IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
  • INDEXING
  • PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE
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SEPTEMBER 2018
1

“STANDARDIZATION OF BIOSAPONINS, FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL SHAMPOO”

A. R.Sakore1*, M.G Kalaskar2, A.B. Bendre3, J.A.Kumawat1, T.T.Shelke4
1GSMCOP Wagholi, Pune 412102, Maharashtra, India.

2R. C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur.
3Sinhgad College of Pharmacy, Narhe Pune, Maharashtra, India.

4SVERIs College of Pharmacy,Pandharpur-413304.

Saponins are naturally occurring high-molecular-weight glycosides with distinct foaming characteristics. They are found in many plants, but get their name from the soapwort plant (saponaria), of which the root was historically used as soap. The name saponin is derived from the Latin word sapo, which means soap. Saponins are high-foaming agents and therefore excellent to use when natural surface active compounds are required. Saponins are excellent when used in soaps, shampoos, creams, lotions, shaving products, body washes, etc. Biosaponines were extracted from individual plant and formulation was prepared with aqueous juice of hibiscus petals as base. The proportion of individual saponin extract is selected upon its foaming index. Finally olive oil and citrodora oil was added as conditioner and antidandruff respectively, formulated shampoo were also subjected for same test performed for individual plants as mentioned in formulation, it possess all evaluatory parameter which should satisfy by ideal shampoo. In future research newer herbs should carry out with new herbal base. 


 


2

COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT METHODS USED TO PREPARE LIPOSOMES- A REVIEW

Muhammad Razi Ullah Khan
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The Superior College, Lahore, PAKISTAN.
University of Sargodha, Sargodha, PAKISTAN.

Liposomes have received a lot of attention during the past 30 years as pharmaceutical carriers of great potential. More recently, many developments have been seen in the area of liposomal drugs-from clinically approved products to new experimental applications. Liposomes, which are biodegradable and essentially nontoxic vehicles, can encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials, and are utilized as drug carriers in drug delivery systems. Liposomes are micro particulate lipid based vesicles which are under extensive investigation as drug carriers for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents. Due to new developments in liposome technology, several liposome-based drug formulations are currently in clinical trial, and recently some of them have been approved for clinical use. Reformulation of drugs in liposomes has provided an opportunity to enhance the therapeutic indices of various agents mainly through alteration in their bio distribution. In this article, basic characteristics, method of preparation and marketed formulations of liposomes have been discussed. The success of liposomes as drug carriers has been reflected in a number of liposome based formulations, which are commercially available, or are currently undergoing clinical trials. 


 


3

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORAL IN SITU GEL CONTAINING REPAGLINDE

Shubhechha Bansod, Vaishnavi Bankar, Manisha S. Karpe, Vilasrao J. Kadam
University of Mumbai, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, C.B.D. Belapur, Sector 8,Navi Mumbai- 400614, India.

Gel dosage forms are successfully used as drug delivery systems to control drug release and protect the medicaments from a hostile environment. The main objective is to formulate and evaluate in situ oral gels of repaglinide based on the concept of pH triggered and ion activated systems. The system utilizes polymers that exhibit sol-to-gel phase transition due to change in specific physico-chemical parameters. A pH triggered system consisting of Carbopol 934P (0.2-1.2% w/v) was used to prolong the release of repaglinide (0.1% w/v). Formulations were evaluated for gelling capacity, viscosity, gel strength, floating studies, spreadability, and in vitro release. The use of Carbopol as an in situ gel forming system was substantiated by the property to transform into stiff gels when the pH was raised. The drug content, clarity, and pH of the formulation were found to be satisfactory. The viscosity was found to be in the range 5 to 85 centipoise for the sol, whereas for the gels it was up to 16000 centipoise. The formulation showed pseudo plastic flow with thixotropy. The maximum gel strength (using texture analyser). The optimized formulations were able to release the drug up to 6 h. As it is a floating drug delivery system it shows increased retention and increased bioavailability of drugs. 


 


4

INVESTIGATION OF GINGER ETHANOLIC EXTRACT AS AN ANTICATARACT AGENT

Kulkarni A.S1*, Bundel S.S2, Thoke S.T3. Attal.V.R1. Shital Allapure1
1SBNM College of Pharmacy, Hatta, Basmat, Hingoli, Maharashtra, India.
2SVP College of Pharmacy (B.Pharm), Hatta, Dist.Hingoli.
3SSS Indira College of Pharmacy, Vishnupuri Nanded.

Cataract is visual impairment which arises as a result of a disturbance of lens lucidity. It is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide which is one of the major health problems and has drawn a little attention in worldwide. The loss of vision from cataract is a major cause of blindness in developing countries. The lens is made of mostly water and protein. The proteins is arranged in a precise way that keeps the lens clear and let’s light pass through it. But as we age, some of the protein and clump together and start to cloud a small area of the lens this is a cataract. Natural antioxidants are famous for their capacity to protect organisms and cells from damage due to oxidative stress, the later being considered a cause of ageing and degenerative diseases. The antioxidants present in food especially vegetables, are phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids), Carotenoids, tocopherol Etc.The present study evaluated the in vitro Anticataract activities of Ginger Ethanolic Extract has, show magnificent a Antioxidant activity against glucose-induced cataract genesis using goat lenses. The isolated goat lenses are incubated in artificial aqueous humor and divided into four experimental groups. The Ginger Ethanolic Extract at a dose of 400?g and 500?g/ml is incubated simultaneously with glucose (55 mM) and glucose (5. 5mM) for a period of 72 h. ascorbic acid (20 ?g/ml) is used as the standard drug. At the end of the incubation lenses opacity is measured by photographic evaluation. The Ginger Extract shows significant inhibition of cataractogenesis of eye lenses at conc. 400?g and 500 p.p.m. The present study suggested that the ethanol extract of Ginger possesses Anticataract activityCataract is visual impairment which arises as a result of a disturbance of lens lucidity. It is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide which is one of the major health problems and has drawn a little attention in worldwide. The loss of vision from cataract is a major cause of blindness in developing countries. The lens is made of mostly water and protein. The proteins is arranged in a precise way that keeps the lens clear and let’s light pass through it. But as we age, some of the protein and clump together and start to cloud a small area of the lens this is a cataract. Natural antioxidants are famous for their capacity to protect organisms and cells from damage due to oxidative stress, the later being considered a cause of ageing and degenerative diseases. The antioxidants present in food especially vegetables, are phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids), Carotenoids, tocopherol Etc.The present study evaluated the in vitro Anticataract activities of Ginger Ethanolic Extract has, show magnificent a Antioxidant activity against glucose-induced cataract genesis using goat lenses. The isolated goat lenses are incubated in artificial aqueous humor and divided into four experimental groups. The Ginger Ethanolic Extract at a dose of 400?g and 500?g/ml is incubated simultaneously with glucose (55 mM) and glucose (5. 5mM) for a period of 72 h. ascorbic acid (20 ?g/ml) is used as the standard drug. At the end of the incubation lenses opacity is measured by photographic evaluation. The Ginger Extract shows significant inhibition of cataractogenesis of eye lenses at conc. 400?g and 500 p.p.m. The present study suggested that the ethanol extract of Ginger possesses Anticataract activity. 


 


5

ANGIOSPERMIC FOSSIL WOOD FROM THE DECCAN INTERTRAPEAN BEDS OF BHUTERA M.P. INDIA

Meshram S. M.1, Mohture V.M2
1Manoharbhai Patel College of Art, Commerce and Science Sakoli. Dist. Bhandara. MS.
2Rashtrapita Mahatma Gandhi Arts, And Science College Nagbhir, Dist. Chandrapur.MS.

A well preserved dicot wood was collected from Bhutera near Chindwara M.P. The wood is dicotyledonous, diffuse porous, vessels mostly solitary and in radial multiples of two. Perforation plate simple. Intervascular pit pairs alternate, bordered, parenchyma paratracheal, vascicentric, wood rays mostly multiseriate and composed of heterogeneous cells, uniseriate rays mostly homogenous. Fiberes short, thin walled, nonseptate. The wood though shows some characters of the present day families like Lecythidaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Connaraceae, Flacaurtiaceae Lethraceae and Meliaceae. It has close affinities with the members of the family Meliaceae and genus Melia . It could not conclusively be traced to any particular genus but it broadly placed under the genus Meli 


 


6

A REVIEW ON BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Pranshu Tangri1, Deepak Chandra Sharma*1, Sunil Jawla2, Ravinesh Mishra3
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shri Guru Ram Rai University Patel Nager, Dehradun- 248001, Uttarakhand, India.
2Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Gangoh, Saharanpur-247341, Uttar Pradesh, India.
3School of Pharmacy and Emerging Sciences, Baddi University of Emerging Sciences and Technology, Baddi (Solan)-173205, Himachal Pradesh, India.

The buccal region of the oral cavity is an attractive target for administration of the drug of choice, particularly in overcoming deficiencies associated with the latter mode of administration. Problems such as high first-pass metabolism and drug degradation in the gastrointestinal environment can be circumvented by administering the drug via the buccal route. Moreover, rapid onset of action can be achieved relative to the oral route and the formulation can be removed if therapy is required to be discontinued. It is also possible to administer drugs to patients who unconscious and less co-operative. To prevent accidental swallowing of drugs adhesive mucosal dosage forms were suggested for oral delivery, which included adhesive tablets, adhesive gels, adhesive patches and many other dosage forms with various combinations of polymers, absorption enhancers. Natural polymers have recently gained importance in pharmaceutical field. Mucoadhesive polymers are used to improve drug delivery by enhancing the dosage form’s contact time and residence time with the mucous membranes. Mucoadhesion may be defined as the process where polymers attach to biological substrate or a synthetic or natural macromolecule, to mucus or an epithelial surface. When the biological substrate is attached to a mucosal layer then this phenomenon is known as mucoadhesion. The substrate possessing bioadhesive polymer can help in drug delivery for a prolonged period of time at a specific delivery site. The studies of Mucoadhesive polymers provide a good approach of mucoadhesion and some factors which have the ability to affect the mucoadhesive properties of a polymer. Both natural and synthetic polymers are used for the preparation of mucoadhesive buccal patches. In addition to this, studies have been conducted on the development of controlled or slow release delivery systems for systemic and local therapy of diseases in the oral cavity. 


 


7

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LIQUISOLID COMPACTS OF RISPERIDONE

Joslin J*, Bharani S Sogali**
Department of Pharmaceutics, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy,#12/1,Chikkabellandur,Carmelaram Post,Varthur Hobli, Banglore-560035, KA.

According to the liquisolid methodology, liquid medications in solutions or suspension form of water insoluble drugs in suitable nonvolatile liquid solvent can be converted into readily flowing and adequately compressible powders by a simple addition with certain powder substrates, referred to as the carrier and coating materials. Release rates are enhanced due to the increased wetting properties and surface area of drug available for dissolution. Liquisolid tablets of Risperidone containing MCC and Aerosil 200 as powder substrates of different excipient ratios from 5 to 35 were prepared using PG as non volatile solvent. Before compression, powdered mass were evaluated for flow properties such as bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr’s compressibility index and Hausner’s ratio and the formulated liquisolid tablets were evaluated for post compression parameters such as weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, and disintegration time. The release rates of all products were assessed using the USP type II dissolution apparatus. It was observed that maximum drug dissolution rates exhibited by systems that have powder substrates with optimum carrier to coating ratios (20:1). FTIR spectra and DSC illustrated no significant interaction between drug and excipients used. From this study it was concluded that the liquisolid technique is a promising alternative for improvement of dissolution property of water-insoluble drugs.According to the liquisolid methodology, liquid medications in solutions or suspension form of water insoluble drugs in suitable nonvolatile liquid solvent can be converted into readily flowing and adequately compressible powders by a simple addition with certain powder substrates, referred to as the carrier and coating materials. Release rates are enhanced due to the increased wetting properties and surface area of drug available for dissolution. Liquisolid tablets of Risperidone containing MCC and Aerosil 200 as powder substrates of different excipient ratios from 5 to 35 were prepared using PG as non volatile solvent. Before compression, powdered mass were evaluated for flow properties such as bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr’s compressibility index and Hausner’s ratio and the formulated liquisolid tablets were evaluated for post compression parameters such as weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, and disintegration time. The release rates of all products were assessed using the USP type II dissolution apparatus. It was observed that maximum drug dissolution rates exhibited by systems that have powder substrates with optimum carrier to coating ratios (20:1). FTIR spectra and DSC illustrated no significant interaction between drug and excipients used. From this study it was concluded that the liquisolid technique is a promising alternative for improvement of dissolution property of water-insoluble drugs.According to the liquisolid methodology, liquid medications in solutions or suspension form of water insoluble drugs in suitable nonvolatile liquid solvent can be converted into readily flowing and adequately compressible powders by a simple addition with certain powder substrates, referred to as the carrier and coating materials. Release rates are enhanced due to the increased wetting properties and surface area of drug available for dissolution. Liquisolid tablets of Risperidone containing MCC and Aerosil 200 as powder substrates of different excipient ratios from 5 to 35 were prepared using PG as non volatile solvent. Before compression, powdered mass were evaluated for flow properties such as bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr’s compressibility index and Hausner’s ratio and the formulated liquisolid tablets were evaluated for post compression parameters such as weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, and disintegration time. The release rates of all products were assessed using the USP type II dissolution apparatus. It was observed that maximum drug dissolution rates exhibited by systems that have powder substrates with optimum carrier to coating ratios (20:1). FTIR spectra and DSC illustrated no significant interaction between drug and excipients used. From this study it was concluded that the liquisolid technique is a promising alternative for improvement of dissolution property of water-insoluble drugs.






8

BIOSYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY USING CAJANUS CAJAN FLOWER EXTRACTS AND ITS ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITIES

N.Muruganantham1*, T. Arunachalam1, P.Ranjitha1, P.Anitha1, Anjalai1, Sivasangari1
1*Department of Chemistry, Thanthai Hans Roever College (Autonomous), Perambalur, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Department of Physics, Roever College of Engineering and Technology, Perambalur, Tamil Nadu, India.

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has gained much interest from chemists and researchers. In this concern, Indian flora has yet to divulge innumerable sources of cost –effective non-hazardous reducing and stabilizing compounds utilized in preparing AgNPs. This study investigates an efficient and sustainable route of AgNP preparation from 1mM aqueous AgNO3 using flower extracts of Cajanus cajan Leguminosea family well adored for their wide availability and medicinal property. The AgNPs were characterization by UV-visible (Vis) spectrophotometer, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis was carried out to determine the nature of the capping agents in each of these flower extracts. AgNPs obtained showed significantly higher antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, and E.coli in comparison to both AgNO3 and raw plant extracts. In totality, the AgNPs prepared are safe to be discharged in the environment and possibility utilized in processes of pollution remediation, may also be efficiently utilized in agricultural research to obtain better health of crop plants as shown by our studyGreen synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has gained much interest from chemists and researchers. In this concern, Indian flora has yet to divulge innumerable sources of cost –effective non-hazardous reducing and stabilizing compounds utilized in preparing AgNPs. This study investigates an efficient and sustainable route of AgNP preparation from 1mM aqueous AgNO3 using flower extracts of Cajanus cajan Leguminosea family well adored for their wide availability and medicinal property. The AgNPs were characterization by UV-visible (Vis) spectrophotometer, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis was carried out to determine the nature of the capping agents in each of these flower extracts. AgNPs obtained showed significantly higher antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, and E.coli in comparison to both AgNO3 and raw plant extracts. In totality, the AgNPs prepared are safe to be discharged in the environment and possibility utilized in processes of pollution remediation, may also be efficiently utilized in agricultural research to obtain better health of crop plants as shown by our study. 




9

PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF METFORMIN MICROSPHERES BY USING PENETRATION ENHANCER 0.5% EDTA

Suraj A. Kamble*, Pritam Kumbhar1
*Department of Pharmaceutics, SVPM’S College of Pharmacy, Malegaon Tal: Baramati, Dist: Pune India.
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Dattakala College of Pharmacy, Swami-chincholi Bhigwan Tal: Daund Dist:Pune 413130, India.

The aim of project to prepare and evaluate the metformin microspheres with and without bio enhancer EDTA by using mucoadhesive polymers such as sodium alginate and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose and to study release rate of metformin. The microsphere of metformin was prepared by sodium alginate and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose dissolved in 100 ml of distilled water with 0.5 % penetration enhancer in this solution 100 mg of metformin was added. Then this solution was added by drop by drop to 4 % calcium chloride solution with the help of 10 ? size syringe which produces spherical microspheres which was collected by filtering through whatman filter paper. The evaluation parameters for developed microspheres were angle of repose, particle size, bulk density, swelling index respectively. The release rate was studied for 5 hrs. By using UV visible double beam spectrophotometer at wavelength 232 nm represent that drug was released by controlled release mechanism. From this experimental study it was concluded that developed microspheres for metformin represent 24 ? size spherical shape with significant evaluation parameter and microsphere study of metformin microsphere with 0.5 % EDTA represent slight increase in release profile of metformin from developed metformin microsphere. It is clear that there is great deal of potential for the use of microsphere drug delivery formulations to treat diabetes, only few of these formulations have progressed enough in human studies to have proven their worth both in enhancing the efficacy of the drugs being delivered and minimizing the undesirable side effects.The aim of project to prepare and evaluate the metformin microspheres with and without bio enhancer EDTA by using mucoadhesive polymers such as sodium alginate and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose and to study release rate of metformin. The microsphere of metformin was prepared by sodium alginate and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose dissolved in 100 ml of distilled water with 0.5 % penetration enhancer in this solution 100 mg of metformin was added. Then this solution was added by drop by drop to 4 % calcium chloride solution with the help of 10 ? size syringe which produces spherical microspheres which was collected by filtering through whatman filter paper. The evaluation parameters for developed microspheres were angle of repose, particle size, bulk density, swelling index respectively. The release rate was studied for 5 hrs. By using UV visible double beam spectrophotometer at wavelength 232 nm represent that drug was released by controlled release mechanism. From this experimental study it was concluded that developed microspheres for metformin represent 24 ? size spherical shape with significant evaluation parameter and microsphere study of metformin microsphere with 0.5 % EDTA represent slight increase in release profile of metformin from developed metformin microsphere. It is clear that there is great deal of potential for the use of microsphere drug delivery formulations to treat diabetes, only few of these formulations have progressed enough in human studies to have proven their worth both in enhancing the efficacy of the drugs being delivered and minimizing the undesirable side effects.The aim of project to prepare and evaluate the metformin microspheres with and without bio enhancer EDTA by using mucoadhesive polymers such as sodium alginate and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose and to study release rate of metformin. The microsphere of metformin was prepared by sodium alginate and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose dissolved in 100 ml of distilled water with 0.5 % penetration enhancer in this solution 100 mg of metformin was added. Then this solution was added by drop by drop to 4 % calcium chloride solution with the help of 10 ? size syringe which produces spherical microspheres which was collected by filtering through whatman filter paper. The evaluation parameters for developed microspheres were angle of repose, particle size, bulk density, swelling index respectively. The release rate was studied for 5 hrs. By using UV visible double beam spectrophotometer at wavelength 232 nm represent that drug was released by controlled release mechanism. From this experimental study it was concluded that developed microspheres for metformin represent 24 ? size spherical shape with significant evaluation parameter and microsphere study of metformin microsphere with 0.5 % EDTA represent slight increase in release profile of metformin from developed metformin microsphere. It is clear that there is great deal of potential for the use of microsphere drug delivery formulations to treat diabetes, only few of these formulations have progressed enough in human studies to have proven their worth both in enhancing the efficacy of the drugs being delivered and minimizing the undesirable side effects. 


 


10

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF COUNSELNG TOOLS FOR PREVENTING COMMUNICATION BARRIERS AMONG DIFFERENTLY ENABLED IN SPEAKING AND HEARING POPULATION

Dr. Md. K. Rahman*1, Dr. G. V. Nagaraju2, Dr. N. Tendu Pranadeep3, Qudsia Fatima4
*2Clinical Pharmacist, HBP Department, Apollo Hospitals, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India
3Dept. of Pharmacy Practice, Koringa College of Pharmacy, Kakinada, A.P, India.
4Clinical Pharmacist, Help Hospital, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India.

This study aims to develop and evaluate the counseling tools for effective communication between differently enabled in speaking and hearing population and the healthcare professionals that helps to provide better healthcare facilities that includes appropriate diagnosis, treatment rationalization and patient counseling. The main objectives in this study were to identify the participants, barriers and the factors associated with poor communication among the specifies populations. This study certainly reveals that a healthcare professional can fulfill this communication gap and could provide better health care service. It is recommended that every health care team must have a skilled professional (pharmacist, nurse, etc.,) to overcome these barriers. This study initiated with development of tools like pictorial and graphical, predominantly the sign language (Indian sign language) is the significant tool to communicate with the participants. A total of 106 members (above 13 years) were included and the major participants were from Priyadarshini Deaf and Dumb Ashramam, Rajamahendravaram and it was carried out for a period of 6 months (Feb 2016 to July 2016). To implement the tools two instruments 1 and 2 were developed; each instrument consists of a set of questions from specific topics. Preliminary test was conducted with instrument-1 without skilled healthcare professional intervention and the post test was conducted with instrument-2 after the professional intervention using the tools. A feedback has been taken from the participants to assess the healthcare professional skills. The results have been analyzed by the Pearson Chi-square test 


 


11

FORMULATION, OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF RASAGILINE MESYLATE IN SITU NASAL GEL

Mamatha Kola*, G. Kaushal Puri, M. Tanveer Unnisa, J. Swapna, K. Phanivarma
S.S.J College of Pharmacy, V.N.Pally, Gandipet, Hyderabad, 500075.

The aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate nasal insitu gel of Rasagiline Mesylate. Nasal gels were prepared using combination of polymers like carbopol 934, HPMC K4M and sodium alginate and evaluated in terms of clarity, viscosity, gelation, ex vivo drug permeation studies. Ex vivo drug permeation profiles showed that formulation containing sodium alginate provided a better controlled release of the drug than the other formulations. Formulation F3 showed better drug release of about 87.62% and it exhibited better in situ gelling properties, pH, clarity and viscosity. Mucoadhesive insitu nasal gel of Rasagiline mesylate delivers the drug directly to brain and provides controlled release of the drug.The aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate nasal insitu gel of Rasagiline Mesylate. Nasal gels were prepared using combination of polymers like carbopol 934, HPMC K4M and sodium alginate and evaluated in terms of clarity, viscosity, gelation, ex vivo drug permeation studies. Ex vivo drug permeation profiles showed that formulation containing sodium alginate provided a better controlled release of the drug than the other formulations. Formulation F3 showed better drug release of about 87.62% and it exhibited better in situ gelling properties, pH, clarity and viscosity. Mucoadhesive insitu nasal gel of Rasagiline mesylate delivers the drug directly to brain and provides controlled release of the drug. 


 


12

ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS DUE TO ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS: A REVIEW

Waseem Yahya, Prashant Mathur
Department of Pharmacy Practice Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology and science (SGRRU), Patel Nagar, Dehradun (248001), Uttarakhand, India.

Adverse drug reactions are usually dose dependent and can be influenced by patient’s characteristics including age and gender and these confounding factors should be considered in clinical practice in the interpretation of research data. Selection of antipsychotic drugs should be on an individual basis. Antipsychotic drugs are commonly used drugs for mental disorders. Antipsychotic medication is associated with the numerous adverse drug effects, ranging from mild and intermittent (e.g., dizziness and nausea) to incapacitating (e.g., extrapyrimidal symptoms) some of which can disrupt an array of physical and psychological systems. Many new antipsychotics drugs/agents have been developed and found to be effective in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, but these drugs also exhibit adverse drug reactions which may affect compliance in psychiatric patients. Mostly atypical antipsychotic medications are in use nowadays as typical antipsychotic drugs are no longer been used for the treatment of psychological disorders. Atypical antipsychotics are second generation antipsychotic drugs that are effective in psychological disorders, but these drugs can cause adverse reactions such as weight gain, dizziness etc, but mostly they can cause extrapyrimidal effects. 


 


13

DETECTION AND MONITORING OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS DUE TO ANTIPSYCHOTICS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

Waseem Yahya Khanday, Prashant Mathur
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Science and Technology, SGRRITS, Patel Nagar (248001), Dehradun, Uttarakhand.

Objectives: Adverse drug reactions are well known to occur with any class of drugs when used in normal doses for the management of diseases and prophylaxis. Antipsychotic drugs are no exception to this. The main aim of this study was to detect and monitor adverse drug reactions in inpatients of Psychiatry department in a tertiary care hospital. Methodology: It is a prospective observational study carried out for a period of six months, after getting approval from human ethical committee among the inpatients of the department of psychiatry, Shri Mahant Indresh Hospital, Dehradun. Result: Total 133 patients were screened for this study, out of which 37 patients were detected with ADR. Incidence of ADRs was higher in females (51.3%) than in males (48.6%). The age group mostly affected was between 20-39 years of age. The most commonly reported ADR observed was dizziness among 15(40.54%) patients followed by headache among 6(16.21%) patients, insomnia among 5(13.51%) patients, Akathisia among 5(13.51%) patients, chest pain among 1(2.70%) and sedation among 1(2.70%)patients. The most commonly antipsychotic drug responsible for the cause of ADR was Olanzepine (32.43%) followed by Haloperidol (21.62%), Clozapine (13.51%), Quetiapine (10.81%), Resperidone (8.10%), Trifluoperazine (5.40), Flupenthixol (2.70%), Aripiprazole (2.70%) and Amisulpride (2.70%). Majority of ADRs were of type A (67.56%) according to WHO classification. Majority of ADRs were assessed as probable (91.90%) according to “Naranjo Causality Scale”. Majority of ADRs were assessed as Moderate (59.45%) and rest were Mild (40.54%) according to modified Hartwig-Seigel severity assessment scale. The outcome of ADRs reported was 29(78.38%) cases recovered while 8(21.62%) cases were reported to be recovering and no fatal outcome was observed. Conclusion: The study shows that both typical as well as atypical Antipsychotic drugs can cause ADRs. So there is need to implement the guidelines for Antipsychotic drug use in hospital setting and ADR management through therapeutic interventions would be beneficial in the better patient outcomeObjectives: Adverse drug reactions are well known to occur with any class of drugs when used in normal doses for the management of diseases and prophylaxis. Antipsychotic drugs are no exception to this. The main aim of this study was to detect and monitor adverse drug reactions in inpatients of Psychiatry department in a tertiary care hospital. Methodology: It is a prospective observational study carried out for a period of six months, after getting approval from human ethical committee among the inpatients of the department of psychiatry, Shri Mahant Indresh Hospital, Dehradun. Result: Total 133 patients were screened for this study, out of which 37 patients were detected with ADR. Incidence of ADRs was higher in females (51.3%) than in males (48.6%). The age group mostly affected was between 20-39 years of age. The most commonly reported ADR observed was dizziness among 15(40.54%) patients followed by headache among 6(16.21%) patients, insomnia among 5(13.51%) patients, Akathisia among 5(13.51%) patients, chest pain among 1(2.70%) and sedation among 1(2.70%)patients. The most commonly antipsychotic drug responsible for the cause of ADR was Olanzepine (32.43%) followed by Haloperidol (21.62%), Clozapine (13.51%), Quetiapine (10.81%), Resperidone (8.10%), Trifluoperazine (5.40), Flupenthixol (2.70%), Aripiprazole (2.70%) and Amisulpride (2.70%). Majority of ADRs were of type A (67.56%) according to WHO classification. Majority of ADRs were assessed as probable (91.90%) according to “Naranjo Causality Scale”. Majority of ADRs were assessed as Moderate (59.45%) and rest were Mild (40.54%) according to modified Hartwig-Seigel severity assessment scale. The outcome of ADRs reported was 29(78.38%) cases recovered while 8(21.62%) cases were reported to be recovering and no fatal outcome was observed. Conclusion: The study shows that both typical as well as atypical Antipsychotic drugs can cause ADRs. So there is need to implement the guidelines for Antipsychotic drug use in hospital setting and ADR management through therapeutic interventions would be beneficial in the better patient outcome. 


 


14

RECENT TRENDS IN PHARMACUETICAL REVERSE ENGINEERING

Warad T.A*1, Karbhari V.N2, Dhanasure S.G3

1Latur College of Pharmacy Hasegaon, Latur Maharashtra.

2Maharashtra Poly. Pharmacy Institute Nilanga, Maharashtra.

3Maharashtra College of Pharmacy Nilanga, Maharashtra.

According to the definition established by the FDA, a generic drug is “a drug product which is comparable to a reference listed drug (RLD) product in dosage form, strength, route of administration, quality, performance characteristics, and intended use”. Rigorous rules and regulations pertaining to abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) submissions are complex and the generic drug industry strives to meet these regulations to obtain FDA’s approval. And being the “first to file” is the most fundamental principle in the generics business because several companies compete to create generics of successful products going off patent. Therefore, generics companies must be highly skilled and disciplined in product development and achieving bioequivalence—the most critical development area.According to the definition established by the FDA, a generic drug is “a drug product which is comparable to a reference listed drug (RLD) product in dosage form, strength, route of administration, quality, performance characteristics, and intended use”. Rigorous rules and regulations pertaining to abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) submissions are complex and the generic drug industry strives to meet these regulations to obtain FDA’s approval. And being the “first to file” is the most fundamental principle in the generics business because several companies compete to create generics of successful products going off patent. Therefore, generics companies must be highly skilled and disciplined in product development and achieving bioequivalence—the most critical development area 


 


15

A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON PRESCRIPTION PATTERN IN CONGESTIVE CARDIAC FAILURE

Uthkarsha Vinesh*, Nikhil Kurian, Nivya P.S., Vanendra Yadav S., Nandan H.N., Divya Shree N.
*Bharathi College of Pharmacy, Bharathinagara, K. M. Doddi, Mandya, Karnataka, India – 571422.

Background: Congestive cardiac failure (CCF) is a complex clinical syndrome that results from structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood, which in turn leads to the cardinal clinical symptoms of dyspnoea and fatigue and signs of CCF namely edema and rales. The incidence and prevalence of CCF is increasing. In India CCF affects younger age group but in western countries it's predominantly a disease of elderly. Objective: To study the prescription pattern in congestive cardiac failure in Mandya Institute of Medical Science, Mandya. Methodology: This was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted at the department of General Medicine of MIMS. Data was collected from 150 patients under the inclusion criteria. The patients case records, medication charts and other relevant documents were used as a source for data collection. A well designed patient data collection form was used for collecting the details. The information were documented and subjected to suitable statistical methods. Result: Total 150 prescriptions with CCF were collected. The mean age was found to be 65.08 ± 14.11 years and male 58% and female 42%. About 573 drugs were prescribed for treating CCF in 150 patients who are included in the study and 90 drugs were given for treating respiratory failure associated with CCF. The drugs prescribed were diuretics (88%), antiplatelet drugs (66%), statin (60%), ACE-inhibitors (50%), ?-adrenergic blockers (28%), vasodilators (24%), anticoagulants (18%), sympathomimetic (10%), angiotensin receptor blockers (6%), aldosterone antagonist (2%), cardiac glycosides (2%), PDE-5 inhibitor (2%) and anti-ischaemic metabolic agent (2%). 60% of the total prescriptions under the study contained nebulisation with salbutamol sulphate + ipratropium bromide + budesonide (58%) and salbutamol sulphate + budesonide (2%). Single formulation of two drug combination was given in 24% of the total number of prescriptions which were constituted by atorvastatin + aspirin (18%), atorvastatin + clopidogrel (2%), atorvastatin + fenofibrate (2%), spironolactone + torsemide (2%). 401 (57.8%) of the drugs were received orally, 41 (5.7%) intravenously, 119 (17.9 %) intramuscularly, 27(4.1%) subcutaneously, 6(0.9%) sublingually and 90 (13.2%) drugs by inhalational route. Conclusion: Our study concludes that CCF is mostly seen in males and the age group in which it is mostly found is ?65 years. We found that the prescription pattern in congestive cardiac failure vary with inter subject variability and our study concludes that polytherapy was beneficial over monotherapy 


 


16

AN OVERVIEW ON ANTI-RETROVIRAL DRUGS: A REVIEW

Juluri Krishna Dutta Tejaswi1*, Dr. R. Govinda Rajan2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur (AP), India.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Amaravathi Road, Guntur (AP), India.

AIDS is not a virus but a set of symptoms caused by the HIV virus. A person is said to have AIDS when their immune system is too weak to fight off infection, and they develop certain defining symptoms and illnesses. AIDS alters the immune system, making people much more vulnerable to infections and diseases. The development of effective drug delivery approaches for the treatment of AIDS and HIV infection is a global challenge. HIV is a lifelong condition and currently there is no cure, although many scientists are working to find one. However, with medical care, including treatment called antiretroviral therapy, it’s possible to manage HIV and live with the virus for many years. Treatment of HIV started as monotherapy initially, and then multiple drugs in regimens were given where patients had to consume 11-16 tablets per day. Now the mainstay of the treatment is a single fixed dose combination of Tenofovir, Lamivudine and Efavirenz per day or Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine twice daily. Toxicity, resistance and adherence still remaina crucial issue. We need long acting depot preparations which would be efficacious for prevention, treatment and have fewer side effects. AIDS and HIV infection have reached pandemic levels in many parts of the world. Due to the complexities of virus infection cycle and the targets for delivery of antiretroviral drugs, more efficient drug delivery systems are needed 


 


17

TO ASSESS AND COMPARE THE OUTCOME OF HAMILTON ANXIETY RATING SCALE (HAM-A) AND ZUNG SELF RATING ANXIETY SCALE (ZSRAS) IN PATIENTS OF GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER TAKING SERTRALINE TABLETS

Sangeeta Verma, Shivali Singla*, Sachin Goyal
Himalayan Institute of Pharmacy, Kala-Amb, Sirmour (H.P.).

Background: Sertraline is an anxiolytic drug that inhibits the reuptake of serotonin at the presynaptic membrane and is used to treat patients suffering from Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Various types of scale are available for assessment of Anxiety. Objectives: This study is aimed at assessing and comparing the outcome of ZSRAS & HAM-A in patients of GAD taking Sertraline Oral Tablets. Primary: To determine efficacy of Sertraline tablet as anxiolytic effect for treatment of GAD using ZSRAS as a tool for measuring anxiety level. Secondary: to evaluate whether ZSRAS score can be used in place of HAM-A as screening tool as well as efficacy tool for anxiety research. Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 52 patients (46% Male, 54% Female) having with moderate to severe GAD (HAM-A ? 18) without any other psychiatric disorder as per DSM- IV-TR. Patients were put on Sertraline tablet 50 mg in the morning for daily for 63 days (9 weeks). ZSRAS and HAM-A scoring were performed on day 1 (randomization visit) and day 63 (end of the study visit). ZSRAS total scores (raw scores) were converted to Anxiety Index for comparison with HAM-A scores. Anxiety index scores of screening were compared with HAM-A total scores for assessing sensitivity and specificity of ZSRAS in differentiating severe level of anxiety from moderate anxiety. ZSRAS was compared with HAM-A as efficacy assessment tool by Spearmen’s Rho test. Efficacy of Sertraline was assessed by comparing the ZSRAS scores of randomization visit and end of the study visit by wilcoxon paired signed rank test. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of ZSRAS compared with HAM-A was calculated to 60% and 93%, respectively, indicating good differentiating capacity of ZSRAS for various anxiety levels. A significant decrease was observed in the total ZSRAS score from randomization visit to end of the study visit. The correlation co-efficient of ZSARS and HAM-A were found to be 0.736 by spearman’s rho. The observed decrease in ZSRAS score was found to be significant at P < 0.001 by wilcoxon paired sign ranked test indicating potent anxiolytic efficacy of Sertraline. Conclusions: Sertraline have good efficacy in treatment of GAD. The ZSRAS scale can be used in place of HAM-A as screening tool and efficacy assessment tool in anxiety research. 


 


18

IDENTIFICATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN Cyperus rotundus BY GC-MS ANALYSIS AND THEIR INHIBITORY EFFECT ON DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS THROUGH MOLECULAR DOCKING

Jayashree .S1, K.Vijayalakshmi2, Reena Rosy Thomas3
1School of Biochemistry, REVA University, Bangalore.
2Department of Biochemistry, Bharathi Women’s College, Chennai.
3Division of Social Sciences, IIHR, Bangalore.

The presence of biologically active phytochemicals in medicinal plants contribute to their health benefits. A wide plant derived phytochemicals demonstrated bioactivity against diabetes and its complications. Our study concentrates on these bioactive compounds derived from Cyperus rotundus analysed through GCMS and docking them with the enzyme of polyol pathway Aldose Reductase (AR) responsible for diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic complications. AR inhibition studies have found that phytochemicals derived from plants be a good inhibitors of AR. The dichloro acetic acid (DCA) and Linoleic acid (9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z) are identified bioactive compound showed a significant binding which indicates Cyperus rotundus may act as an inhibitor of enzyme and diabetic retinopathy. 




19

“FORMULATION AND COMPARATIVE STANDARDIZATION OF AYURVEDIC SKIN CREAM”

M.B Bhaltadak*., H. A Navthale, R. R Thenge. S.A Shinde., V. S.Adhov
Dr. Rajendra Gode College of Pharmacy, Malkapur-443101, Maharashtra, India.

The purpose of the present research work was to formulate and evaluated the Ayurvedic skin cream of crude drug comprising extracts of curcuma longa (Turmeric). One marketed formulation and one In house formulation were subjected to comparative standardization. There is a growing demand for herbal cosmetics in the world market and they are invaluable gifts of nature. Therefore, we tried to make an Ayurvedic skin cream containing the extract of curcuma longa in along with sandalwood oil. The extract of curcuma longa has antiseptic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and also increases whitening of skin. The sandalwood oil increases the glow on skin and has emollient properties. Hence all these properties are beneficial to normal human keratinocytes and it is safe and stable too. Ayurvedic creams offer several advantages over other creams because of its side effects such as allergic reaction. Ayurvedic skin creams do not have any of these side effects, without any harm or unwanted effects it gives the fairness look to skin. The prepared Ayurvedic skin cream was evaluated with different parameters like appearance, Spreadability; pH, viscosity, rheological study and stability along with irritancy test. Stability parameters of the formulations showed that there was no significant variation between marketed and in house formulation during the study period. The cream was found to be more stable during stability study; thus the present study suggested that it is possible develop Ayurvedic skin cream containing herbal extract and can be used as antiseptic and for beautifying purpose.The purpose of the present research work was to formulate and evaluated the Ayurvedic skin cream of crude drug comprising extracts of curcuma longa (Turmeric). One marketed formulation and one In house formulation were subjected to comparative standardization. There is a growing demand for herbal cosmetics in the world market and they are invaluable gifts of nature. Therefore, we tried to make an Ayurvedic skin cream containing the extract of curcuma longa in along with sandalwood oil. The extract of curcuma longa has antiseptic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and also increases whitening of skin. The sandalwood oil increases the glow on skin and has emollient properties. Hence all these properties are beneficial to normal human keratinocytes and it is safe and stable too. Ayurvedic creams offer several advantages over other creams because of its side effects such as allergic reaction. Ayurvedic skin creams do not have any of these side effects, without any harm or unwanted effects it gives the fairness look to skin. The prepared Ayurvedic skin cream was evaluated with different parameters like appearance, Spreadability; pH, viscosity, rheological study and stability along with irritancy test. Stability parameters of the formulations showed that there was no significant variation between marketed and in house formulation during the study period. The cream was found to be more stable during stability study; thus the present study suggested that it is possible develop Ayurvedic skin cream containing herbal extract and can be used as antiseptic and for beautifying purpose. 


 


20

RECTAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Akula Prudhvi Sai Krishna, Mohammed Haneefunnisa
GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, Gitam (Deemed To Be University), Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam-45.

Rectal biologic supply is an able alternating to articulate and parenteral avenue of administering in fractional abstention of aboriginal canyon metabolism and protein peptide biologic delivery. This avenue allows both bounded and systemic analysis of drugs. Controlled assimilation accessory of drugs can be accomplished by the abdominal avenue because of the connected altitude in the abdominal environment. In the present analysis presents assorted dosage forms acclimated in abdominal route, factors accompanying rectal avenue of assimilation, fate of biologic absorption. This analysis as well presents polymers in abdominal avenue of biologic delivery. The purpose of this review was to systemize recent approaches on rectal drug delivery systems along with factors affecting the rectal absorption.Rectal biologic supply is an able alternating to articulate and parenteral avenue of administering in fractional abstention of aboriginal canyon metabolism and protein peptide biologic delivery. This avenue allows both bounded and systemic analysis of drugs. Controlled assimilation accessory of drugs can be accomplished by the abdominal avenue because of the connected altitude in the abdominal environment. In the present analysis presents assorted dosage forms acclimated in abdominal route, factors accompanying rectal avenue of assimilation, fate of biologic absorption. This analysis as well presents polymers in abdominal avenue of biologic delivery. The purpose of this review was to systemize recent approaches on rectal drug delivery systems along with factors affecting the rectal absorption. 


 


21

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FOOT CREAM FROM FICUS GLOMERATA EXTRACT

Diksha G Ramtekkar, Dr.Nibha D Bajpai
Department of Cosmetic Technology, LAD and Smt. R P College for Women, Seminary Hills, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Human feet have to maintain the weight of the body but they are often neglected. The skin on our feet is dry as compared to skin on the rest of the body because it has no oil glands and it relies on hundreds of thousands of sweat glands to keep the feet moisturized, therefore, feet need special care for protection, beautification and comfort. Different types of foot care products available in the market are, viz.., Foot powder, Foot spray, Foot Creams, Corn and callus Preparation, etc. Foot cream has the refreshing, anti-pruritic, deodorizing and antiperspirant, cleansing, antiseptic and an antifungal property which prevents foot from the various ailments such as toenail fungus, athlete’s foot, bunions, corns, calluses, cracked heels and pressures. Since the times of Vedas different herbs are used to treat various diseases and for treating skin conditions such as eczema, dermatitis, etc. F. glomerata is one of the ancient therapeutic herb which has been largely found in India and whole world to treat diseases. ?-sitosterol, Gluanol acetate, Dumarin, Lupeol and Lupeol acetate are the active constituents present in Ficus glomerata. These active constituents are responsible for the various therapeutic potentials such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifungal, wound healing, etc. but not much work has been done to evaluate the properties of cosmetic importance. The aim of the present study is to explore the properties of cosmetic values such as skin healing and moisturizing property and on evaluation it was found out that the product gave satisfactory results.Human feet have to maintain the weight of the body but they are often neglected. The skin on our feet is dry as compared to skin on the rest of the body because it has no oil glands and it relies on hundreds of thousands of sweat glands to keep the feet moisturized, therefore, feet need special care for protection, beautification and comfort. Different types of foot care products available in the market are, viz.., Foot powder, Foot spray, Foot Creams, Corn and callus Preparation, etc. Foot cream has the refreshing, anti-pruritic, deodorizing and antiperspirant, cleansing, antiseptic and an antifungal property which prevents foot from the various ailments such as toenail fungus, athlete’s foot, bunions, corns, calluses, cracked heels and pressures. Since the times of Vedas different herbs are used to treat various diseases and for treating skin conditions such as eczema, dermatitis, etc. F. glomerata is one of the ancient therapeutic herb which has been largely found in India and whole world to treat diseases. ?-sitosterol, Gluanol acetate, Dumarin, Lupeol and Lupeol acetate are the active constituents present in Ficus glomerata. These active constituents are responsible for the various therapeutic potentials such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifungal, wound healing, etc. but not much work has been done to evaluate the properties of cosmetic importance. The aim of the present study is to explore the properties of cosmetic values such as skin healing and moisturizing property and on evaluation it was found out that the product gave satisfactory results.