IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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JULY 2018
1

SOME TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ONE SIDHA FORMULATION “KODASURI VEERAVAIPPU”

Ganesan A1, Rengasundari R2, Mudiganti Ram Krishna Rao3, Raguram Ganesan4
1Government Siddha Medical College, Chennai-106.
2Department of Nanju Noolum Maruthuva Noolum, National Institute of Siddha, Chennai-47.
3Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai- 600073.
4Jiamusi Medical University, Jiamusi, China.

The efficacy parameters of present day medicine depends on various scientific verifications such as pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, teratological and toxicological parameters. Ayurvedic and Sidhha medical practices, although age old methods of medicinal practice, have to prove their efficacy in these lines to get wider attention, recognition and acceptability. The present report is to study the toxicological effects of one Sidhha medicine, Kodasuri veeravaiuppu, on animal model. This medicine is used to treat inflammatory conditions such as rheumatism and arthritis in Sidhha practice. The parameters studied were water consumption, food consumption, body weight, kidney function test, liver function test and hematological parameters. The duration of the Study was for 45 days. Two dose levels of the test drug ‘Kodasuri veeravaippu’ were used (9.75 mg/kg and 16.15 mg/kg). Each group consists of six animals (three animals /sex /group). The drug was administered orally once daily for 45 days. It was observed that the medicine was quite safe when used at a lower dose of 6.75mg/kg, whereas, there was some moderate side effects, well within the permissible limit, at 16.15 mg /kg. Further work is on to understand the medicinal efficacy of this drug.

2

ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF DODONAEAVISCOSA (L.) JACQ

R. Xavier Arulappa*, M. Ginumol1, D. Deepanchakravarthi, M. Balraj
*S. A. Raja Pharmacy College, Vadakangulam, Tirunelveli District, Tamilnadu, India.
1JKK Munirajah College of Pharmacy, Kumarapalayam, Namakkal District, Tamilnadu, India.

Helminthic infections are the most common infection in human beings affecting a large proportion of the world’s population. Anthelmintic drugs are the drugs which are used to kill or reduce the number of helminthic parasites in the intestinal tract or tissues of the body. The aim of the present study highlights the evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Dodonaeaviscosaaerial part extracts in experimental adult Indian earth worm pheretimaposthuma. Chloroform and ethanol extract of Dodonaeaviscosawere investigated for anthelmintic activity using albendazole (10mg/ml) as standard reference and normal saline as control. The time to achieve paralysis and death of worm were determined. Chloroform extract shows more anthelmintic activity than ethanolic extract when compared with standard Albendazole.

3

EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOST AND VERMIWASH OF BEEDI LEAF WASTE OF EISENIA FOETIDA ON PLANT GROWTH

Jenitha. K*and Viswanathan, S.
Department of Microbiology, Scott Christian College (Autonomous), Nagercoil.
*Department of Microbiology, Sri Paramakalyani College, Alwarkurichi. (Affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abisekapatti, Tirunelveli,Tamilnadu-629003, India)

In the present study the vermicompost of beedi leaf waste by EiseniaFetidawas collected from department of Microbiology, Scott Christen College (Autonomous), Nagercovil-3 and the seed of Lady’s Finger, Brinjal, chilly, were collected from farm house, Trivandrum. Effect of vermicompost on the growth of Lady’s finger plant was studied for 90days. The growth parameter such as Shoot length, Leaf width, Leaf hight, Total number of leaf, foliag, Buds, Branches, Flower, Fruits. Were observed recorded and tabulated for every30 days after sowing the seed (30th day, 60th day, 90th day). The maximum growth parameter were observed in the treatment supplemented with 100% of vermicompost. Effect of vermicompost on the growth of Brinjal plant was studied for 90days. The growth parameter such as Shoot length, Leaf width, Leaf height, Total number of leaf, foliag, Buds, Branches, Flower, Fruits were observed recorded and tabulated for every30 days after sowing the seed (30th day, 60th day, 90th day). The maximum growth parameter were observed in the treatment supplemented with 100% of vermicompost. Effect of vermiwash on the seed germination and of chilly seed were observed recorded and tabulated for every 30 days after sowing thee seed (30th day, 60th day, 90th day) The maximum growth parameter were observed in the treatment supplemented with 60% vermiwash. The microbial population in the vermicompost of beedi leaf waste of Eisenia fetida was enumerated and tabulated. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria population of phosphate solubilizing microbes population and third place goes to Azospirillum. The microbial population in the vermiwash of beedi leaf waste of Eisenia fetida was enumerated and tabulated total heterotrophic bacteria population Actinomycetes population and third place goes to Phosphate solubilizing population.

4

FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF DISPERSIBLE PELLETS OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA BY BOX BEHNKHEN DESIGN

S.S. Dudhamal*1, P. S.Kawtikwar2
1Research Scholar, S.R.T.M.U, Nanded.
2S. N. Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad, Yavatmal.

In the current dispersible pellets were prepared and further evaluated. The pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization technique, by Box–Behnken experimental design to set up the relation between independent variables, citric acid (X1), Ludiflash (X2) and sodium bicarbonate (X3), and dependent variable and to acquire optimal formula of process using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).Optimization studies were utilized to study the effect of different variables on the formulated pellets. To estimate the significance of the model ANOVA test was performed. A model is considered significant, if the p - value is less than 0.05. Form the study; it was found that F16 was the optimized formulation, with DT of 40 secs, with good particle size and other evaluation parameters.. The values of estimation error proved validity of the used arithmetical method. The surface morphology of the pellets was studied by use of optical microscope. Thus formulated pellets offered narrow particle size distribution, good flow property, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density and decrease in moisture. Conclusion: The use of proper selection of superdisintegrant and its concentration showed good disintegration time of less than 60 seconds. By use of optimization study, pellets were successfully prepared.

5

“FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CARBAMAZEPINE NANOEMULSION FOR BRAIN TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY VIA INTRANASAL ROUTE”

Nagare Sonali .A*, Dhobale Avinash.V, Najan Anita.A
Loknete Shri Dadapatil Pharate College of Pharmacy, Mandavgan pharata,Shirur,Dist Pune,412211.

Intranasal drug administration is receiving increased attention as adelivery method for by- passing the blood–brain barrier and rapidly targeting therapeutics to the brain or CNS. The objective of the present study was to selected carbamazepine nanoemulsion for nose-to-brain delivery. Carbamazepine nanoemulsion (NE) formulation were successfully prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method (titration method) using Capmul MCM as the oil, Tween-80 as surfactant, and PEG-600 as co-surfactant phase on the basis of solubility studies. The nanoemulsion formulation containing 7.35% oil, 66.18% Smix ratio (3:1 Tween-80:PEG-600 ratio),26.47% (v/v) aqueous phase that displayed an optical transparency of 99.42±0.81%, globule size of 71.70±3.06 nm, and polydispersity index of 0.256±0.002. The selected Carbamazepine nanoemulsion was characterized, and the in-vitro drug release and in-vivo nasal absorption of drug from the selected formulation were evaluated in rats. In-vitro and ex vivo permeation studies showed an initial burst of drug release at 60 min and Carbamazepine nanoemulsion show drug release up to 5 h. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed that Carbamazepine.

6

STUDY OF SYMPTOMS, RISK FACTORS AND PRESCRIBING PATTERNS IN STROKE PATIENTS

K. Soumya Lakshmi*, Dr. Siddarama.
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Creative Educational Society’s College of Pharmacy, N.H.7, Chinnatekur, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh.

OBJECTIVE: Stroke or cerebrovascular accident is an acute focal neurological deficit that lass for 24 hours due to disturbances in cerebral blood flow. It is a medical emergency which occurs commonly in elderly patient. According to WHO, 15 million people worldwide suffer from stroke each year.In India incidence of stroke is 145/100,000 per year during 2003-06. One in six people suffer from stroke in their life time. Our present study accessing the risk factors, symptoms and prescribing patterns for the better choice of one drug over the other. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in the medicine department of viswabarathi hospital, Kurnool, AP . Required demographic and laboratory data, along with general neurological evaluation and brain CT was analyzed. RESULTS: In our study the incidence of ischemic stroke (83%) was more when compared to hemorrhagic stroke (29%). prevalence of disease was high in the age group of 56-65. Males are mostly affected than females due to risk factors like hypertension (61%), diabetes(28%), smoking (21%), alcohol (16%). Anti coagulants (78%) were most commonly used drugs where as nootropics are least commonly used drugs (6%). CONCLUSION:The present study emphasizes on the need to identify risk factors and providing awareness among the patients by a pharmacist in minimizing the disease burden. It also points the rationality in prescribing of drugs based on therapeutic guidelines.

7

A OVERVIEW ON AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY: A REVIEW

Anusha, Shyamala, P.Sirisha
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Joginpally B.R. Pharmacy College, Moinabad, Hyderabad. T.S.

Affinity chromatography is a separation technique that has become increasingly important in work with biological samples and pharmaceutical agents. Affinity chromatography is one of the most diverse and powerful chromatographic method for purification of a specific molecule or a group of molecules from a complex mixture by the specific interaction of solute with a ligand (which is immobilized). The affinity chromatography affords a means of characterizing interaction generated by an extremely broad range of binding affinities. In addition to its solute preparation and purification affinity chromatography thus also posess considerable potential for investigating the functional roles of the reactants there by purified. This review describes about the basic principle, procedure and its applications.

8

A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AS A RISK FACTOR IN BREAST CANCER.

Vedasamhitha Ramavarapu, C.Subam Mahender, Srichurnam Sreekar

Malla Reddy Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

The prospects of breast carcinoma have been coupled with the increase in ubiquity of obesity over the last decade as a result of the hormonal and health complexities connected to it. More than two-thirds of female populace is being diagnosed with breast carcinoma who fall under either obese or overweight category, the association of which is found to be progressive each year. There is an affirmable increase in the risk of breast carcinoma among postmenopausal women is high when put aside with premenopausal women, with respect to its incidence in India. In most meta-analysis, systematic reviews and observational studies, obesity has been proved to be a considerable risk factor. Obesity is incident in more or less 60% of patients at diagnosis of breast carcinoma and an additional 60-75% gain in weight is observed in patients throughout the treatment. Obesity is related to higher levels of insulin and other hormones in both pre and post-menopausal women. Apart from other metabolic hormones associated with cancer and its recurrence, insulin secretion and connected proteins have long been associated with the increased risk of cancer and also its recurrence. With the leading change in food patterns and the lifestyle changes, resulted in a declining physical activity and increasing BMI in an average human population, over the past two decades. A major percentage of studies indicate that being obese can be a poor prognostic factor and is related to less favorable nodal status in addition to increased risk of contralateral illness, recurrence, co-morbidities and overall mortality.

9

HYPOGLYCAEMIC EFFECT OF GILO (Tinospora cordifolia): A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW STUDY

Haider Ali Quraishi*, Naquibul Islam, Md.Sheeraz, Arsheed Iqbal, Shameem Ahmad Rather, Syed Sbahat, Parvez Dar
Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, (CCRUM)-University of Kashmir, Srinagar, J& K.

Diabetes Mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia caused by absolute or relative insulin deficiency, causing abnormalities of carbohydrates, proteins & lipid metabolism and significant & significant disturbance of water, electrolytes. According to WHO the worldwide prevalence of Diabetes mellitus was estimated to be 422 million in 2014 and is projected to rise up to 750 million by the year 2030.Oral hypoglycaemic agents like sulphonylureas & bigunanides are still the major players in the management of the disease but there is growing interest in herbal remedies due to the side effects associated with oral hypoglycaemic agents. Unani Physicians were very much familiar to the symptoms and complication of the disease. Ibne Sina in his book Al Qanoon has described about the symptoms like polydipsia, polyuria and mentioned gangrene among its complication. The Unani herbal medicine have been the highly esteemed source of medicine throughout human history. Unani System of Medicine deals with several means of treatment like Ilaj bil Ghiza (dietotherapy), Ilaj bil Dawa (Pharmacotherapy) & Ilaj bil Tadbeer (Regimenal Therapy), that can be aided as an adjuvant therapies. Where as in Classical Unani literature recommendations of diets & exercise along with various compound formulations and single drugs are being used from ancient time such as Safoofe Ziabetus, Qurs Ziabetus Khas, Qurs Tabasheer, Safoofe Hindi, & Kachnar (Bauhina variegata), Gilo (Tinospora cordifolia), Tukhme Methi or Hulbah (Trigonella foenum-graecum), Klaonji (Nigella sativa), Tukhme Hyat (Witania coagulans), Tukhme Karela (Momordica charantia), Gurmar Booti (Gymnemma sylvester), Talhab (Spirulina platensis).The outcome of these medication is proved to have a hypoglycaemic effect and these can be used along with the dietotherapy in present scenario to reduce the risk of complications. This review paper will discuss the potential of hypoglycaemic effect of Gilo (Tinospora cordifolia) in Diabetes Mellitus.

10

ROLE OF HOMOEOPATHIC PRESCRIBING METHODOLOGY IN THE TREATMENT OF UROLITHIASIS: A CASE REPORT

Girish Gupta1, Chaturbhuja Nayak2*, Reteka Sexena3, Arun Kumar3

1Gaurang Clinic and Centre for Homoeopathic Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

2Homoeopathy University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

3Dr. MPK Homoeopathic Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre (under Homoeopathy University), Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Introduction: Urolithiasis is a frequently encountered clinical problem affecting both the sexes of various age groups and even children. Its prevalence is increasing globally. The treatment for kidney stones usually depends on their size, site and composition. This case report explores the potential of homoeopathy in the treatment of urinary calculus. Case profile: A patient of urolithiasis reported in a clinical setting. Detailed case taking of the patient was done and individualized homoeopathic medicine was prescribed on the basis of totality of symptoms after repertorization along with an organopathic medicine. Calcarea carbonica was prescribed as the individualized medicine followed by Berberis vulgaris ? as an organ specific medicine. The clinical status of the patient was analyzed by ultrasonography imaging. Results: Mixed approach of constitutional and organopathic treatment yielded encouraging results. There was symptomatic relief of the patient and post-treatment ultrasonography showed no calculus after homoeopathic interventions. Individualized medicine, Calcarea carbonica in different potencies followed by Berberis vulgaris ? was found effective in speedy removal of the calculus. Conclusion: Calcarea carbonica, prescribed in this case, has limited documentation in the homoeopathic literature regarding its clinical utility in urolithiasis, yet, this constitutional medicine acted favourably in alleviating the morbidity. The organopathic medicine, Berberis vulgaris has definitive action on urinary system. The synergistic effect of individualized medicine with organ specific m edicine has paved a novel approach in the treatment of urolithiasis.