IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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NOVEMBER 2015
1

INCIDENCE OF MICROALBUMINURIA AMONG TYPE –II DIABETUS MELLITUS PATIENTS AND THE EFFECT OF ANGEOTENSIN RECEPTOR BLOCKERS IN ITS MANAGEMENT

V. Ganesh Reddy1, Bodireddy Neeraja1, Beparie Bushrah Anjum1, K. Purushothamreddy1, Dr. M. Sureswara Reddy2
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, P Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Department of General Medicine, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a multifaceted condition that affects virtually every cell in the body and can leads to develop pathological changes in numerous organ systems. Leakage of small amounts of proteins approximately 30-300mg/day or 20-200μg/min through urine is termed as “Microalbuminuria” and it is considered as a crucial sign of early kidney disease in diabetic patients since 1980’s. In our study we arel calculate the incidence of Microalbuminuria in type - II diabetes mellitus patients, which are considered to be an early sign for diabetic complication like “Diabetic Nephropathies”. Microalbuminuria is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease and mortality in adults. This holds true in the general adult population but is particularly recognized in those with diabetes. There is a significant correlation between Microalbuminuria and blood pressure; even a high usual blood pressure can lead to Microalbuminuria with high frequency. By this way it is termed to be a biomarker for increased cardiovascular risk. Hyperglycaemia can lead to glomerular endothelial membrane damage. Renal involvement is a pivotal development in diabetes and Microalbuminuria is generally the first clinical sign of renal dysfunction in diabetics. Consequently, both DM and HTN patients are to be assessed for Microalbuminuria and to be treated with appropriate regimen like angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB’s e.g.; losartan) to prevent or delay the progression of the disease and also helps in reducing further complications of diabetes.

2

ACHALASIA TREATMENT OPTIONS

M. Mahima Swaroopa, B. Sukanya, J. Vasantha, V. Bindu Praneetha
Kims Hospital, Amalapuram, Andhrapradesh, India.

Abstract

Achalasia is an esophageal motility issue of obscure reason, portrayed by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and weakened lower esophageal sphincter unwinding. Esophageal achalasia is an uncommon neuromuscular issue described by degenerative changes of mesenteric plexus prompting a particular loss of inhibitory nerve ending Assessed commonness of 0.5–1 for each 100 000 every year without an unmistakable age inclination. Achalasia can't be cured. Rather, we will likely assuage side effects, enhance esophageal purging and keep the improvement of megaesophagus. The best treatments are pneumatic dilatation and surgical myotomy. Botulinum poison treatment is prescribed for patients not suited to PD or surgery .The main aim of the review is to find out the major treatment options. Pneumatic Dilatation (PD) is the best non-surgical treatment alternative for patients with achalasia, Botulinum Toxin (BT) was initially utilized This paper describes a brief outlines of Botulinum toxin (BT) injection, Pneumatic Dilatation (PD) and Heller Myotomy (HM) . However, PD is the first nonsurgical choice and is more cost-effective.

3

CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF GREEN SYNTHESIZED GOLD NANOPARTICLES USING Argemone mexicana LEAF AGAINST HEPG2 CELLS

Sudha Sellappa* Mohammed RafiqKhan, Varun Selvaraj, Sreeja Vijayakumar
Molecular Diagnosis and Drug Discovery Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxicity of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles against HepG2 cells. The current study deals with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using aqueous extract of Argemone mexicana leaf as the reducing agent and toxicity was assessed on HepG2 cell line using MTT, LDH assay and caspase 3 assays. Cytotoxicity of biosynthesized AuNPs against in vitro HepG2 showed a dose-response activity. The results exhibit that gold nanoparticles mediate dose dependent toxicity for the HepG2 cells and the gold nanoparticles at 380 μg/mL decreased the viability of HepG2 cells to 50% at the initial level. LDH activities found to be significantly elevated after 48 h of exposure in the medium containing gold nanoparticles when compared to the control and increased caspase 3 activation suggested that gold nanoparticles caused cell death through apoptosis. This study revealed that biosynthesized AuNPs has a significant cytotoxic activity in the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

4

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT FROM PLUMERIA RUBRA FLOWERS

N. Muruganantham1*, S. Solomon2, M. M. Senthamilselvi3
1*Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Roever Engineering College, Perambalur, Tamilnadu, India.
2Department of Chemistry,Periyar E.V.R.College(Autonomous),Trichy, Tamilnadu, India.
3Principal, Government Arts College, Ariyalur, Tamilnadu,India.

Abstract

In Indian system of medicine, a large number of drugs of either herbal or mineral origin have been advocated for various types of diseases, India has been one of the pioneers in the development and practice of well-documented original systems of medicine, particularly Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. A compound has been isolated from the flowers of Plumeria rubra. The isolated compound was identified as Flavonol glycoside,6-methoxyl,4’-O-methyl myrecetin 7-O-(2’’-acetyl) glucoside. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated based on spectroscopic data like UV, NMR (1H, 13C) and MS. This is the first report of isolation of this compound from Plumeria rubra flowers.

5

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NEW RP-HPLC-PDA METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF BESIFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

Yasaswini .P*, Vijaya Lakshmi .M, Sai Supraja .M, Sai Sree .M, Lakshmi Suneetha .G, Buchi N. Nalluri.
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis,,, K.V.S.R Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vijayawada-520010, AP, INDIA.

Abstract

A simple and precise RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the determination of Besifloxacin hydrochloride, an anti-biotic in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Besifloxacin is a synthetic chiral flouroquinoline developed for the topical treatment of ophthalmic infections. Chromatography was carried out on an Inertsil C18 (250 x 4.6mm, 5μm) column with a mobile phase of 0.02% formic acid adjusted with 0.02% hepta Fluoro Butyric Acid and methanol (42:58% v/v). The flow rate was 1.0ml/min. The detection wavelength was carried out at 295 nm. The retention time is 4.015 minutes for Besifloxacin hydrochloride. The linearity was found in the range of 10-50 μg/ml (r= 0.999) and % RSD is less than 2%. The mean recoveries obtained for Besifloxacin hydrochloride were in the range of 99.14-100.91%. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and can be applied for the determination of percentage purity in besifloxacin hydrochloride for quality control analysis in bulk and its dosage forms.

6

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF QUERCETIN AND RUTIN FROM AGANOSMA DICHOTOMA [ROTH] K. SCHUM

Gomathy Subramanian*, Subramania Nainar Meyyanathan, Gowramma Byran, Yamjala Karthik, Dhanabal S Palanisamy
JSS College of Pharmacy, (A Constituent College of JSS University, Mysore) Ootacamund, The Nilgiris, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

To develop a rapid, specific, accurate and efficient liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method and validate as per ICH guidelines for the simultaneous estimation of quercetin and rutin from Aganosma dichotoma. The chromatographic separation was achieved by using C18 column, 150 x 4.6mm i.d., 5μ Phenomenex, mobile phase containing methanol: 10mM ammonium acetate (80:20 v/v). The flow rate was 0.4 ml/min. The retention time of quercetin and rutin was found to be 4.09 min and 3.31 min respectively. Quercetin and rutin exhibited linear in the range 1-5 ng/ml and 10-50 ng/ml respectively. The method was validated for the parameters like system suitability, specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous estimation of both the constituents in Aganosma dichotoma and established a quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of quercetin and rutin from Aganosma dichotoma.

7

ORGANIC REACTIONS: AS A PART OF IMPURITY

Badhe Nanda*, Savkare Anand Shirode Lina, Lale Shivam, Gaikwad Ashwini
NDMVP College of Pharmacy, Gangapur Road, Nashik, (422002) Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

In the course of the development of a new drug or a new technology for manufacturing an existing drug various chemical reaction are involved and it contribute a role as imparting the impurities in final products hence it is essential to know the structures of the impurities: by possessing the information synthetic organic chemists are often able to change the reaction conditions in such a way that the formation of the impurity can be avoided or its quantity reduced to an acceptable level. The various sources of impurity in pharmaceutical products are reagents, heavy metals, ligands, catalysts, other materials like filter aids, charcoal, and the like, degraded end products obtained during/after manufacturing of bulk drugs from hydrolysis, photolytic cleavage, oxidative degradation, decarboxylation, enantiomeric impurity, and so on. This should be based on sound scientific knowledge of the chemical reactions involved in the synthesis, impurities associated with raw materials and possible degradation products. Mostly impurities found in every API unless a proper care is taken in every step involved throughout the multi-step synthesis. In this review article, we describe how different types of reactions involved in the organic synthesis responsible for imparting the impurities in final product.

8

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TRANSFERSOMAL GEL OF SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE

M. Srujan Kumar*1, Dr. Anna Balaji2
1Institute of Pharmaceutical and Research Center, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India-305004.
2Pathfinder Institute of Pharmacy Education and Research, Warangal, Telangana, India-506005.

Abstract

The transdermal route of drug delivery has gained great interest of pharmaceutical research, as it circumvents number of problems associated with oral route of drug administration. In this study a Transfersomal gel was fabricated using liposome-based carrier according to Plackett-Burman Series. Transfersomes as ultra-sfigurabile liposomes are based on Soya lecithin, surfactant, Ethanol were prepared by bath sonicator and fabricated to gel. Sumatriptan was selected as model drug for the treatment of Migraine. Migraine is a chronic disease and the first line agents useful in treatment include NSAID’S and triptans .In recent years, most of the triptans have been designed to deliver the drug in the form of transdermal application to avoid gastrointestinal irritation, to overcome first pass effect and to maximize the drug concentration at the site of action. The present study describes the effect of sonication on size of transfersomes for future fabrication of transfersome into Lipo-drug-in-adhesive Patch. Transfersomes were Evaluated for Vesicle size, Polydispersity Index, Zeta Potential, SEM, Entrapment Efficiency and Transfersomal gel were evaluated for determination of pH, and In vitro Difffusion Studies. It was found that the fifth formulation was the best with the vesicle size of 3048.8 nm, Polydispersity Index 2.316, Zeta potential -1.9 mV, spherical vesicle shape, 92.71% drug entrapment efficiency and 97.65 percentage cumulative drug releases. The formulation was nonirritant to the skin when tested on animals.

9

DYSLIPIDEMIA IN THYROID DISORDERS

Dr.Saima Mushtaq, Dr.Sheikh Ishaq*, Dr. Tabasum Rashid, Dr. Shabhat Rasool, Dr. Arif Akbar Bhat, Prof. Sabhiya Majid
Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir.

Abstract

Background: Hypothyroidism is one of the most commonly occurring thyroid disorders worldwide. Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism have an adverse effect on the serum lipid profile that may predispose to the development of atherosclerotic disease. Thus hypothyroidism constitutes a significant cause of secondary dyslipidaemia. The present study aims to assess the association of hypothyroidism with lipid abnormalities that might be helpful for clinical management of hypothyroid patients with dyslipidaemia. Material and Methods: In this study thyroid function tests (T3, T4 &TSH), lipid profile (Total cholesterol,Triglycerides,LDL,HDL) were measured in 40 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism,40 patients with newly detected overt hypothyroidism and the results were compared with that of 40 healthy adults who were taken as control. Results: In our study mean total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol were found significantly increased whereas HDL cholesterol was found decreased in cases compared to controls. In Group1: The Means of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL Cholesterol and HDL-Cholesterol were found to be 167.1, 108.27, 99.07 and 46.37 mg/dl respectively. In Group 2: The mean of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-Cholesterol and HDL-Cholesterol were found to be 209.50, 173.8, 131.043 and 43.702mg/dl respectively. In Group 3: The Means of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-Cholesterol and HDL-Cholesterol were found to be 300.3, 200.27, 223.54 and 37.6 mg/dl respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that, dyslipidaemias are associated with Hypothyroidism, so biochemical screening for thyroid dysfunction is of paramount importance in all dyslipidemic patients. Therefore, patients presenting with dyslipidaemia are recommended for investigation to explore hypothyroidism.

10

ANTI-OXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ADHATODA VASICA FLOWERS

N. Muruganantham*1, S. Solomon2, M. M. Senthamilselvi3
1*Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Roever Engineering College, Perambalur, Tamilnadu, India.
2 Department of Chemistry, Periyar E.V.R.College (Autonomous),Trichy, Tamilnadu, India.
3Principal, Government Arts College, Ariyalur, Tamilnadu,India.

Abstract

The developments of potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant drugs from the natural products are now under thought. Natural products are rich source for discovery of new drugs because of their component diversity. An herbal product from medicinal plants plays a major role to cure many diseases associated with inflammation and anti-oxidant. The traditional drug available in the market to treat inflammation produces various side-effects. There is a need for the search of newer drugs with less or no side-effects. This review is given on the anti-inflammatory activity and anti-oxidant of the most familiar medicinal plants of medicine. This matter may be helpful for the researchers, academician and preclinician to know about the potential herbs having anti-inflammatory activity and anti-oxidant activity. Adhatoda vasica. Is an indigenous herb belonging to family Acanthaceae. The flowers of Adhatoda vasica is extracted and evaluated for antioxidant activities by 2,2-Diphenyl 1-picryl hydrazyl solution (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sul- phonic acid (ABTS) assay and anti-inflammatory activities by human blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method and Inhibition of albumin denaturation method. The results obtained showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of Adhatoda vasica flowers can be considered as good sources of anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory and can be incorporated into the drug formulations. This study justifies the anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory activity of the compound isolated from ethyl acetate fractions of Adhatoda vasica flowers. Further detailed analysis of this sample is required to identify the presence of bioactive compounds responsible for anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory activities. Studies are highly needed for future drug development.

11

SELF-EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN APPROACH TO INCREASE THE SOLUBILITY OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUGS

Nirav P. Khant, Meenakshi B. Patel*, Manali S. Parikh

Babaria Institute of Pharmacy, BITS Edu Campus, Varnama, Vadodara-391240.

Abstract

As a development of recent drug discovery techniques, there has been an increase in the number of novel pharmacologically active compounds that are lipophilic in nature. It is indeed challenging for pharmaceutical researcher to enhance the oral bioavailability of such molecules. One of the most well-known and commercially suitable formulation approach for resolving these problems is self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS). SEDDS has given promising results in improving the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble and lipophilic drugs. Highly lipophilic drugs can be dissolved in these systems and administered as solid dosage form for oral administration. This system gets released in the gastrointestinal tract, where it disperses to form a fine emulsion with the help of GI fluid. This leads to in situ solubilization of drug that can subsequently be absorbed by lymphatic pathways. So, these are the additional advantage associated with this system. For lipophilic drug compounds that exhibit dissolution-rate-limited absorption, SEDDS can offer an improvement in rate and extent of absorption, resulting in reproducible drug concentration in blood. Possibility of the system to adsorb on the solid carrier has gained popularity because systems can be administered as a unit dosage form for oral administration. It was concluded that although a lot of work has been done, still there is scope for exploring this technique for enhancement of poorly soluble drug.

12

MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERE

Jadhav S.A* Sharma Y.P

Department of Pharmaceutics SND College of Pharmacy Babhulgaon Tal-Yeola Dist-Nashik 423401, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Mucoadhesive microspheres exhibit a prolonged residence time at the site of application or absorption and facilitate an intimate contact with the underlying absorption surface and thus contribute to improved and better therapeutic performance of drugs. Microspheres constitute an important part of this particulate drug delivery system because of their small size and other efficient properties. Mucoadhesive microspheres provide better drug absorption as they get adhere to the mucosal surface and release drug for prolonged time. This article reviewed about the mucoadhesive microspheres, their methods of preparation Mucoadhesive Microspheres are small spherical particles with diameter in micrometer range (1μm to 1000μm). In recent years such Mucoadhesive microspheres have been developed for oral, buccal, nasal, ocular, rectal and vaginal for either systemic or local effects. This review article aims to provide various aspects of mucoadhesion, theories of mucoadhesion and the polymers which will shows the excellent mucoadhesive properties.

13

“RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ZOLPIDEM TARTRATE AND APPLICATION TO ITS DOSAGE FORMS(TABLETS AND CAPSULES)’’

Md. Azeemuddin*, R. Vani

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Deccan School of Pharmacy Darussalam, Hyderabad.500023.

Abstract

Objective:- The objective of the present investigation has been to develop simple, accurate and economical RP-HPLC method for quantitation of zolpidem tartrate and its application to its dosage forms(tablets ,capsules).  Method:-Chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically using C18 column (hypersil ODS, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase, 40:60 (phosphate buffer: acetonitrile). The flow rate was 1 ml/min and effluent was detected at 244 nm and 20μl of sample was injected. The run time was found to be 6 min. Results:- Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 50-150 % for zolpidem tartrate. Percent recoveries obtained for the drugs were 98.99%. The percentage   RSD for precision of the method was found to be less than2%. The method was linear over the concentration range for Zolpidem tartarate 50-150 μg/ml. The recoveries of Zolpidem tartarate tablets and capsule were found to be 99.84% and 99.95% respectively hence the developed method is usefull for the estimation of Zolpidem tartarate present in tablet as well as capsule dosage forms. The validation of method was carried out utilizing ICH-guidelines. The described HPLC method was successfully employed for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing combined dosage forms. Conclusion:- From the above experimental results and parameters it was concluded that, this newly developed method for the  estimation of Zolpidem tartrate was found tobe simple, precise, accurate and high resolution and shorter retention time makes this method more acceptable and cost effective and it can be effectively applied for routine analysis in research institutions, quality control department in industries, approved testing laboratories, bio-pharmaceutical and bio-equivalence studies and in clinical pharmacokinetic studies in near future.

14

SYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NEW PYRAZOLINE DERIVATIVES AS POTENTIAL ANALGESIC AGENTS

Gurdeep Singh*1, A.K. Jain2, A. K. Halve3, Naveen Sharma1, Manutosh Acharya4, Ashish Dixit5

1Shri Ram College of Pharmacy, Banmore (M.P.), India.

2Gajararaja Medical College, Gwalior (M.P.), India.

3SOS in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior.

4Omni Active Health Technologies, Thane (W)-400 064.

5Shri Ramnath Singh Institute of Pharma. Sci. and Technology, Gwalior (M.P.)-474011.

Abstract

In this study, a library of new N-(3-(5-(Substituted phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-hydroxy phenyl) acetamide (4a-4j) were synthesized and evaluated for their in vivo analgesic activity. All the compounds were prepared in a multistep process involving the initial acetylation of acetaminophen with acetic anhydride to form o- acetyl- p- acetamido phenol (1a) which undergoes fries reaction in the presence of AlCl3 to form 5- Acetamido -2- hydroxyacetophenone (2a). The reaction of corresponding acetophenones with substituted benzaldehydes gave Chalcones (α,β-unsaturated ketones) derivatives (3a-3j)  which on further reactions with hydrazine hydrate in presence of dioxane gave titled pyrazoline derivatives (4a-4j). The structures of the titled compounds were established on the basis of spectral (IR, 1HNMR, Mass and Elemental) data. All the titled compounds showed significant (P<0.05) reduction in analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by Eddy’s hot plate method. Some of these compounds exhibit promising activities against Diclofenac Sodium as standard drug. The research provides compounds with potent analgesic action and can be used for treatment arthritic and related problems. 

15

ANTI-DEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CAMELLIA SINENSIS

Mangal Ashish*, Sharma Naveen, Singh Gurdeep, Arjariya Priyanka, Arora Kanika

ShriRam College of Pharmacy Banmore, Morena (M.P.)

Abstract

Camellia sinensis is commonly known as green tea is mainly cultivated in topical and sub topical climate. To the best of our knowledge the plant is so far reported only for memory enhancing properties. In this content we have included neuropharmacological study of camellia sinensis. In this study anti-depressant activity was assessed by forced swim test and tail suspension test. 2 gm of green tea [camellia sinensis (Vari. Assamica)] was soaked in 10 ml of water. This aqueous extract of camellia sinensis was administered to animal. We have used two dose of 200 ml/ Kg and 400 ml/ kg of aqueous extract of camellia sinensis. The result from this study strongly suggests that camellia sinensis possess varied effects on the CNS and it showed anti-depressant activity.

16

ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ACTINIOPTERIS DICHOTOMA BEDD IN SWISS ALBINO MICE

Naveen Sharma1*, Suman Jain2 , A. K. Jain3, Vipin Kumar Sharma4, Gurdeep Singh1, Manutosh Acharya5

1 ShriRam College of Pharmacy, Banmore, Gwalior, India.

2 School of Studies, Pharmaceutical Science, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India.

3 Directorate of Medical Education, Bhopal, M.P.

4Ministry of Ayush, New Delhi, India.

5Omni Healthcare, Mumbai, Maharashtra.

Abstract

Actiniopteris Dichotoma Bedd also known as mayurshikha is one of the oldest herbs in Indian traditional system and has been used as diarrhoea, dysentery, worm infestations, skin discoloration, skin diseases, diabetes and fever. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Actiniopteris Dichotoma Bedd (EEAD and AEAD) by Maximal Electroshock (MES) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced Seizure tests in Swiss Albino mice. EEAD and AEAD given in a dose of 500mg/kg significantly (P < 0.01) reduced hind limb extension and tonic flexion of forelimbs when compared to control and EEAD and AEAD given in a dose of 250mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in MES induced seizure model. Ethanolic and aqueous extract of Actiniopteris dichotoma at dose of 500 mg/kg showed high significant (p < 0.01) protection against onset of clonic convulsions induced by PTZ. The 250 mg/kg ethanolic and aqueous extract of Actiniopteris dichotoma showed significance (p < 0.05). EEAD and AEAD treated groups showed good significant (p < 0.01) and (p < 0.05) inhibition of lipid peroxidation (decrease in MDA) compared to control group. The EEAD-250 mg/kg and the AEAD -250mg/kg and 500mg/kg showed significant increase (p < 0.05). But EEAD-500mg/kg showed very good significant increase (p < 0.001). These findings show that EEAD and AEAD at 500mg/kg high significantly effective as anticonvulsant and promising for development of standardized phytomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy.

17

MICROBIAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONVERSIONS OF BIOACTIVE NATURAL PRODUCTS- A REVIEW

Jain Saloni Jayeshkumar, Jegan Sakthivel

St. John Institute of Pharmacy and Research, St. John Technical Campus, Vevoor Road, Palghar (W)  401404.

Abstract

Microbial biotransformations are a combination of biochemical reactions to transform the structures of the phytochemicals and organic compounds, by exploiting microorganisms and their isolated enzymes, to develop a variety of useful constituents, through regio-stereo selectivity reactions and helping to generate products of good yield in order to support the future of green chemistry. Because many valuable drugs are derived from such natural compounds, there is much interest in their transformation to provide new compounds or intermediates for the synthesis of new orimproved drugs. This review aims to provide a survey of microbial transformations done on commonly available natural products to increase the yield of compounds.

18

DRUG UTILIZATION EVALUATION: IMPACT OF PHARMACIST INTERVENTIONS ON PRESCRIBING PATTERNS OF PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

Nally Suman Raj1, A.J. Rocky2, G. Ramesh3, Aparajita4, Dr. B.V.S. Lakshmi5, Dr. K. Anusha MD6

1-4Department of Pharmacy Practice, Malla Reddy Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India-500055.

5Head of Department, Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad-500014, India.

6Department of Psychiatry, Malla Reddy Hospital, Hyderabad-500055, India.

Abstract

Drug use is a complex process. Uncertainties in diagnosis, treatment and medication adherence contribute to wide variations in the way drugs are used for any given condition. One method to evaluate and improve drug use is conducting drug use evaluation studies. Our study aims to find out any objectionable trends in the drug utilization patter and correct them. The present study was conducted in two phases. In first phase, 200 prescriptions were collected, evaluated, necessary interventions were made and implemented in collaboration with the health care team. In second phase, another 200 prescriptions were collected and evaluated to check whether the interventions were successfully implemented and any further more necessary interventions were suggested. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose methodology was used to assess drug utilization data. Drug prescriptions were analyzed by WHO INRUD drug use indicators. Cost analysis was done by calculating cost index. Our study concludes that, all the treatment patterns for various disorders were in accordance to several guidelines. Intervention was made to use Olanzepine instead of Aripiprazole as drug of choice for schizophrenia, which was implement successfully in the second phase. The prescribed daily dose for most of the drugs corresponded to defined daily dose, reflecting adherence to international recommendations. Drug use pattern was satisfying WHO INRUD drug use indicators criteria expect for use of generic names shown a negative impact. Cost index of most of the drugs were >2 due to the use of specific branded drugs which was unavoidable. 

19

AUGMENTATION OF SOLUBILITY OF CARVEDILOL PHOSPHATE BY SOLID DISPERSIONS USING SKIMMED MILK

P. Nagendrababu*, Swapna .S, Madhu Babu.A, Vasudha Bakshi

Department of Pharmaceutics, Anurag Group of Institutions, (Formerly Lalitha College of Pharmacy), Ghatkesar, Hyderabad – 500088.

Abstract

The objective of this project was to improve the solubility of poorly water soluble drug namely Carvedilol phosphate by formulating solid dispersions with skimmed milk powder as a carrier. Twelve different formulations were prepared with varying drug: carrier ratios of solid dispersions and the corresponding physical mixtures were also prepared. Various techniques were used to characterize the solid dispersions immediately after they were made which includes Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and in-vitro dissolution studies. The DSC thermogram of pure drug indicated of its anhydrous crystalline nature. In the thermogram of solid dispersion, the characteristic peak was absent suggesting the change from crystalline nature to amorphous form. XRD confirmed the results. XRD results for the Pure drug showed highly intense peaks characteristic of its crystalline nature. The XRD pattern of solid dispersion showed less intense, more diffused peaks indicating an obvious change in the crystalline form. FTRI studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and the carrier. All the formulations showed marked improvement in the solubility behavior and improved drug release. Formulation containing drug: polymer ratio of 1:6 showed the best release with a cumulative release of 76.4% as compared to 34.51% for the pure drug. It was concluded that skimmed milk powder as a carrier can be very well utilized to improve the solubility of poorly soluble drugs.

20

AN EXQUISITE TECHNOLOGY OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE: NANOTECHNOLOGY

Mohammad Kashif Iqubal*1, Ashif Iqubal2, Mohd. Shuaib1, M. Shahryar3

*1Department of Pharmacy, Kalka Institute for Research and Advanced Studies, Partapur Bypass, Meerut.

2Translam Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Mawana Road, Meerut.

3Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, (Hamdard University) New Delhi 110062.

Abstract

Various complications as well as expense had been found more in marketing of new chemical moieties because of their narrow solubility index, high toxicity, high dosage, non-specific delivery system, poor in-vivo degradation and circulating half lives. Nanoparticulate technique has capability to overcome the above problems of new chemical moieties as well as problems of already running chemical moieties in pharmaceutical industries. Nanoparticle drug delivery system have ability to significantly impact on pharmaceutical industries and they can build a huge impact by drug targeting, it possible because it reduce the toxicity and increases the efficiency of chemical entity. Nanoparticle is novel technique for development of a controlled or sustained release and targeting drug delivery system. It can decrease the gap between drug discovery and drug delivery. The main approaches of this review article to discuss the different types of potential method, types of nanoparticles, method of characterization, release mechanism, advantages and some important applications were discussed.

21

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF UNDECENOIC ACID BASED OXIME ESTERS

Venepally Vijayendar1, 3, Shiva Shanker Kaki*1, Ram Chandra Reddy Jala*1, 3, Y. Poornachandra2, 3, C. Ganesh Kumar2, 3, R.B.N. Prasad1,3

1Centre for Lipid Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, India.

2Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, India.

3Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

Various substituted benzaldehydes were converted to corresponding oximes and subsequently esterified with undecenoic acid to obtain novel undecenoic acid based aldoxime esters.  The structures of the prepared oxime esters were confirmed using NMR, IR and mass spectral data. These oxime esters were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. It was observed that the oxime ester derived from 3-hydroxy benzaldoxime (compound 3j) exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against three gram positive organisms and also against a fungal strain. In addition, the derivative showed good activity in biofilm inhibition assay. In the antioxidant evaluation, oxime ester 3k derived from 2, 3- dihydroxy benzaldoxime exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as observed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, superoxide free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation assay as compared to commercial antioxidants. From the present study, compound 3j was found to be the most potent antimicrobial agent and compound 3k was found to be promising antioxidant.

22

A POPULATION-BASED STUDY ON PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIALS (ANTIBIOTICS) IN TWO DIFFERENT REGIONS OF INDIA

Ram Krishna Prasad1*, Dr. D. Satyawati2, Dr. Fatima Tahniyath3, P. Neehar4, Dr.Narayani5

1R&D Shell, JNTU, Hyderabad, Telangana (State), India.

2Principal, Brilliant integrated campus (faculty of Pharmacy and faculty of engineering), Abdullapur (V), Hayat Nagar, RR Dist. Hyderabad -36.

3 Clinical Pharmacist, B.Pharmacy, Pharm D (PB), Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

4Axon Hospitals, Srinivasa nagar Colony (West), Hyderabad, Telangana (State), India.

5College of Veterinary Science and AH, Anjora Durg, Chhattisgarh (State), India.

Abstract

Introduction: Systemic antibiotics account for more than one-third of all prescriptions; hence, antibiotic prescriptions are a major public health concern. Moreover, data regarding rational antibiotic use is very limited. Hence, it is essential that the antibiotic prescribing pattern be evaluated periodically for its rational use. Aim: The aim of our study is to analyse and compare the prescribing pattern of antibiotic use in the in-patients of a tertiary care hospital of South India and North India. Methods: The study was conducted for 2 years (October, 2010 to September, 2012). The data regarding patient demographics and antibiotic use was collected daily in a structured proforma. A descriptive analysis of the data was done. Results: A total of 950 (North Indian and South Indian) patients were enrolled, most of them belonging to the age group 20-80 years. Majority of them were males among North Indian patients and females among South Indian patients. On an average 1.7 AMAs were prescribed per patient with the average duration of stay of patients of 6.8 days. The most common AMAs prescribed were combination of beta lactams followed by aminoglycosides in North India and combination of beta lactams followed by quinolones in South India. The preferred route of administration was injectable. The percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name was 82% being 46% and 36% in North and South India respectively. Conclusions: Male patients have better access to tertiary medical care as compared to female patients. The anti-microbials prescribed were more in number. Newer generation of antibiotics are more commonly prescribed leading to increased cost of therapy. This baseline study will help in formulating an antibiotic policy and standard treatment guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics.

23

INVITRO-ANTIOXIDANT, ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF GlochidionEllipticum

Somkant V. Jawarkar*, RakeshkumarJat

J.J.T.University,Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan 333001.

Abstract

The study was aimed at evaluating the in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of leaves of Glochidionellipticum(family: Euphorbiaceae). When compared with ethanolic extract methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant effect.The antioxidant properties were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as DPPH scavenging activity1000 µg/ml showed 69.34 % inhibition than standard 92.37%., hydrogen peroxide scavenging1000 µg/ml showed 86.29 % inhibition than standard 72.29%., ferrous reducing activity and nitric oxide 200 µg/ml showed 73.19 % inhibition than standard 76.35%.The various Antioxidant activity activities were compared to synthetic drugs such as ascorbic acid. 

24

DAM-AL-AKHAWAIN (PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM): A REVIEW

Shah Alam1, Mohd Akhtar Siddiqui2, Mohd Maaz3, Zehra Zaidi3, Shafia Mushtaq1
1M.D. Scholar, Department of Moalajat, F/O Medicine (Unani), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110062.
2Associate Prof. Department of Moalajat, F/O Medicine (Unani), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110062.
3Assistant Prof. Department of Moalajat, F/O Medicine (Unani), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110062.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (Ziabetus shakri) is one of the most common non-communicable diseases. According to IDF there were 366 million people with diabetes in 2011, and this is expected to rise to 552 million by 2030. It has been established that diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder, arises when pancreas fails to secret enough insulin or when body cannot effectively use the insulin produced or both. The scientific basis of diabetes has evolved over centuries; it was long thought to be caused by kidney disease. In Unani system of medicine ancient scholars like Galen, Avicenna, and Rhazes attributed the development of diabetes to the weakness of kidney (Zauf-e-Kuliya). The fundamental concept of Quwah (power) in Unani medicine further emphasized the role of metabolism in the aetiology of the disease. A number of herbal remedies and their formulations have been mentioned in classical Unani text for the effective management of diabetes. Dam-al-Akhwain (Pterocarpus marsupium) is one of them, traditionally used for the treatment of intestinal abrasion, spasmodic pain, haemorrhage, diarrhoea, dysentery, helminthiasis, inflammation, wounds, ulcers, boils, sore etc. It has been in use for the treatment of Zauf-e-Kuliya; the primary cause of diabetes as per Unani system of medicine. Several pharmacological and clinical studies have been carried out advocating the role of Pterocarpus marsupium in diabetes mellitus. It was found to have anti-hyperglycaemic, β cell regenerative, hepato-protective, cardio tonic, anti-diarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-hyperlipidemic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-allergic and memory enhancing activities. These findings validate the claims of Unani scholars regarding the potential uses of Dam-al-Akhwain laid down in classical text. Therefore it may be concluded that Dam-al-Akhwain (Pterocarpus marsupium) is not only effective in the management of diabetes but also offer solutions for a variety of disorders like obesity, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, chronic inflammation, allergic disorders, peptic ulcer disease and carcinoma etc.

25

FORMULATION OF NANOSUSPENSION AND NANOEMULSION AS A NEW APPROACH FOR THE DELIVERY OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUGS

Omprakash G. Bhusnure1*, Sachin B. Gholve1, Manisha M. Bhange2, Ram S Pentewar2
1Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College (Degree), Department of Quality Assurance, Maharashtra, India.
2Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College (Degree), Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

One of the major problems associated with poorly soluble drugs is very low bioavailability. The problem is even more complex for drugs poorly soluble in both aqueous and nonaqueous media, belonging to BCS class II as classified by biopharmaceutical classification system. Formulation as nanosuspension & nanoemulsion is an attractive and promising alternative to solve these problems. Nanosuspension consists of the pure poorly water-soluble drug without any matrix material suspended in dispersion. Preparation of nanosuspension is simple and applicable to all drugs which are water insoluble. A nanosuspension not only solves the problems of poor solubility and bioavailability, but also alters the pharmacokinetics of drug and thus improves drug safety and efficacy. Nanoemulsions are clear, thermodynamically stable, isotropic liquid mixtures of oil, water, surfactant and co-surfactant. Reduction in droplet size to nanoscale leads to change in physical properties such as optical transparency & unusual elastic behavior. Nanoemulsions have many advantages; for instance, enhance drug solubility, perfect thermodynamic stability, ease of manufacturing and permeation over conventional formulations that convert them to important drug delivery systems, transparency at high droplet volume fraction, higher rate of bioavailability or diffusion and increased shelf life of the pharmaceuticals. The design and development of nanosuspensions and nanoemulsions aimed at controlling or improving required bioavailability levels of therapeutic agents. This review article describes the preparation methods, characterization, and applications of the nanosuspension and nanoemulsion.

26

DESIGN, OPTIMIZATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE FLOATING MATRIX TABLETS OF GLIMEPIRIDE: BY 32 FACTORIAL DESIGN

Pamu Sandhya*1,2, Amatul Noor Shaima2
1University College of Technology, Department of Pharmacy, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, Telangana State, India.
2Shadan Women’s College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Khairatabad, Hyderabad, 500 004, Telangana State, India.

Abstract

In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop gatroretentive floating controlled release tablets of glimepiride by selecting HPMC K4M and xanthan gum as retarding polymers. The polymers are used in different ratios, all the formulations were prepared by direct compression method. The blend of all the formulations showed good flow properties such as angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density. The prepared tablets were shown good post compression parameters such as hardness, thickness, friability, percent drug content, weight variation tests and they passed all the quality control evaluation parameters as per I.P limits. Among all the formulations F2 formulation showed maximum percent drug release i.e., 100% in 12 hours. Hence it is considered as optimized formulation with the least possible concentration of polymers. 32 full factorial design was applied for the optimization of formulations. It was observed that the combination ratio of HPMC K4M, xanthan gum at 20:12 has distinct effect on in vitro drug release profiles when compared to all the other combinations of polymers.

27

DEVELOPMENT OF MUCOADHESIVE GEL OF FLUCONAZOLE FOR VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS

Sanjeevani S. Deshkar1,2*, Arun T. Patil1
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur-440033.
2Dr. D. Y. Patil institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Pimpri, Pune-411018.

Abstract

Fluconazole is a triazole antifungal, widely prescribed for the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis. Topical application of FZ localizes the drug in tissue and reduces the side effects as compared to systemic administration. In contrast to the lower retention of conventional formulations in vagina, mucoadhesive formulations would prolong the retention time resulting in effective topical therapy. The aim of the present study was to develop a mucoadhesive vaginal gel of Fluconazole for treatment of Candidiasis. Various mucoadhesive polymers including, Carbopol 974, Carbopol 980, Polycarbophil, Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K 100 M, Hydroxyl propyl cellulose, Hydroxy ethyl cellulose (Natrosol 250) and Xanthan gum were evaluated for their potential as gel matrices in vaginal drug delivery. The gel formulations were prepared at different concentrations of polymers and evaluated for appearance, pH, spreadability, extrudability, viscosity, effect of dilution on viscosity, ex vivo mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release. The optimized formulations were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity, in vivo vaginal irritation and stability. The gel formulations prepared using polycarbophil (2 %w/w) and hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (6 % w/w) were optimized since these formulations were found to be clear, easily spreadable and extrudable, viscous with shear thinning property, resistant to dilution by acidic pH of vagina, and revealed excellent mucoadhesive behaviour. The developed formulations exhibited sustained drug release pattern with diffusion as the mechanism of drug release. The formulations indicated in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicance and did not show any sign of vaginal irritation, when tested in mice vagina. Thus, the study demonstrated the potential of developed mucoadhesive gel of Fluconazole in treatment of vaginal Candidiasis.

28

BIO-ANALYTICAL METHOD NECESSITATES IN FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT: A REVIEW

Purushottam R. Patil*, Shweta S. Saboo, Malik K. Shaikh, Vaishali Adchitre
Government College of Pharmacy, Hotel Vedant Road, Osmanpura, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India-431005.

Abstract

Bioanalytical method is necessitates to understand the pharmacokinetics of any drug and its metabolites. Since plasma is one of most widely adopted biological fluid in drug discovery and development. This article discusses the various bioanalytical methods used for the quantization of drugs and their metabolites in biological fluids. In today’s drug formulation and development environment, highly sensitive and selective methods are required to quantify drugs in biological fluids such as blood, plasma, serum, or urine. Chromatographic methods (high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] or gas chromatography [GC] have been widely used for the bio-analysis of small molecules, with liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS),electrochemical ,electrophoretic, titrimetric methods, spectrophotometric techniques etc. After developing a method with desired attributes, the method is validated to establish that it will continue to provide accurate, precise, and reproducible data during study-sample analysis.

29

FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS

Panchumarthy Ravisankar*1, Devarasetty Pravallika1, Gaddam Anjali1, Vemuri Sree vidya1, Panchumarthy Sai Anvith2, Panchumarthy Pragna3
1Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, Guntur (Dist.) - 522213, Andhra Pradesh State, India.
2Sri Chaitanya Educational Institution, Medical Academy, Lakshmipuram-522 007, A.P. State, India.
3Malla Reddy Medical College for Women, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad-500055, Telangana State, India.

Abstract

Fatty liver disease does not generate any noticeable symptoms, but can land the person at the risk of liver inflammation which ultimately leads to jaundice, liver failure or liver cancer. NAFLD is extensively recognized as a major cause of liver related to unhealthy and death because of its possible to progress to cirrhosis and liver failure. The pathologic picture of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis, resembles that of alcohol induced liver disease, but it occur in patients who do not abuse alcohol. The several researches and their statistics manifestly show that liver disorders are one of the main death causes of illnesses. The chief reasons for damaged liver are too much eating of saturated fats, sugars, chemical additives, and consumption of alcohol. The signs existing in the liver to identify the problems and disease prevailing in the liver are dark spots just below the person’s eyes, chronic fatigue, recurrent flu and colds, nausea, chills, depression, and PMS for females. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis that is characterized by the sugar-sweetened beverages included caffeinated- and caffeine-free colas, other carbonated beverages with sugar, fruit punches, lemonade or other non-carbonated fruit drinks. It is also observed that a higher rate of prevalence of NAFLD among people who are consuming more than one sugar-sweetened beverage per day compared to people who are drinking no sugar-sweetened beverages and that sugar-sweetened beverages may be linked to NAFLD and other chronic diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. If the fatty liver disease is unchecked can advance into cirrhosis which is life-threatening, afterwards characteristics of liver failure exist themselves for which there is no permanent cure except liver transplantation.

30

UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MEFENAMIC ACID IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

Bhagyashree R. Dhumal1, Kishore P. Bhusari1, Mahavir H. Ghante, Nishant S. Jain*2
1Sharad Pawar College of Pharmacy, Hingna Road, Wanadongari, Nagpur-441110, India.
2Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas University (A Central University), Bilaspur-495009 (C.G.), India.

Abstract

The present study investigated a UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of mefenamic acid in the tablet formulation. The UV spectrophotometric analysis for mefenamic acid using the suggested methods was performed at 285.0 nm dissolved in 0.1N NaOH with linearity in the concentration range of 5-25 μg/ml. The validation for specificity, precision, robustness and recovery of the method was also performed. The results of the employed methods were found to be simple, linear, precise, accurate and sensitive and can be used for routine quality control analysis for the estimation of mefenamic acid in bulk and tablet dosage form.

31

ROLE OF ASPIRIN IN PREVENTION OF PRE-ECLAMPSIA

Md. Nematullah Khan, Sadia Farooqui*, Sumayya Samreen, Maria Ansari, Rasiq Hiba, Shagufta Naaz
Deccan School of Pharmacy, Darussalam, Aghapura, Hyderabad.

Abstract

Pre-eclampsia, the obstetric disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria prevails all over the world and presents as a pressing peril for fetal and maternal lives. Though inflammation, increased levels of TXA2, ischemic placenta, dysfunction of endothelium are discerned, the exact pathophysiology yet remains a mystery. The absolute treatment is still to be discovered, however its prevention by low dose aspirin presents as a relieving factor for Pre-eclampsia. In this review, with the pathophysiology, diagnosis, risk factors, prevention and various trials done, low dose aspirin stands as the recommended choice. The various outcomes of research include controlled blood pressure, decreased proteinuria, pregnancy complications, miscarriages and growth restrictions in foetus.

32

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS LINN TO BE USEFUL AS A SUPERDISINTEGRANT IN SOLID ORAL DOSAGE FORMS

Anas Rasheed*, Syed Aziz Uddin, Nazima Sultana, Mohammed Raouf
Department of Pharmacognosy, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, T.S.

Abstract

The latest technological is very advance and had brought many innovative natural polymers to the market and others to the brink of commercialization synthetic and natural occurring polymers in different forms, Which also holds the promise of providing good drug efficacy, reducing toxicity and improving patients compliance. Natural polymers remain attractive primarily because they are natural products of plants, and capable of multitude of chemical modifications. The natural polymers are better and best as compare to synthetic polymers, because synthetic polymers have certain disadvantages such as high cost, various side effects, toxicity and probable polluting agents. Leaves of hibiscus rosa sinensis linn contain high proportion of mucilage and this mucilage can be used for various therapeutic purposes. However, the prime objective present study is isolation and characterization of hibiscus rosa sinensis linn. The said plant was characterized for its identification by chemical tests, solubility, pH, ash value, loss on drying, compressibility index, angle of repose, bulk density, and tapped density. The mechanism of disintegration of the extracted mucilage is swelling form.

33

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF SOME EDIBLE PULSES

Bushra K1, Bhanu PSP1, Kiran B1 Pramod S2*
1 Govt. Holkar Science College, Indore India.
2 Christian Eminent College, Indore India.

Abstract

Pulses are the ultimate sources of protein supply and considered as poor’s man meat in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methanolic extract of chickpea and mung bean fractions for various antioxidant parameters including scavenging of free-radicals DPPH, hydroxyl radicle; hydrogen peroxide scavenging, total antioxidant capacity; anti-lipid per-oxidation and anti-hemolytic activity. Quantitative analysis of methanolic extract shows the presence of phenolics, tannins and phytic acid. On evaluating the antioxidant properties of methanolic fraction of chickpea and mung bean showed the highest activity against each free radicle tested. It is believed that the antioxidant properties are due to the presence of phytochemicals such as phenolics, phytic acid and tannin which are proved as potent antioxidant. The results of the present study indicate that Secondary metabolites (phenolics, phytic acid and tannins) are considerate anti-nutrients, simultaneously conferring health benefits, so these secondary metabolites are currently marketed as functional foods and nutraceuticals ingredients.

34

EFFECT OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC ANTIOXIDANTS ON OXIDATION OF ERI SILKWORM OILS

Thumu Ravinder1, Shiva Shanker Kaki1, I.N.S.S.Prabhakar1, B.V.S.K. Rao1, Sarat Kumar Swain2, R.B.N.Prasad1*

1Centre for Lipid Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad-500 007, India.
2Department of Chemistry, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, Sambalpur-768 018, India.

Abstract

The oxidative stability study was performed to investigate the effect of synthetic and natural antioxidants like tert-butyl hydroquinone (THBQ), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Oryzanol by direct addition to crude and refined eri silkworm oils at 70°C. Two types of silkworm oils from castor and tapioca leaf fed pupae were studied which had different polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents. The control and antioxidants added samples were collected for every 24 hour time interval for seven days. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (PAV), total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and other physico chemical characteristics. PV increased from 3.42 to 17.66 and 3.98 to 19.60 meq/kg in crude castor and tapioca leaf fed silkworm oils respectively during 7 days. After addition of antioxidants PV raised from 3.42 to 9.27 and 3.98 to 10.90 in crude castor and tapioca fed silkworm oils respectively. The same trend was observed in refined oils of both varieties of silkworm oils before and after addition of antioxidants. In all the analysis it was found that oxidation was higher in refined silkworm oils compared to crude silkworm oils which could be due to presence of tocopherols and phospholipids in the crude oils. The other physico chemical properties for both the silkworm oils did not get affected significantly during the study period. The study indicates the necessity for addition of antioxidants to both the silkworm oils for protection of nutraceutical component α-linolenic acid (ALA) against lipid oxidation.

35

QUANTIFICATION OF QUERCETIN IN CYPERUS ROTUNDUS BY HPTLC

Jayashree, S1, Ramesh, N.1,Sumathi2, CVijayalakshm K3.
1Reva Institute of Science & Management, Bangalore.
2Asan Memorial College,
3Bharathi Women’s College, Chennai.

Abstract

The objective of the study is to evaluate the therapeutic role of Cyperus rotundus, a cosmopolitan weed, by analyzing the presence of phytochemicals. Preliminary analysis shows the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannin etc., in the tuber extracts. A sensitive, precise and selective high performance thin layer chromatographic method(HPTLC) has been developed for quantification of quercetin (phytochemical) in the methanolic extract of C. rotundus which has been shown to have diverse biological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Quercetin quantified in Cyperus rotundus tubers was found to be 2.37ng/g from HPTLC analysis. The validation of method was proved in accordance with ICH Guidelines and can be adopted for the routine analysis of quercetin in methanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus. Evaluation of Quercetin, a phenolic compound & other phytochemicals in C. rotundus with proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties have profound effects on various biochemical events involved in counteraction of diabetic complications including diabetic retinopathy.