IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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SEPTEMBER 2015
1

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 3,5-DISUBSTITUTED PYRAZOLINE DERIVATIVES CONTAINING PYRIDINE AND PIPERAZINE NUCLEUS

Manoj Kumar K. E1, Swamy Sreenivasa1,* Mohan N .R2, Vijaya Kumar S3
1Department of Studies and Research in Chemistry, Tumkur University, Tumkur-572 103, Karnataka, India.
2Department of Studies in Chemistry, Shridevi College, Sira Road, Tumkur-572 106, Karnataka, India.
3Department of Pharmacology, Sree Siddaganga College of Pharmacy, Tumkur-572 102, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

A series of new pyrazoline derivatives containing pyridine, piperazine and amide linkage were prepared through multi-step synthesis. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, LCMS and HPLC elemental analysis. All the synthesized pyrazoline derivatives were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM-5022) and Gram negative Klebsiella aerogenes (NCIM-2098), Escherichia coli (NCIM-5051) bacterial and A. flavus and C. albicans fungal strains by agar well diffusion technique along with anthelmintic activity using P. posthuma. It was found that all the compounds showed less antimicrobial activity, whereas significant anthelmintic activity was witnessed for the tested series. Compounds 11c, 11d and 11e were the most potent anthelmintic agents of the tested series.

2

INVESTIGATION OF POSSIBLE ALLERGENS IN ASTHAMIC WORKERS WORKING IN BAKERY AND FLOUR MILLS OF HYDERABAD (SINDH) THROUGH SDS-PAGE AND ELISA.

Shaista Khan1*, Allah Bux Ghanghro2, Naima Memon3, Bikha Ram Deverajani1, Ghulam Nabi4
1Molecular Biology (Genetics) Laboratory Medical Research Centre, LUMHS, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
2Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro.
3Muhammad Medical College, MirpurKhas, Sindh.
4Institute of Mathematics & Computer Science (Bioinformatics), University of Sindh, Jamshoro.

Abstract

Baker asthma is classically an occupational allergic disease, entirely caused by the inhalation of wheat flour. It is caused by the specific type of protein present in wheat (flour) called allergens. Wheat proteins (allergens) of baker asthma relate by 60- 70% with work place. This study characterizes and correlates exposure of personnel working in bakeries, flour mills to asthma. The study involves 15 different bakeries of Hyderabad (Sindh), based on the degree of automation and division of individual job task. For the characterization and confirmation of baker asthma, 30 patients (workers) with occupational asthma caused by wheat flour inhalation were investigated. IgE level of bakers and their correlation with age group were examined, there were no relation found with age group while moderate correlation was found in age group 19-30 which is (r= 0.42). For characterization of baker asthma, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was used, which is most effective technique for the characterization and fractionation of allergenic proteins It is found that 12kDa, 17kDa, 36kDa and 47kDa band appeared in bakers working in high exposure area .The finding of present study reveal that high exposure seen in those workers who are working in sensitive area of bakery.

3

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF THERMO REVERSIBLE IN-SITU NASAL GEL OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE

Sangram Sathe*1, M.Y. Bagade1, T.D. Nandgude2, K.J. Kore1, R.V. Shete1
1Rajgad Dnyanpeeth’s College of Pharmacy Bhor, Pune Maharashtra, India-412206.
2Dr.D.Y.Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Science & Reserch, Pimpri, Pune Maharashtra, India-.411018.

Abstract

In situ forming systems are liquid aqueous solution before administration, but gel at different physiological conditions. In this system it does not require any organic solvents, copolymerization agents or an externally applied triggered for gelation, have gained increasing attention, such as thermo sensitive nasal in situ gel. Traditional drugs are administered by oral and parenteral routes. Oral administration is unsuitable for some drugs; like the drugs undergoes significant degradation in gastrointestinal tract or metabolized via liver in high degree and gives undesirably slow effects. For this parenteral route is preferred, but it is undesirable or impractical if drug is intended for the treatment of chronic disease, Therefore an alternative route of administration would be preferred. For the past few decades, the transdermal route has been explored for a number of drugs, but its use is limited due to low permeability, aswell as area of the skin to many drugs. To overcome these problems nonparenteral routes are used includes nasal, buccal, pulmonary route. These nonparenteral routes have some advantages, like self administration is possible in an ambulatory setting. The nasal route offers rapid onset of action, high absorption of small molecular weight hydrophobic drugs, high bioavailability, avoid the first metabolism, patient compliance. Nasal route has been used for treatment of nasal congestion, allergy and infections. Nasal route mat be when rapid onset of action is required and small molecular weight polar drugs, peptide and proteins are not easily administered via other routes than by injection, Terbutaline sulphate is a selective β2 adrenoreceptor agonist and rapidly absorbed from gastro intestinal tract but it is subjected to first pass metabolism. Thus, oral bioavailability is only 50%. The main objective of present work is to increase patient compliance, bioavailability and to have convenience of administration nasal gel of Terbutaline Sulphate and it was prepared by using thermoreversible polymer which increases the residence time, and gel point can be adjusted in such a way that formulation is in the liquid state on the shelf life and gels upon administration, reducing the dose and dosing frequency, gives patient compliance, increase the residence time so it gives the sustained drug release by using thermo sensitive polymers like poloxamer-407 and Propylene glycol.

4

ASSESSMENT OF PRESCRIPTION QUALITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC DISEASES USING THE PRESCRIPTION QUALITY INDEX TOOL

Nagi Reddy Pooja Reddy*, Ramanjaneyulu Polisetty, Adnan Zakiuddin, Keerthika Ravoori, Sneha Mohan Raj
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Maisammaguda, Secunderabad ,Telangana.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:- Prescription quality is a matter of major concern worldwide. Prescription quality indicators are developed to measure whether the right drugs are prescribed to the right patients.OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of prescription in patients with chronic diseases at different health care settings using prescription quality index (PQI) tool. METHODOLOGY:-A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out at outpatient units of 4 Secondary Health Care (SHC) and 2 Tertiary Health Care (THC) facilities in Ranga Reddy district of India. Patients attending these facilities for at least 3 months were included. Total and criteria wise PQI scores were derived for each prescription. The internal consistency of PQI was measured using item total correlation and Cronbach's α is used to measure the reliability of PQI.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:- Number of drugs per prescription, Cost per prescription, PQI scores, Drug interactions in prescription, Reliability of PQI tool. RESULTS:- 620 prescriptions were collected and evaluated for quality of prescribing. Mean PQI score was 32.873 with standard deviation of 3.8. A total of 30.16% prescriptions were of poor quality. A total of 335 drug interactions were seen, of them 261(78%) were from SHC and 74(22%) were from THC. Polypharmacy was dominant in SHC (32%) when compared to THC (5%). The average cost per prescription was significantly high in SHC when compared to THC. The PQI scores displayed normal distribution with no floor or ceiling effects.Cronbach's α for the entire 22 criteria was 0.441. So PQI tool was modified by removing 5 criteria and used for assessing the prescription quality of SHC and THC. The modified PQI was moderately reliable (Cronbach's α = 0.618). The numbers of medium quality prescriptions were significantly high in the SHC when compared to THC. The number of high quality prescriptions was significantly high in the THC as compared to SHC.CONCLUSION:- The PQI had been modified and shown to be a valid, reliable and responsive tool to measure the quality of prescription in chronic diseases.

5

IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY ON ROOTS OF MACROTHELYPTERIS TORRESIANA

Raja Sundararajan*, Sumanta Mondal, Allampalli Meenakshi, Ravindranadh Koduru
GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam-530045, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The antioxidant activity of methanol extract of roots of Macrothelypteris torresiana was carried out by different models like DPPH radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion assay, lipid peroxidation assay, antioxidant assay by thiocyanate method and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Methanol extract of Macrothelypteris torresiana showed effective antioxidant activity when compared to standard antioxidants such as quercetin, rutin, curcumin, vitamin E and α-tocopherol. The antioxidant activity depends upon the concentration and it was increased with increasing the concentration of extract. The antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoids compounds present in the methanol extract. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the methanol extract of roots of Macrothelypteris torresiana are a potential source of natural antioxidant.

6

SYNTHESIS OF NEW 3-(2-BENZOYLHYDRAZONO)-[N-SUBSTITUTED ]-2-OXOINDOLIN-5-CARBOXAMIDES

Bindu Minugonda, Arunadevi Parlapalli ,Sarangapani Manda
University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal.

Abstract

A series of some new 3 - ( 2 – benzoylhydrazono ) - [ N - substituted ] - 2 – oxoindolin – 5 – carboxamides (VI) were synthesized and were characterized by Physical and spectral data. These compounds were evaluated for In vivo Sedative-Hypnotic activity by Pentobarbitone induced Narcosis method and In vitro antioxidant by DPPH method. Among them, (Vd) was potent sedative and hypnotic activity. Compounds (Va), (Ve) showed a promising antioxidant activity.

7

DEVELOPMENT OF A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR RIFAMPICIN, ISONIAZID AND PYRAZINAMIDE ASSAY AND DISSOLUTION IN COMBINATED FORMULATION

S. G. Cruz Fonseca1,2, M. A. Alexandre Josino2, H. L. Luna Coelho2, F. Nervo Raffin3
1Postgraduate Program for Development and Technological Innovation in Medications, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.
2Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Ceará, Brazil.
3Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

Abstract

A new approach to the use of UV spectrophotometry was used for pyrazinamide (PZA), rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) assay in fixed-dose combination suitable for production monitoring and for quality assessment of the finished product. In place of the derivative spectrophotometry approaches, we used the differential spectrophotometry. The wavelengths employed for the dosage of each drug were chosen by multivariate regression applied to reading spectra reduced by 10 nm intervals in range 240 to 295 nm using only spreadsheet as statistical tool for evaluating the effect of each wavelength at each drug quantitation and its statistical significance. The method used to select the number of variables resulted in the choice of 5 for pyrazinamide assay, 3 for rifampicin and 8 for isoniazid, resulting in a total of 10 wavelengths (240, 250, 260, 270, 300, 310, 340, 350, 360 and 380 nm). The proposed method was developed and validated, with repeatability, linearity (r2 = 0.9999, 0.9990 and 0.9721, for PZA, RIF and INH, respectively) and accuracy satisfactory for use in assessing the quality formulation of fixed-dose combination of PZA, RIF and INH.

8

A REVIEW ON USE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN PHARMACEUTICALS

Smita T. Kumbhar*, Dr. Shitalkumar S. Patil1, Dr. Manish S. Bhatia2
*Assi. Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, D.S.T.S. Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Solapur- 413004, Maharashtra, India.
1Principal, Ashokrao Mane College of Pharmacy, PethVadgaon, Kolhapur-416013, Maharashtra, India.
2Head, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy, Kolhapur-416013, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Drug particles in the nanometer size range have unique characteristic that can lead to enhanced performance in a variety of dosage forms. Nature is the ultimate in nanotechnology producing nanostructures that offer function proteins and many others compounds. Nanotechnology is an industrial revolution based on integration of disciplines that could change every facets of human life. There are number of nanoparticle used as carrier for therapeutic and diagnostic agents namely polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, Nano suspension and nanocrystals, polymeric micelles, ceramic nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, magnetic nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanowires, nonopores, quantum dots, ferro fluids. In this paper the main scientific and technical aspects of nanotechnology are introduced and some of its applications are discussed. Applications to medicine and physiology imply materials and devices designed to interact with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular) scales with a high degree of specificity. This can potentially translate into targeted cellular and tissue specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic affects with minimal side effects. Nanotechnology and Nano engineering stand to produce significant scientific and technological advances in diverse fields including medicine and physiology.

9

PROCESS RELATED IMPURITIES IN THE PREPARATION OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL: AN-ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG

Bommena Hanumantha Rao1,2, Inti Venkata Subramanyeswara Rao1, Vysyaraju Ravi Kanth1, Korrapati Venkata Vara Prasadarao1, K. Balamurali Krishna2, Bethanabatla Syama Sundar*2
1Chemical Research and Development, Aurobindo Pharma Pvt Ltd, Survey No. 71& 72, Indrakaran Village, Sangareddy Mandal, Medak District, Telangana-502329, India.
2Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh-522510, India.

Abstract

Olmesartan medoxomil is a prodrug within the class of angiotensin receptor antagonists, approved by the FDA for the treatment of hypertension. Present work describes the origin, synthesis and characterization of four process related novel impurities of olmesartan medoxomil viz. olmesartan chloro medoxomil, olmesartan medoxomil dimer, olmesartan diol and quaternary salt impurities.

10

USE OF NOVEL PENETRATION ENHANCERS AND TECHNIQUES IN TDDS

Kore Priyanka*, Ram Pentewar1 O.G.Bhusnure1, S. S. Thonte1, Mali Supriya1, R. R.Sarda2
1Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College,Latur.
2Dayanand Pharmacy College, Latur.

Abstract

Transdermal route is the most convenient route for the delivery of drug having short biological half life and poorly soluble drugs. This route provides many advantages over other routes as avoiding first pass hepatic metabolism, decrease side effects, GI effects and increased bioavailability. Human skin is remarkably efficient barrier, designed to keep “our insides in and outsides out”. This barrier property causes difficulties for transdermal delivery of therapeutic agents. One long standing approach to increase the range of the drugs that can be effectively delivered via this route has been to use penetration enhancers, chemicals that interact with skin constituents to promote drug flux for both local and systemic effect. Skin penetration enhancement techniques have been developed to improve bioavailability and to increase the range of drugs for which topical and transdermal delivery is viable option. The penetration of the drug through skin can be enhanced by both chemical penetration enhancement and physical methods. In this review, we have discussed the physical and chemical penetration enhancement technology for transdermal drug delivery as well as the probable mechanism of action. To-date, a vast array of chemicals and techniques has been evaluated as penetration enhancers, yet their inclusion into topical or transdermal formulations are limited since the underlying mechanisms of action of these agents are seldom clearly defined. In this article we review some uses of the more widely investigated chemical penetration enhancers and discuss possible mechanisms of action.

11

INFLUENCE OF VITAMIN- D SUPPLEMENTATION ON INFLAMMATION AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN HIGH-FAT DIET FED RABBITS

Krishnan Ramalingam1*, Gangapatnam Subrahmanyam2, Veeranjeneulu1

1Deperment of Biochemistry, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andra Pradesh, India. 

2Advance Research center, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Vitamin D is an important pro-hormone for optimal intestinal calcium absorption for mineralization of bone. Since the vitamin D receptor is present in multiple tissues, there has been interest in evaluating other potential functions of vitamin D, particularly in cardiovascular diseases. Vitamin D deficiency occurs in approximately 30–50% of the world’s population. In the present study we supplement Vitamin-D for the high fat fed rabbits and we observed the effect of Vitamin-D on Insulin resistance and inflammation an important cardiovascular risk factors. 18 New Zealand white breed male rabbits, weighing 1.7kg ±0.2 were used. The rabbits were divided into following groups. Group-I: 6 rabbits were fed with standard diet (rabbit diet) procured from Group-II: 6 rabbits fed with 2% cholesterol containing rabbit diet procured from. Group-III: 6 rabbits fed with 2% cholesterol containing rabbit diet and 2,000 IU/kg of vitamin D. Insulin resistance decresed significantly in Group-III when compared to Group-II. Group-III animals also shows decreased levels of IL-6 and Highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels than the Group-II. Our study concludes that the Vitamin-D has insulin sensitivity and anti-inflammatory properties. Supplementation of Vitamin-D may reduce cardiac risk factors like Insulin resistance and Inflammation and prevent cardiovascular diseases.

12

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC-PDA METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DONEPEZIL IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM AND IN VITRO DISSOLUTION SAMPLES

D. Prathibha Bharathi, P. Sumanjali, Sk. Shahanaz, Md. Ali Sharif, G.L. Suneetha, M. Saisree, Buchi N. Nalluri, Aziz Unnisa
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, KVSR Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vijayawada, A.P, India-520010.

Abstract

A rapid, simple, sensitive and precise RP-HPLC-PDA method was developed for the estimation of Donepezil in pure and tablet dosage forms. An effective separation was achieved on a reverse phase Inertsil ODS C18 column ( 250 × 4.6 mm; 5 μm ) using a mobile phase consisting of 0.02 % Formic acid and methanol in the ratio 62:38 v/v at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The analyte was monitored using PDA detector at 230 nm, retention time was found to be 50 rpm speed. The optimized method has been statistically validated for its sensitivity, linearity (in concentration range of 5-25 μg/mL), precision and accuracy following the ICH guidelines. Results of all the validation parameters were well within the specifications. Hence the proposed method can be successfully applied for the estimation of Donepezil in formulation as well as in in vitro dissolution studies for its routine quality control analysis in bulk and formulations.

13

DENDRIMERS: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR DRUG DELIVERY

Seema Balurkar, R. S. Pentewar, Manjusha Bhange, Pratap Bhosle, Atish Jadhav
Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College Kava Raod, Latur.

Abstract

This review provides brief information concerning with the dendrimer, its synthesis, characterization and application in drug delivery. Dendrimer consist of well defined size, shape, molecular weight and monodispersity. These properties formulate the dendrimers a suitable carrier in drug delivery application. Dendrimer are built from number of molecular entities of colloidal paticles that exists in equilibrium with the molecules or ions in nature and due to this increases the solubility of poorly soluble drugs. Due to their distinct structural design these have improved physical and chemical properties. The compatibility between DNA, heparin and polyanions make them more versatile. Self assembly of molecules produces a quicker means of producing nanoscopic functional and structural systems. But the genuine effectiveness in drug delivery can be assessed only after accepting their behavior in vivo. Studies have explored the biological possiblities of dendrimers such as to transportation of genes, development of vaccines, antiaviral, antibacterial and anticancer therapies. Dendrimers help in achieving increased bioavailability, sustained, controlled as well as targeted release of drug. There is reduction in the amount of drug and systemic toxicity while the therapeutic efficacy increases. This approach as a drug delivery system certainly promises a reliable, safe, selective and precise method of drug delivery. Recently, dendrimers have successfully proved themselves as promising nanocarriers for drug delivery because they can render drug molecules a greater water-solubility, bioavailability, and biocompatibility. Dendrimer is a smart polymer having various applicability in pharmaceutics, industry and diagnosis.

14

AN EFFICIENT SYNTHESIS OF 9-ARYL-5, 9- DIHYDROPYRIMIDO [4, 5 - D] [1, 2, 4 ] TRIAZOLO [1, 5 - A] PYRIMIDINE - 6, 8 (4H, 7H) - DIONE DERIVATIVES USING IODINE AS A CATALYST

K.R.Gopinath1, K.J.Rajendraprasad2, K.N. Venugopala3, Manjula Krishnappa4*
1Research and Development Center, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu-641046, India.
2Department of Chemistry, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu-641046, India.
3Department of Biotechnology & Food Technology, Durban University of Technology, Durban-4001, South Africa.
4Department of Chemistry, SSMRV College, Chemistry Research Center, 4th T-block, Jayanagar, Bangalor- 560 041, India.

Abstract

An efficient synthesis of 5,9-dihydropyrimido[5,4-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6,8(4H,7H)-diones derivatives from 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid, 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazoles and aromatic aldehydes using iodine as catalyst under solvent-free condition, the reaction goes to completion within 10-15min giving good to excellent yields.

15

EVALUATION OF HERBAL FORMULATION NEERI (NS-RF) FOR PROTECTIVE EFFECT AGAINST HEAVY METAL INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS

Amit Barwal1, Santosh Kumar Verma1, Parveen Kumar Goyal2, Savita Kumari1, Ikshit Sharma3, Sanchit Sharma3, Anil Kumar Sharma1*
1CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jalandhar (Punjab), India.
2Hindu College of Pharmacy, Sonepat (Haryana), India.
3R&D Deptt., Aimil Pharmaceuticals (India) Ltd., New Delhi, India.

Abstract

The present study is aimed to investigate the protective effect of Neeri: NS-RF (an herbal formulation developed for improving renal functions) on heavy metal (lead acetate) induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. Lead acetate is considered as a major nephrotoxicity inducing agent causing direct damage through multiple pathways including oxidative stress. Lead acetate (8mg/kg i.p. for 6 weeks) induced significant oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity in rats; indicated by increased levels of serum creatinine, serum urea, urinary protein, glucose; and reduced levels of serum albumin, serum total proteins, urinary creatinine; and also the structural damage in kidney. Co-treatment with NS-RF (1640 and 3280mg/kg, p.o. for 6 weeks) significantly prevent the altered serum and urinary biochemical parameters and histological renal tubular damages by lead acetate. Conclusively, NS-RF is a potent nephro-protective formulation protecting kidneys from nephrotoxins including oxidative damage induced by lead acetate.

16

A CROSS SECTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE ON HEPATITIS B AMONG PHARMACY STUDENTS IN WARANGAL, INDIA

Hemanth Kumar Namburi*, Charitha Kaithala, Sampath Raj Peraboina, Juweriya, Nagaraju Morem, Goverdhan Puchchakayala
Department of Pharm.D, Vaagdevi College of Pharmacy, Warangal, India.

Abstract

Hepatitis B is a life threatening viral infection that affects approximately 240 million people globally and contributes to an estimated 786,000 deaths worldwide each year. India has an intermediate endemicity of Hepatitis B with an estimated 40 million chronic carriers. There is paucity of information regarding the knowledge of pharmacy students on Hepatitis B. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a study to assess the knowledge of Pharmacy students i.e., the students of ‘Pharm.D’ and ‘B.Pharm’ on Hepatitis B and to create awareness among them. This cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted at various pharmacy colleges in Warangal from Oct–Dec 2014 in a sample of 504 students using convenient sampling technique. A self- administered, pre-structured and pre-validated 20 itemed questionnaire was used as the instrument of study. 19% of the students were assessed to have good knowledge about Hepatitis B while 73% had moderate/accepted knowledge and 8% had poor knowledge. Students of ‘Pharm.D’ were found to have better knowledge than the students of ‘B.Pharm’, P-value significant (<0.0001). Urban students were found to have good knowledge than that of rural students, P-value significant (0.0001). Students in the age group of 23-25 showed higher knowledge score compared to that of students in the age groups of 20-22, 17-19, P-value significant (<0.0001). The results obtained from the study showed that a moderate knowledge on Hepatitis B was present among the Pharmacy students. Therefore, we conclude that there is a strong need of increasing the awareness programmes among students as well as public regarding the disease information, vaccination and other preventive measures of Hepatitis B with an intense focus towards rural areas.

17

A REVIEW OF PHARMACOLOGICAL & CLINICAL RESEARCHES ON SHONEEZ (NIGELLA SATIVA LINN.)-A UNANI MEDICINE

Zehra Zaidi1, Asim Ali Khan2, Azhar Jabeen3, Umar Jahangir3
1Dept. of Jarahiyat, Faculty of Medicine (Unani), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.
2Head, Dept. of Moalejat, Faculty of Medicine (Unani), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.
3Dept. of Moalejat, Faculty of Medicine (Unani), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.

Abstract

In present scenario the use of herbal medicine is increasing as an alternate way to treat those diseases which have no cure in modern medicine or for which there is risk of side effects. In Unani Medicine the diseases are treated with non toxic herbal drugs. As per Unani classical literature Shoneez/Kalonji (Nigella sativa) has pharmacological actions like carminative, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diuretic, emmenogogue, galactogogue, expectorant etc. It has been in use for treatment of Retention of Urine, Amenorrhoea, Agalactorrhoea, Flatulence, Weakness of Stomach, Cough, Asthma and in Cold & Coryza as medicated steam inhalation. A lot of Phytochemical, Pharmacological and clinical researches has been carried out on Nigella sativa. The outcome of these researches is that medicinal steam inhalation of Shoneez has bronchodilator effect in bronchial Asthma. It has antiallergic effect in allergic rhinitis. It has antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antitussive, galactogogue and immunomodulatory effects. These findings support the claims of Unani Physicians mentioned in classical literature with reference to Kalonji. In view of the above findings it may be concluded that potential claims of Unani literature regarding Shoneez (Nigella sativa) can be helpful in finding solution for various health problems i.e. Allergic disorders, Chronic Rhinosinusitis, Asthma, Diabetes mellitus, Cancer etc. through extensive research on it.

18

AN OVERVIEW OF FILM CONTAINING NANOPARTICLES FOR SUBLINGUAL DELIVERY

Mr. Rakesh Patel1, Dr. Dushyant Shah2, Mrs. Bijal Prajapati3 

1Assistant Professor, Parul Institute of Pharmacy Limda, Waghodia-391760, Baroda, Gujarat. 

2Principal, APMC College of Pharmacy, Himmatnagar, Gujarat, India. 

3Assistant Professor, Parul Institute of Pharmacy Limda, Waghoida, Vadodara Gujarat, India.

Abstract

Sublingual route is a useful when rapid onset of action is required with increased patient compliance when compared to orally ingested tablets. Sublingual technologies attend many pharmaceutical and patient needs, ranging from enhanced life‐cycle supervision to convenient dosing for geriatric, psychiatric patients and paediatric patients with dysphagia. Drugs with high permeability are preferable drug candidate for sublingual drug delivery system; BCS class II drugs are having good permeability and lower solubility. To overcome the problem of lower solubility of class II drug, Drugs can be converted in nanoparticles for to enhancing solubility and there by dissolution rate. Nanosuspension can be prepared by various methods like media milling, high speed homogenizer, High Pressure homogenizer and controlled precipitation. Nanosuspension can be transformed into polymeric films containing drug nanoparticles by mixing with a low molecular weight polymer like HPMC E-5 LV, HPMC E-15 LV solution containing plasticizers like PEG-400, Glycerine, Propylene glycol and stabilizer to prevent aggregation of particles, final liquid mixture can be casted by solvent casting method in petridish followed by drying or lyophilisation. Thus by incorporating class – II drug in to polymeric structure both the goal enhanced bioavailability and rapid onset of action can be achieved.

19

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF NOVEL PYRIDOPYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES

Shaheen Fatma1, Abha Bishnoi1*, Anil Kumar Verma1, Amrita Srivastava1, Vineeta Singh2, ChandraKant M.Tripathi3
1Department of Chemistry, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, India.
2Microbiology Division, CSIR-CDRI, Lucknow 226031, India.
3Division of Fermentation Technology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001, India.

Abstract

An efficient one-pot method for the preparation of novel fused pyridopyrimidine derivatives from cyclocondensation of 2-Hydroxy -4-H- pyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidin-4-one, substituted aromatic aldehydes and ammonium acetate/ methyl amine is described. The synthesized compounds were bioevaluated for their possible antimicrobial activity against a panel of gram- positive, gram-negative bacterial strains and fungal strains. Among the synthesized compounds, compound 4j exerted a wide range of antimicrobial activities against most of the tested bacterial and fungal strains while 4i displayed good antifungal activity against Candida tropicalis (MTCC 184) and Candida albicans (MTCC 3017). The structures of newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis.

20

EFFECT OF INFALAT-E-NAFSANIAH (PSYCHIC REACTIONS) ON HEALTH IN THE PERSPECTIVES OF GREEK-ARAB SYSTEM OF MEDICINE AND PRESENT KNOWLEDGE – A REVIEW

Azizur Rahman1*, Mohammad Aslam2, Md Izhar Alam3, Mohammad Ali3
1PG. Scholar Department of Kulliyat Umoor-e-Tabiya, NIUM, Bangalore, India.
2PG Scholar, Dept. of Tahaffuzi wa Samaji Tib, NIUM, Bangalore, India.
3PG Scholar, Dept. of Moalajat, NIUM, Bangalore, India.

Abstract

Umūr Tabī΄iyya (basic natural principles) are the basics of Unani Medicine which are supposed to be responsible for the existence of physiology of the human, so, unbalancing of any of them may cause even death. Unani scholars provided valuable and leading knowledge of psychic reactions and their effects on the body. The study of their efforts regarding the same and to recognize the suggestions and explanations of Infalat-e-Nafsaniah (psychic reactions) will be very beneficial for the present researchers for further research. By this paper any one can easily understand the very basic and precious contributions of ancient Unani scholars in the field of nervous system and related areas. Literatures for understanding the concept of Infalat-e-Nafsaniah and its effects on the body were surveyed from classical Unani books and related knowledge to understand the concept of these psychic reactions was appraised from the literature of present sciences also. In this study, it was seen that a lot of writings are available regarding Infalat-e-Nafsaniah in classical Unani literatures. No serious attempt was made to update the concept because of scattered literature. Compilation of the same was accomplished. It was found that there is copious scope that this concept can be justified and correlated with the present science.

21

UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF FIRST DERIVATIVE METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE (SIL) AND ASPIRIN (ASP) IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM

Avani P. Khristi, Dr. R. B. Mardia, Dr. B. N. Suhagia
Faculty of Pharmacy/ Dharmsinh Desai University, Nadiad- Gujarat.

Abstract

In the present research work, a simple, accurate, precise, reproducible and cost effective first derivative UV Spectrophotometric method developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Sildenafil Citrate and Aspirin in bulk as well as tablet dosage form. The solution of both the drugs and tablet were prepared in Methanol. First derivative quantitative determination of these drugs was performed at 255 nm for Sildenafil Citrate at zero crossing point (ZCP) of Aspirin and at 291nm for Aspirin at zero crossing point (ZCP) of Sildenafil citrate. This method obeys Beer-Lambert’s law in concentration range of 5-30 μg/mL and 10-80 μg/mL for Sildenafil Citrate and Aspirin respectively. Co-efficient of correlation were found to be 0.998 for both the drugs. The % RSD were not more than 2.0 % which indicates good intermediate precision. The values LOD and LOQ were 0.588μg/mL and 1.782μg/ml for Sildenafil Citrate and 1.08μg/ml and 3.27μg/ml for Aspirin respectively. Percentage estimation of Sildenafil Citrate and Aspirin in tablet dosage form were found to be 101.00 % and 99.47% respectively.

22

THE ANALGESIC EFFECT OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SIDA ACUTA

Virendra Sharma1*, Ashish Dixit2, Yogendra singh Rajput3, Dheerendra Singh Rathore3, Ramakant Joshi3, Pankaj Sharma3, Deepesh Parashar4
1Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemstry, Shri Ramnath singh institute of pharmaceutical science & technology, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh.
2Associate Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Shri Ramnath singh institute of pharmaceutical science & technology, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh.
3Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmaceutics, Shri Ramnath singh institute of pharmaceutical science & technology, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh.
4Assistant Professor,Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shri Ramnath singh institute of pharmaceutical science & technology, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh.

Abstract

The analgesic effect of the ethanolic whole plant extract of Sida acuta L. (Asteraceae) was studied in rats using the cold water tail flick assay and in mice using the tail immersion, tail clip, acetic-acid-induced writhing, and formalin pain tests. The results showed dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.001) increases in pain threshold at 60 min post-treatment with doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of the extract in tail flick, tail immersion, and tail clip tests. The effects of the extract were significantly (P < 0.001) lower than those produced by morphine (10 mg/kg) in the same tests. The extract (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of writhing and also showed a significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in both phases of the formalin pain test, but with a less intense effect in the first phase. The results indicate that the analgesic effect of S.acuta ethanolic extract is both centrally and peripherally mediated which confirms the traditional claims of plant in ayurveda.

23

STUDY AND ASSESSMENT OF APPROPRIATENESS IN THE USAGE OF PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

Blesson Mathew*, Jibin Mathew, Y Kanthi Kiran, Geethu C, Shalin Elsy Varghese, T Irene Ivan, Dona Kurian, T R Ashok Kumar
Nandha College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Erode.

Abstract

Background: Evidence from several studies has revealed an alarming rate of prescription of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which may be related with bigger healthcare costs and adverse outcomes. New studies recommend that continuous usage of PPI is linked with increased risk of heart attack and serious adverse reactions. Aims: To determine the prevalence of inappropriate prescription practice of PPI’s without valid indication, especially in patients with illness other than gastrointestinal conditions. Methods: We carried out a prospective observational study of 1162 patients who have been admitted in General medicine, ICU, Surgery and Orthopedics department of a tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu from March 2015 to August 2015.We obtained results by checking patients’ case reports and patient direct interview. Based on the indication of PPIs used in patients, the appropriateness was evaluated. Results: From a total of 1162 patients, appropriateness in the usage of PPIs was found in 702 (60.41%) patients, whereas inappropriateness was found in 460 (39.58%) patients. Increased risk of hospitalization was found in two patients with cardiovascular co- morbidities which were suspected to be due to the use of PPI’s. Conclusion: Inappropriate prescription of PPI’s without valid indications is prevalent among physicians in our healthcare system. Prescribers must be well conscious regarding usage of PPIs, as current situation study discovers the link between the PPI usage and increased risk of heart attack and also two patients enrolled in this study shows suspected link in usage of PPI’s and cardiac problems. Selection of PPI must be done wisely and should be prescribed to the patients only if indicated.

24

AN UPDATE ON CHRONOTHERAPEUTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

R. Santosh Kumar1, G.V.Radha1, K. Lakshmi Deepthi2 and P. Sujitha3
1GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam-45.
2Sri Venkateswara College of Pharmacy, Etcherla, Srikakulam.
3SrinivasaRao College of Pharmacy, P.M.Palem, Visakhapatnam-41.

Abstract

Chronotherapeutics refers to a treatment method in which in vivo drug availability is timed to match rhythms of disease in order to optimize therapeutic outcomes and minimize side effects. It is also known as pulsatile drug delivery system and it focuses on the release of a drug at particular time and at a particular site in order to maintain constant blood levels of a particular drug. The specific time that patients take their medication is very important as it has significant impact on success of treatment. If symptoms of a disease display circadian variation, drug release should also vary over time. Drug pharmacokinetics can also be time dependent; therefore, variations both in a disease state and in drug plasma concentration need to be taken into consideration in developing drug delivery systems intended for the treatment of disease with adequate dose at appropriate time. These drug delivery systems are designed to release the drug within a short period of time, immediately after a predetermined lag time. Chronotropic systems are promising drug delivery systems in asthma, peptic-ulcer ,cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, attention-deficit syndrome in children and hypercholestremia e.t.c. Approaches like capsular systems, systems with different type of barrier coatings, stimuli sensitive pulsatile systems and externally regulated systems are summarized in this article. This article mainly focuses on diseases requiring chronotropic systems, approaches to design them, recent technologies for chronotherapy.

25

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TROXERUTIN AND CALCIUM DOBESILATE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Jomol Joseph*, K. Deepthi
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, St. Pauls College of Pharmacy, Turkayamzal, hayathnagar (M), Rangareddy(Dt), Hyderabad.

Abstract

A selective, precise, isocratic and accurate stability indicating reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Troxerutin and Calcium Dobesilate the tablet dosage form. As per the literature review no major articles were seen which had the work of the drugs in the combined dosage form. A chromatographic separation was achieved on reverse phase BDS Hypersil C18 column (250 ×4.6 mm, 5μ). The mobile phase consists of mixture of 0.1% Triethylamine buffer and methanol (55:45). The pH adjusted to 4.5 using Orthophosphoric acid. The flow rate was 1 ml/min and the effluents were monitored at the detection wavelength of 225 nm.

26

A PHARMACOVIGILANCE STUDY ON ANTI HYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL RIMS, KADAPA

Dr. M Madan Mohan Rao1, R Siddarama*2, H Shree Hari2, Dr. P Pallavi Priya3, M Purushothaman4, P.A.M. Sucharitha5
1Associate professor, Department of General Medicine, RIMS, Kadapa, india.
2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, PRRMCP, Kadapa, India.
3Assistant professor, P Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, India.
4Principal, P Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, India.
5Department of Pharmacognosy, P.R.R.M.C.P, Kadapa.

Abstract

The main aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of ADRs, the patients who are taking or receiving anti hypertensive medications. The study was conducted in 750 bedded tertiary care teaching hospital RIMS, kadapa, in both in-patient and outpatient department. The data was collected based on WHO guidelince (ADRMF). We are included 361 hypertensive patients, among that 81 patients were developed ADRs. Out of 81 ADRs 54 (66.6%) were mild, 20 (24.7%) ADRs were moderate and 7 (8.6%) ADRs were severe. In this study high incidence of ADRs were seen in males 49(60.5%) than females 32(39.5%). The present study conclude that ADRs detection and monitoring should be necessary in each and every hospital set up, because of unwanted effects caused by different drugs which can be easily identified and documented.

27

PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION AND ASSESSMENT OF ITS SEVERITY AMONG PRISONERS OF CENTRAL PRISON, RAJAHMUNDRY, INDIA

P. Vinay Datta1*, M. N. S. V. V. R. M. Vijaya1, I. V. Vijay Krishna1, B. Sukanya Bai1, M. Tabitha Sharon1, Dr S. Ramam2
1Pharm. D Intern, KIMS Hospital, Amalapuram, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.
2Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacy Practice, GIET School of Pharmacy, NH5, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.

Abstract

Depression is most common in prisoners as they are isolated from the society as a part of their prison life. overcrowding, dirty and unhygienic living conditions, poor quality of food, inadequate health care, physical or verbal aggression by inmates, lack of purposeful activity, availability of illicit drugs , lack of privacy and time for quiet relaxation and reflection, feelings of guilt or shame about the offenses they have committed, experience stigma of being been imprisoned, worry about the impact of their behavior on other people, including their families and friends, coupled with anxiety about how much of their former lives will remain intact after release are factors that aggravate mental morbidity in prisons. The cumulative effect of these factors, left unchecked, tend to worsen their mental health and increases the likelihood of damage to the wellbeing of prisoners. This study aims to identify depression in prisoners in an early stage. In our study, females were more prone to depression than males. Majority of the depressed individuals was observed to be young adults. 81.1% of the sample prisoners in our study were found to be depressed. Among these 81.1% depressed prisoners, the most observed symptoms were depressed mood, insomnia (42%), feelings of guilt (75.6%) and loss of weight (45%). Around 6.4% of depressed prisoners in our study attempted suicide in the past.It is important to train prison staff in the early recognition and counseling for depression, as well as establish an efficient network with mental health professionals for its effective treatment.

28

DETERMINATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF LORATADINE BY VARIOUS ANALYTICAL METHODS USING UV - VISIBLE, FT - IR, AND HPLC CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES

Mohammad Aftab Mansury*, Rajesh Kumar Jatav , Rakesh K. Jatav
Department of Pharmaceutics, Central India Institute of Pharmacy Indore, M.P., India.

Abstract

Loratadine, histamine H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria Administration of Loratadine through oral route is a challenge in children, who have not yet learned to swallow tablets. In the present study pharmaceutical and analytical investigation carried out proceeding and supporting formulation development efforts of the dosage form of the drug substance. Loratadine is sparingly soluble in water but freely soluble in the pH of 1.2 to 2.0. The Pka of Loratadine is 4.3. It is extensively absorbed from the gastric pH. A reduction in gastric transit time may cause the drug to move into the alkaline pH of the intestine. standard curve of Loratadine is prepared in 0.1 N HCl absorbance measured at max of 280 nm. Standard curve was plotted between conc. (g/ml) on x-axis and absorbance on y-axis. Various spectroscopic methods are used for the identification and analysis of Loratadine using HPLC, FT-IR and other spectroscopic techniques. development of various analytical techniques a new HPLC method for the determination of impurities in Loratadine drug substance and its validation. The method was found to be selective, sensitive, precise and accurate for the determination of impurities and degradation products. This method can be used for the routine determinations in pharmaceutical quality control laboratories and recommend future research.

29

FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF BACLOFEN GASTRO RETENTIVE MUCOADHESIVE TABLETS USING HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS AND XANTHAN GUM

*M. A. Shende1, R. P. Marathe2

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Government College of Pharmacy, Kathora Naka, Amravati, Maharashtra- 444604, India.
2Government College of Pharmacy, Peer Bazar Road, Opp., Osmanpura, Aurangabad, Maharashtra-431005, India.

 Abstract

The main purpose of the present work was to develop matrix tablets of baclofen with hibiscus esculentus fruit mucilage and xanthan gum to study its functionality as a matrix forming agent for mucoadhesive sustained release tablet formulations. Various formulations of baclofen were prepared by wet granulation technique. The formulated tablets were tested for FTIR, DSC, hardness, friability, swelling behavior, in-vitro drug release, mucoadhesive strength and the dissolution data was treated with mathematical modeling and the optimized formulation was tested for accelerated stability studies. The formulated tablets were found to have good mechanical properties, good swelling properties. Based on in-vitro drug release pattern and ex-vivo mucoadhesive study; the formulation containing 23.5% w/w hibiscus mucilage and 5.5% w/w xanthan gum was found to be promising for mucoadhesion and sustained release. The in-vitro dissolution data was perfectly fitting to first order and the release of drug from the formulation followed higuchi’s release. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with marketed tablet formulation for drug release profiles. This formulation showed nearly similar drug release (t90% 9.1 hrs) compared to the marketed tablet formulation (t90% 9.7 hrs). The accelerated stability studies revealed that the tablets retain their characteristics even after stressed storage conditions. The results indicate the suitability of hibiscus esculentus mucilage for pharmaceutical use as a mucoadhesive agent. In conclusion, hibiscus esculentus can be used as an effective natural pharmaceutical excipient along with xanthan gum in the development of stable, gastro retentive sustained release mucoadhesive matrix tablets of baclofen.

30

FORMULATIONAND EVALUATION OF SOLID SELF NANO EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (S-SNEDDS) OF RITONAVIR DRUG

Dr.M.Sunitha Reddy*, Ramya Rudra, MD. Fazalul Haq
Centre for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Science and Technology, JNTUH, Hyderabad, Telangana.

Abstract

The main aim of the study is to formulate solid self emulsyfying drug delivery systems of poorly water soluble drug Ritonavir to enhance the dissolution rate .Solubility of Ritonavir was checked in various oils, surfactants, co- surfactants and different formulations were prepared using selected ingredients. These systems were evaluated for self emulsyfying property and phase diagrams were constructed, which were then further charecterised to optimize the formulation. The formulation containing pippemint oil (25.7% w/w), Transcutol (53.23% w/w), Chremophore (15.845% w/w) was found to be stable and was selected for conversion into solid snedds by using neusilin as a carrier. Prepared solid snedds were further charecterised and the particle size distribution, zeta potential and poly dispersibilityindex(PDI) were found to be 30.21nm,-14.35 and 0.354 respectively. Dissolution studies were also carried out which showed an enhancement in dissolution rate of s-snedds of Ritonavir (72.86%) compared to the pure drug (66.65%).

31

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SOLID SELF NANO EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (S-SNEDDS) OF LOPINAVIR

Dr. Baddam Sunitha reddy*, Parakala Sai Sneha, MD.Fazal Ul-Haq
Department of Pharmaceutics, Centre for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Science and Technology, JNTUH, Hyderabad, Telangana.

 Abstract

The objective of the current work is to develop solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (S-SNEDDS) of a poorly water soluble drug, lopinavir in order to enhance its in vitro dissolution rate. This method is developed to improve the solubility of the BCS this class II drug. The solubility of lopinavir is determined in different oils, surfactants and co surfactants. Lopinavir SNEDDS were prepared using Capryol 90 (oil, 20% w/w), Chremophore EL (surfactant, 7.1% w/w) and Transcutol P (co-surfactant, 28.4% w/w). The standard graph was constructed by dissolving the drug in methanol and validated by UV Spectroscopy. The prepared formulations were evaluated for self emulsifying ability and phase diagrams were constructed to optimize the system. These systems were further characterized and suitable formulation was selected. The selected formulation is selected for conversion into solid by using adsorbent neusillin US2 (22.2 % w/w). The particle size distribution, Zeta potential and poly dispersability index (PDI) of the solid formulation were found to be 158.5 nm, -26.9 mV and 0.194 respectively of the selected formulation. Dissolution studies were also carried out. % drug release of pure drug and solid SNEDDS were found to be 24.58% and 93.61% respectively. The solubility of lopinavir formulated as S-SNEDDS increased approximately four times compared to that of the pure drug.

32

A REVIEW ON ADDISONS DISEASE

Sayyed Sarfaraz Ali Riyasat Ali*, Pentewar R. S, Shaikh F. E, Gholve S. B, Sugave R.V, Suryawanshi R. N, Gapat S
Department of Pharmaceutics, Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College, Latur, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Addison's disease is chronic, life threatening rare endocrinal disorder which affects 1 in 100,000 people. Both sex people equally affected by this disorder. Autoimmune adrenalitis is most common cause of primary adrenal insufficiency. It's prevalence is about 140 per million. Autoimmune adrenalitis disorder, the adrenal cortex is damaged causing the loss of production of hormone such as glucocorticoid,mineralocorticoid. The fight and flight stress hormone adrenaline produced by inner medulla. The cortisol and aldosterone are the esssential steroid hormone produced by it. Function of the cortisol is to enable the body to fight inflammation, stimulates liver to produce blood sugar, mobilises nutrients, helps to balance the quantity of water in human body. While the salt & water level which have impact on Blood Pressure is regulated by aldosterone. The main objective of this review article is to create an awareness among the people concerning with the addison's disease & it's symptoms, diagnosis, treatment. Rational utilization of drug therapy with patient compliance is important.So that proper management of Addison's disease is achieved.

33

ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS - CONTEMPORARY DETAILED ANALYSIS ON DIAGNOSIS, MANAGEMENT AND MEDICATION

Panchumarthy Ravisankar*1, P. Divya Bhargavi1, V. Divya Sai Jyothi1, R. Sampath1, O. Sai Koushik1, P. Sai Anvith2, P. Pragna3
1Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, Guntur (Dist.) - 522213, Andhra Pradesh State, India.
2Sri Chaitanya Educational Institution, Medical Academy, Lakshmipuram-522007, A.P. State, India.
3Malla Reddy Medical College for Women, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad-500055, Telangana State, India.

Abstract

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a long-term disease that affects the joints near the centre of the body, especially the spine and sacroiliac joints which is located at the lowest end of the spine where the sacrum meets the iliac bone in the pelvis. Spondy implies spine Spondylitis and “spondyloarthritis” are synonymous. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) or Spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the spine that causes pain in the back, neck, and sometimes hips and heels. However, immune mediated mechanisms involving human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -B27, inflammatory cellular infiltrates, cytokines and genetic and environmental factors play key roles. In advanced cases, the disease can cause new bone to grow and the vertebrae of the spine to fuse together which lead to kyphosis, a type of spinal curvature that results in a forward-hunching posture. New imaging techniques and therapies have substantially changed the management of this disease in the past decade. The novel treatment options with tumor necrosis factor blockers are more utility for patients. AS is thrice more prevalent in men than in women and starts most often between ages 20 and 40. It is 10 to 20 times more common among 1st - degree relatives of AS patients than in the general population. The male-to-female of AS ratio is roughly 3:1. The peak onset is in adolescents and young adults between 15 to 30 years of age this disease gets symptoms before age of 30 and chronically effects till the end of their life. Only five percent gets symptoms after age of 45 but estimates vary and the condition of AS normally begins with young adulthood up to 40 years of age. Cardiovascular involvement happens 1 in below 10 % of AS patients, generally in those with severe long-standing disease.

34

STUDY ON PRESCRIBING PATTERNS OF ANTI HYPERTENSIVES IN OUTPATIENTS

Lakshmi I, Bhargavi. D, Venkateswaramurthy. N*, SambathKumar. R
Department of Pharmacy Practice, J.K.K. Nattraja College of Pharmacy, Kumarapalayam,Tamilnadu-638183, India.

Abstract

Background: Hypertension is one of the leading cause among the most of the cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Many clinical trials were conducted and number of guidelines was published regarding hypertension treatment. Whereas the prescribing patterns of these medicines doesn’t comply with the standard guidelines given by JNC-8. Many factors plays a key role during prescribing of medicines such as patient age, sex, occupation and blood pressure range which is major factor to be considered initially. So, all these factors and recommended guidelines should be linked up to prescribe the appropriate medicine to the patient according to his condition. If these factors were not taken into considerations before treatment then it remains unsatisfactory. Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prescribing patterns of antihypertensives in outpatients. And to evaluate whether the provided treatment comply with guidelines and is it satisfactory or not. Methods: It is an Observational, Prospective, Non-Interventional study. The study was conducted in outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital, Erode district. It was conducted for a period of six months and the prescriptions were collected during March-2014 to August-2014. The age group taken under study was 31-90years and size of the study population was 250 hypertensive patients. Results: Our research team found that commonly prescribed antihypertensives were monotherapy (74.8%) followed by two drug combination therapy (21.2%) whereas least prescribed was three drug combination therapy (04%). Under monotherapy calcium channel blockers (15.2%) were highly prescribed followed by β-blockers (14%) and loop diuretics (12%). Combination therapy consist of two antihypertensives as a co-formulation and most prescribed --blockers + loop diuretics (4.4%). Under three drug combination therapy most prescribed class of antihypertensives were ß-blockers + angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors + calcium channel blockers and ß-blockers + calcium channel blockers + loop diuretics comprises of (1.2%) followed by ß-blockers + calcium channel blockers + α1- blockers and ß-blockers + angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors + aldosterone antagonistscomprises of (0.8%) of total therapy. Conclusion: The study reported that overall highly prescribed class of antihypertensives were β-blockers (38.4%) followed by calcium channel blockers (37.6%). aldosterone antagonist and three drug combination therapy was under prescribed in this study. Hereby approaching to the final conclusion the prescribing pattern doesn’t comply with the provided JNC-8guidelines.

35

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PARACETAMOL, IBUPROFEN AND FAMOTIDINE BY USING RP-HPLC METHOD

Allabasha Mumtaz, Mrs. Iffath Rizwana

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis & QA, Deccan School of Pharmacy (Affiliated to Osmania University),Nampally,Hyderabad-500001.

Abstract

A new simple, accurate, precise and reproducible RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of ibuprofen and famotidine and paracetamol in tablet dosage forms using Kromosil ODS column,C18(250x4.6 ID) 5μm in isocratic mode. The mobile phase consisted of Solution used – Phosphate buffer: CAN (40+60) pH 4.0. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and detection wavelength was carried out at 230nm. The retention times of ibuprofen and famotidine & paracetamol were 6.477 min and 8.217 min & 2.703 min, respectively. The method was linear over the concentration range for ibuprofen 2-10 μg/ml and for and famotidine 2-10 μg/ml & for paracetamol 2-10 μg/ml. The recoveries of ibuprofen and famotidine were found to be in the range of 99.2% and 99.85% & 100.49% respectively. The validation of method was carried out utilizing ICHguidelines. The described HPLC method was successfully employed for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing combined dosage form.

36

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BILAYER TABLET OF FAMOTIDINE WITH ANTACID LAYER

Kamal Kumar Bhatt*, shivani kala, Divya juyal
Himalayan Institute of Pharmacy & Research Rajawala, Dehradun (Uttarakhand).

Abstract

In the present study bilayer tablet of famotidine with antacids (aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide) layer are prepared. The inner sustained release layer of famotidine consist controlee release polymer HPMC K4 M and HPMK100M at different concentration .and the combination of citric acid ,tartaric acid and sodium bi carbonate used as a effervescent for outer immediate release layer of antacid .The inner layer of famotidine shows the sustained release effect up to 9 hrs. And the immediate release layer of antacids shows rapid dispersion time between 8-12 seconds. The prepared tablets were evaluated for their post compression parameters, physical characteristics and in-vitro release study. The drug content of famotidine was found between the ranges of 98.25-99.30. The Cumulative percent drug release of optimized formulation (FB5) after 10 hours were found to be 98.03 %. Fitting the in-vitro drug release data in to krosmeyer-peppas model the n value found to be approx 1 that shows that all the six formulations followed the mechanism of diffusion. FB5 formulations were selected for stability studies stored at 300C±20C, 65 ± 5% RH and subjected to stability studies up to 90 days. Drug content and cumulative percent drug release after stored formulation for 45 days of optimized formulation FB5 were found to be 98.90. The % similarity of cumulative percent drug release before and after was found to be 87%. It showed that the formulations are physically and chemically stable.

37

IDENTIFYING EXPRESSION PROFILE OF MICRO RNA IN ARTHRITIS TO SPOT NOVEL BIOMARKERS

Syed Zafer Ali, Ruqiya Sultana, Fahmeena Fatima, Hussaini Begum, Mohd Khader, Syed Vazeer.
Dept. of Pharmacology, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad.

Abstract

Objective: Several microRNA, which are ~22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs, exhibit tissue-specific or developmental stage–specific expression patterns and are associated with human diseases. The main objective of this study is to identifying expressions profile of microRNA in arthritis to spot novel biomarker. Methods: The expression of miRNA 146 and 181 was recorded by taking the blood samples from 5 with ankylosing spondylitis, 1 with osteoarthritis, 1 with gout, 2 with RA and 5 with other types of arthritis. RNA isolation is done with GITC method followed with the preparation of cDNA, the for the DNA amplification purpose it had been processed further with PCR, then RT-PCR is done in order to obtain values for statistical analysis. Results: Differential expression profile was observed. MiRNA-146 level was showing lower expression levels in all patients and MiRNA-181 was showing higher expression level, however biochemical parameters are not correlated with both the miRNAs. Conclusion: By the above finding it reveals that miRNA-146 could be set as biomarker in identification of arthritis where it is expressing pattern is low when compared with miRNA-181 which is highly up-regulated during inflammatory response. So, both miRNAs can be used as biomarker for diagnosis purpose in correlation with other biochemical parameter.

38

ELUCIDATING THE ROLE OF CARDIAC BIOMARKERS IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

Raju DSSK1, Kiranmayi Patnala2*
1Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, MIMS, Nellimarla, Vizianagara.
2Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, India.

Abstract 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients are most likely to die of Cardio Vascular Disease (CVD) rather than failure of kidney. The CVD diagnosis cardiac markers alterations are seen in CKD especially in hemodialysis patients. Therefore, the aim of our study is to evaluate incidence of LVH in CKD effect of CKD on cardiac biomarkers. All the cardiac markers are assessed by using ELISA except IMA, which is measured by using cobalt binding capacity method. It was observed that CK-MB and myoglobin are raised in serum the NT pro BNP and HFABP also register a rise in CKD with hemodialysis. There is also increased IMA and Cardiac troponin I (CTnI) in hemodialysis. In CKD nondialysis group, the cardiac parameters like NTpro BNP and IMA were raised compared to control. The HFABP, Myoglobin and CK-MB has not shown any significant rise when compared with control. These results suggest that elevated cardiac markers in CKD is not only due to renal status and but also influenced by other factors like LVH, skeletal muscle damage and oxidative stress.

39

ONE-POT SYNTHESIS OF HANTZSCH ESTERS AND POLYHYDROQUINOLINES CATALYZED BY LITHIUM BROMIDE

K. R.Gopinath1, K. J. Rajendraprasad2, B. M. Nagabhushana3, Manjula Krishnappa4*
1Research and Development Center, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu-641046, India.
2 Department of Chemistry, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu-641046, India.
3 Department of Chemistry, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore -560 054, India.
4 Department of Chemistry, SSMRV College, Chemistry Research Center, 4th T-block, Jayanagar, Bangalor- 560 041, India.

Abstract

Lithium bromide efficiently catalyses the three component condensation reaction of an aryl aldehyde, a 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione and ammonium acetate in ethanol, stirred at ambient temperature to afford the 1,4-dihydropyridines (1,4-DHP) in high yield and purity. The same protocol has been extended to the four-component reaction of an aryl aldehyde, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione, ethyl acetoacetate and ammonium acetate for the preparation of polyhydroquinoline derivatives we got good to excellent yield shorter time duration.

40

POTENTIAL ROLE OF VITAMIN-D IN DERMATOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

Dr K. Narotham Reddy, M. Venkata Subbaiah, R. Siddarama, H. Shree Hari
1Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Venereology, Leprosy, RIMS, Kadapa, India.
2Assistant Professor, P Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, India.
3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, PRRMCP, Kadapa, India.

Abstract

Vitamin D is of particular interest to dermatologists for two vital reasons: it is synthesized in the skin upon exposure to UV light, and it is an significant treatment option for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Studies have shown that vitamin D has dose-dependent special effects in the skin, including the modulation of growth factor and cytokine synthesis and signaling. It also reduces the synthesis of IL-1α and IL-6, resulting in decreased inflammation. It also increases the synthesis of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in keratocytes cells to encourage wound healing and TNF-α to promote keratinocyte differentiation. in addition, vitamin D analogs have comedolytic activity. Certain these effects, vitamin D may be used in the treatment of some skin disorders. On the other hand, the exhibition of a role for vitamin D in various diseases, including osteoporosis, cancer, autoimmune diseases and dermatological diseases, suggests clinical applications for vitamin D and its analogs. As mentioned beyond, numerous studies have shown that vitamin D has dose-dependent antiproliferative effects. In addition, vitamin D can reduce the risk of skin infection. Auxiliary, vitamin D deficiency is related to dermatological diseases such as psoriasis, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis (AD), acne, rosacea, and skin cancer. For that reason, the main aim of this study was to review the role of vitamin D in dermatological conditions.

41

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL PATCH OF FELODIPINE

Sheetal Chauhan1*, Dr. Uday B. Bolmal1, Dr. Panchaxari Mallappa Dandagi1, Dr. Ajit Singh2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, KLEU’s College of Pharmacy, JNMC Campus, Nehru Nagar, Belgaum - 590 010, India.
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka- 576104, India.

Abstract

Aim: To design and evaluate the transdermal drug delivery system with low dose of felodipine. Objective: To develop matrix type transdermal patch of felodipine to avoid first pass metabolism and to study the effect of permeation enhancer in formulated patches. Methods: The patches were prepared using HPMC K100M, PVP and ethyl cellulose polymers in different ratios with incorporating 30% PEG-400 as plasticizer by solvent evaporation technique. The prepared patches were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics and in-vitro drug release study. Penetration enhancing potential of oleic acid and eucalyptus oil was determined by incorporating in different concentration in optimized patch. Result and discussion: On the basis of ex-vivo study the formulation F9 (HPMC: PVP; 1:1) with oleic acid & eucalyptus oil (1:1) as penetration enhancer showed maximum release of 91.45% over 24hrs. The formulation F9 followed Higuchi matrix and non-Fickian diffusion transport. Skin irritation studies on two rabbits were found to be free of irritation. Stability studies showed that optimized transdermal patch was stable at 40℃ & 75% RH with respect to the physical parameter and ex-vivo drug release study. Conclusion: It is reasonably concluded that felodipine can be formulated into transdermal patches to avoid first pass metabolism.

42

INCIDENCES OF WHITE FECES SYNDROME (WFS) IN FARM-REARED SHRIMP, LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI, ANDHRA PRADESH

S. A. Mastan
P V S Laboratories Limited, Aqua Health Care Division, Kohinoor Apartments, Kalanagar, Benz Circle, Vijayawada-520 010 Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract

Incidences of white feces syndrome (WFS) was reported in farm reared Litopenaeus vannamei during 2014-2015 in many shrimp farms of West Godavari, Prakasam and Nellore districts of Andhra Pradesh. The disease was observed after 50-60 days of stocking the PLs. A total of five species of bacteria namely Vibrio parahaeolyticus, V. fluvialis, V.mimicus, V. alginolyticus and Vibrio sp. were isolated from the feces of WFS infected shrimps. The affected shrimp begins to eat less and tend to be darker in colour. And early indications appear in feed trays and water surface, where abundant floating white fecal strings were observed. In severely affected shrimp hepatopancreas and gut become white and pale yellow in colour.

43

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF GATIFLOXACIN AND DEXAMETHASONE IN THEIR BINARY MIXTURE

Sawsan A. Abdel-Razeq1, Manal M. Fouad1, Manal K. Darwish2, Hala E. Zaazaa3, Zeinab A. Nasr*1
1Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
2Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmay Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University,Cairo, Egypt.
3Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract

Six simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of gatifloxacin (GFC) and dexamethasone (DEX) without preliminary separation. The first method was based on direct spectrophotometric determination of GFC at 291.6 nm as DEX shows nearly zero crossing at this wavelength. The second and third ones, used for simultaneous determination of both drugs were dual wavelength method and a first derivative method. The other methods were manipulating ratio spectra namely first derivative of the ratio spectra, ratio difference and mean centering of ratio spectra and were used for determination of DEX. Quantitation of the two studied drugs using the proposed methods was achieved in the concentration range of 1.5-17.5 and 5-50 μg/ml, respectively. The developed methods were successfully applied for the analysis of of GFC and DEX in their synthetic mixtures and pharmaceutical formulation without any interference from common excipients; recoveries ranging from 98.59- 101.78 % ± 0.44- 2.06. The results obtained were statistically compared to that of a reported method showing no significant difference regarding both accuracy and precision. The proposed methods are very simple with minimum manipulation steps, don’t need any sophisticated apparatus or a special program. The RSD for all parameters was found to be within the limits, which indicates the validity of method. Accordingly, these methods could be successfully applied for routine analysis of the studied drugs either in their pure form or combined dosage form in quality control laboratories.

44

PRESCRIBING PATTERN IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Marla Kowndinya Kumar1*, Randeep Raj V C1, L. Ekaja Reddy1, Dr. MD. Dhana Raju2
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, GIET School of Pharmacy, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.
2Principal, GIET School of Pharmacy, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.

Abstract

The objective of the study is to categorize and evaluate the prescription drugs amongst pregnant women in a tertiary care hospital. A prospective observational study was conducted at GSL medical college and hospital, Rajahmundry for a period of 6 months. FDA guidelines were used to study the prescribing patterns of drugs. Among 172 women, average age was 21.2±2.8 years. The majority (62.20%) of the women had completed secondary education. About 22.09% had complained anemia, followed by pain (17.44%), insomnia (6.97%), anxiety (6.97%), hyper emesis (5.23%), pregnancy induced hypertension (4.06%), gestational diabetes (2.32%), urinary tract infection (2.32%), constipation (1.74%), hypothyroidism (1.74%). According to FDA criteria, Category-C (53.11%) was most frequently prescribed, followed by Category-A (15.4%), category-B (9.3%), category-D (2.6%), category-X (0%) and 20.8% drugs prescribed were not classified in FDA guidelines. The overall usage of drugs during pregnancy was found to be high. Early marriage is also a common problem identified in this area. Safety should be established for many supplements that are frequently used in pregnancy. As pregnant women were not included in the clinical trials, data regarding the safe use of drugs in pregnant women were very less. Furthermore, studies have to be carried out in pregnant women that help in classifying the drugs, which assist in safe prescribing pattern.

45

A COMPLETE PROFILE ON CYCAS BEDDOMEI - TRADITIONAL USES, PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITES AND PHYTOCONSTITUENTS

Baggiya Selvi David1, Raja Sundararajan2
1Department of Pharmacognosy, Karnataka College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-560064, Karnataka-State, India.
2GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam-500045, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Indian medicinal plants are used as earliest style of providing helps too many ailments. Currently, variant peoples are looking on beneficial plants for his or her primary health concern wishes. The current review designates the ethnopharmacological, morphological aspects and phytoconstituents of Cycas beddomei Dyer. Being it's a vital healthful plant in Indian medication this plant supposed to vary medical specialty activities like anti-inflammatory, antihelmintic, antidiabetic, antirheumatic, anti-arthritic and antibacterial activities. Different active constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, lignins, 2-(hydroxymethyl)-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, methyl tetradecanoate, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and methyl cis-7-octadecenoate are a component to date according in Cycas beddomei. Well conducted biological studies region unit still necessary for many indications of this species. This review is constructive to make attention towards Cycas beddomei and should be supportive in rising new formulations with additional therapeutic and economical worth.