IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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JULY 2017
1

GARBHINI PARICHARYA (ANTE-NATAL CARE) – VIEW OF HARITA SAMHITA (A TREATISE OF 10th CENTURY)

Shibani Dash1*, Kamini Dhiman2, Siba Prasad Rout3.

1*M.S. Scholar, Department of Stri Roga & Prasuti Tantra, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi- India- 110076,

2Associate Professor, Department of Stri Roga & Prasuti Tantra, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi-India-110076,

3M.D. Scholar, Department of Dravyaguna, I. P.G.T & R.A, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar.

Abstract

Woman, being the precious creation of the world is the only source for new creation. To procreate a healthy progeny is one of the esteem desire of a woman. Pregnancy although being a physiological phenomenon, still it may be at risk to face any complication at any stage due to the altered anatomical and physiological functions of the body of a pregnant female. To assure a safe motherhood as well as a healthy progeny in her womb, special care of a pregnant woman is required which is elucidated as antenatal care. In Ayurvedic classics, antenatal care has been given prime importance and elaborated as garbhini paricharya (ante-natal care) by many acharyas. Basic objective of garbhini paricharya delineated in ayurveda is to achieve a healthy progeny of srestha (best) quality as well as to ensure a healthy mother or foetus during pregnancy, during labour and after labour. As per recent W.H.O report in 2000, it suggests that everyday approximately 830 die from preventable causes related to pregnancy and child birth. To reduce this rate, proper garbhiniparicharya (ante-natal care) is the need of the day. Acharya Harita (a classical memory of 10th century) has given enormous emphasis upon garbhini paricharya and has documented special dietary as well as behavioural regimen in context to growth and development of foetus. Yastimadhu (Glycchrhyza glabra Linn.) acts as galactogogue whereas Parusaka (Grewia asiatica Roxb.) supplements iron, calcium to women body which she needs at correspondent stage. Vivid analysis of this recommended diet pattern of   Acharya Harita suggests that he has charted out this scheduled diet pattern in a chronological order i. e. liquid to solid diet in order to prevent any complication arise during pregnancy and to provide a milieu interior to the body of mother as well as baby for better adapting power with the changing physiological phenomenon. Findings of this review article may validate the scientific validation of views of Harita Samhita recommended diet and habit for pregnancy.

2

THE PREVENTIVE EFFECTS OF NAVEL ORANGE PEEL ETHANOLIC EXTRACT AND NARINGIN ON DOXORUBICIN- INDUCED NEPHROCARDIOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS

Osama M. Ahmed*, Mohamed B. Ashour, Alaa S. Abd El-Fattah
Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

Abstract

Doxorubicin is a very potent drug with broad spectrum of biological activity, used to treat a wide variety of human malignancies and many solid tumors. The clinical efficacy of drug in a wide range of malignant disorders is hampered by its dose limiting side effects such as nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. The effect of intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin at dose level of 2 mg/kg body weight 2 days/week without or with oral administration of navel orange peel ethanolic extract or naringin at dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 1% carboxy methyl cellulose every other day for six weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. Serum levels of urea, uric acid, and creatinine as well as activities of creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase were determined. Lipid peroxidation (indexed by MDA), glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity in kidney and heart were also detected. The treatment of doxorubicin-administered rats with navel orange peel ethanolic extract or naringin significantly ameliorated the elevated serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentration reflecting improvement of kidney function. Similarly, the heart function in doxorubicin-administered rats was alleviated as a result of treatments as manifested by decrease of the elevated creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. The perturbed histological changes in kidney and heart were markedly amended due to the treatments of doxorubicin-administered rats. Moreover, the treatment with navel orange peel ethanolic extract or naringin reduced doxorubicin-induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and suppression of glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity. In conclusion, it can be supposed that navel orange peel ethanolic extract and naringin may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against doxorubicin toxicity without harmful side effects. However, further clinical studies are required to assess the safety and efficacy of these extract in human beings.

3

A HIGH THROUGHPUT LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TANDEM–MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF NAPROXEN SODIUM IN HUMAN PLASMA: APPLICATION TO PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY

Ramesh N*, Ramakrishna Shabaraya
Department of Pharmaceutics, Srinivas College of Pharmacy, Farengipete Post, Mangalore-574143, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Background: A LCMS-MS method has been validated for the determination of naproxen using ketoprofen as an internal standard. Methods: Protein precipitate method was used to extract both analytes and internal standard from human plasma. Detection was made at m/z 229.1 / 169.0 for naproxen, m/z 253.08 / 209.0 for internal standard using esi positive ionization mode. Mass hunter 4.1 workstation software was used for the quantification. The stationary phase was Gemini C18, 50 x 4.6, 5μm. The optimum mobile phase was found to be acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer 20 mM (1:1 v/v). The separation was carried out by using temperature at 30°C (Degree centigrade) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL (milliliter). The injection volume was 5 L (microliter) and run time was 3 minutes. The retention time of analyte and internal standard was 2.054 and 1.922 minutes. Results: The method chosen is fast, robust, and sensitive. Each sample requires less than 3 min run time. The assay method is also highly specific due to the intrinsic selectivity of tandem mass spectrometry. The precision and accuracy are within the recommended limits in this concentration range. Conclusion: The developed method validated for accuracy, precision, linearity and recovery. The calibration curves were linear from 1.167 μg/mL to 163.729 μg/mL (microgram/ milliliter) for naproxen. The validated technique has been effectively applied to analyze human plasma samples for application in pharmacokinetic studies.

4

DOSAGE ADJUSTMENTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE IN PATIENTS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM AND HYPOTHYROIDISM COMPLICATING CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

Sucharitha Kummari1*, Divya Polavarapu1,Pullaguru Ananya1, Venkata Rama Rao Nallani1, Dr.Mohan Rao2, Dr. R. Venkateswarrao1, Dr. M. Greeshma1, Prof. Ramarao Nadendla1
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences.
2Department of General Medicne, Govt.General Hospital, Guntur.

Abstract

BACK GROUND: Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) is a condition in which thyroid gland doesn't produce enough of thyroid hormone. Women, are more likely to have hypothyroidism, as it is chronic illness, lifelong therapy with levothyroxine is necessary. The dose should be individualized in the hypothyroidism patients on the basis of clinical response and biochemical tests. Regular monitoring of TSH and thyroxine is recommended when starting therapy or changing the dose. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: (i) To evaluate the dosage adjustment of levothyroxine in patients with hypothyroidism and with coronary artery disease. (ii) To assess the serum TSH, serum T3 and serum T4 levels in patients with hypothyroidism. (iii) To monitor the levothyroxine therapy related side effects and dosage adjustments. (iv) To improve patients quality of life. METHODS: The study was conducted in Government General Hospital, Guntur, a tertiary care teaching hospital. The sources of data will include the relevant data cards of the patient along with direct observation of the patient. Family history of the patient and risk factors if any are also included. Dose adjustments was done to the subjects included in the study and management parameters are collected. RESULTS: We reviewed the following therapeutic categories in the total of 100 subjects 3% of subjects are at the risk of developing coronary artery disease and dosage adjustment was done in 72 subjects and remaining 28 subject’s does not require the adjustment. 15% were under replaced and 5% were over replaced. CONCLUSION: We concluded that levothyroxine should remain the standard of care for treating hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone therapy should be initiated as an initial full replacement or as partial replacement with gradual increments in the dose titrated upward using serum thyrotropin as the goal. Dose adjustments should be made with thyrotropin assessment 4–6 weeks after any dosage change. Additional research is also needed to develop thyroid hormone analogs with a favorable benefit to risk profile.

5

HEALTH HAZARDS OF PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRIALS WORKERS

K. Tharshanapriya1*, P. Sagadevan1, K. Jayaramjayaraj1, V. Bhuvaneshwari2, S.N. Suresh3, J. Pavithra4, S.Sarah4, B. Chandar Shekar5 and B.Ranjith Kumar6
1. Department of Biotechnology, KG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu.
2. Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilinam University for Wome, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu.
3. Department of Biotechnology, Sree Narayana Guru College. K.G. Chavadi, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu.
4. Department of Biotechnology, Dr. R.V. Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu.
5. Department of Nanotechnology Lab, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu.
6. KIRND institute of Research and Development, Trichy, Tamilnadu.

Abstract

The paper reviews the available literature regarding the work environment in pulp and paper mills and the risk for malignant disease, lung cancer, skin problems, respiratory disease, fibrotic disease, autoimmune disease, nasal irritation and cardiac disease indicating that this occupational group was exposed to asbestos, chlorine compounds, wood dusts, formaldehyde, organic solvents, terpens, latex, clay, carboxy methyl cellulose and silica etc. although inconsistent cancer mortality rates have also been found into a retrospective workers in the paper and pulp industry. The over exposure of calcium carbonate dust can cause irritation of eyelids, redness of eye, tearing and pain in eyes, runny nose, sneezing, coughing, nasal irritation and physical irritant of the eyes, nose, mucous membrane and skin of humans. Silica has been long known to cause progressive granulomatous and fibrotic disease in the lung in human and its affects DNA by binding directly with DNA or indirectly by promoting growth of already initiated cells. To conclude the use of toxic chemicals for pulping and bleaching paper can lead to the pollution that cause negative impacts on the health of paper industry workers. The release of toxic pollutants likes chlorine, lead, mercury and phosphorous into the environment by the industry could be responsible for the genetic damage in industry workers.

6

A STUDY OF PATTERN OF REFERRALS IN LIAISON PSYCHIATRY

Dr Sally John1*,Dr.Amrita Singam2, Dr Sonia Mary Thomas3
1Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi ,Wardha, Maharashtra Pin 442 001.
2Indira Gandhi Govt. Medical College, Department.of Pharmacology, Nagpur.
3Santhula Trust Hospital, Vadakkara, Oliyapuram P.O Kuthattukulam, Ernakulam Dt, Kerala.

Abstract

Liaison psychiatry specializes in bridging psychiatric services to other specialities. It has been actively intervening in the reduction of the communication gap between the various specialities in many health care setups. Thereby it provides them the ability to acquire adequate understanding about the intricacies involved in treating patients with physical and psychiatric co-morbidities. Efficient communication between different levels of care has a great impact on quality of health care. Objectives: To assess the source of referral, reason for referral, the psychiatric diagnosis of the patients referred and the Psychiatric treatment initiated by the referring team and the knowledge of the illness. Materials and method: The study was a cross sectional study conducted on the out patients and inpatients referred to the psychiatric department in a tertiary care hospital in central India. It was completed in the time period of 3 months from June 1st 2014 to August 15th 2014 with a sample size of 150 patients. All the referred patients were evaluated by a consultant psychiatrist and diagnosis was made according to the diagnostic guidelines of ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases -10th Edition). Results: Out of the total number of patients who were referred 79(52.6%) patients were males and 71(47.3%) were females. The mean age of the study population was 36.01 years. A majority of the patients belonged to the age group of 21-30 years. A majority of the referrals were made from the department of medicine (n=76, 50.6%).The various reasons for psychiatric referral were analyzed and it was found that the most common reason was the presence abnormal behaviour (n=37, 24.6%). The most common psychiatric diagnosis made was substance use disorders (n=51, 34%) Conclusion: The observations of our study clearly show that there is significant gap existing in consultation liaison psychiatry as reflected in the profile and patterns referrals assessed. Early diagnosis and management of psychiatric disorders in patients presenting to the other departments with various physical illnesses definitely hasten recovery, reduce morbidity and improve quality of life. The way ahead is too long in this field and the need for improving the liaison is crucial in reducing the burden of morbidity and improving the quality of life of the patient and their carers.

7

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING TABLET OF ESOMEPRAZOLE MAGNESIUM DIHYDRATE

Sachin G. Dhandore*, Ajay D. Shinde
Department of Pharmaceutics, Shivnagar Vidya Prasarak Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Malegaon(Bk), Baramati, Dist. Pune Maharashtra, India 413115.

Abstract

Floating drug delivery system is the class of gastro retentive drug delivery systems. It is also called as Hydrodynamically balanced system. These are the low density systems they have the sufficient buoyancy to float over the gastric contents and remain buyant in the stomach without affecting the gastric emptying rate for a prolonged period of time. The aim of this work is to formulate and evaluate floating tablet of Esomeprazole Magnesium Dihydrate using the 32 factorial design. Chitosan and HPMC K100M is used as the independent variables. Sodium bicarbonate was used as the gas generating agent. Direct compression was the technique used for preparing the floating tablets. Esomeprazole Magnesium Dihydrate floating tablets were developed in nine different batches. The batches were evaluated for various physical parameters, floating lag time, floating time, swelling index, drug content and in-vitro dissolution profile. The floating lag time is between 150-30 seconds and the total floating time of the formulations not more than 9 hours. Drug release percentage of all the formulations is in between 88-94 % and kinetic studies were carried out and the best batch is F9. The best fit model is Korsemeyer’s Peppas model.

8

CURRENT PERSPECTIVE ON NOVEL DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT ON NON-SMALL CELL LUNGS CANCER: COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

PremBhusal*, Kamal Pandey, BibikaPandit.
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bharathi College of Pharmacy, Karnataka-571422, India.

Abstract

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a type of lung cancer and presently a prominent cause for death among the cancer cases globally. It includes adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma. Because of the limitations of the conventional strategies in safety and efficacy, advancement in the respective field has occurred gradually from past to present. Surgery act as a care of standard in operable early stage NSCLC. At present, trimodality approach (surgery, radiation, chemotherapy) has gained popularity in the treatment of advance stage NSCLC. Chemotherapy is associated with chemo-resistance and it is a hindrance to achieve the success. Innovative irradiation technique and pre-chemotherapy irradiation is being effective than standard radiation therapy. Targeted therapy is now increasingly used because of its long term disease control by blocking the important pathway. Various management strategies are being used for management of NSCLC which are highlighted in this study. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA), immunotherapy, personalized therapy, gene therapy has a good impact in the effective treatment of NSCLC by increasing survival rate. The present review enwraps information about available approaches and strategies which are intended for the treatment of NSCLC.

9

LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRIC METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL GENOTOXIC IMPURITY 2, 6-DIAMINOPYRIDINE IN MINODRONIC ACID

Kotapati Nalini1*2, Palnati Narmada1, Adibhatla Kali Satya Bhujanga Rao1, Gopal Vaidyanathan1, Sanasi Paul Douglas2
1Natco Pharma Limited, Natco Research Centre, B-13, Industrial Estate, Sanathnagar, Hyderabad-500018, Telangana, India.
2Department of Engineering Chemistry, Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

A new, simple, accurate and sensitive method was developed for the quantification of potential genotoxic impurity 2, 6-Diaminopyridine in Minodronic acid using Liquid Chromatographic Mass Spectrometry (LCMS). The chromatographic separation was achieved on ZIC HILIC, 5u (150 x 4.6) mm column with isocratic programme and elution was monitored by mass spectrometer in Single Ion Monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 1.0 ppm and 3.0 ppm respectively for the impurity at the test concentration of 0.5mg/ml. The method was linear (r2>0.99), precise (RSD<2%), accurate and well within acceptable ICH limits.

10

DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN DAVANGERE

Akhila James*1, Sushilkumar Londhe2, Dr. Jose John3
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davangere, Karnataka, India.
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davangere, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Objective The study was carried out with the aim to understand the drug utilization pattern of antihypertensive drugs in the medicine wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. The secondary objective of the study is to determine the average number of Anti-Hypertensive drugs per prescription, To assess the prescribing pattern of anti-hypertensive’s according to age(according to JNC guidelines).Category-wise distribution of drugs. A retro- prospective observational study was conducted at SSIMS & RC, Davangere, Karnataka for a period of six months Methodology Total of 100 patients were included in the study.The collected data include patient’s information’s on demography, drug therapy and length of hospital stay. Antihypertensive drug utilization was measured in terms of DDD/100 bed days. Results 52 males and 48 females were identified in the study. Calcium channel blockers were the most commonly prescribed drug class. Amlodipine was the most consumed drug in the wards (DDD/100 bed-days).The majority of the patients (32%) were in the age group of 60-69 years. Conclusion: The increased prescription of calcium channel blockers than diuretics shows that the prescribing pattern is in line with the recommendations of JNC VIII GUIDELINES (2014 Hypertension Guideline). Evaluation of utilization of anti-hypertensive agents and implementation of effective strategies can greatly aid in improving the quality use of anti-hypertensive agents.
11

IMPLEMENTING OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY BY DESIGN FOR HIGH QUALITY PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

P. Abhinandana1.2*, Ramarao Nadendla2
1Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh-522510.
2Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh-522034.

Abstract

The quality in the pharmaceutical industry has become a very important topic. Pharmaceutical industry has been emerging rapidly for the last decade by focusing on product Quality, Safety, and Efficacy. The guidelines of ICH from Q8 to Q11 have discussed QbD implementation in pharmaceutical product formulation development. ICH Q11 is a clear discussion about QbD approach for API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) synthesis with examples. Pharmaceutical firms increased the number of product development by using different scientific tools such as QbD (Quality by Design) and PAT (Process Analytical Technology). The main key tools of AQbD are identification of ATP (Analytical Target Profile), CQA (Critical Quality Attributes) with risk assessment, Method Optimization and Development with DoE, MODR (method operable design region), Control Strategy, AQbD Method Validation, and Continuous Method Monitoring (CMM), TQM (Total Quality Management), DOE (Design of Experiments). Implementation of AQbD simultaneously in analytical development will improve the ability of production of high quality products which will minimize the risks during every step of manufacturing and analysis of products.

12

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS OF SHAWASAHARA DASHEMANI CHURNA

Kuldeep Kumar Soni*, Prof. K.S patel, Dr. V.K. Kori, Harisha C. R., V. J. Shukla
Department of Kaumarbhritya Pharmaceutical Chemistry Lab, I.P.G.T. & R.A, GAU.

Abstract

Bronchial Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the lung airways resulting in episodic airflow obstruction. The prevalence of Bronchial Asthma has increased continuously since the 1970s, and now affects an estimated 4 to 7% of the people worldwide. Ayurveda texts have described five types of Shwasa Roga and among these five, Tamaka is one. Tamaka Shwasa is a “Swatantra” Vyadhi. In Charaka Samhita, the group of ten drugs is mentioned for the management of the Shwasa Roga named as Shwasahara Dashemani. Till date no published data is available regarding evaluation of Shwasahara Dashemani Churna. Methods- Final product was subjected to Phrmacognostical and physico-chemical analysis such as microscopic study, loss on drying, ash value etc. Results- Phrmacognostical study showed the presence of contents such as; annular vessels of Shati, simple trichome of Tulsi, rosette crystal of Jivanti etc. Preliminaryphysico-chemical analysis showed that the loss on drying value was found to be 14.11%, pH 6.5, Ash value7.80, etc. HPTLC showed 6 and 4 spots at 254nm and 366nm respectively. Conclusion- The pharmacognostical and physico chemical analysis of Shwasahara Dashemani Churna confirmed the purity and genuinety of the drug. Further studies may be carried out on it on the basis of observation made and results of experimental studies.

13

A STUDY TO ASSESS AND EVALUATE THE PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF ANTI- HYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN A TERITARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Deepa Teresa Mathew, Jubi Mathew, Pheba Thankam Moncy, Steffi John, Chaitanya Kumar T*.
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davangere, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Objective: The objectives of the study are to assess and evaluate the prescribing patterns of antihypertensive drugs in patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital,to compare the prescribing patterns of antihypertensive drugs in hypertension and co-morbid conditions with JNC-8 and to determine the distribution of co-morbidities in hypertensive patients. Methodology: This prospective observational study was conducted for a period of 6 months. Prescriptions of hypertensive patients admitted in the medicine ward with at least one antihypertensive drug prescribed were collected and were documented in a separate data collection form. The obtained data will be analyzed for average number of antihypertensive drugs per prescription, class of antihypertensive drugs prescribed, distribution of patients according to gender, mode of therapy and distribution of co-morbidities. Appropriateness of the prescription will be analyzed as per JNC-8 guideline. Result: In our study it was found that the age group of 60-69 years had the higher incidence of hypertension with male patients more prominent than females. Most of the patient had the BP range of 140-149/90-99mmHg. Co-morbidities were observed in almost all prescriptions, DM was prominent among them. Combination therapy was preferred over monotherapy. Two drug regimens were commonly prescribed among the combination therapy. The prescription showed weak adherence to various recommendations of JNC 8. Conclusion: The study concluded that prescribing guidelines should be followed by physicians for better health outcome and improvement in quality of life of patient suffering from hypertension and co-morbidities because these guidelines are based on vigorously conducted various clinical trials.

14

A REVIEW OF ANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVES OF LINAGLIPTIN

Shanmugakumar S.D*, Padmalatha K, Sadhu Venkateswara Rao, Veda Archana, Saipriya T, Tejaswi M1, Balakrishna M, Tejaswini, Uma Soundarya, Shymala G J
Vijaya Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Enikepadu, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh-521108.

Abstract

Linagliptin is an oral anti-diabetic drug belong to the class of dipeptidyl peptidase -4 (DPP-4 inhibitors).It is widely used in the treatment of type –II diabetes mellitus which is characterized by insulin resistance in pheripheral tissue and insulin secretory defect of the β – cells.Linagliptin is been approved by the US food & Drug administration for the management of type –II diabetes. This work aims to compiling the published analytical methods referred so far in the literature in the determination of linagliptin in the biological samples and pharmaceutical formulations. Techniques like HPLC, UV & MASS spectroscopy, EI – Tandem Mass spectrometry, pharmacokinetic studies & spectrophotometric methods have been utilized so far in the analysis, from which we can seen HPLC methods have been operated most extensively in various analytical perspectives. Based on the findings of the present review, linagliptin is widely used as an treatment adjunctive to a regimen of an insulin secretagogue.

15

EVALUATION OF ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF FENUGREEK SEEDS OF WATER EXTRACT USING HPLC METHODOLOGY

Kavita Chaurasia1, Dr. Pramod Singh2*
1Government Holkar Science College, Indore, M.P.
2Christian Eminent College, Indore, M.P.

Abstract

Methi seeds and its uses in Ayurvedic medicines for the treatment of wounds, abscesses, arthritis, bronchitis, and digestive disorders have been reported due to presence of bioactive compounds. These active compounds are marketed as neutraceuticals. Now days, it becomes necessary to investigate these bioactive compounds for the medicinal uses. In this regard we perform HPLC of the water extract (overnight soaked seed) of fenugreek. On evaluating the chromatogram we find many active compounds which are reported antidiabetic properties in literature. So it is suggested that taking water extract of fenugreek in the early morning is beneficial for diabetic patients.

16

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF RABEPRAZOLE SODIUM AND DOMPERIDONE PELLETS

P. Swathi*
Department of Pharmaceutics, Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Hyd.

Abstract

The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate Rabeprazole sodium and Domperidone pellets for the treatment of gastro esophageal reflux disease. Modified release drug delivery systems were capable of drug release when and where it requires. In the present study delayed release Rabeprazole sodium pellets were prepared by a drug layering, seal coating and enteric coating by using eudragit L100 55 as enteric coating material different weight gains were developed and evaluated for optimized formula and Sustained release Domperidone pellets were prepared by drug layering, sustained release coating with ethyl cellulose 7 cps as sustained release material. The formulated coated pellets were evaluated for angle repose, bulk density, tapped density, hausener ratio, Carr’s index, FTIR, DSC. Moisture content. In vitro release and acid-resistance studies were carried out in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid, respectively. The results indicated that Rabeprazole sodium pellets with seal coat of 10 % (F13) formula and 30% of enteric coat with eudragit L 100 55 (F30) formula showed good acid resistance and drug release. Domperidone pellets with 10 % (F9) and 12 % (F10) formulas of extended release coating with ethyl cellulose were showed required sustained action. The optimized formulations were evaluated for different release kinetics and found that Rabeprazole delayed release pellets were following First order and Korsemeyer-peppas equation Hence the release mechanism was by concentration dependent dissolution process. Domperidone pellets were following First order and Higuchi’s equation Hence the release mechanism was by concentration dependent diffusion process. F20 formula of rabeprazole pellets and F10 of formula domperidone pellets were showed required release characteristics were selected and filled in to the capsules.

17

IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF Knema attenuata STEM BARK EXTRACT

Supriya Raja H1*, Suku.J2
1Department of Pharmacology, Jamia Salafiya Pharmacy College, Malappuram.
2Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical sciences, Trivandrum.

Abstract

Medicinal plants have very high potential as antimicrobial drugs for treating various human diseases. The purpose of present work is to study the antimicrobial activity present in ethanolic extract obtained from stem bark of Knema attenuata. Microorganisms used for test were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of extract were studied using agar well diffusion and disc diffusion techniques. The zone of inhibition of growth was measured and recorded. The results obtained indicated the presence of mild antibacterial but moderate antifungal activity in the stem bark extract. Therefore the stem bark of K.attenuata can act as a natural antifungal agent.

18

STUDY ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA CAESIA

Vineela Chadalavada*, Soundarya Budala
SIMS College of Pharmacy, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Rhizomes of Curcuma caesia, commonly known as Kali Haldi/Black Turmeric, available in many parts of India has many medicinal properties. Curcuma caesia reported for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic properties in many studies but very few studies done for its potential anthelmintic activity. Hence, our present study aimed at reporting the anthelmintic properties of Curcuma caesia. For the present study, three extracts (ethanol, chloroform and aqueous) of rhizomes of Curcuma caesia at three concentrations (25mg/dl, 50mg/dl, 100mg/dl) of each extract was studied for anthelmintic property. Albendazole (20mg/dl) was taken as standard. Anthelmintic study include, determining the time taken for paralysis and death of earthworms in the presence of test samples. The results indicated that the most effective sample for inducing paralysis in earthworms is ethanolic extract (100mg/dl) by 18.06±0.74 min and chloroform extract (100mg/dl) by 16.24±0.86 min, and among the three extracts, ethanolic extract (100mg/dl) is effective in causing death in 36.81±1.13min. Whereas the standard Albendazole (20mg/dl) caused paralysis of earthworms in 23.09±1.56 min and death in 37.20± 1.74 min. The present study reveals that rhizomes of Curcuma caesia have potential vermifuge activity than vermicidal activity in comparision with satandard Albendazolev in.a dose dependent manner.

19

SCREENING AND DETECTION OF ALPHA AMYLASE INHIBITORS PRODUCED BY MARINE MICROORGANISMS BY MODIFIED TLC AND RPTLC METHODS

Nagamani. Bolla*1, T. Prabhakar2, G. Girija Sankar2, M. Murali Krishna2
1Viswanadha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Andhra University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Screening and detection of marine actinomycetes producing alpha amylase inhibitor was carried out by modified TLC plate method and new RPTLC plate method respectively. Out of 200 isolates only one α-amylase inhibitor producing strain was isolated from the marine sediment collected from Tamilnadu coast of Bay of Bengal. The strain showed some similarities with strain Streptomyces lateritius like antibiotic production and similar sporophore formation. However, more differences were observed with respect to carbon sources utilization, hence it was designated as Streptomyces lateritius var TP4/6. This paper involves development of modified TLC and RPTLC method for screening of proteinaceous amylase inhibitors. These methods are more reliable than existing methods like starch plate, starch agar plate and TLC plate method for primary screening of alpha amylase inhibitors. Our strain TP4/6 characteristics were compared with the existed strain Streptomyces lateritius and concluded that it is a variety of the existed one. This was the first report on screening and detection of proteinaceous amylase inhibitor using these methods.

20

EFFECTS OF PSYCHOEDUCATION ON ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS OF PATIENTS WITH UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION TOWARDS ANTI-DEPRESSANT THERAPY

Dhanush Pavuluri1*, Vasireddy Krishna Sai1, Jagadeesh Gogineni1, Nadipena Ganesh Kumar1, Annepu Manisha1, Dr. Nalluri Murali Krishna2, P. Sharmila Nirojini1, Dr. Rama Rao Nadendla1
1Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Guntur.
2Department of Psychiatry, Guntur Medical College.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to provide psychoeducation for changing the attitudes and beliefs of patients with unipolar depression towards antidepressant treatment. The study was a prospective, comparative, randomized, interventional study conducted at psychiatry Out-patient Department in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Guntur which includes 89 patients with unipolar depression. Those patients who are receiving psychoeducation along with anti-depressant treatment are randomized into study group where as those patients only on anti-depressant therapy are grouped as control. The data was collected through Antidepressant Compliance Questionnaire at base level and after 2 months, where the study group received 3 sessions of psychoeducation with 15 days time interval between each session. Among 89 patients who participated in study, 08 could not be followed up in the study, hence dropped out. Out of 81 patients 38.2% were male and 61.7% were female. Majority of patients 44.4% were in the age group between 40 to 50 years and 87.6% of patients with 10th and below 10theducational status were found to have depression. Patient doctor relationship (Component 1 of ADCQ) had correlation of (r=0.68, p=0.0001) and have positive correlation with follow up (r=0.76, p=0.0001). The correlation is not significant at p=0.05. Correlation between positive belief on antidepressant (Component 3 of ADCQ) and follow up scores after psychoeducation (r=0.999, p=0.0001) which is significant at p=0.01. Correlation between partner's agreement (Component 4 of ADCQ) and follow up scores after psychoeducation (r=0.96, p=0.009) which is significant at p=0.05. By this we conclude that psychoeducation improves the attitudes and beliefs of the patients with unipolar depression towards antidepressants and it is main outcome is based on the patient doctor relationship where the sufficient time should be spent on the patient towards their feelings.

21

OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION FORMULATION OF A PROSTAGLANDIN ANALOGUE FOR TREATING GLAUCOMA

Venkateswaran Chidambaram Seshadri*, Packiaraj Jeyachandran Manohari, Janakiraman Kunchithapatham, Jayanarayan Kulathingal
Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar – 608002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Glaucoma is a progressive, neurodegenerative optic nerve disease that can cause significant visual morbidity and affects over 60 million people worldwide. The latest marketed product in the form of ophthalmic solution to treat the glaucoma is RESCULA® which utilizes a novel prostaglandin analogue, Unoprostone Isopropyl as active ingredient at 0.15% w/v. Characterization by laser diffraction of the marketed product revealed the drug product in the nano emulsion form. The API, Unoprostone Isopropyl is a clear colorless viscous oily liquid, practically insoluble in water and poorly permeable. The formulation utilized 1% Polysorbate 80 as solubilizer; 0.05% Disodium Edetate as preservative, chelating agent and antioxidant; 0.015% Benzalkonium Chloride as preservative; 4.3% Mannitol as osmotic agent; Sodium Hydroxide / Hydrochloric Acid at quantity sufficient for pH adjustment. The final product was sterilized through filtration using polyvinylidine filters. The filtrate was packed in Low Density polyethylene bottle with dropper insert capped with High Density Polyethylene closure. The stability of the product was evaluated and found to be stable in both upright and horizontal position at ICH recommended accelerated stability condition of 40ᵒC / 25% RH.

22

TOPICAL GEL FORMULATION OF DIAMINODIPHENYL SULFONE FOR ACNE VULGARIS

Venkateswaran Chidambaram Seshadri*, Packiaraj Jeyachandran Manohari, Janakiraman Kunchithapatham1, Jayanarayan Kulathingal
Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar – 608002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Diaminodiphenyl Sulfone is chemical name of Dapsone and is a BCS Class II drug. Recently USFDA has approved Dapsone Topical Gel (ACZONE®) manufactured by Allergan for the treatment of both inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne vulgaris for the age group of 12 to 65 years. Acne vulgaris is a nearly universal skin disease afflicting 79–95% of the adolescent population. Allergan designed ACZONE® in an airless pump containing a polypropylene bottle with a high density polyethylene piston containing a consortium of solvent like Isohexane; solubilizers / surfactants like Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether and Polysorbate 80; Acrylamide/Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate copolymer as a polymer; Methyl Paraben as preservative and Purified Water as solvent. The aim of the present research is in cost effective manufacturing of once daily Dapsone Gel 7.5% with minimum excipients viz., Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether as solubilizer, Carbomer Homopolymer type C as polymer, Methyl Paraben as preservative, Purified Water as solvent / vehicle and Sodium Hydroxide / Hydrochloric Acid as pH adjusters and packing the final product in conventional laminated tubes. The Physico-chemical properties and stability of the formulated product was found comparable to ACZONE® 7.5%. It is reported that globally about 700 million people across ages get affected by Acne Vulgaris and this research will be a boon combining the once a day dosing of 7.5% strength stabilized in a simple laminated tube packing at a reduced cost.

23

PRELIMINARY QUALITATIVE SCREENING, PHYSICOCHEMICAL STANDARDIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF A HERBO MINERAL SIDDHA FORMULATION GANDHAGA KARUPPU

D. Deepa Bai1,2, Ashima Joshi1,2, Geeta Tyagi1,2, V. Vijaya Kumar1, S. C. Verma*1, M. B. Shankar1
1Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine and Homoeopathy, Kamala Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad, 201002. Uttar Pradesh, India.
2Central Council for Research in Siddha, Chennai-106.

Abstract

A recent resurgence of interest in the traditional systems like AYUSH (Ayurveda,Yoga, Unani, Siddha & Homoeopathy) systems of Indian Medicine is due to the fact that these systems are natural/ environmental friendly/ biodegradable. The safety based efficacy of these medicines is also equally important because of the issues of adulteration and substitution and contamination and for globalization too. Therefore, the development of pharmacopoeial standards becomes mandatory as emphasized by WHO. Under the Law of drugs and cosmetic act 1940, quality control and analytical standardization of ASU&H drugs in the light of phytochemical aspects geared up in India. Scientist’s (silver bullet) method of extracting the chemical to target the effect led to suggestion that most drugs are devoid of activity which may due to the in-vitro methods and lack of solubility of the drug. This paves way to support traditional formulations, where drug parts are added as such and processed and the finished product administered with suitable adjuvants (Gunshot method to treat the individual as a whole). The objective of the present study to evaluate the organoleptic characters, acid and basic radicals, pH, phytochemicals, standardize physico chemically to authenticate the sulphur based classical Siddha formulation Gandaka karuppu and also to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. The Results revealed, the presence of sulphate, chloride, carbonate, fluoride and iron and ammonium, acidic pH, no significant antimicrobial activity , higher acid insoluble ash values which might be due to higher mineral content present in the finished product. The Organoleptic characters and other physicochemical values signify the good quality and purity of the herbo-mineral drug Gandhaga karuppu.

24

FORCED DEGRADATION STUDIES OF COMBINATION OF LEVOCETRIZINE, AMBROXOL AND MONTELEUKAST BY VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD

D Chaithanya Sudha Penta, Prof. Dannana Gowri Sankar
A.U.College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, A.P, India.

Abstract

A new selective rapid reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic stability indicating method had been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitative determination of Levocetrizine, Ambroxol and monteleukast in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separations are carried out with Kromasil C-18, (250×4.6 mm) and 5μm particle size column. The mobile phase consists of phosphate buffer: Acetonitrile (40:60 %v/v), to this add 1 ml of triethylamine and adjust the mobile phase pH 4.0 with o-phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and eluents were detected at 225 nm using UV detector. The retention times of Levocetrizine, Ambroxol and Monteleukast were found to be 2.185, 2.622 and 3.931 min respectively. The percentage recoveries were found to be in the range of 99 -101%. The calibration curve was constructed between peak area vs concentration and demonstrated which are in the range of 500μg/ml Levocetrizine, 50 μg/ml Ambroxol and 100 μg/ml Monteleukast. Degradation studies were studied for Levocetrizine, Ambroxol and monteleukast under various stress conditions such as acid hydrolysis, base hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal, photochemical and UV. All the degradation peaks were resolved effectively using developed method with different retention times. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. As the method could effectively separates the degradation products from active ingredient, it can be used for routine analysis of drug both in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.

25

“STUDY ON VARIOUS PARAMETERS FORTIFIED PANEER SPREAD”

Divya Sharma, Hotam Singh Chaudhary* 

Madhav Institute of Technology & Science, Gwalior – 474005, India.

Abstract

Objective-The objectives of the present study is to increase the shelf life of paneer spread by adding clove extract as additive at different concentrations. Methods- The probiotic bacteria have been isolated from the milk and curd for the development of fortified paneer spread. The isolates were grown on MRS (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe) media which are subsequently morphologically and biochemically characterized. Fortified Paneer spread was prepared by modified conventional method which includes heat coagulation, addition of acid coagulant and probiotic bacteria, grinding pressing and hooping. At the end of the procedure paneer spread was prepared by optimizing salt and moisture content. The shelf life of paneer spread can be improved by incorporation of clove extract at specific level was optimized for final paneer spread. Result –Modified paneer spreads sample were prepared that were fortified with Bifidobacterium spp. Clove extract was added to increase the shelf life and sensory characteristics of the paneer spread. Conclusion -The study found that clove extract increases the shelf life of the paneer spread significantly. The attempts has been made to prepare paneer spread having better nutritional value and shelf life of paneer based spreads which is a better alternative for cheese and butter spreads in the market.

26

ASSESSMENT OF IN VITRO ANTACID ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF ABRUS PRECATORIUS (L.)BY MODIFIED ARTIFICIAL STOMACH MODEL

Rupa Sengupta*1, Dr. Maitreyi .N.Zaveri2
1ROFEL, Shri G.M.B College of pharmacy, Vapi ,Gujarat.
2Kadi Sarva Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (K.B.I.P.E.R), Sec-23, Gandhinagar, Gujarat.

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of present investigation is to rule out the antacid activity of Abrus precatorius leaves by in vitro method using a self fabricated modified artificial stomach model.The reason of selecting in vitro methods is to minimize the useage of Experimental animals. Abrus precatorius is a medicinal plant prevalent to found all throughout the plains of India, from Himalaya down to Southern India. This plant is used widely in folklore medicine for their antiulcer activity. Material & Methods: The preliminary chemical tests performed for the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, rutin, glycosides, saponins, Steroides, carbohydrates and Glycyrrhizin as major Phytoconstituents. Then they were evaluated for the antacid potencies by working on the parameters like determination of pH of the prepared extracts, neutralizing effects on artificial gastric acids, duration of consistent neutralization effect on artificial gastric acids and neutralization capacity. Sodium bicarbonate and water were used as reference standard and control respectively. Outcome: The methanolic extract A.precatorius showed potent antacid activity when compared to standards. Hence A. precatorius can be considered as a potent substitute for the synthetic antacids that are well reputed for unwanted side effects like edeoma in the feet,alteration in systemic PH, bleaching etc. Further investigations on in vivo preclinical and clinical studies are yet to be performed.

27

REVIEW ON IMIDAZOPYRIDINE DERIVATIVES AS POTENT REVERSIBLE INHIBITORS OF THE GASTRIC H+, K+-ATPASE

Ravindra S. Sonawane1*, Avinash V. Patil2
1Pacific Academy of Higher Education and Research University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.
2Smt. S. S. Patil College of Pharmacy, Chopda, District Jalgaon-425 107, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The gastric H+, K+-ATPase is the preferred target for acid suppression. PPIs are acid-activated prodrug that requires acid protection. Once acid-activated, PPIs bind to cysteine of the ATPase, resulting in covalent, long-lasting inhibition. The currently available PPIs require around 3–5 days to achieve maximum acid inhibition at existent therapeutic doses, primarily due to their chemical structures and irreversible inhibition of H+,K+-ATPase. Therefore, many novel strategies to address the unmet needs of PPI therapy have been investigated, and acid pump antagonists (APAs) could play a promising role, as they provide faster onset and longer duration of action than irreversible PPIs by virtue of their ability to reversibly bind to the proton pump. They are active in absence of acid secretion and bind to specific sites in the membrane domain of the H+/K+-ATPase. The imidazopyridine based compound was the prototype of this class. Comparison was made between to the classic PPIs and P-CABs. SAR of imidazo [1,2-a]pyridines related to SCH 28080 is described. Various modifications were done on imidazopyridine nucleus, to search for lead molecule is also described. Some of the potent compounds are SCH28080, Soraprazan, Revaprazan, Linaprazan, Vonoprazan, Tak- 438-1, AZD 0865, BY841.

28

REVIEW ON QUINOLINE ANALOGS AS POTENTIAL ANTI-HIV AGENTS

Kishore D. Deo1*, I. J. Singhvi1, Avinash V. Patil2
1*Pacific Academy of Higher Education and Research University, Udaipur, India.
1Academy of Higher Education and Research University, Udaipur, India.
2Smt. S. S. Patil College of Pharmacy, Chopda, District Jalgaon-425 107, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has now been established as the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved anti-HIV drugs and divided into seven groups. However, the use of these drugs has been relatively limited by their toxicity, drug resistance development. New anti-HIV drugs with acceptable toxicity, less resistance profiles and with novel mechanisms of action are clearly needed. Here HIV replication cycle, Possible HIV Targets and Interventions, Global situation and trends, approved antiretroviral drugs are discussed. This marked the beginning of the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However future anti-HIV drug research efforts focused on new HIV targets such as HIV proteins and RNase H. Various modifications done on quinoline scafold, to search for lead molecule is also described.

29

EXCIPIENT FUNCTIONALITY OF A NOVEL HYDROPHILIC BIOPOLYMER DERIVED FROM IPOMOEA BATATAS TUBERS

Kenneth Chinedu Ugoeze, Nkemakolam Nwachukwu*, Chidinma Chinaecherem Nwodo
Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Abstract

In this work, a novel hydrophilic biopolymer derived from the tubers of Ipomoea batatas was evaluated. Fibre obtained after the separation of starch from the milled tubers was dried at 60 o C and pulverised. A 500 g of this was submerged in enough 3.50 % w/v sodium hypochlorite and kneaded for 10 min, washed severally with distilled water till the pH became neutral. It was submerged in sufficient 96 % v/v ethanol, stirred for 5 min, dried at 60 o C and classified with sieve 60. A 100 g of this was mixed with 250 ml of 3.0 % w/v sodium hydroxide, precipitated with acetone and dried in a desiccator. It was sized with a 250 μm sieve and coded as I-polygel. Its organoleptic, pH, densities, flow parameters, elemental analysis, hydration capacity, swelling index, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), moisture content/adsorption and ash profile were verified. Results show an odourless, fine, tasteless, off-white powder with pH, 6.85 ± 0.12 and mean particle size, 61.62 ± 0.2 μm. It was insoluble in organic solvents but gelled rapidly in cold water (viscosity, 1% w/v ≈ 127cP). Moisture content/adsorption, hydration/swelling index was high. The powder displayed good flowability. It has cellulosic morphology with a melting peak of about 90 o C. Heavy metals such as lead or mercury were not detectable. The general properties of I-polygel show that it is a hydrophilic biopolymer and may serve as a pharmaceutical excipient for possible applications in novel drug delivery systems.

30

IN VITRO STUDIES ON PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF PLEUROTUS FLORIDA CULTIVATED ON PADDY STRAW

K. MANIMARAN, S. MURUGESAN*, S. LAKSMIKANTH
Research Scholar, Department of Botany, Periyar University, Salem-11, Tamil Nadu, India.
*Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, Periyar University, Salem-11, Tamil Nadu, India.
PG Department of Botany, Periyar University, Salem-11, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Mushrooms are white rot fungi regarded as one of the well known food and possessing various kinds of biopharmaceuticals compounds. Mushrooms are superior to many vegetables based on their nutritional value and it contains 40 - 49% of proteins. The present study consolidates in the aspects of cultivation of Pleurotus florida mushroom with phytochemical analysis. Pleurotus florida mushroom was cultivated by using paddy straw. Oyster mushroom accounted for 14.2% of the total world production of edible mushroom.P. florida was successfully grown on PDA. The fresh fruit bodies of mushroom were harvested, dried, powdered and extracted (by using ethanol) using soxhlate apparatus. The phytochemical characters of Pleurotus florida of water and ethanol extract investigated.The aqueous extract of Pleurotus florida was found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. Whereas ethanol extract of Pleurotus florida showed, the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and steroids. Aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts contains high amount of phenolic compounds, glycosides and flavonoids based on the phytochemical screening. CONCLUSION: In the present investigation was carried out on cultivation of Pleurotus florida and screening of preliminary phytochemicals. Pleurotus florida was cultivated on sterilized paddy straw. Environmental factors of pH (6.5) and temperature (25– 300C) were maintained between mycelia growth to attain harvesting stage. Cultivation of the growth was observed in raw materials in 18-25 days and first harvest can be made on 19th day itself it implies that the growth of the mushroom. Total yield was one kg for one bed. Preliminary phytochemical compounds were screened of Pleurotus florida with different extract of aqueous and ethanol solvent. Alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides were presence in aqueous extract of Pleurotus florida. Whereas ethanol extract of Pleurotus florida was contain alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and steroids. Some phytochemical ingredients Phenols, tannins, pholobatannins and anthroquinones were absence in both extracts. Further study can be aimed at to identify the bioactive compounds and determine the cultivation of Pleurotus florida on paddy Straw.

31

ASSESSMENT OF DRUGS IN POST-OPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT

Vinoothna Bavireddy, Harini Keesara, Prahalicka Myakala, Yaka Lavanya
Doctor of Pharmacy, Sree Dattha Institute of Pharmacy, Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, Sheriguda, Ibrahimptanam- 501510.

Abstract

Background and Aims: Pain remains a significant problem following surgical operations and prescribing patterns for post-operative pain have changed little in the last decade. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the drugs used in post-operative pain management. Study Design, Study Period and Study Site: A Prospective Observational Study which was conducted at the surgical department by collecting admitted cases of surgery as per the study criteria during the study period of 6 months at Aware Global hospitals L.B. Nagar. Methodology: Patients who have undergone surgery were included. The post operative analgesics prescribed were recorded in a specially designed proforma. Results: A total of 229 cases were enrolled in the study. The results shown that, majority (39%) of the surgery cases were in the age group of 21-40 years. The majority cases were males (57%) Majority of them were from urban area (63%).The most preferred single entity analgesic is diclofenac which was given to 101 out of 229 (44%) patients. The most preferred combination analgesic is Aceclofenac + Paracetamol which were given to 12(5.2%) patients. The least preferred single entity analgesics were Indomethacin and Codeine Sulphate which were given to 1 (0.4%) patient. Conclusion: The goal for postoperative pain management is to reduce or eliminate pain and discomfort with minimal side effects. The study summarizes that multimodal analgesia has to be preferred whenever possible as it reduces pain after surgery and pain assessment scales should be practiced in assessing pain intensity to choose the right analgesic.