IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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  • PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE
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MAY 2019
1

WATER MELON - THE MUST MELON

Ms. BHAVISHA PATEL
Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research.

Benjamin Franklin, America’s greatest citizen, a printer by trade, scientist and philosopher by fame said, “Women & Melons are difficult to understand”. Water melon (Citrullus lanatus) is a beautiful, juicy, tasty fruit of the Cucurbitaceae family. This family contains all the edible gourds, such as cucumbers, watermelons, Musk melons, squash, and pumpkins. Water melon is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world for its nutritional and medicinal value.[1] It is a flowering plant originally from South Africa. Watermelon is grown in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide for its large edible fruit which is a special kind of berry with a hard rind and no internal division, botanically called a pepo.[2] The sweet, juicy flesh is usually deep red to pink, with many black seeds, although seedless varieties have been cultivated. The fruit can be eaten raw or pickled and the rind is edible after cooking. Watermelon fruit is composed of flesh (68%), seeds (2%) and rind approximately 30% of the total mass of the fruit. The sweet interior flesh of watermelon fruit is usually deep red or pink and in sometimes orange, yellow or may be green if not ripe. Basic macronutrients of watermelon fruit include carbohydrates, protein, dietary fiber and fat and their percentages in wet weight basis were 7.50, 0.61, 0.40 and 0.15%, respectively5.[3] Also, watermelon fruit is considered as a rich source of vitamins A, B, C and E and minerals K, mg, Ca and Fe and antioxidants e.g., phenolics and carotenoids6.Beneficial effects of watermelon fruit may be due to its content of bioactive compounds that have antioxidant or anti inflammatory properties. Thus, it is evident that Water melon fruit possess a wide range of useful medicinal properties, which can be exploited clinically. The present review article covers comprehensively up-to-date information on the chemical constituents and medicinal profile of water melon.[4] 


 


2

STANDARDIZATION OF SIDDHA HERBO-MINERAL FORMULATION SANDHANATHY CHOORANAM

Dr. Punithavalli V, Dr. Sathiya Thilaga B, Dr. Pitchiah Kumar M, Dr. Banumathy V
Department of Gunapadam (Siddha Pharmacology), Govt. Siddha Medical College, Chennai-600106, Tamilnadu, India.

Standardization of a Siddha herbo-mineral formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs based on the concentration of their active principles, physical, chemical, phytochemical, in-vitro, in-vivo parameters. All the plant and mineral materials were identified and authenticated by the Botanist and Gunapadam (Siddha Pharmacology) experts in Government Siddha Medical College, Arumbakkam, Chennai - 106. FTIR is used to identify the functional group, to determine the quality and consistency of the sample. SEM gives the information about the sample and it includes external morphology, texture, its crystalline structure, chemical composition and it displays the shape of the sample. ICPOES helps to analyze the major and minor elements in solution sample. FTIR shows the presence of alcohol, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, amide, amine, aromatic, ester, ether and nitro groups. SEM results reveal the presence of micro particles ranging from 238nm, 280nm, 306nm. ICPOES shows the presence of Ca, Fe, K, Na, P and S has physiologically important. In Sandhanathy Chooranam, the heavy metals like As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ni were below detectable level. This reveals the safety of the drug. Based on the results Sandhanathy Chooranam is a safe drug. 


 


3

BREAST CANCER: RECENT REVIEW ON MICELLES AS NANO-CARRIERS FOR TREATMENT

Samiksha Suroshe, Pankaj Nerkar*, Kanchan Patil, Shailesh Chalikwar
R C Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur.

Present review gives a brief explanation about Breast Cancer, its causes, factors that cause breast cancer, diagnosis, treatment, etc. A brief description of Cancer, and its types is also mentioned in this paper. Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the world, Breast cancer incidence is rising all over the world, at different rates. Worldwide, breast cancer is ranked second in terms of incidence after lung cancer. This review emphasizes the use of nanocarriers which can be used as targeted drug delivery system .Brief information about micelles is mentioned in this review paper. 


 


4

COMPARISON OF PROPOFOL-KETAMINE (KETOFOL) AND PROPOFOL-FENTANYL (FENOFOL) FOR SEDATION, RECOVERY AND HEMODYNAMICS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS UNDERGOING BURNS DRESSING CHANGE.

Anum Mughal, Sana Urooj, Jamil Akhtar, Hanya Javaid, Bashir Sheikh, Safia Zafar
Department of Anaesthesiology,SICU and management, Dr Ruth K.M PFAU Civil Hospital Karachi.

Burn injury is one of the leading cause of hospital admissions that have been associated with long term nervous system morbidity particularly for pediatrics population. Chronic persistent pain have been reported in 52% of the respondents that directs the aim at providing adequate analgesia during burn dressing. Multiple modalities have been used to alleviate the pain, anxiety and stress of burn dressing among pediatric patients. Many such modalities include use of music therapy, use of hypnosis, patient control analgesia and distraction techniques . Multiple intravenous analgesic agents have been studied and recommended to use for burn dressing change such as fentanyl, ketamine, tramadol, midazolam, Dexmedetomidine , morphine and satisfactory results have been achieved. We selected pediatric patients age between 5-12 years, having second degree burn of 5-25% requiring burn dressing change. The patients were divided into two groups to receive propofol-ketamine and porpofol-fentanyl according to their weights. Additional porpofol was given to achieve sedation score of 4 and start the procedure. Thourghout the procedure their sedation score, hemodynamics and any adverse effects were noted. Post procedure their recovery scores were recorded in PACU. We found better and early sedation in ketofol group while fenofol group gave better hemodynamics and recovery of the patients. There were no significant adverse effects in both the groups. we concluded that the combinations propofol- ketamine and propofol- fentanyl are satisfactory sedative agents for change of dressings in pediatric burn patients, however combination of PF is superior to PK group for rapid recovery of patient with better hemodynamic profile. 


 


5

IMPACT OF PERIODIC COUNSELLING ON- “APPROPRIATE USAGE OF INHALERS IN THE TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY DISEASES AND ADVERSE EFFECTS MANAGEMENT”; A CLINICAL PHARMACIST INITIATIVE-OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

Dr. D. Krishnarajan*, Doncy Raichal Chacko, Rohan J Mathew, Sijo Abraham, Thalu Vahana, S.kalaivani
JKKMMRF’s AJKKSA College of pharmacy, Komarapalayam, Nammakkal-638183, Tamilnadu, India.
The Tamilnadu Dr.MGR Medical University , Chennai, Tamilnadu.

Background: Respiratory diseases remain as a cause of frequent visit of emergency department and hospital admission. Inappropriate usage of inhalers and lack of patient counselling leads to uncontrolled state. Proper education and monitoring can manage the disease as well as ADRs. Aim: To study the impact of pharmacist counselling on appropriate usage of inhalers in the treatment of respiratory diseases and their ADR management. Materials and methods: Patients with respiratory diseases, who are using inhalers are recruited in this observational follow-up based study done in a tertiary care hospital in TamilNadu. Baseline data was collected by data acquisition form and case sheet analysis. 4 follow-ups were done in every 1 month interval, after detailed counselling of the subjects. The data were compared with t-test and Z- test. Results: Out of 105 subjects, most of the subjects were counselled by pharmacist(61.9%) than physician (26.66%). The percentage error in inhaler usage was 83.8% in baseline which falls to 27.6% in 4th follow up(p=0.001). In baseline, 85.7% subjects were of score <15 (poorly controlled), but in 4th follow up 83.8% were of sore 19-22(well controlled), which is an impact of appropriate usage of inhalers. Conclusion: This study clearly highlighted that inappropriate usage of inhalers is associated with uncontrolled respiratory diseases and frequent ED visits. The periodic pharmacist counselling leads to controlled disease and ADR management, shows the active role of pharmacist on the topic. 


 


6

ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF ACACIA NILOTICA PODS EXTRACT AGAINST FRUCTOSE INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIA

Shrinivas K Sarje*, Varsha Kadam, Snehal Rasale, Vikas Shiradhonkar, Nitin B Ghiware
Department of Pharmacology, Nanded Pharmacy College, Nanded, Maharashtra.

Hyperlipidemia is one of the major causes of disability in developing countries. It is the one of the major risk factor of coronary heart diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the pod extract of a medicinal plant Acacia nilotica (AN) on fructose-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. The plant extract and commercial lipid lowering drug atorvastatin were administered in fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats (FIHRs) at a dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg per day.Biomedical parameters were studied includingSerum Triglyceride, Serum Total Cholesterol, Serum LDL, Serum HDL, VLDL, in control, treated and diabetic rats. The result of the experiment suggest that The AN extract showed a significant decrease in lipid profile, i.e it shows antihyperlipidemic effect in fructose induced hyperlipidemic rats. 


 


7

TO ASSESS THE DRUG ADHERENCE, FACTOR AFFECTING ADHERENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE ASTHMA CHILDREN’S IN TAMILNADU

Arulprakasam K C1*, Senthilkumar N2
1Research Scholar, PRIST University, Tanjavuor, Tamilandu.
2JKKMMRFS Annai JKK Sampoorani Ammal College of Pharmacy, Komarapalayam, Namakkal DT, Tamilnadu.

The prevalence and associated burden of disease due to asthma, it is mandatory to obtain an optimal control of the disease and to improve outcomes for these patients. But it has been observed that there is very poor adherence to the therapy which leads to the suboptimal control of the disease. To study the adherence for therapy in asthma patients and to assess the impact of health education and self action plan in improving the adherence to the therapy. A prospective study was done in a total of 986 asthma patients over a period of 3 years. Once included in the study, the patients were followed up for a total of 12 weeks for calculation of non-adherence to the therapy. In non-adherent patients, we employed various health education strategies to improve the adherence in these cases. A total of 986 patients of asthma who were started on therapy over duration of 6 months were included in the study. At the end of 12 weeks, it was observed that, only 108 patients (10.95%) had regular adherence and 878 patients (89.05%) were non adherence to the therapy as prescribed for asthma. Factors that were associated with poor adherence were: Lower educational level status, poor socioeconomic status, cumbersome regimens, dislike of medication, Fears about side effects, beliefs, changing in regimen, and patient’s ill attitudes toward health. After employing the various strategies for improving the adherence in these patients, the adherence increased in patients (61.32%) among the earlier defaulted patients, while the remaining 188 patients (38.68%) were found to be non-adherence even after various educational techniques. Nonadherence in asthma management is a fact of life and no single adherence improving strategy probably will be as effective as a good physician and patient relationship. Optimal self-management allowing for optimization of asthma control by adjustment of medications may be conducted by either self-adjustment with the aid of a written action plan or by regular medical review. Individualized written action plans based on peak expiratory flow are equivalent to action plans based on symptoms. 


 


8

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NEW ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUSS ESTIMATION OF PANTOPRAZOLE AND DOMPERIDONE BY UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

Barri Swathi*, B.Subramanyam, B.Dharmateja, M.Hari Babu, D.Kiran
Rao`S College of Pharmacy, Buja Buja Nellore, Nellore, AP, India.

A simple, rapid and precise method is developed for the quantitative simultaneous determination of Pantoprazole and Domperidone in combined pharmaceutical-dosage forms. The method was based on UV-Spectrophotometric determination of two drugs, using simultaneous equation method. It involves absorbance measurement at 290 nm (?max of Pantoprazole) and 287 nm (?max of Domperidone) in MeOH:ACN(60:40v/v). For UV Spectrophotometric method, linearity was obtained in concentration range of 1-15 ?g/ml for domperidone and 1-50 ?g/ml for Pantoprazole respectively, with regression 0.999 and 0.995 for Domperidone and Pantoprazole respectively. Recovery was in the range of 99 -103%; the value of standard deviation and %R.S.D were found to be < 2 %; shows the high precision of the method., in accordance with ICH guidelines. The method has been successively applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines. 


 


9

LIPOSOMES: RECENT INSIGHT FOR BRAIN TARGETING

Zahid Anwer1, Pankaj Nerkar1*, Shailesh Chalikwar1
R C Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur.

Present review gives idea about various liposomal systems and their therapeutics in the management of various diseases related with central nervous system. Moreover, the uses of different types of chemicals show their effects at the site of action as well as diagnosis. In addition, therapeutics application of various types of liposomes such as peptide containing, chemical entities and their combination for multifunctional uses have been reported. This review emphasizes the internalization of liposomes inside the different tumor cells. By the application of continuous positive pressure infusion, the technique convection enhanced delivery (CED) has been developed and this technique give the idea about ease of internalization of liposomes through bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB) in tumor cells. 


 


10

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF NIOSOMES OF MIRTAZAPINE FOR NASAL DELIVERY

Sayeda Salma .S .A*, Asha A N, V Kusum Devi

Department of Pharmaceutics, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, Hosur Road, Opposite Lalbagh Main Gate, Karnataka, India.

Mirtazapine is a tetracyclic anti-depressant drug approved by USFDA to treat depression. It is a BCS class II drug with a low oral bioavailability of 50% due to first pass metabolism. Thus, the purpose of this research work was to enhance the bioavailability of the drug by enhancing its solubility by incorporating it in to niosomal vesicles loaded in to an in-situ gel to enhance its permeability across the biological membrane. Niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration method and optimized by using 32 full factorial design. Mirtazapine loaded niosomes were further incorporated in to an Poloxamer 407 and Carbopol 934 in-situ gel base. The vesicle size of all niosomal suspension batches ranged between 202-245 nm. The vesicle size of the optimized batch F5 was found to be 211.7 nm with PDI of 0.166. The zeta potential value of F5 was found to be 0.6 mV. The % EE of all niosomal batches was found to be in a range of 69.3% – 83.7% and the cumulative % release was found to be in a range of 75.2% – 84%. DSC, XRD studies were performed for pure drug and niosomal batch F5. All the gel formulations ranged between 17.3±0.03 sec to 27.3±0.03 sec. Gelling temperature was found to be in a range of 44oC±0.00 to 53oC±0.0oC and mucoadhesive results were found to be in a range of 10.3 ±0.023 to 14.5±0.060g. In-vitro drug release was found to be in a range of 68.3%-74.6%.