IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
  • INDEXING
  • PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE
  • Impact Factor Journal
  • Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19) by World Health Organization(WHO)
  • NATIONAL ESSAY WRITING COMPETITION & NATIONAL POSTER MAKING COMPETITION on the occasion of World Pharmacists Day!
JULY2020
1

EVIDENCE FOR TREATING RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: A REVIEW WITH SPECIAL ATTENTION IN CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

Deevan Paul A, C Swetha*, G Jyothi Reddy, P Ramyasri, Avilala Neelima

SVU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, SV University.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an auto immune disease that affects in the clinical manifestations of arthritis in each patient. In addition to the development of medication, the clinical manifestations are to achieve the most effective role with less side effects by improving the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Multiple environmental factors including hormones, dietary factors, infections and exposure tobacco smoke as well as associated with increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis. Concurrently have proven in effective by retaining the therapeutic index at synovial cavity by virtue of its diagnostic medication. Current trends and future perspectives imply that definitive role in drug release are controlled by biological modifications in the anti-rheumatic drugs behaves the significant characteristic in achieving the disease remission without joint deformity.Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an auto immune disease that affects in the clinical manifestations of arthritis in each patient. In addition to the development of medication, the clinical manifestations are to achieve the most effective role with less side effects by improving the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Multiple environmental factors including hormones, dietary factors, infections and exposure tobacco smoke as well as associated with increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis. Concurrently have proven in effective by retaining the therapeutic index at synovial cavity by virtue of its diagnostic medication. Current trends and future perspectives imply that definitive role in drug release are controlled by biological modifications in the anti-rheumatic drugs behaves the significant characteristic in achieving the disease remission without joint deformity.




2

ESTIMATION OF CAFFEINE CONTENT IN CHOCOLATES BY USING HPTLC

Siva Prasad. M*, D. Kalpana, G. Priyanka, K. Mounika, K. Sucharitha, K. Supriya, Rama Rao .N
Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guntur.

The aim of the project is to develop a new simple, accurate, precise, rapid, selective and reproducible high performance thin layer chromatographic method for quantitative analysis of caffeine in chocolate products has been established and validated. Chocolate is a preparation of roasted andground cocoa seeds, which contains caffeine. Daily limit of caffeine 300-400mga day. More than 400mg of caffeine consumption leads to disrupted sleep, nervousness, dizziness, alsoincreases release ofacid. Inthis theextraction ofcaffeine fromchocolates had done and obtained product was quantified by using HPTLC. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) on aluminium – baked silica gel 60 F254 plates with butanol- chloroform-ammonia-acetone 4:3:2:1% (v/v/v/v) as mobile phase was followed by densitometry measurement at 254nm. This system was found to give compact bands for caffeine. Calibration plots were linear with correlation coefficient. The developed method was validated and proved to meet the requirements delineated by ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness and can be used for analysis of marketed products. 


 


3

DEVELOPMENT OF ROPINIROLE LOADED SYNTHESIZED OCTANOYL AND PALMITOYL CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES: OPTIMIZATION BY FACTORIAL DESIGN

Prasad R Deshmukh*, S S Khadabadi
Government College of Pharmacy, Amravati.

N-Octanoyl chitosan (NOC) and N-Palmitoyl chitosan (NPC) were synthesized to modified chitosan hydrophobically and characterized by FTIR, NMR, XRD, modified chitosan were having about 14 % degree of substitution and improvement in solubility in solvent. Full 32 factorial designs were used to optimize ionotropic method to prepared ropinirole loaded nanoparticle of chitosan and modified chitosan. Concentration of N-acyl chitosan, TPP and stirring speed was independent parameter while mean particle size and entrapment were dependent variable. 3D surface plot and counter plot of optimized batch was draw. Average particle size, drug loading and entrapment efficiency of ropinirole loaded nanoparticle was 150.7±3.3 nm, 24.80±1.1% and 54.96±3.8% respectively which were correlated with increases bulkiness of the acyl substitution in the modified chitosan while zeta potential was found inversely correlated. TEM and SEM imaging relieved spherical structure of nanoparticle. In vitro release of ropinirole in 1.2 pH HCl buffer and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer showed biphasic release pattern best fitted with Korsemeyers-Peppas kinetics with fickian transport mechanism. Acylated chitosan showed enhancement of sustained release with increasing length of acyl group. Result of the present study showed that hydrophobically modified acylated chitosan can be useful for achieving sustained release controlled by acylation modification. 


 


4

“PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF CLOXACILLIN GASTRO RETENTIVE MICROSPHERES”

Deepak D.T*, Yogananda R, Nagaraja T.S, Bharathi D.R
SJM College of Pharmacy, SJMIT Campus, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India.

The objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize and evaluation of gastroretentive microspheres of Cloxacillin. To achieve these objective nine formulations of microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 and Kollicoat MAE 100 P polymer. Prepared microspheres were evaluated for Particle size analysis, Surface morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, Drug encapsulation efficiency, Percent buoyancy, In-vitro drug release study and Stability study. The microspheres formed have smooth surface and spherical in shape as observed in scanning electron microscopy. The drug entrapment efficiency of the formulation is in the range of 76.46% to 93.41%. Particle size increases with increasing concentration of polymer, particle size ranging from 3 to 20 ?m. The percent buoyancy was more than 70% up to 12 hours. The percent buoyancy was increased significantly with increase in polymer is in the range of 72.40% to 83.49%. The Drug-polymer compatibility was studied by using FTIR spectroscopy. The study revealed that there is no interaction between the drug and selected polymers. The drug release study was found to be controlled release manner and release kinetics follows peppa’s model and non-fickian in nature. The stability studies data was found that there was no such difference in drug entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release. So it indicates that biocompatible and cost effective polymers like Eudragit RS 100 and Kollicoat MAE 100 P polymer can be used to formulate efficient microspheres with good percentage entrapment efficiency and controlled release up to 24 hr in phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Hence these microspheres of Cloxacillin can be targeted to gastroretension. 


 


5

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOGEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM CONTAINING CLOTRIMAZOLE AN ANTI-FUNGAL DRUG”

Muniraj S N*, Yogananda R, Nagaraja T S, Bharathi D R,
Dept of Pharmaceutics, SJM College of Pharmacy, Chitradurga, India.

The present work is to formulate, characterize and evaluate the Clotrimazole nanogel. The nanogel of clotrimazole is prepared by solvent diffusion method (high speed homogenization) using Carbopol 940 and Locust bean gum as polymers and triethanolamine as a gelling agent. And they are characterized for FTIR studies, Surface morphology, Particle size analysis, and evaluated for homogeneity, pH, spreadibility, extrudability, Drug content studies, viscosity, in-vitro diffusion and stabilities studies. FTIR studies revealed that the drug and polymer are compatible with each other during preparation. The average particle size ranges from 410 nm to 530 nm. The nanogel formed a moderately spherical and smooth in surface as observed in SEM. Homogeneity and extrudability studies reveal that the nanogel was homogenous and easily extrudable. The pH data shows all the formulation are in the range of 6.1 to 6.9 and they are in compatible to skin pH. Viscosity studies shows the results in the range of 3268-3528 cps, and having good viscous property. The drug content studies of formulations were from 82.16 to 90.15 %. In vitro diffusion studies of prepared nano gel follow Pappas’s dissolution kinetics with controlled release mechanism. And by fitting in Korsemeyer- Peppa’s equation it shows non Fickian kinetics. From the stability studies data, it was found that there was no such difference in drug content and In-vitro drug release. This indicates the prepared nano gel formulations are stable. Formulation F9 shows good results for the invitro diffusion studies for controlled release. 


 


6

“PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF SELF NANO EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM CONTAINING ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG”

Fayum A.K*, Nagaraja T.S, Yogananda R, Bharathi D.R
SJM College of pharmacy, SJM Campus, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India.

Self-nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery system (SNEDDS) is isotropic mixture of natural or synthetic oil, surfactants and co-surfactants. The present work is to prepare, characterize and optimization of Self nano emulsifying drug delivery system containing Anti-asthmatic drug. The SNEDDS of Montelukast sodium is prepared by probe Sonication method using span 60 as surfactant, Eudragit RL 100 and Eudragit RSPO as components and PVA as Co-surfactant. They are characterized for FTIR studies, SEM study, particles size analysis and drug entrapment efficiency and they are evaluated for visual assessment, self emulsification time, Robustness to dilution, in-vitro dissolution studies and stability studies. The FTIR spectra’s of SNEDDS are compatible with each other without any drug polymer interaction The prepared nanoparticles are smooth in surface and showing spherical in shape. The average particle size of the nanoparticles was found in the range of 315 nm to 513 nm. The drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE) of the SNEDDS was found in the range of 77.58% to 93.26%. By the visualization study all the formulations are found to be Grade III. Self emulsification time is found to be within 1 minute. Phase separation or no precipitation indicating the stability of nano emulsion. The in-vitro drug release data of all the formulations were found to be controlled release over a period of 24 hr. The short time stability study of optimized formulations has done and subjected to drug encapsulation efficiency and in-vitro drug release studies, where results shown that there is no significant change in the formulation. 


 


7

METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF VENTILAGO MADERASPATANA AMELIORATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE UNDER DIABETIC CONDITION IN ALBINO RATS

Venugopal Reddy Boreddy, Venkata Subbaiah Ganjikunta, Sathyavelu Reddy Kesireddy*
Division of Molecular Biology and Ethanopharmacology, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, AndhraPradesh-517502.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of methanaloic leaf extract of Ventilago maderaspatana (MEVML, 200mg/kg b.w.) on oxidative stress markers in the diabetic rat liver. Diabetes exacerbates hepatic injury induced by STZ delivered free radical mediated oxidative stress. A marked decreased in the anti-oxidant marker enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed in the diabetic rats. Decreased activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in diabetic rats were augmented on oral administration of MEVML. Moreover, MEVML administration depleted the MDA level, which was earlier increased in the diabetic rats. These results suggest that MEVML exhibit a hepatoprotective effect by accelerating hepatic anti-oxidant defense mechanisms and down regulating the MDA levels to the normal levels in the diabetic rats. Thus, MEVML may be used as therapeutic agent in preventing complications in diabetic patients. 


 


8

IMPACT OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC, MAJOR PRECAUTION AND TREATMENTS

Deepak Patel1, Sanjeev Kumar2, Navneet Swami3, TanujaDeoli4, Prashant Arya5, Sarvesh Kumar*6

1Department of Chemistry, A.P.B. Govt. College Aygustumani, Rudharpryag, Uttarakhand, India.

2MIT Institute of technology, Meerut (UP).

3Fresh Water Biology Unit, Department of Zoology and Biotechnology, H.N.B. Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India.

4HAPPRC, H.N.B. Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India.

5Department of Microbiology, H.N.B. Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India.

6Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, H.N.B. Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India.

The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused concerns globally. On 30 January WHO has declared it as a global health emergency. Total 1290 people have died in the Central Chinese city of Wuhan after a coronavirus epidemic. At this time the world is facing an unprecedented pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2). According to the WHO, this disease has spread globally with 12,102,328confirmed cases and 551,046deaths as of July 10, 2020. Despite worldwide efforts to contain it, the pandemic is continuing to spread for want of a clinically-proven prophylaxis and therapeutic strategy. Corona Virus causes a number of causes a disease in mammals and birds but has also proved capable of infecting human in recent decades. In 2003,the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and, more recently, the Middle-East respiratory syndrome (MERS) demonstrated CoV slethality when crossing the species barrier and infecting people. Coronaviridae family include a group of single, plus stranded RNA viruses from multiple species, causing previously identified diarrheal diseases and common cold. The seafood market was closed and decontaminated on 1 January 2020 the market for seafood was closed and decontaminated, while countries with travel links to Wuhan were on high alert for potential travellers with unexplained respiratory disease. National and International governments are profoundly divided over where traditional, complementary and inclusive practices have human value relative to COVID-19. The main aim of this review article is to access the present scenario of covid-19 and its major precaution and treatments in a defined manner according to WHO. Ayurveda, Yoga and meditation have a potential role in building a more positive health environment for the community and improvement of immunity. Another timely initiative to launch of the traditional, integrative and Complementary health and medicine registry COVID-19 to document practices and productsThe outbreak of COVID-19 has caused concerns globally. On 30 January WHO has declared it as a global health emergency. Total 1290 people have died in the Central Chinese city of Wuhan after a coronavirus epidemic. At this time the world is facing an unprecedented pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2). According to the WHO, this disease has spread globally with 12,102,328confirmed cases and 551,046deaths as of July 10, 2020. Despite worldwide efforts to contain it, the pandemic is continuing to spread for want of a clinically-proven prophylaxis and therapeutic strategy. Corona Virus causes a number of causes a disease in mammals and birds but has also proved capable of infecting human in recent decades. In 2003,the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and, more recently, the Middle-East respiratory syndrome (MERS) demonstrated CoV slethality when crossing the species barrier and infecting people. Coronaviridae family include a group of single, plus stranded RNA viruses from multiple species, causing previously identified diarrheal diseases and common cold. The seafood market was closed and decontaminated on 1 January 2020 the market for seafood was closed and decontaminated, while countries with travel links to Wuhan were on high alert for potential travellers with unexplained respiratory disease. National and International governments are profoundly divided over where traditional, complementary and inclusive practices have human value relative to COVID-19. The main aim of this review article is to access the present scenario of covid-19 and its major precaution and treatments in a defined manner according to WHO. Ayurveda, Yoga and meditation have a potential role in building a more positive health environment for the community and improvement of immunity. Another timely initiative to launch of the traditional, integrative and Complementary health and medicine registry COVID-19 to document practices and products. 


 


9

A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY ON PRESCRIBING PATTERNS OF DRUGS IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, BENGALURU.

Mr A. Shannumukha Sainath1, Dr. Praveen Kumar2, Dr. Ritty Sara Cherian1
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, ABIPER, Bengaluru.
2Clinical pharmacologist, Aster CMI Hospital,Bengaluru.

Background: A prospective observational study on patients who were diagnosed with Acute coronary syndrome and who met the inclusion criteria was carried out in the Coronary Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital, Bengaluru. Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze the prescription pattern for the drugs prescribed to the patients with ACS by checking the compliance with the standard guidelines provided by the ACC/AHA. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study for a period of 6 months was conducted in the CCU department of a tertiary care hospital. The percentage of the data was calculated using Microsoft Excel 2016. Results: A total of 101 patients were enrolled in the study in which males were 69(68.31%) followed by females 32 (31.68%) and were found in the age group of 41-66 years 73 (72.2%). Diabetes +hypertension + dyslipidemia 45(44.55%) were found to be the co-morbidities. The prescribing patterns of DAPT-101(100%), anti-hypertensives- 93(92.07%), statins-77(76.23%), anti-coagulants- 43(42.57%), anti-anginal drugs and diuretics were 36(35.64%), fibrinolytics were 04(03.96%). Conclusion: The present study concludes that maximum patients were greater than 60 years of age and with male predominance. DPAT with Clopidogrel and Aspirin was given to all the patients diagnosed with ACS as per ACC/AHA guidelines. Majority of the patients received all the required drug therapy which is in compliance with ACC/AHA guidelines. 


 


10

ASSESSMENT OF PATIENT PERCEPTION ABOUT GENERIC VS BRANDED MEDICINES PRESCRIBED IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

Cheryln Ann Chacko1*, Gikku Mariyam Varghese2, Catherin Babu3, Jeffin Joseph4, Mr.Philip Jacob5, Dr.Roshiny Thankom James6, Dr.Elessy Abraham7
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nazareth College of Pharmacy, Othera, Thiruvalla.

INTRODUCTION: A generic medicine contains the same active substance(s) as the reference medicine, and it is used at the same dose(s) to treat the same disease(s) as the reference medicine. However, the name of the medicine, its appearance (such as colour or shape) and its packaging can be different from those of the reference medicine’. However, all agree on the general requirements that the product is off-patent, contains an active ingredient in a previously approved medicine, is shown to be bioequivalent to that previously approved medicine, and has the same dosage form, route of administration and treatment characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was carried out over a period of six months in General Medicine Department Of Muthoot Healthcare, Pvt. Ltd, Kozhencherry. The type 2 diabetic patients who were on oral hypoglycemic were enrolled in the study. The knowledge of the patients was assessed by using a set of questionnaire. For this study 398 subjects were enrolled based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS: Out of 398 subjects, 292 subjects (74.4%) have not heard about generic medicines and the perception of patients regarding generic medicines were poorINTRODUCTION: A generic medicine contains the same active substance(s) as the reference medicine, and it is used at the same dose(s) to treat the same disease(s) as the reference medicine. However, the name of the medicine, its appearance (such as colour or shape) and its packaging can be different from those of the reference medicine’. However, all agree on the general requirements that the product is off-patent, contains an active ingredient in a previously approved medicine, is shown to be bioequivalent to that previously approved medicine, and has the same dosage form, route of administration and treatment characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was carried out over a period of six months in General Medicine Department Of Muthoot Healthcare, Pvt. Ltd, Kozhencherry. The type 2 diabetic patients who were on oral hypoglycemic were enrolled in the study. The knowledge of the patients was assessed by using a set of questionnaire. For this study 398 subjects were enrolled based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS: Out of 398 subjects, 292 subjects (74.4%) have not heard about generic medicines and the perception of patients regarding generic medicines were poor.INTRODUCTION: A generic medicine contains the same active substance(s) as the reference medicine, and it is used at the same dose(s) to treat the same disease(s) as the reference medicine. However, the name of the medicine, its appearance (such as colour or shape) and its packaging can be different from those of the reference medicine’. However, all agree on the general requirements that the product is off-patent, contains an active ingredient in a previously approved medicine, is shown to be bioequivalent to that previously approved medicine, and has the same dosage form, route of administration and treatment characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was carried out over a period of six months in General Medicine Department Of Muthoot Healthcare, Pvt. Ltd, Kozhencherry. The type 2 diabetic patients who were on oral hypoglycemic were enrolled in the study. The knowledge of the patients was assessed by using a set of questionnaire. For this study 398 subjects were enrolled based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS: Out of 398 subjects, 292 subjects (74.4%) have not heard about generic medicines and the perception of patients regarding generic medicines were poor.