IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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JUNE 2016
1

SYNTHESIS AND SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SERIES OF CHALCONE BASED 4-SUBSTITUTEDIMINO DERIVATIVES OF 1,3,5-DITHIAZINE

Siddharth A. Waghmare1*, Dipak T. Tayade2
1Ghulam Nabi Azad College, Barshitakli, Dist. Akola-444401(M.S.) India.
2Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science & Humanities, Amravati-444604(M.S.) India.

Abstract

Recently, in a laboratory novel series of (2E)-1-[4-(2-ethyldimino-4-substitutedimino-1,3,5-dithiazino-6-yl)aminophenyl]-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (IIIa-e) had been recently synthesized by refluxing with (2E)-1-[4-(5-ethyl-2,4-dithiobiureto) phenyl]-3-(3,4-dimethoxy phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (I) with various alkyl/aryl isocyanodichlorides (IIa-e) in acetone medium in 1:1 molar proportion for 2 hours. The structures of all the synthesized compounds were justified on the basis of chemical characteristics, elemental analysis and spectral studies. Present method is convenient and cheaper method for the synthesis of 1,3,5-dithiazines derivatives.

2

CLINICAL PHARMACIST ROLE IN DRUG UTILISATION REVIEW FOR INTENSIVE CARE UNIT PATIENTS IN SOUTH INDIAN TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Dr. Singari. Jaya Jyothi*1, Dr. Kotha. Sravya Reddy2, Dr. P. Pallavi Priya3, Dr. M. Madanmohan Rao4
1,2Pharm .D [Post Baccalaureate], Department of Pharmacy Practice, PRRMCP, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.
3Assistant Professor, Pharm .D Post Baccalaureate, Department of Pharmacy Practice, PRRMCP, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.
4Assistant Professor, MBBS, M.D, Department of General Medicine, RIMS, Kadapa, YSR district, Andhra Pradesh, South India.

Abstract

Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is the emergency ward specialty that cares for critically ill patients, at the most vulnerable moments of their life. It faces the challenge of evaluating the early phases of the biological behavior in diseases. The problems, challenges and practices of emergency are globally similar. Hence, this prospective and concurrent observational study was carried out over a period of 6 months in the ICU department of RIMS Kadapa. After obtaining the approval by Institutional Review Board. Based on Inclusion and Exclusion criteria patients are included in the study. All the necessary and relevant baseline information was collected by using “Chart Review Method”. The research work started with the main objectives of drug use pattern/prescribing pattern of drugs and other parameters are clearly discussed in results. Clinical Pharmacist plays a key role in this process because of their expertise in the area of pharmaceutical care. In our study based on demographic details like age, sex, literature, socio-economic status, marital status and habitual history the following results were presented. Based on patients length of stay in ICU; <5 days are about 150 (60%), Based on routes of administration; Maximum value of dosage forms used in ICU was Intravenous 1025 (67.57%) and Minimum value is Capsules 05 (0.32%).Based upon the disease exposure in ICU; 167(66.80%) are new exposure and 83(33.20%) past exposure were identified in our study and stated in results. Among 250 cases; 81(32.40%) were Poison Cases. Among 1518 drugs prescribed; 1198 (78.91%) were Generic Drugs and 320 (21.08%) were Branded Drugs. Among 250 prescriptions; 1518 drugs were prescribed and Maximum 220 (14.49%) are Anti-Ulcers. Minimum 02 (0.13%) were Anti-Fungal, Anti-Malarial and followed by other drug classifications. Out of 250 prescriptions; Average number of drugs per each prescription was between 7-14 drugs. Medication errors were identified in ICU Patients are 103; 67.96% are having untreated indications, 2.91% were Drug without indication and 29.12% are prescribing error are observed during the course of our work. The patient was in need of TDM for Narrow therapeutic drug due to 2.91% of having drug without indication was given. Medication Adherence in ICU Patients; 34% are Regular and Irregular 66% are at past and 60% are Regular and 40% are Irregular in our prospective and concurrent observational study. The study concludes that a wide spectrum of drugs is utilized from various drug classes and there was a scope for improving rational use of drugs. The prescription of generic drugs needs to be promoted. Role of clinical pharmacist proves significant in ICU for Drug Therapy management of critically ill patients to decrease drug related problems in complex therapy as well to improve the therapeutic outcome of the treatment. Our study may be helpful in identifying and introducing the new concept of drug therapy management of patients in different disease conditions in critical care units in A.P state and it is an urgent need for appointing clinical pharmacist in every hospital to increase rational use of drugs and to improve patients QOL.

3

ZIKA VIRUS -A LATEST VIRAL PANDEMIC

T. Naga Ravikiran*, T. Nagamounika, Y. Rajendra Prasad
Dept of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, AU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Visakhapatnam. Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.

Abstract

Viral infections remain a potential target to the mankind owing to their distinctive structural and biochemical mechanisms. The viruses will replicate within the host cells and that is the rationale for their outbreaks as epidemics on the mankind at regular intervals. In the earlier part of the decade, swine flu massacre killed millions. Later Ebola virus led to death of millions again And now its time for a novel type of virus, ZIKA VIRUS to ravage and challenge the mankind. In the current article, the origin, history, etiology, structural features, life cycle and a scope of various potential treatments were enlisted.

4

UNRAVELING ANTIBIOFILM POTENCY OF STROBILANTHES KUNTHIANA NEES T ANDERSON EX BENTH AGAINST THROAT-INFECTIOUS METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

Isoe Moraa Everlyne, Teepica Priya Darsini, *Sangilimuthu Alagar Yadav
Laboratory of Clinical Biotechnology and Herbal Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, Karpagam University, Coimbatore – 641 021, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Biofilms formed by certain strains of bacteria have caused recalcitrance in treatments. Methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of these strains, and has caused worldwide alarm for the search of alternative treatment. Plant derived drugs are on the lead for the formulation of new effective drugs. The current study evaluates the phytochemicals present in the ethanol extract of Strobilanthes kunthiana leaves, a rare and underexploited medicinal plant belonging to the family Acanthaceae, and their antibiofilm potency against throat infectious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; a clinical isolate MH4 and MTCC 96 reference strain. The plant leaves were collected, processed and stored at 4 °C for analysis. Clinical strains were obtained from Karpagam Faculty of Medical Sciences and Research, routinely identified and stored at -80 °C. Preliminary phytochemical analyses were performed according to published protocols with slight modifications. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), growth curve analysis and biofilm inhibition assays were performed according to the methods described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Light microscopy was carried out at the magnification x200. The preliminary phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of bioactive phytocomponents in the ethanol extract of Strobilanthes kunthiana. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 2 mg/ml for MH4 and 4 mg/ml for MTCC 96. Significant concentration-dependent biofilm inhibition was observed both in MTP assay as well as in light microscopy. These results showed that Strobilanthes kunthiana contains different phytochemicals which could have contributed to its antibiofilm potency against the tested throat infectious Staphylococcus aureus. This offers a basis to further exploit the plant for more bioactivities.

5

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LUPEOL FROM TEPHROSIA VILLOSA PERS

Sufiyan Ahmad1*, Mohib Khan2, Rashid Akhtar3, Md. Imran3
1Gangamai College of Pharmacy, Nagaon, Dist. Dhule (M.S.) India.
2Oriental College of Pharmacy, Sanpada, Navi Mumbai (M.S.) India.
3K.B.H.S.S. Trust’s institute of Pharmacy, Malegaon Camp, Dist. Nasik (M.S.) India.

Abstract

Natural products and herbal remedies used in traditional folklore medicine have been the source of many medically beneficial drugs because they elicit fewer side effects, relatively cheap, affordable and claimed to be effective. However, in order to make these remedies acceptable to modern medicine, there is a need to scientifically evaluate them to identify the active principles and to understand their mechanism of action. Tephrosia villosa Pers. (Fabaceae). is a medicinal plant widely used as a folk medicine in India. The present study deals with the isolation and partial purification of bioactive compounds from the crude methanol extracts of the leaves of Tephrosia villosa Pers. The quantification and the identification of compounds in the crude extract and active bands isolated by preparative TLC were accomplished using spectroscopic analysis. Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid was extracted for the first time from the leaves of Tephrosia villosa Pers. and characterized by spectral studies. The most important compounds lupeol identified in the crude extract appreciable amounts may account for its various biological activities.

6

FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSDERMAL PATCHES OF AMLODIPINE BESYLATE USING OLIVE OIL AS THE NATURAL PERMEATION ENHANCER

Dibyalochan Mohanty*, Dr.Vasudha Bakshi , Mansingh Anurag Singh, Mohammad Aamiruddin, Mohd Abdul Rashaid, Manda Pruthvi Raj, Mokalla Niharika, Neelapu Bhavya Reddy

Department of Pharmaceutics, Anurag Group of Institutions, Hyderabad.

Abstract

In this present work the effect of Extracted olive oil, Clove oil, Limonene oil, Tulsi oil and Tween80 on the skin permeation of Amlodipine Besylate was investigated. Olive oil was extracted from Marketed green olive fruits by centrifugation method. A matrix trans-dermal patch of Amlodipine Besylate was developed containing HPMC K4,Carbopol-934,PEG 400. The physicochemical compatibility of the drug and the polymers was evaluated by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR). The results suggested no physicochemical incompatibility between the drug and the polymers. Blank films were prepared and evaluated for characteristics like smoothness and flexible. Further drug loaded films were prepared and evaluated for thickness, percentage flatness, tensile strength, weight uniformity, drug content, moisture content, moisture uptake, invitro drug release, water vapor transmission, and invitro-drug permeation study. Formulations ( F1,F2,F3 andF4) gave best fit to the K-Peppas and F5 gave best fit to first order model it is confirmed that diffusion follows Non-Fickian law. Based on the invitro dug permeation studies using goat skin, F5 formulation (EOO) produce 98.76% drug release in 24 hours. F5 also showed a maximum drug permeation (1794.2 μg/cm2) over a period of 24 hr.

7

PHOSPHONITRILIC CHLORIDE: AN EFFICIENT AND VERSATILE CATALYST FOR BIGINELLI REACTION

Jitendra S. Pulle*1, Sanjeev M. Reddy2
1S.G.B. College, Purna (Jn.), Dist. Parbhani (M.S.), India.
2G.M.V. Kotgyal, Dist. Nanded (M.S.) India.

Abstract

The Biginelli reaction, a multicomponent condensation of aldehyde, ethyl acetoacetate and urea or thiourea was efficiently catalyzed by phosphonitrilic chloride trimer (PNT). The reactions were carried out conventionally as well as under solvent free microwave irradiation in excellent yields.

8

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF FOUR STROBILANTHES SPECIES FROM NORTHERN WESTERN GHATS OF INDIA

Shaila T. Shetkar, Maria Cineola Fernandes, S. Krishnan*
Department of Botany, Goa University, Goa-403206.

Abstract

Antifungal activities of leaf and stem of Strobilanthes ixiocephalus, Strobilanthes ciliatus, Strobilanthes sessilis var. ritchiei, Strobilanthes integrifolius were studied for their potential against three fungal species i.e. Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The antifungal activities were evaluated using agar well diffusion method. The strong antifungal activity was observed in the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of all four species than water extract, while the chloroform extract showed complete inhibition of growth. Among the plant species studied, Strobilanthes integrifolius revealed with highest inhibitory activity towards all three fungal species, followed by Strobilanthes ciliatus, Strobilanthes sessilis var. ritchiei and Strobilanthes ixiocephalus. These findings provide scientific evidence to support traditional medicinal uses and have a great significance for the development of an antifungal drug from these Strobilanthes species.

9

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 7-O-METHYL GOSSYPETIN-8-O-β-D GLUCOSIDE FROM ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS (FLOWERS)

M. M. Senthamilselvi1, S. Solomon*2, N. Muruganantham3
1Principal,Government Arts College, Ariyalur, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Department of Chemistry, Periyar E.V.R.College (Autonomous), Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India.
3Department of Chemistry, Roever Engineering College, Perambalur, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

The present work deals with the isolation, identification of the compound from the flowers of Abelmoschus esculentus. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated through their physical and chemical methods. The isolated compound was characterized using various spectroscopic data such as UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS.

10

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A NOVEL RP- HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PHENYLEPHRINE HYDROCHLORIDE, CETIRIZINE AND NIMESULIDE IN TABLET FORMULATION

Ansari Maaz*, Sufiyan Ahmad, Patil Amol, Sharma Dipeeka
Gangamai College of Pharmacy, Nagaon, Dist. Dhule (M.S.), India.

Abstract

The present work describes development and validation by high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection (HPLC–DAD) procedure for the analysis of Phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE), Cetirizine Dihydrochloride (CET), Nimesulide (NIM) in pharmaceutical mixture. Effective chromatographic separation of PHE, CET and NIM was achieved using a Primesil C18 (4.6 mm, 250 mm, 5 μm) column with isocratic elution by the mobile phase composed of 0.05% solution of ortho phosphoric acid in water and methanol in proportion of (30:70) respectively. The flow rate is 0.7 ml/min on detecting wavelength 225nm. The proposed HPLC method was statistically validated with respect to linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, selectivity, and robustness. The retention time (RT) of Phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE), Cetirizine (CET) and Nimesulide (NIM) was found to be 3.2500, 6.7333 and 10.2333 respectively. All parameters were found to be within the acceptance limit. The calibration curve were linear in ranges of 1-5, 1-5, 20-100 μg/ml for PHE, CET, NIM respectively . The r2 of Phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE), Cetirizine (CET) and Nimesulide (NIM) was found to be 0.999, 0.999, and 0.999 respectively.

11

MIXED EXTRACT OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA AND PIPER NIGRUM SHOWED BETTER HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS THAN INDIVIDUAL EXTRACT IN DIABETIC MICE

Rokshana Sharmin1*, Md. Hasibul Hasan Joarder1, Maruf ul Islam1, Mohammad Ali1, Mohammad Jashim Uddin1, Abu Syed Md Anisuzzaman2, Rafiqul Islam khan2, Ariful Islam2, A B M Faroque3
1Jessore university of Sci. and Tech . Jessore-7408, Bangladesh.
2Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6505, Bangladesh.
3Dhaka University, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.

Abstract

The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been increased drastically in recent decades. Traditionally Azadirachta indica and Piper nigrum are considered as complementary therapy in the treatment of diabetic mellitus. The present work was designed to evaluate the 4:3 mixed extract of Azadirachta indica and Piper nigrum effect on hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective effects comparatively to their individual extracts. In our current study diabetes induced mice were treated with the mixed extract in a dosing frequency of once, twice and thrice daily in different groups by glucometric method. The mixed single, double and triple dose produced a significant decrease in blood glucose level by 78.16%, 80.66% and 87.20% respectively for one day treatment in diabetic mice. The elevated level of sGPT, sGOT liver enzymes in alloxan induced diabetic mice reflected a significant alteration of liver functions which was found to be normalized by the treatment of mixed extract more profoundly than the individual extracts. Together, these results suggest that mixed extracts may be used as an alternative therapy for the treatment of diabetes as well as could be a good target for the isolation of pure compounds for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

12

SYNTHESIS OF BIO-ACTIVE N-HETEROCYCLES USING NANOCRYSTALLINE DY2O3

Vishvanath D. Patil*, Jyotsna S. Thakur, Nagesh R. Sutar
C.K.Thakur A.C.S. College, New Panvel, Raigad, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Nanocrystalline Dy2O3, a rare earth metal oxide was used to synthesize biologically active Benzimidazoles and Quinoxalines. The catalytic activity of nano Dy2O3 particles was examined & compared with bulk Dy2O3. Nanocrystalline Dy2O3 was prepared by Gel-combustion method. The prepared nano material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron microscopy and B.E.T. technique. The average particle size and surface area was found to be 61 nm and 13.2 m2/gm. Nanocrystalline Dy2O3 was found to be highly efficient for the synthesis of Benzimidazoles and Quinoxalines giving maximum yield in short reaction time.

13

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF MONOCROTOPHOS USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

Barde Laxmikant N*1, Adhao Vaibhav S1, Popat Ritesh R1, Shrikhande Vinayak N1, Mathur Vijay B2
1I B S S College of Pharmacy, Buldhana road, Malkapur, Dist- Buldhana 443101.
2Research Scientist ZIM Laboratory, Nagpur.

Abstract

A method was developed to determine monocrotophos solution using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet absorption detection. The proposed method was quite reproducible and sensitive enough to replace the troublesome gas-liquid chromatographic analysis for monocrotophos solution.[2,12] A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the estimation of monocrotophos in bulk form. The separation was achieved on C18 Hypersil BDS column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5.0 μm) using water and acetonitrile in the gradient mode as mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a UV detector at 254 nm. The total chromatographic analysis time per sample was about 25.0 min with monocrotophos eluting at retention time of about 11.31 min. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity and sensitivity. Validation studies demonstrated that this HPLC method is accurate, specific, rapid, reliable and reproducible. The standard curve was linear over the concentration range of 25-125μg/mL with R2 close to one (0.999). The developed and validated method was successfully applied for the quantitative analysis of motocrotophos in the bulk form.

14

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THE FLOWERS OF CAESALPINIA PULCHERRIMA SWARTZ. AGAINST OXIDATIVE STRESS-INDUCED APOPTOTIC EVENTS IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE CELLS

Yamuna, S. T., Padma, P. R.*
Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women University, Coimbatore – 641043,Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Apoptosis, the intrinsic cell suicide program is essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis. It is characterized by distinct morphological and biochemical features such as cytoplasmic membrane blebbing, chromosomal condensation and aggregation around the nuclear periphery and formation of small apoptotic bodies. In the present study, yeast was chosen as an in vitro model to study the protective effect of Caesalpinia pulcherrima flowers on oxidant-induced apoptosis in untransformed cells. The conservation of apoptotic machinery in yeast makes it a suitable model organism to conduct research on human apoptosis. Oxidative stress was induced by H2O2. The effect of flower extracts on cell viability was determined by MTT, SRB and LDH release assays. The characteristic features of apoptosis were analysed using various staining methods namely Giemsa, PI, EtBr and AO/EtBr and DAPI staining. Diphenylamine assay was used to determine the extent of DNA damage. Our observations showed that H2O2 exposure caused a significant increase in the number of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells undergoing apoptosis, which was effectively counteracted by C. pulcherrima flower extracts, as evident from the reduced apoptotic ratio. Thus the results showed that all the three flower extracts increased the cell viability of untransformed cells subjected to oxidative stress and also influenced the process of apoptosis induced in vitro.

15

SCREENING, DETERMINATION OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACTS OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA ON HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

N. Srinivasulu, B. Sasi Bhusana Rao, P. Mallaiah, G. Sudhakara, T. Maruthi Prasad, D. Saralakumari*
Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapuramu-515003, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

To elucidate preliminary phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of different parts of Achyranthes aspera on some clinically and pharmacological important human pathogenic bacteria. The preliminary phytochemical of A. aspera leaf methanolic extract, antimicrobial activity of different extracts of different parts on human pathogenic micro organisms using disc diffusion method and estimation of flavonoids, saponins and phenols. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the A. aspera leaf methanolic extract revealed that presence of certain phytochemicals like carbohydrates, anthocyanins and anthocyanidins, alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, saponins,steroids and triterpinoids. The spectroscopic estimated amount of flavonoids was 4.07 mg/ g of extract, saponins was 8.9 mg/g of extract and phenols was 160.25 mg/g of extract. The methanolic extract of leaf shown high antimicrobial activity in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but less on Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus. Among methanol extracts leaf extract was showed highest antimicrobial activity followed by seed. In aqueous extracts also leaf shown high antimicrobial activity than the stem and seed extracts. The present study observations have helped in identifying the active principle responsible for such activities and in the developing drugs for the therapeutic use in human beings. This in vitro study corroborated the antimicrobial activity of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Many reports are available for the exploration of the antibacterial property of plants for developing new drugs for therapeutic use. May the presence of good amounts of flavonoids, phenols and saponins plant have showing anti bacterial activity.

16

PRESCRIPTION PATTERN OF ANTIDEPRESSANTS AND ASSESSMENT OF WEIGHT GAIN WHILE USING ANTIDEPRESSANTS

Mohamed Shehin T1*, SV Santhosh2, Yogananda R1, Bharathi DR1, Akhil J Issac1
1SJM College of Pharmacy, Chitradurga- 577502, Karnataka, India.
2Basaveshwara Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Chitradurga-577502, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric Patients Are More Likely To Gain Weight When Taking Antidepressants. Significant Weight Gain May Contribute To Metabolic Syndrome Which May Cause Severe Medical Problems And High Mortality. OBJECTIVES: To Find The Prescribing Pattern Of Antidepressants And Assessment Of Weight Gain While Using Antidepressants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Prospective Longitudinal Study Conducted At Psychiatry In-Patient And Outpatient Department Of A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital And Included The Patients Who Are Under Antidepressant Therapy Of Age Group 15-75 Years Of Both Gender. The Initial Weight And Final Weight Will Be Identified And It Is Compared. The Data Was Entered In Microsoft Excel-2010 Version And The Results Are Analyzed Using Statistical Package For Social Services (SPSS 19.0). Descriptive Methods Was Applied To Obtain The Frequency, Paired Student-T Test Was Applied To Determine Any Significant Difference Between Quantitative Variables. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Here Mostly Combination Of Two Or More Drugs Are Given And Out Of Which Fluoxetine And Clonazepam Was Mostly Prescribed Drugs.The Mostly Prescribed Drug By The Physician Is Clonazepam, Which Is Included In The Class Of Benzodiazipines 51(44.3%) And After That Fluoxetine, Which Is A Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Is Given About 28 Times (24.3%). The More Percentage Weight Gain Has Been Observed In The Patients Who Are Receiving The Drugs Olanzapine And Venlafaxine (10.66 %) And Then Those Are Using Fluoxetine And Clonazepam(10.46%).The Least Percentage Of Weight Gain Has Been Observed In Those Patients Receiving The Drug Combination Of Fluoxetine,Clonazepam,Risperidone Have 0.23% And Secondly For Those Using Olanzapine,Clonazepam,Lithium Carbonate Have 0.28%.The Initial Weight And Follow Up Weight Values Are Compared By Paired Sample T Test, It Was Shown That The T Value Is Greater Than That Of Table Value That Implies Null Hypothesis Fails. There Was Significant Variation Between Initial Weight And Follow Up Weight. CONCLUSION: The Female Patients Were Presented With More Psychiatric Illness And Based On The DSM IV Criteria Depression And Obsessive Compulsive Disorders Are Mainly Diagnosed. Mainly More Than One Drug Regimen Is Used And Fluoxetine And Clonazepam Combination Of Drugs Are Mostly Prescribed. Olanzapine And Venlafaxine Shows More Percentage Weight Gain .The Mostly Prescribed Class Of Drug Is Benzodiazipines (Clonazepam) And Selectve Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (Fluoxetine).

17

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING HPTLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ANDOGRAPHOLIDE

Mrinalini. Damle*, Namrata Gujar
AISSMS College of Pharmacy, Kennedy Road, Near R.T.O., Pune-411001, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Andrographis Paniculata (Kalmegh) is used since ancient time for treatment of various diseases viz cancer, malaria, diabetes etc. Andrographolide is one of the major phytoconstituent responsible for its activity, which is a diterpene lactone. An approach for the stress degradation was successfully applied for the development of stability indicating HPTLC method for the determination of Andrographolide was achieved on the plates precoated with silica gel 60F254. The mobile phase used was Chloroform: Methanol (9:1v/v) and quantification was carried out at wavelength 226 nm. The system showed a peak for Andrographolide at Rf value of 0.34 ± 0.03.The marker was subjected to acid, base, neutral hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal degradation and photolysis. Stress testing of Andrographolide was carried out according to the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guideline Q1A (R2). The method was successfully validated according to ICH guidelines Q2 (R1). The data of linear regression analysis indicated a good linear relationship over the range of 200–1000 ng/band concentrations with correlation coefficient value of 0.99. The accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery studies. The LOD and LOQ of Andrographolide was found to be 13.2 ng/band and 40.11 ng/band, respectively. Among various stressed conditions, Andrographolide showed considerable degradation under alkali and acid catalyzed hydrolysis, oxidative and photolytic condition.

18

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF MERREMIA EMARGINATA AGAINST CCL4-INDUCED LIVER INJURY IN RATS

Namdev Gond1*, Ayodhya Shinde1, Mahaveer Ghante1, Ramling Patrakar2
1Nanded Pharmacy College, Nanded, Maharashtra, India-431602
2Shree Santkrupa College of Pharmacy, Shivajinagar, Ghogaon (Karad), Dist-Satara, Maharashtra, India -415111.

Abstract

The present work was aimed to evaluate hepatoprotective effect of methanolic fraction of Merremia emarginata methanol extracts against Carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in wistar albino rats. Rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. The rats of control group received 1% CMC. Liver damage was introduced by i.p. administration of 30% of CCl4 suspended in olive oil at doses of 1 ml/kg. The rats of standard group received Silymarin (100mg/kg). While the rats of test group received methanolic fraction of Merremia emarginata methanol extract at the dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight respectively. On 7th day except control group, all other groups received CCl4 at doses of 1 ml/kg. After 24hr of intoxication, on 8th day, blood was withdrawn, serum was separated and analyzed for biochemical parameter such as Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), total bilirubin (TB), Total protein (TP).The methanolic fraction of Methanol extract showed significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the serum levels of various biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvates transaminase (SGPT), total bilirubin (TB), and by increasing the levels of total protein (TP). Histological examination of the liver also supported hepatoprotection. From the result it is concluded that methanolic fraction of Merremia emarginata methanol extract (200 and 400mg/kg) recover liver damage induced by Carbon tetrachloride significantly, thus the Merremia emarginata possess a significant hepatoprotective effect and can be beneficial in treating liver damages.

19

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE) ON ESCHERICHIA COLI AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS: A STUDY IN VITRO

Doaa Yassen1, Ammal Esmaeel Ibrahim2
1Chemistry Department/College of Science/ Al-Nahrain University. Iraq- Baghdad.
2Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department/College of Pharma/ Al-Nahrain University. Iraq- Baghdad.

Abstract

Background: Ginger is a famous spice used in the regular diet in many Asian countries. Chemical analysis of ginger illustrations that it consist from more than 400 different compounds. Purpose: to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of crude aqueous and organic extracts of root of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) against Escherichia coli (gram-positive) and Staphylococcus aureus(gram-negative). Experimental approach: the antibacterial activity of crude aqueous and organic extracts of root of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was studied against Escherichia coli (gram-positive) and Staphylococcus aureus(gram-negative). The organic extracts dissolve in DMSO but aqueous extract dissolving in water. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of different extracts was measured for different extraction with different solvent. Ethanol extract had the overall widest diameter zone of inhibition Escherichia. coli (10.00) mm with 1000 mg\ml and hexane extract had the overall widest inhibition Staphylococcus aureus (20.00) mm with 1000 mg\ml concentration. There was no MIC detected for the aqueous and acetonic extracts because there was no inhibition with highest concentration of 1000 mg\ml. Conclusions: Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger root) produced marked inhibitory effect on S. aureus and E. coli with ethanolic, methanolic and hexanic extracts, while aqueous and acetonic extracts not have inhibitory effect on microrganisms test while chloroform extract had weak inhibition with S. aureus but hadn't any inhibition with E. coli bacteria. The results indicated that the plant have growth inhibitory effect in vitro against pathogenic bacteria.

20

EVALUATION OF THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF AEGLE MARMELOS (BILVA) LEAVES IN METABOLIC SYNDROME

Amit Vaibhav1*, Prof. O.P. Singh2
1Dr. Vijay Ayurvedic Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Kaithi, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
2Department of Kaya Chikitsa, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of disease highly prevalent in the sophisticated, modernized and western world. It received increased attention in the past few decades and is the burning problem of today’s world. The metabolic syndrome has been shown to be a powerful risk factor responsible for coronary artery disease, renal failure, neuropathy etc. The conventional treatment option is only limited to managing hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension but unable to prevent disease pathogenesis and complications. Long term side effect of artificial chemical drugs are another big problem, keeping these points in the account a pilot study has been framed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (Bilva) leaves in Metabolic Syndrome. Aegle marmelos (Bilva) plant is vividly described in all ancient Ayurvedic texts known for its potent anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidaemic activities. The main objective of the present work to evaluate the therapeutic potential of crude leaf powder of Aegle marmelos (Bilva). In this present study, total 30 previously diagnosed MS patients were randomly selected and divided into two groups having 15 patients in each group. In group I (n=15) patient have advised taking starch capsule 500 mg BD as a placebo and in Group II (n=15) crude leaf powder of Aegle marmelos (Bilva) 10 g BD has been given for 3 months with follow-up of 1 month. During the entire course of therapy, patients were advised to continue their ongoing conventional treatment along with the trial drug. The result showed a significant improvement in dyslipidemic state and hyperglycemic state of MS patient as compared to placebo group. The study can be concluded that the crude leaf powder of Aegle marmelos (Bilva) exhibit excellent hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic potential in MS patients, it can be used as natural, safe alternative to conventional management in the management of Metabolic Syndrome (MS).

21

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 5-O-METHYL-QUERCETIN-3-O-(3’’-ACETYL-) β-D- GALACTOSIDE FROM CASSIA AURICULATA FLOWERS

Dr. M. M. Senthamilselvi1, N. Muruganantham2*, S. Solomon3
1Principal, Government Arts College, Ariyalur, Tamilnadu, India.
2Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Roever Engineering College, Perambalur, Tamilnadu, India.
3Research Scholar, Department of Chemistry, Periyar E.V. R. College (Autonomous), Trichy, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

In Indian system of medicine, a large number of drugs of either herbal or mineral origin have been advocated for various types of diseases, India has been one of the pioneers in the development and practice of well-documented original systems of medicine, particularly Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. A compound has been isolated from the flowers of Cassia auriculata. The isolated compound was identified as Flavonol glycoside-5-O-methyl- quercetin-3-O-(3’’-acetyl-) β-d galactoside. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated based on spectroscopic data like UV, NMR (1H, 13C) and MS. This is the first report of isolation of this compound from Cassia auriculata flowers.

22

FTIR SPECTROSCOPY DATA AS A FINGERPRINT OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA ROOT TISSUES: A CASE STUDY WITH ACCESSIONS OF THE SPECIES FROM KERALA, SOUTH INDIA

V. S. Anil Kumar1*, K.V. Dinesh Babu2, R. Salini3, Jollykutty Eapen3, M. S. Deepa4
1Department of Botany,University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, South India;
2Department of Chemistry, Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, South India;
3 Department of Dravyaguna vijnanam,Government Ayurveda College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, South India
4 Department of Dravyaguna vijnanam, Government Ayurveda College, Kannur, Kerala, South India.

Abstract

The root samples of thirty accessions of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera from different districts of Kerala were subjected to FTIR spectral analysis and the spectral peaks were analyzed. The peaks coming in the range of 1001-1076 cm-1 corresponding to withanolide ring band and flavanoid like structures, and 1614 cm-1 represent the carbon skeleton of withanolides which are the common and active ingredients of Withania. Therefore, these peaks can be considered as the fingerprint peaks of the species. Meanwhile, spectral peak at 405 cm-1 is seen in some accessions which correspond to the presence metal complexes which can be attributed to the accumulation of some metals in these accessions, probably from the soil. The study can thus reflect the changing habitat of the species and can also be employed to find out the materials that can possibly include as the substitutes of the species because of its medicinal potential.

23

FORMULATION AND EVALUTION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS OF MEMANTINE HYDROCHLORIDE

P. Sambasiva Rao, E. Mounica, S. Roja, K. Venkatesh, R. Suthakaran
Vijaya College of Pharmacy, Hayath Nagar-501511, Telangana, India.

Abstract

The aim of this research work to formulate mouth dissolving tablets of memantine hydrochloride to increase its bioavailability. Mouth dissolving tablets were prepared by direct compression technique using sublimation approach. The powder mixtures were prepared to subject both pre and post compression evaluation parameters like micromeritics properties, tablet hardness, friability, wetting time, disintegration time and in vitro drug release. The results of micromeritics studies revealed that all formulations were of acceptable to good flowability. Tablet friability and hardness indicated good mechanical strength. The F2 formulation which is having high concentration of magnesium stearate was given promising results in tablet disintegration, waiting time and gives faster dissolution rate. Crospovidone was used as a superdisintegrant for increasing of dissolution rate of tablets. The optimized formulation showed 98.64% within 10 min. The prepared tablets seem to be attractive to conventional marketed formulations.

24

STUDY OF THE INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF THE CELLULAR GROWTH OF VETIVER’S AQUEUOUS AND METHANOL-BASED EXTRACTS

Chadia SEKKAT, Hicham MOHTI and *Abdelhamid ZAID
Research unit: Management of Natural Resources, Research Institute, Moulay Ismail University, Méknés, Morocco.

Abstract

In order to evaluate the antimitotic activity of Vetiveria zizanioides, a study was carried out on its plant cells using the Lepidium sativum L bioassay. We conducted the optimization of several parameters related to different modes of extraction. The root extract obtained by decoction through methanol exhibits the best activity with 72.43% inhibition, followed by leaf extract obtained by decoction through distilled water with 63.8% inhibition. However, the different concentrations of the Vetiver grass essential oil provide low percentage inhibition, below 40%.

25

ANTIMITOTIC ACTIVITIES OF ULVAN FROM ULVA LACTUCA (L) BY USING ALLIUM CEPA ROOT TIP MODEL

T. Umapoorani*, K. Periyanayagam, S. Indumathi, R. Balasubramanian, B. Sugithra, N. Subbulekshmi, R. Velmurugan
College of Pharmacy, Madurai Medical College, Madurai, 625020.Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

Objective: To prescreen the in vivo antimitotic of the marine green alga Ulva lactuca Family Ulvaceae using the Allium cepa meristamatic root tip. Method: In the present study to investigate the effect of ulvan which was isolated from Ulva lactuca marine green alga was selected for phytochemical and pharmacological screening of antimitotic activity. Antimitotic activity was evaluated on actively dividing meristamatic cells of Allium cepa root tip. Result: Preliminary phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of Ulva lactuca (EEUL) showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins and amino acids, mucilage, flavonoids and absence of volatile oil, fixed oils. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were found to be 13.678±1.6mg/ml and 1.25±0.06mg/ml respectively. Percentage of yield of ulvan obtained was 10% and its UV, IR spectral studies were performed. Total uronic acid was found to be 18.8%w/w. Antimitotic activity of ulvan using the Allium cepa root tip model showed good inhibition of dividing meristamatic cells. The percentage of mitotic index of ulvan 4,5,6μg/ml were found to be 30.59±1.59, 21.64±1.02, 13.60±0.56 respectively which was comparable to that of std drug W/W methotrexate 100ng/ml was 13.04±0.80. Conclusion: Ulva lactuca have been used in medicine due to various biological activities and as a food. This study indicates that the ulvan possesses potential anti mitotic and anti proliferative activity. The presence of ulvan and the attributed reported anti-oxidant activity appears to contribute to the antimitotic activity. Further investigation requires confirming this activity.

26

A STUDY OF ALTERATIONS IN PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS AND EFFECTS OF DRUGS DOSAGE REGIMEN IN GERIATRIC PATIENTS

Settipalli .Varalakshmi*, Kundala .Sangeetha, Varadam. Reddy Sravani
Department of P.R.R.M.C.P.

Abstract

Advanced-age is associated with significant changes in physiological functions, and absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs. Aging is characterized by progressive impairment of functional capacities of all system organs, reduction in homeostatic mechanisms, and altered response to receptor stimulation.These age-related physiologic changes influence both pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic of drugs in elderly patients. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic changes as well as polypharmacy and co-morbidities may alter significantly the effect of pharmacological treatment with advancing age. With the same drug concentration at the site of action, significant differences in the response to several drugs have been observed in older patients as compared to younger patients. Therefore drug effects are mitigated less, the reactions are usually stronger than in younger subjects, and the rate and intensity of adverse effects are higher. The age-related changes in the functions and composition of the human body require adjustments of dosage for old individuals. If the normal doses of drugs is given to elderly patients, their response different form younger adults because of various physiological alterations and pharmacokinetic alterations of drugs. Main aim of this study we were drugs taken depends on physiological effects like drugs FUROSEMIDE, AMIKACIN, DIGOXIN Hence dosage adjustment is necessary in geriatric population for providing safe and effective management.

27

LONG TERM EXPOSURE OF SYNTHETIC OXYTOCIN ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF FEMALE ALBINO MICE

Neha Jain*, Vinoy K Shrivastava
Laboratory of Endocrinology, Department of Bioscience, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Oxytocin (OT) possesses vasodilator and anti-inflammatory properties but these are controversial till now. To the best of the knowledge, the relevant data regarding to the haematology were scared. The research study was tried to investigate the chronic effects of low dose OT on haematological parameters by using a rodent model i.e. albino mice. Thirty six immature female albino mice, Mus musculus (weight 8±2g and age 10days) were divided into 2 groups as control (n=18) and treated (n=18). The treated and control groups were received intraperitonial (i.p.) dose of synthetic oxytocin (50mIU/5μl/g body weight) and physiological saline (5μl/g body weight) respectively for different intervals i.e. 30, 60 and 90 days. And hematological parameters including total count white blood cells (TC-WBC), total count red blood cells (TC-RBC) and haemoglobin% (Hb%) in blood as well as total bilirubin in serum were measured. The major observations of the research study were that, OT did not show much significant variations (P>0.05) in TC-WBC, TC-RBC, Hb% and total bilirubin as compared to control group. Finally the research study was concluded that, synthetic OT did not alter haematological parameters as well as total bilirubin in female albino mice at selected dose and duration apart from this a care must be taken on usage of higher dose.

28

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF MONTELUKAST AND BAMBUTEROL TABLET FORMULATION BY RP-HPLC METHOD

Patil Amol*, Sufiyan Ahmad, Ansari Maaz, Sharma Deepika, Warude Kapil
Department of Quality Assurance and Department of Pharmacognosy, Gangamai College of Pharmacy, Nagaon, Dist. Dhule (M.S.), India.

Abstract

The present work describes development and validation by high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection (HPLC–DAD) procedure for the analysis of Montelukast and Bambuterol in pharmaceutical mixture. Effective chromatographic separation of Montelukast and Bambuterol was achieved using a C8 AGILIENT (4.6 mm, 250 mm, and 5 μm) column with isocratic elution by the mobile phase composed of 0.1% solution of orthophosphoric acid (OPA) in water and methanol in perportion of (10:90) respectively. The flow rate is 0.7ml/mint on detecting wavelength 225nm. The proposed HPLC method was statistically validated with respect to linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ and robustness. The retention time (RT) of Bambuterol and Montelukast and were found to be 3.500 and 6.4167 respectively. All parameters were found to be within the acceptance limit. The calibration curves were linear in ranges of 10-50, μg/ml for respectively. The r2 of Bambuterol and Montelukast was found to be 0.999, 0.999 respectively.

29

EFFECT OF SINTERING ON SUSTAINED RELEASE PROFILE OF Β-BLOCKER TABLET PREPARED BY DIRECT COMPRESSION METHOD

Pentewar R .S*, Sayyed Sarfaraz Ali Riyasat Ali, Sugave R.V, Moin Attar, Birajdar M. J.
Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College, Latur, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Exploration of sintering concept in the pharmaceutical science is relatively recent. The objective of this study was to investigate the release characteristic of matrix tablet consisting of a different concentration of various retarding polymers and Sotalol Hcl for sustain release formulation using different sintering techniques. The Sotalol tablet was prepared by using different polymers by direct compression method and formulation was sintered at various temperatures and time point. The sintering of tablet is done by using different techniques like thermal sintering and microwave sintering. The sintered tablets were tested for weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity and in-vitro dissolution study which were found to be within range The sintered tablets showed more strength than unsintered tablet and sintered tablet show less drug release than the unsintered tablet. Formulation Fs3 and Fs6 provided 97.70 % and 98.38 % release profile in 18 hr when subjected to thermal sintering at 80C for 5 hr respectively. Formulation Fm3 and Fm6 provided 98.10 % and 97.39 % release profile in 18 hr when subjected to microwave sintering at 100 watt for 6 min respectively. Sintering i.e. Application of heat, causes the bonding of adjacent particle surfaces in a mass of powder or in a compact leading to the retardation of drug release. FT-IR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry studies ruled out the occurrence of drug interaction after sintering condition. The drug release followed Peppas kinetics. The mean diffusional exponent values (n) ranged from 0.3845 to 0.4972 indicating that all these formulations presented a dissolution behavior controlled by Fickian Diffusion. The stability study conducted as per the ICH Guidelines for optimized formulation was found to be stable.

30

EFFECT OF EXPLANT SOURCES AND DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON IN VITRO MICROPROPAGATION OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA L.

Yogesh Badkhane*, A.S. Yadav, A. Bajaj
Molecular Biology and Seed Technology Laboratory, Govt. Motilal Vigyan Mahavidyalaya (MVM), Affiliated to Barkatullah University Bhopal – 462008 M.P.

Abstract

In vitro explants response and regeneration capacity of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. was tested by using varying concentrations of BA, Kn, NAA, and IBA on MS media. Explant types exhibited a different response towards establishment and shoot proliferation with highest shoot number at different concentration of PGR’s. By contrast, the nodal expant has led to the highest percent establishment and remarkable enhancement in shoot proliferation. The percent explants establishment (66.67%) and shoot formation frequency was highest (3.67 shoots/explants) at the concentration of BA 2.0 mg/l. A good response was observed towards multiplication of shoot highest in 2.0 mg/l BA + 0.50 mg/l NAA which lead to the best rate of regeneration frequency (86.67%) and shoot formation (18.33 shoots/explants), whereas 1.0 mg/l BA + 0.25 mg/l NAA favored the highest shoot development (24.0 shoots/explants) with apical buds after 4th weeks of inoculation. The study on rooting capacity revealed that treatments 1.0 mg/l IAA proved to be superior with maximum 100% rooting, 16.0 roots/explant and 2.33 cm root length. Present investigation reports that the response of nodal explants found to be the best for explants establishment and hormonal concentrations respectively for regeneration of medicinally important plant of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

31

NEEDLE FREE INSULIN: AN OVERVIEW

V. Prathiba*, P. Mayavathi, S. Monisha, D. Vani, T. Geetha Priya, S. Kumudhavalli
KK college of pharmacy, Tamil Nadu Dr.M.G.R medical University, Chennai.

Abstract

Insulin delivery systems that are currently available include syringes, infusion pumps, jet injectors and pens. Needle free injection systems are novel ways to introduce various medicines into patients without piercing the skin with a conventional needle. Some of technologies are Biojector 2000, Cool click, Serojet, Antares, Medi-jector, Vision technology, etc. A needleless device may also help to improve compliance among patients who might otherwise avoid the discomfort of regularly injecting themselves with drugs. Needle- free liquid jet injectors have been used for more than fifty years for parenteral delivery of vaccines and drugs. This review article discusses, in brief, the novel and emerging technologies that are in pipeline, including insulin inhalers, insulin spray, insulin pill, insulin analogues, insulin complement, islet cell transplant, implantable insulin pumps and guardian continuous glucose monitoring system.

32

AN OVERVIEW ON MAGNETIC MICROSPHERES

Shital S. Patil*, Asawari Kale, Vaishali Dandekar, P. A. Salunke, R. S. Wagh, Dr. S. D. Barhate
Shree Sureshdada Jain Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamner, (M.S.) India.

Abstract

Magnetic microspheres are supramolecular particles that are small enough to circulate through capillaries without producing embolic occlusion (<4 μm) but are sufficiently susceptible (ferromagnetic) to be captured in micro vessels and dragged into the adjacent tissues by magnetic fields of 0.5-0.8 Tesla (T). Methods of preparation of magnetic microspheres are namely phase separation emulsion polymerization (PSEP) and continuous solvent evaporation (CSE). Ideally less than 125 p that can be suspended in aqueous vehicle and injected by an 18 or 16 number needle. The amount and rate of drug delivery via magnetic responsive microspheres can be regulated by varying (i) Size of microspheres; (ii) Drug content; (iii) Magnetite content; (iv) Hydration state; (v) Drug release characteristic of carrier. different approaches for magnetic targeting:- Chemical approach prodrug are Compartment delivery, Natural targeting, Ligand mediated targeting, Physical. There are various types of methods are used to prepare magnetic microshere along with different evaluation paremeters.

33

DENSITOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF PIMOBENDAN IN PHARMACEUTICAL TABLET DOSAGE FORM

Sohan S. Chitlange*, Mukesh. P Chaudhary, Sejal P. Gandhi
Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Pimpri, Pune-411018, (Maharashtra), India.

Abstract

A high-performance thin layer chromatography and first order derivative UV-visible spectroscopic method was developed and validated for estimation of pimobendan (PIMO) in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form. A simple, selective, precise, and stability-indicating high performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the analysis of PIMO was developed and validated. The method employed HPTLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent systems consist of Ethyl Acetate: Toluene: Methanol (5:4:1 v/v). The system was found to give a compact band for PIMO (Rf value of 0.49 ± 0.02). Densitometric analysis of PIMO was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2 = 0.999 with respect to peak area in the concentration range 0.5–3.0 ng/spot. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The LOD and LOQ for PIMO were 0.059 and 0.18ng / band. In spectroscopic method the λ max of PIMO in methanol was found to be 328 nm. The same spectrum was derivatised in to first order derivative; wherein it showed maximum amplitude of the trough at 349 nm. This wavelength was selected for analysis. The drug follows linearity in the concentration range 10-60 μg/ml with correlation coefficient value 0.999. Method was validated according to the ICH guidelines. The proposed method was successfully used for quantitative analysis of tablets. No interference from any component of pharmaceutical dosage form was observed. Validation studies revealed that method is specific, rapid, reliable, and reproducible. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation confirm the suitability of the method for routine determination of PIMO in bulk drug and tablet dosage form.

34

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF OSMOTICALLY CONTROLLED RELEASE TABLETS OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE

Mr. Pravin Dilip Wagh, Mr. Parag D. Kothawade, Dr. Hemant H. Gangurde
1Loknete Dr. J. D. Pawar College of Pharmacy, Manur, Tal- Kalwan, Dist-Nashik (Maharashtra).
2SNJB’S Shriman Suresh Dada Jain College of Pharmacy Chandwad, Tal- Chandwad, Dist- Nashik (Maharashtra).

Abstract

Metoprolol succinate is a beta 1- selective (cardio selective) adrenergic antagonist. Metoprolol succinate competes with adrenergic neurotransmitters such as catecholamines for binding at beta (1) adrenergic receptors in heart. Metoprolol succinate is the drug of choice for hypertension. Metoprolol succinate is considered to be absorbed in upper part of GIT (duodenal) it has 3-7 hrs. half-life and 50% bioavailability. Therefore, an attempt is made to release the drug for longer period of time. This is achieved by developing Osmotic Drug Delivery System i.e. Controlled Porosity Osmotic Pump Drug Delivery System. These controlled porosity osmotic pump tablets of Metoprolol succinate mainly prepared for increasing to release the drug upto 12 hrs. thereby increasing the bioavailability of the drug leading to reduced frequency of dosing. The osmoisis based controlled porosity osmotic pump drug delivery systems were formulated using sodium chloride along with pore former like polyethylene glycol 400 and lactose was selected for formulation. Formulations F1-F4 were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose (diluent) along with other excipients such as PVP K-30 (Binder), Magnesium stearate (Lubricant). Formulations F1-F4 were coated by using coating polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol and cellulose acetate along with other excipients such as polyethylene glycol 400 (pore former), castor oil (Plasticizer) with different solvent system such as Acetone : Ethanol (80:20) and Water: Ethanol (80:20). Effect of variables like the osmogene concentration, effect of pH and effect of pore former concentration in alone that influenced drug release from various formulations were studied.

35

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF NEBIVOLOL AND L-METHYL FOLATE ON ONSET AND PROGRESSION OF DIABETES COMPLICATIONS: A COMPARATIVE IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDY TARGETING OXIDATIVE-NITROSATIVE STRESS AND FORMATION OF ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS

Naini Bhadri, Minaz Nathani, Rema Razdan
Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-560027, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Oxidative-nitrosative stress and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation plays an important role as an early etiologic factors of diabetic complication and later progression. Presently no preventive treatment is available for diabetic complications. In the present study we have evaluated and compared the preventive effect of nebivolol (NEB), a β1-receptor antagonist with vasodilator property and l-methyl folate(LMF), an active form of folic acid in the progression of diabetic complications i.e. nephropathy and neuropathy. In vitro studies were performed using antioxidant activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and AGEs inhibitory. Further in vivo studies were also performed by administrating NEB (1mg/kg & 2mg/kg p.o./day) and LMF (5mg/kg & 10mg/kg p.o./day) to the diabetic rats for 8 weeks. Our result shows that NEB and LMF significantly ameliorate alterations in serum albumin, serum creatinine and plasmatic nitric oxide levels. Interestingly LMF have shown good in vitro AGEs inhibitory activity as compared to NEB. Result of the present study suggest the protective effects of NEB and LMF in the progression of diabetic complications. Therefore NEB and LMF can be administered in combination with antihyperglycemics for the management and treatment of diabetic complications.

36

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ONDANSETRON IN IT’S BULK AND DOSAGE FORM BY USING REVERSE PHASE HPLC

Sara Fatima, Mohd Khader, Taha Quratulain, Mansha Majeed, R.Vani, Syed Zafer Ali
Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Abstract

A new simple, accurate, precise and reproducible RP-HPLC method has been developed for the estimation of Ondonsetran in its bulk & different pharmaceutical dosage forms using inertsil ODS C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) in isocratic mode. The mobile phase consists of KH2PO4+ACN: MeOH (30:40:30) v\v pH6. The detection was carried out at 216 nm for Ondonsetran. The method was linear over the concentration range48-112 μg/ml for Ondonsetran in tablet and the recovery of Ondonsetran in tablet was found to be 100.91respectively. The retention time was found to be 3.4. The % RSD for precision & accuracy was found to be less than 2%.The validation of method was carried out utilizing ICH-guidelines. The described HPLC method was successfully employed for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing Ondonsetran in different dosage forms i.e. in tablet.

37

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ATOMOXETINE HCL SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS

P. Sambasiva Rao*, R. Naresh Babu, G. Srinivasa Rao
Vijaya College of Pharmacy, Hayath Nagar-501511, Telangana, India.
Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Atmakuru-522503, Andhra.Pradesh., India.
Research and development Formulations, Hetero Labs Ltd, Jeedimetla-5000055, Telangana, India.

Abstract

Atomoxetine hydrochloride was formulated as sustained release tablet employing tamarind seed polysaccharide, Guar gum, PVP, magnesium stearate, micro crystalline cellulose the sustained release tablets were investigated. The Sustained release matrix tablets contain atomoxetine hydrochloride were developed using a different drug polymer concentration of tamarind seed polysaccharide, guar gum. The tablets were prepared by directly using micro crystalline cellulose. The formulation was optimized on the basis of acceptable tablet properties and in-vitro drug release. The resulting formulation produced robust tablets with optimum hardness, thickness consistent weight uniformity and low friability. All tablets but one exhibited gradual and near completion sustained release for atomoxetine hydrochloride and 98.6% and 97.5 released at the end of 12 hrs. The results of dissolution studies indicated that formulation F8, the most successful of the study. The results suggest that the developed sustained release tablets of atomoxetine hcl could perform better than conventional dosage forms, leading to improved efficacy and better patient compliance.

38

EVALUATION OF THE HERB-DRUG INTERACTION IN CHICK EMBRYO FOR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY

Thorat Rinku D, Joshi Yadhunath M*, Garge Vaibhavi N.
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Sector-8, C.B.D, Belapur, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The present study investigates the interaction between Boerhavia diffusa (Punarnava capsules) and Diclofenac sodium powder using chick embryo model for anti-inflammatory activity. Boerhavia diffusa (Nyctaginaceae) is one of the significant indigenous medicinal plant with a broad spectrum of therapeutic activity. The medicinal value of this herb has been reported for its anti-diabetic and diuretic properties. In different areas of the world, it has also been used for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and carminative activities. The present study was aimed at evaluation of herb- drug interaction between Boerhavia diffusa and Diclofenac sodium for the anti-inflammatory activity using chick embryo model. The inflammation was induced by placing whatman filter paper disc on the chorio-allantoic membrane of an 8-day chick embryo. This model is comparatively cheap, requires little space to perform and only small quantities of the drugs are required. Concurrently no interaction study has been performed on this selected herb and drug.

39

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BILAYER TABLET OF ACETAMINOPHEN AND TRAMADOL

Mr. Duve Amol Baburao*, Mr. Pentewar R.S, Mr. Ingole. R. D, Mr. Moin Attar, Mr. D. R. Kaudewar, Mr. M. J. Birajdar, Mr. B. K. Sugave
Dept. of. Pharmaceutics. Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College, Latur. Maharashtra-413512.

Abstract

The main objective of this combination therapy is to develop a stable formulation of a NASAID drugs an immediate release layer of Acetaminophen and sustain release layer of Tramadol are combine to the bilayer and evaluate their pre-compression and post-compression parameters. A bilayer tablet comprises first layer formulated for instant release of the Acetaminophen from a dissolving tablet and a second layer formulated for sustain release Tramadol from a bilayer tablet. The formulation of the developed work was initiated with direct compression method for acetaminophen layer and Tramadol layer. In the formulation of immediate release Crosscarmulose sodium and Crospovidone were used as super disintegrate and was directly compressed. Lactose was used as diluents. Magnesium stearate used as lubricant. The compressed bilayer tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content, and in-vitro drug release using USP dissolution apparatus type 2 (paddle). The optimized Formulation table of no F2 and F4 % of release was 97.12% and 96.80%. of drug release for bilayer Tablet of acetaminophen and Tramadol.

40

REVIEW ON ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA – RED DATE PLANT DRUG

Reshma Jain*, Sadhana Rajput
Faculty of Pharmacy, Kalabhavan Campus, The M.S.University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

Ziziphus jujube Mill. fruit is belonging to the Rhamnaceous family which grows mostly in Europe, southern and eastern Asia and Australia, especially the northern China. Jujube has a long history of usage as a fruit and remedy. The main active constituents are vitamin C, phenolics, flavonoids, triterpenic acids, and polysaccharides. This plant possesses multiple medicinal activities such as antifertility, antimicrobial and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune stimulating, anti-diabetic, hypoglycaemic, sedative and hypnotic, analgesic and haemagglutination properties. In traditional medicine, jujube is used for treatment of liver diseases, insomnia and anxiety. A stronger focus on clinical studies and phytochemical definition of jujube fruits will be essential for future research efforts. This review may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses and potential drug or food interactions and may be beneficial for people living where the jujube fruits are prevalent and health care resources are scarce.