B ADRs are usually bizarre reactions unrelated to the conventional pharmacology of the drug and occur only in susceptible individuals. There are certain approaches which aids in the evaluation of assessment of adverse events using certain scales. The National Pharmacovigilance Advisory Committee (NPAC) monitors the performance of pharmacovigilance zones. The reporting Of ADR should be done to The Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO). It is not only important to educate the patient but also the health care professionals about the use and possible events of the drug. Reporting of adverse drug reaction has added a great value by improving the accuracy and efficiency for evaluation of unwanted effects. The health care professionals should be made aware of pharmacovigilance programs.

52

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC SUPERDISINTEGRANTS IN THE FORMULATION OF ORAL DISINTEGRATING TABLETS USING BAMBUTEROL HYDROCHLORIDE AS MODEL DRUG.

* Karthik Karumuri1, Dr. K.S.G Arul Kumaran2, and Dr. Arunkumar Nagalingam3       

Department of Pharmaceutics, KMCH College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

In the present study Oral Disintegrating Tablets (ODT’s) of Bambuterol Hydrochloride were prepared using different natural and synthetic superdisintegrant. The natural Superdisintegrants used were Banana powder, Isphagula Husk powder and Pre-gelatinized starch, Crospovidone and Sodium Starch Glycolate were used as synthetic superdisintegrant. A direct compression technique was used to prepare oral disintegrating tablets containing Bambuterol Hydrochloride as a model drug. The pre-compression parameters of mixed blend were examined for parameters such as angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio. Tablets were subjected to Post-compression parameters such as weight variation, hardness, thickness, and friability, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in vitro disintegration time, drug content and in vitro dissolution study. FTIR studies revealed that there were no incompatibilities of Superdisintegrants with drug. Among all the formulations, the batch prepared with 4% crospovidone (F5) and the batch prepared with 4% Isphagula Husk powder (F14) shows disintegration time 10 sec and 16 sec respectively. The formulation with crospovidone showed more than 99% drug release in 30 min. It was concluded that tablets prepared by addition of Synthetic superdisintegrant has less disintegration time, more water absorption and drug release.

53

EFFECT OF DEHYDRATION ON MICROGELS

Sandhya Vanja*1, Deepthi Poloju2, Shaik Irfan Pasha2

1 Browns College of Pharmacy, Ammapalem, Thanikella, Kanjierla, Khammam.

2Max Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Velugumatla, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Microgel particles have diameter in the range from 100nm to 1µm, these particles have gel like network structure and the polymer network swells in a suitable solvent. The poly NIPAM particles are responsive and exhibit drastic changes of the volume close to the lower critical temperature (LCST). The special properties of the microgel are due to the presence of covalent bonds between different parts of the polymer chains and the presence of active functional groups. Poly nipam is the most well studied water-swelled microgel system. Concentrated microgel solution is placed on the ATR crystal and the dehydration caused due to the effect of room temperature is studied using the IR spectrometer. The changes in the properties of the microgel with respect to time are recorded with the help of THERMO NICOLET software. The data obtained is converted into EXCEL and the data is analysed, different plots are obtained for the wavelength and time to study the behaviour of the microgel. The initial and the final behaviour of the microgel are observed, the graphs obtained in excel and the dendograms obtained by using the insight, matlab software.

54

ANTICANCER PROPERTY OF PURIFIED FRACTION C2 OF CUTTLEFISH (Sepia pharaonis) INK ON CERVICAL CANCER CELLS

V Priya Senan1, P. M. Sherief2 and J. Rjasekharan Nair3

 1Assistant Professor & Head, Post Graduate Department of Biotechnology, SAS SNDP Yogam College (affiliated to Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam), Konni, Pathanamthitta, Kerala, India. Pin-689 691

2, 3Professor, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad, Ernakulam, Kerala, India. Pin-682 506

Abstract

We have previously reported the cytotoxic effect of the ink extracts of cuttlefish and squid on chick embryo fibroblast cells. In the present study we report the isolation, purification and characterization of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg ink and the study of anticancer property of peptidoglycan fraction on cervical cancer cells-HeLa and Caski. The ink from cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis was first extracted using Tris-HCl and fractionated using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Molecular mass and chemical composition of the fraction was determined. Pigment and sugar content were analysed and aminoacids were quantified by HPLC. Anticancer property of the fraction was studied using cervical cancer cell lines- HeLa and Caski. The ink of Cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis were extracted and fractionated using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and separated the fraction C2. Further analysis showed that the fraction C2 was an uronic acid rich peptidoglycan (molecular mass 10 KD) and it is made up of five amino acids namely aspartic acid, serine, threonine, glutamic acid and alanine. Purified fraction C2 of cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis showed a significant anticancer activity through inducing typical morphological characters of apoptosis like chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing and DNA damage on cervical cancer cells in vitro. These findings suggest the profound anticarcinogenic activity of purified peptidoglycan fraction of cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg ink on cervical cancer cells and thus render itself as a potential chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of cervical cancer. 

55

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND METHOD VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF TINIDAZOLE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC

B.Siddartha1*, Dr. I. Sudheer Babu2, C. Parthiban1, V. Prathyusha1, B. Sowmya1, C. Madhavi1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Maissammaguda, Secunderabad - 500014

2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Sir C.R.Reddy College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eluru - 534007

Abstract

A simple, sensitive and rapid reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of tinidazole in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms. A Thermohypersil Symmetry C18 column (250 x 4.6mm x 5 µ) was used as a stationary phase with a mobile phase containing a mixture of acetonitrile and water in the ratio of 60:40v/v. The flow rate was 1.0ml/min, effluent was monitored at 295nm and eluted at 2.857min. Calibration curve was plotted with a range from 10-70µg/ml for tinidazole and the correlation was found to be 0.9996.The accuracy range was found between 99.52% and 100.05%. The %RSD values for both intraday and interday precision were less than 1%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.42μg/ml and 1.27μg/ml respectively. The assay was validated for the parameters like specificity, system suitability, precision, accuracy, robustness and ruggedness parameters. The proposed method can be useful for the routine determination of tinidazole in pharmaceutical dosage form.

56

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF CEFUROXIME AXETIL FLOATING TABLETS

Umasankar Mukhi1*, Smitapadma Mohanty1, Prasanta Sethy1, Snehamayee Mahapatra2

1School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Berhampur University,

Bhanja Bihar, Odisha, India, PIN-760007

2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, SOA University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Abstract

Cefuroxime is a broad spectrum antibiotic. It is a second generation Cephalosporin which is less susceptible to Beta-lactamase. It is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Pro-drug of Cefuroxime is Cefuroxime axetil which is an acetoxy ester form. Bioavailability of the drug is 30% to 40% when taken on fasting and 5 to 60 % when taken with food. Cefuroxime axetil has good absorption at GI tract. As this drug has saturated kinetics that can overcome by slow release of drug from a dosage form, here a trial was done by formulating controlled release floating tablets of Cefuroxime axetil. The present research describes formulation development of an intragastric floating drug delivery system of Cefuroxime axetil using Xanthan gum with HPMC k4M. All formulations showed acceptable specifications for weight variation, thickness, hardness and friability. The dissolution studies showed release of drug over a period of 12 hours.

57

DESIGN, SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL INVESTIGATIONS OF NOVEL SYMMETRIC 2, 6-DI (BENZOFURAN-2-YL)-4-PHENYL-PYRIDINE DERIVATIVES

Doyijode B. Aruna Kumar*1, Nivedita R. Desai1, Gurunathan Krishnaswamy1, Swamy Sreenivasa1, Raja Naika Hanuma Naika 1+& Kittappa M. Mahadevan2.

1 Professor CNR Rao, Centre for Advance Materials, Department of Studies and Research in Chemistry, Tumkur University, Tumkur-572 103, Karnataka, India.

1+Department of Biotechnology, University college of Science & Department of Studies and Research in Environmental Science, Tumkur University, Tumkur-572 103, Karnataka, India.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kuvempu University, P. G. Centre, Kadur, Chikmagalur - 577 548, Karnataka, India

Abstract

In search of new antibacterial agents, symmetric 2,6-di(benzofuran-2-yl)-4-phenyl-pyridine derivatives 3a-h were synthesized by cyclisation of 2a-h. The method involves preparing substituted 2-acetylbenzofuran 1a-b from salicylaldehyde and bromoacetone in basic media, which on further reaction with substituted aromatic aldehydes in minimum acetonitrile and grinding at room temperature yields 2a-h by crossed aldol condensation. The structures of all the newly synthesized compounds are established by spectral studies. Some of synthesized compounds of 2,6-di(benzofuranyl-2-yl)-4-phenyl-pyridine derivatives 3a-d were screened for their antibacterial activity with four different strains of bacteria using cup plate method. It was found that the 2,6-di (benzofuranyl-2-yl)-4-nitrophenyl-pyridine 3d exhibited significant antibacterial activity against E.coli compared to standard Ciprofloxacin.

58

ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF SIDA ACUTA BURM.F AGAINST NITROSODIETHYLAMINE AND CCL4 INDUCED HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

Mallikarjuna G*1, Prabhakaran V1, Sarat kumar Reddy B2

1Department of Pharmacology, Krishna Teja Pharmacy College, Tirupathi, A.P, India-517003

2Department of Pharmacology, Rao’s college of Pharmacy, Nellore, A.P, India

Abstract

The present investigation was aimed at screening anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of sida acuta against NDEA and CCl4 induced hepatocellular cancers in wistar rats. A single dose of intraperitoneal injection of NDEA (200mg/kg b.wt) followed by CCl4 (3mg/kg) administration. The extent of liver damage was assessed by estimating the serum and tissue biochemical markers. The treatment with EESA at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg b.wt for 28 days significantly restored the elevated serum levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, LDH and GGT with prominent increase in protein synthesis in a dose dependent manner. The NDEA induced oxidative stress depleted the levels of antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT with an increase in Lipid peroxidation. EESA showed a significant increase in activities of antioxidant enzymes that reduces the oxidative stress induced damage exhibiting a potent antioxidant and anticancer activity.

59

CIPROFLOXACIN INDUCED SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

Mir S Adil*1, Afroze F Farooqui1, S Iffat Yasmeen2, S Shaheen2, Amer K1, M Nematullah1, M Maazuddin1, Ihtisham S1

1Pharm.D, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad –01, A.P.

2M.B.B.S, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad –58, A.P.

Abstract

This is a case report of 13 year old female patient, who was on Ciprofloxacin and Piroxicam tablets for the treatment of fever. Purpuric rash were developed all over the body on the 5th day from drug administration. The patient was then admitted to intensive care unit at a hospital, where her condition was diagnosed as Idiopathic Thrombocytic Purpura (ITP) or vasculitis. Later it was found that, the patient was suffering from “Drug Induced Lupus (DIL)”, and the drug behind the reaction was suspected to be Ciprofloxacin. The patient was experiencing purpura rash all over the body and pustular rash all around the mouth with low levels of platelets. Ciprofloxacin induced lupus is very rarely observed, the present ADR has scored 5 on naranjo scale and is severe according to Hartwig and Siegel scale of causality assessment.

60

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF MULTIFACETED CHALCONE COMPOUNDS

Neha Nandedkar1, Deepali Jagdale1, Yogesh Arote1, Mitul Patel1, Vilasrao Kadam1

1Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Sector-8,CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai,India

Abstract

Chalcone, a biosynthetic product of shikimate pathway, is abundant in edible plants. It is also found in number of biologically active molecules. In recent times, there has been phenomenal increase in number of publications on versatile chalcone compounds which reflects the interest in this field throughout the world. This review article presents compilation of novel techniques for synthesis of chalcone compounds which are focussed on green chemistry and report more recent efforts made on this pharmacophore. It also highlights the important application of chalcones for synthesis of pharmacologically interesting heterocyclic compound and pharmacological diversity of chalcones.

61

A CASE REPORT ON ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS POISONING: AN INTERMEDIATE SYNDROME

Amer Khan M.D*, Adil M.S, Nematullah.K, Maazuddin MD, Mahmood M, Naosheen H, Haadi A, Aamer K.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Deccan school of pharmacy (DSOP), JNTUH, INDIA, Hyderabad – 500024, Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract

This is a case report focusing on a 34 year male patient who allegedly consumed pesticides for suicidal intention. The aim of the study is to determine the clinical presentation and outcome of acute organophosphorus poisoning.  Organophosphates are the most common and wide spread mode of poisoning in Asia resulting in high mortality rate. Organophosphate compounds are irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors which inhibits both cholinesterase (ChE) and pseudo cholinesterase activity. The inhibition of cholinesterase activity leads to accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses, causing overstimulation and disruption of neurotransmission in central nervous system. The patient was reported in unconscious and unarousable state with lethargy, jerky respiration and excessive secretions from mouth. On examination he had pin-point dilated pupils reacting to light, generalized hypotonia, absent deep tendon reflexes.The patient recovered after requiring almost 1 mg/kg of atropine, 2 gms of Pralidoxime and ventilatory support for 6 days. The overview of organophosphate poisoning and its management is given.  The two important aspects of the management are vigilance of the atropine drip, especially at night, and other physical and psychological support has given to the patient. Clinical pharmacist team has done the psycho-social assessment by: finding out the reason of consumption, letting the patients vent their feelings and discussing with them different aspects of their situations giving them different paradigms. This is the first report of Organophosphates Poisoning complicated by Intermediate Syndrome and it is reported to increase awareness of health care professionslas on these rare complications of a common problem.

62

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION STUDIES OF ZIDOVUDINE BIOADHESIVE VAGINAL TABLETS

Jugal Sutradhar1*, Nirupam Das2, Arkendu Chatterjee1
1Himalayan Pharmacy Institute, Majhitar, Rangpo, East Sikkim-737 136, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Assam university Silchar,
Silchar-788 011, India

Abstract

Zidovudine bioadhesive vaginal tablets were prepared using different polymer viz. Carbopol® 940, Carbopol® 934, Hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) & guar gum by direct compression method. Compatibility of the drug and the polymers were assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The bioadhesive strength measurement was performed by using mucosal membrane of goat vagina. The swelling behaviour of all the formulations was studied and the release mechanisms were explored in vitro by applying zero order, first order and Higuchi equations and finally in vivo study was done in female rabbit. Unchanged chemical integrity in all the formulation as indicated by FTIR studies revealed that no drug-polymer interaction occurred during the preparation and evaluation process. The swelling index differs with varied polymer concentrations and the in vitro drug release study with Carbopol® 934 (1:1) (BVT-7) showed uniform and prolonged drug release pattern over a period of 10 hrs. Time of peak concentration was achieved in 2 hrs for both oral and vaginal dosage forms with an AUC (po 6.509 µg hr mL-1; vaginally 8.406 µg hr mL-1) and Cmax (po 0.799 µg mL-1; vaginal 0.878 µg mL-1). Zidovudine with polymer Carbopol® 934 was successfully utilized in controlled delivery of the drug via vaginal route as bioadhesive tablet

63

IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF HEALTH SCREENING SERVICES IN SELECTED RURAL COMMUNITY PHARMACIES

M.Kumaraswamy1, Rajesh Venkataraman1, B.J. Mahendra Kumar2, Meenu Pandey1, Job V George1, Patel Vaibhav 1

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy/ RGUHS University, India

2Department of Pharmacy Practice, JDT Islam College of Pharmacy / Kerala, India

Abstract

A community pharmacy is a place where medicines are stored and dispensed. Pharmaceutical care is the responsible provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve a patient’s quality of life”. In the pharmaceutical care concept, pharmacists should engage in the systematic, comprehensive process whereby they are able to accomplish three primary functions: identifying potential and actual drug related problems, resolving actual drug related problems and preventing potential drug related problems. The main objective of this study was to provide health screening services like measurement of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Blood Glucose Level and to train & make community pharmacist able to provide pharmaceutical care services and to design and prepare the Patient Information Leaflets (PILs) for chronic disease management. A total of 210 patients were enrolled in which 95 patients with hypertension, 68 patients with Diabetes and 47 patients with Asthma were undertaken to study the SBP/DBP, Family and medical history. A questionnaire was designed for community pharmacists. Mean values of scores were found to be 2.08±1.08, 2.17±1.03, 2.50±0.90, 2.58±1.37, 2.17±0.94 respectively. This study showed that the community pharmacist can support improved patient outcomes through the development of more clinical role.

64

HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF QUETIAPINE FUMARATE FROM HUMAN PLASMA

Vineeta Khanvilkar*, Daksha Parmar, Vinayak Dalvi, Atmaram Tambe, Dr. Vilasrao Kadam

Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College Of Pharmacy, C.B.D Belapur, Navi Mumbai- 400614, India.

Abstract

A simple, selective and economical bioanalytical method was developed and validated for estimation of Quetiapine fumarate, an antipsychotic drug using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography from human plasma. Drug was separated from plasma using liquid-liquid extraction technique and quantitated by High performance thin layer chromatography using Zolpidem tartrate as an internal standard. Separation was performed on Silica gel 60 F254 precoated aluminium plates as stationary phase with mobile phase consisting of Ethyl acetate: Toluene: Methanol (7:2:2 v/v/v). Densitometric detection was performed at 292nm. The method was found to be linear in the range of 300ng/ml to 8700ng/ml. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and selectivity and the results obtained were found to be within acceptable limits. This simple and selective method can be used for accurate and precise determination of Quetiapine fumarate in clinical samples and can be applied for Therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies.

65

REVERSE PHASE-HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR QUANTITATION OF EPINASTINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN EYE DROPS

Sai Vkds Kapakayala1, Mubeen G1, Ritu Kimbahune*1

Department of Quality Assurance. Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy. Hosur Road (Near LalBagh Main Gate). Bangalore-560027.Karnataka, India

Abstract

A specific RP-HPLC method has been proposed for the estimation of Epinastine Hydrochloride in marketed formulation (Eye Drops) in presence of Benzalkonium chloride (preservative). The method utilizes a Grace Smart RP 18 column   (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µ) and a mixture of Acetonitrile: 1% Acetic acid buffer (pH 3 adjusted with 2% Triethanolamine) in ratio of 30:70 v/v as mobile phase maintained at a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min. Amlodipine was used as an internal standard to improve accuracy and precision of the method. The UV detection of analyte and internal standard was carried out at 240 nm. The retention time was found to be 4.17, 4.45 and 10.74 min for Epinastine hydrochloride, Benzalkonium chloride and Amlodipine respectively. The linearity was found in the concentration range of 2-100 µg/mL (r=0.999). The per cent mean recovery was found to be in range of 99.57-109.50. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.43326 µg/mL and 1.39291 µg/mL respectively. The proposed method was found to be specific, linear, accurate, precise, rugged and robust and found to be suitable to resolve Benzalkonium chloride commonly used preservative in eye drops.

66

THYMOL: SYNTHESIS, REACTIONS & ITS SPECTRUM OF PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS

P. S.  Nagle*, Y. A. Pawar, A. E. Sonawane, A. P. Nikum, U. D. Patil and D. H. More

School of Chemical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon-425 001, [M. S.], India

Abstract

This review provides a brief summary of natural occurance, synthesis, and medicinal uses of thymol. It acts as an important tool for medicinal chemist to develop a newer compound possessing the thymol moiety that could be better pharmacophore in term of efficiency for drug discovery. By the mean of this review utility and importance of naturally occurring compound in drug discovery can be explained. This review deals with the evidence-based information regarding the pharmacological activity of thymol and chemical properties.

67

Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System: An Overview

S. N. Patil1, Dr. T.A. Deshmukh2

1SES, Arunamai college of Pharmacy, Jalgaon

2TVES, College of Pharmacy, faizpur, Jalgaon

Abstract

Gastro retentive drug delivery systems are the systems which are retained in the stomach for a longer period of time and thereby, improve the bioavailability of drugs. If the drugs are poorly soluble in the intestine due to alkaline pH, gastric retention may increase solubility before they are emptied, resulting in gastrointestinal absorption of drugs with narrow therapeutic absorption window, as well as, controlling release of drugs having site specific‐ absorption limitation. Drugs that could take advantage of gastric retention include the drugs whose solubility is less in the higher pH of the small intestine than the stomach (e.g. chlordiazepoxide and cinnarizine), the drugs prone for degradation in the intestinal pH (e.g. captopril), and the drugs for local action in the stomach (e.g. misoprostol). Antibiotics, catecholamines, sedatives, analgesics, anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, antihypertensives and vitamins can also be administered in HBS dosage form.

68

ANALYSIS OF ATENOLOL IN IN-VITRO TRANSDERMAL PERMEATION STUDIES BY RP-HPLC-PDA METHOD

Shaik Firdose, V. Sai Sri Anusha, R. Sri Bramhini, S. Madhavi, Buchi N. Nalluri*

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, KVSR Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, VIJAYAWADA – 520 010, AP, INDIA

 

Abstract

The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a simple, efficient, economical RP-HPLC method for the analysis of Atenolol (AT) in samples obtained from in vitro transdermal permeation studies. A Phenomenex C18 reverse phase column (150 x 4.6mm, 5µm) with mobile phase containing 10mM ammonium acetate: methanol (75:25% v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2mL/min was used at isocratic mode and eluents were monitored at 225nm. The retention time of AT was 2.5min and showed a good linearity in the concentration range of 0.2-3µg/mL with a correlation coefficient >0.999. In vitro skin permeation studies were carried out using a Franz diffusion Cells. Absence of interference peaks at the retention time of AT indicates that the method was specific for the analysis of AT in samples obtained from in vitro transdermal permeation studies. The percent recoveries were ranged in between 98-102 (RSD < 2). The validation parameters like specificity, linearity, accuracy and limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, robustness are all fulfilled regulatory requirements. The developed HPLC method could be successfully used for the quantification of AT in samples obtained from in vitro skin permeation studies.

69

DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF PUSH PULL OSMOTIC TABLETS OF QUETIAPINE FUMARATE USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS

1C. Muthulingam*, 2Sona P.S, 3B.Shrivastava, 3Pankaj Sharma, 1Ashwin Rao

1Alembic Research Centre, Alembic pharmaceuticals limited, Vadodara, Gujarat

2Department of pharmaceutics, RVS college of Pharmaceutical sciences, Sulur, Coimbatore,Tamilnadu

3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

Abstract

The purpose of the research was to develop and optimize the osmotic drug delivery system of Quetiapine fumarate, a schizophrenic drug using Design of Experiments. The Push-pull osmotic drug delivery system was selected as a suitable system since Push-pull osmotic drug delivery system is the preferred system for the highly insoluble drugs like quetiapine fumarate. Design Expert-8 from statease was used to study the impact of independent variables of core & coat of osmotic tablets in two different stages. The dependent variables selected were the dissolution at 24 hours and Zero order rate constant. The formulation development reveals that independent variables like Polyethylene oxide of drug layer and the push layer, sodium chloride of push layer and polyethylene glycol of the functional coating impacted the release profile at 24 hours of the osmotic drug delivery system. However the Zero order rate constant was not impacted by any of the independent variables.

70

SCENARIO OF NANODIAMOND AND THEIR DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS

Swapnil G. Patil1*, Anita S.Wagh1, Ramesh C. Pawara1, Shashikumar B. Shirsath2, Rajeshwar V. Kshirsagar1, Surendra G. Gattani1

1School of Pharmacy, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded-431606, India.

2Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, University of Mumbai, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai- 400614, India.

Abstract

Nanodiamond (ND), an allotrope of carbon discovered several decades ago, received increasing attention because of its extreme chemical inertness, optical transparency, exceptional hardness and good biocompatibility. Nanodiamond Particles are an extended surface of diamond powder. Detonation nanodiamonds are a new promising material with novel properties like good biological tolerance in an environment of systemic tissues, resistance to radiation, both ionizing and non-ionizing; blood compatibility, specific physicochemical properties. Because of inert and biocompatible nature of the nanodiamond, it utilizes as an promising approach in new drug delivery among the various carbon materials. Nanodiamonds are having various wide applications in areas like drug delivery system such as pH dependent drug delivery, targeted drug delivery, Gene therapy, Cancer therapy and Biomedical application includes Biomedical labeling, Bioimaging, and also having applications in tissue engineering.

71

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL PATCHES CONTAINING NIFEDIPINE

Debarshi Datta1, S.Jigisha*1, Reshma.S1, V.Lavakumar1,M.Niranjan Babu1.

1Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Venkatramapuram,  Tirupathi

Abstract

Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems are delivery systems, which utilized the property of certain polymers. It is the subject of great interest during recent years because it provides the possibility of avoiding either destructing by GIT contents or hepatic first pass inactivation of drug , nearly about 40%of drugs are lipophilic and failed to reach market due to poor water solubility. The lesser bioavailability and first-pass metabolism is the reason for the suitable dosage form development containing Nifedipine. The Pre-formulation study such as, IR-study is carried out by using FT-IR apparatus which shows compatibility between Drug and different polymer. The different formulation of Nifedipine using different polymers were prepared and evaluated based on weight variation, Surface PH, Folding endurance, Drug content, Dissolving time, Disintegration time, Dissolution studies. Results shows satisfactory evaluation parameters including a higher percentage of Drug release .The main advantage of this formulation is that it contain a lower drug dose and by-pass its firs-pass metabolism.