IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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FEBRUARY 2019
1

REVIEW ON HERBAL COSMETICS IN SKIN CARE

Prof Dhanapal Venkatachalam, Samuel Thavamani B, Vincy Varghese K ,Vinod K.R
Sanjo College of Pharmaceutical Studies, Velappara, Palakkad, Kerala – 678 702.

Objective: Numerous herbal plants are available naturally; they having different chemical constituents used in cosmetics preparations. This review is based on focusing on the cosmeceuticals intended to enhance the health and beauty of skin. Methods: The isolated compounds from the herbal plants like coconut oil, sunflower oil, ojoba oil, olive oil, aloe-vera, were studied their skin care effects and adverse reaction. The herbs like rhodiolarosea, carrot, gingko, and turmeric were studied for their anti-aging property. Herbal plants like henna, neem were studied their antidandruff treatment. Herbal likes green tea, calendula, turmeric, shitake, rose oil were evaluated their skin protection capacity. Amla, eucalyptus oil were tested their hair growth character and also studied the antioxidant property of some vitamins. Results: The results obtained from the study, proved that effective and safe, when used as a moisturizer with absence of adverse reaction. Herbs are rich in vitamins, they have anti-aging, revitalizing and rejuvenating agent. Herbs produce anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and pain relieving that can treat dandruff. The plants produce anti-septic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and insect repellent, help in wound healing and skin protection. Herbs have vitamins and other constituents. They provide nutrition to hair and also cause darkening of hair. It also provides antioxidant and photo aging on the skin. Conclusions: The current review highlights importance of herbal cosmetics, the herbs used in them and their advantages over the synthetic counterparts. The present study revealed that herbal cosmetics are very safe and does not produce any toxic and adverse reactions compare to marketed cosmetics products. We suggest that, use herbal cosmetics in future, will avoid skin problems. 


 


2

GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING BACOPA MONNIERI LEAF EXTRACT AND ASSESSMENT OF THEIR DPPH ACTIVITY

Dr. Somkant V. Jawarkar*1, Sanmati D Shete2, Dr. Sandeep R. Kane2
1S. D. Patil Institute of Pharmacy, Islampur. Dist – Sangli, Maharashtra, INDIA – 415409.
2Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy, Kasegaon, Dist – Sangli, Maharashtra, INDIA – 415404.

In this study, rapid, simple approach was applied for synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacopa monnieri leaf extract. The plant extract acts both as memory enhancer agent. To identify the compounds responsible for reduction of silver ions, the functional groups present in plant extract were investigated by FTIR. Various techniques used to characterize synthesized nanoparticles are DLS, and UVeVisible spectrophotometer. UVVisible spectrophotometer showed absorbance peak in range of 400-800nm. The silver Nanoparticles of Bacopa monnieri leaf extract showed DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity. Present study confirmed that it is a simple, rapid, one step, eco-friendly, nontoxic and alternative conventional physical/chemical methods, only 15 min were required for the conversion of silver ions into silver nanoparticles at room temperature, without the involvement of any hazardous chemical which shows prominent antioxidant property. 


 


3

REVIEW - ON THE LIMULUS AMEBOCYTE LYSATE (LAL) TEST

Ganesh G. Verma*, Shubhangi Kshirsagar, Suchita Ghokhale, Anurag M. Dubey, Vineet R. Upadhyay, Sunny Sahani
Ideal College of Pharmacy & Research Institute, Kalyan, Mumbai, India. (Affiliated to UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI).

Quality Control (QC) testing performed for an extensive variety of purchaser and mechanical items. It also give Quality Control testing to the pharmaceutical business, including Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs), intermediates, excipients, and completed items, for example, tablets, cases, creams, moisturizers, fluid arrangements, and transdermal patches. A quality control lab can decide the reason and understand current item disappointment and if utilized legitimately can even forestall future issues. Incidental group to clump testing will guarantee that after some time your items thickness, shading, scent, execution, and piece stay reliable over the long haul. As specified before it is additionally brilliant to check the nature of crude materials with an autonomous testing research center at whatever point parts providers are changed or in the event can see a sudden contrast in the nature of crude materials being gotten. 


 


4

“ASSESSMENT OF DEPRESSION AMONG HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS AND OUTLIVING THE CONDITION THROUGH EFFECTIVE PATIENT COUNSELLING”

Gloria Sam*, Raima Roy, Rejula Rengit, Selveena Saju, Tanushree M
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davangere, Karnataka, India.

End Stage Renal Disease is a medical condition which occurs when a person’s kidney stops functioning, where dialysis is done to remove wastes from the body. Depression is identified as the most common psychological problem among dialysis patients. Hence it is mandatory to evaluate depression and to reduce its psychological symptoms through patient counselling. The intention of this study is to assess the periodicity of depression among hemodialysis patients. The prospective observational questionnaire based study was conducted for a period of 6 months in the Nephrology department of a tertiary care teaching hospital, Davangere. A sample size of 50 patients was enrolled and randomized into case and control groups. The study used specific data collection form and depression was determined using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaire. The questionnaire was applied before and after patient counseling for both groups. At the end of the study, a significant reduction (p<0.05) in the BDI score have been observed in the case group of study population, who received patient counseling and patient information leaflet. This study tried to entitle the name of pharmacist as a patient educator who gives proper guidance to the patient and also the family members about the disease, drug management, diet and life style modifications. We conclusively state that clinical pharmacist can play a key role in reducing the depression through psychosocial interventions, thereby enhancing the health related quality of life among dialysis patients. 


 


5

ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF STARCH FROM GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE)

Praveen N M, Manasa S, Kiran B Muchadi, Sathish Kumar B Y

Department of Biotechnology, JSS College, Ooty Road, Mysuru, Karnataka, India-570025.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) contains constituent like starch, fat, gingerol, volatile oil, the crushed ginger root and starch extracted based on properties of physicochemical that isolates using 1 % w/v sodium metabisulphite solution of achieving starch was initiate to be crystalline, non-hygroscopic powder with 1.3 swelling powder capacity, 37% of solubility capacity and gelatinization temperature at 800C. The character study of starch was extracted and showed physicochemical properties elevate using extraction, purification, concentration, physical or biological process expressed for identification of sinking and non-reducing carbohydrates.Ginger (Zingiber officinale) contains constituent like starch, fat, gingerol, volatile oil, the crushed ginger root and starch extracted based on properties of physicochemical that isolates using 1 % w/v sodium metabisulphite solution of achieving starch was initiate to be crystalline, non-hygroscopic powder with 1.3 swelling powder capacity, 37% of solubility capacity and gelatinization temperature at 800C. The character study of starch was extracted and showed physicochemical properties elevate using extraction, purification, concentration, physical or biological process expressed for identification of sinking and non-reducing carbohydrates.




6

INVESTIGATION OF PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERS OF ENICOSTEMMA LITTORALE

Prof. Dhanapal Venkatachalam

Sanjo College of Pharmaceutical Studies, Velappara, Palakkad, Kerala, India.

Objective: To study detailed pharmacognostic profile and preliminary phytochemical investigation of whole plant of   Enicostemma littorale (Gentianaceae) is a perennial herb found throughout India. It is traditionally used as anti-diabetic, urinary astringent, anti-periodic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, laxative and hepatoprotective. Methods:/ Leaf, stem and root samples of E.littorale were studied by Macroscopical, Microscopical, Physiochemical, Phytochemical analysis of powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple. lanceolate, obtuse or acute, fresh leaves are dark green in colour; bitter taste and characteristic odour. Microscopically, the leaf showed the distinct epidermal layer of small squarish cells with prominent cuticle. Calcium oxalate crystals of druses or Sphaerocrystals are widespread in the leaf-mesophyll tissue. The anisocytic type stomata observed more prominently. Single basal cell, multi -cellular, Non-glandular trichomes are the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study of the leaf. The salient features of stem were epidermis with thick cuticle, unilayered small cells compactly arranged. The diagnostic characters observed in the transverse section of the roots are thin walled, compact parenchyma cells, narrow xylem fibres. Powder microscopy of the powder revealed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem fibres and epidermis with anisocytic stomata.Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, betacyanin, quinone, glycosides, phenols, flavanoids, and alkaloids. Conclusions: The above results given the valuable information of this plant it will helpful for the future studies of this plant. Objective: To study detailed pharmacognostic profile and preliminary phytochemical investigation of whole plant of   Enicostemma littorale (Gentianaceae) is a perennial herb found throughout India. It is traditionally used as anti-diabetic, urinary astringent, anti-periodic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, laxative and hepatoprotective. Methods:/ Leaf, stem and root samples of E.littorale were studied by Macroscopical, Microscopical, Physiochemical, Phytochemical analysis of powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple. lanceolate, obtuse or acute, fresh leaves are dark green in colour; bitter taste and characteristic odour. Microscopically, the leaf showed the distinct epidermal layer of small squarish cells with prominent cuticle. Calcium oxalate crystals of druses or Sphaerocrystals are widespread in the leaf-mesophyll tissue. The anisocytic type stomata observed more prominently. Single basal cell, multi -cellular, Non-glandular trichomes are the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study of the leaf. The salient features of stem were epidermis with thick cuticle, unilayered small cells compactly arranged. The diagnostic characters observed in the transverse section of the roots are thin walled, compact parenchyma cells, narrow xylem fibres. Powder microscopy of the powder revealed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem fibres and epidermis with anisocytic stomata.Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, betacyanin, quinone, glycosides, phenols, flavanoids, and alkaloids. Conclusions: The above results given the valuable information of this plant it will helpful for the future studies of this plant.




7

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES OF ETORICOXIB BY EMPLOYING GLYCERYL MONOSTEARATE AND GELUCIRE 48/16

Swetha Rani Balka, Dr. P.Tripura sundari*

RBVRR Women’s College of Pharmacy, Osmania University, Barkatpura, Hyderabad, India.

The aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles of Etoricoxib. Etoricoxib is a selective COX-2 inhibitor, these are a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets cycloxygenase-2, COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain. Etoricoxib is a poorly soluble drug. To overcome this problem an attempt was made to prepare Etoricoxib solid lipid nanoparticles which has ability to improve the solubility and enhance oral bioavailability. In the present study Etoricoxib loaded SLNs were prepared by Hot homogenization method. Different formulations of Solid lipid nanoparticles of Etoricoxib were prepared by employing Glyceryl Monostearate as a solid lipid, Soya lecithin as lipophilic surfactant and Gelucire 48/16 as hydrophilic surfactant. The evaluation studies like drug content, entrapment efficiency and drug release studies, Particle size analysis, zeta potential, were performed on the prepared formulations. Among all the prepared formulations E2 formulation was found to show better results




8

REVIEW STUDIES ON BIO-DIESEL PRODUCTION FROM PHYSIC NUT (JATROPHA CURCUS) OIL

Prof. Dhanapal Venkatachalam, Samuel Thavamani B, Alphy Joseph

Department of Pharmacognosy, Sanjo College of Pharmaceutical Studies, Velappara, Palakkad, Kerala – 678 702.

Objective: Jatropha curcus belonging to the Family, Euphorbiaceous commonly known as physic nuts.  It is well known herb all over the world. J.curcas oil is not edible and is traditionally used for manufacturing soap and other medicinal applications.  It is an alternative fuel for diesel engines. This review is based on focusing on the biodiesel production from the plant Jatropha curcas. Methods: Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha curcas seed oil involved  three  steps include  extraction of oil from the seed, acid-catalyzed transesterification, and base-catalyzed transesterification, each of which is well-known and widely-utilized in today’s biodiesel industry The produced bio diesel was characterized to obtain its physicochemical parameters such as flash point, pour point, cloud point, viscosity and density. Results: The results obtained from the calculation of the yield of oil extracted revealed 54% of oil could be obtained from the Jatropha seeds used. According to the results, the values obtained from the analysis of the oil especially free fatty acid, density and kinematic viscosity of the oil were found to compare well with the standard (ASTM), which was an indication that the extracted oil was good and suitable for biodiesel production The considered parameters oil content, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value and acid value. These parameters were done in order to study the oil property of J curcas L which makes the oil most suitable for biodiesel production. Conclusions: In these reveals that biodiesel has become more attractive as an alternative to fossil diesel because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resource. J. curcas L. is a promising source of biodiesel since its seeds contain high amount of oil and the species has good agronomic traits.




9

DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROPARTICLES OF RAZATRIPTAN BENZOATE DRUG CARRIER SYSTEM VIA NASAL ROUTE

Sunil T.Galatage1*, S.G.Killedar2, Anil Patil3, Swapnil Harale4, Y. R. Hundekar4

1* Sant Gajanan Maharaj College of Pharmacy Mahagaon, Tal-Gadahinglaj, Dist-Kolhapur-416502, Maharashtra.

2BVCP College of Pharmacy Kolhapur

3KLE College of Pharmacy Nippani.

4Sant Gajanan Maharaj College of Pharmacy Mahagaon, Tal-Gadahinglaj, Dist-Kolhapur-416502, Maharashtra.

Objective: Rizatriptan Benzoate is the 5H1 receptor agonist and used in treatment of migraine, cluster headache. The main objective is to develop ideal anti-migraine nasal mucoadhesive microparticles as local and systemic drug delivery system. Method: An attempt was made to formulate the nasal mucoadhesive microparticle of Rizatriptan Benzoate with excipients like mucoadhesive polymers i.e HPMC, ethyl cellulose etc., by using modified solvent evaporation method. And evaluated them for production yield, drug loading efficiency, surface morphology by SEM, drug content, particle size, In-vitro drug release studies. The release rates were studied using GRAPHPAD PRISM software. Result and discussion: The prepared microparticles of Rizatriptan Benzoateformulations were found to be satisfactory particle size i.e in the range of 36.96 to 53.28µm,mucoadhesion time of  F5 found to be 370 min,drug content was found to be72.86 % to 81.80 % and drug release of the drug follow zero order kinetic model. Optimized formulation F5shows that the developed formulations have shown improved dissolution profile in comparison to other formulation.The developed nasal mucoadhesive microparticles are having potential to deliver of anti-migraine drugs via nasal route.




10

ROLE OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST IN ASSESSMENT OF DRUG RELATED PROBLEMS OF CARDIO VASCULAR AGENTS IN DEPARTMENT OF CARDIOLOGY IN A TERTIARYCARE HOSPITAL – A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

Dr.S.Naga Subrahmanyam1*, Dr.D.Tagoore Vijaya Lakshmi2, Dr.G.V.Naga Raju1, Dr.G.V.Pavan Kumar1

1Koringa College of Pharmacy,Korangi - 533461, Kakinda, A.P, India.

2Chalapathi institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Guntur - 522004, A.P, India.

In total, of 173 prescriptions of the patient the total number of 329 drug interaction was found in which the 240 interaction was found in male and 89 in the female beraing the 72.90% and 27.10% respectively. Patient was of various age groups in which the maximum frequency was seen in the age group of 61- 70 years having 105 interaction bearing the percentage of 31.9% . According to the participation of different age group of the male and female with their corresponding age .The participation of male is high having frequency of 240 (72.9% )than female participation of frequency 89 (27.1%).The participation of male in the age group of 61-70 years is 83 and the female is 40 in the age group of 51-60 years. Potential drug interactions were categorized based on the gender. In that compared to 13 (40.6) females, males 19 (59.4%) were found to have more potential drug interactions. Our study more potential drug interactions in adult patients. Because, in adults lacking of nutrition’s and in elderly patients multiple prescribers, multiple drugs and multiple diseases. The number of potential DDI increased with an increase in the number of drug prescribed. The numbers of drug prescribed increase with age. This drug interaction have a potential to increase or decrease the therapeutic effect or to increase the risk of ADR. An increased awareness of PDDIs ,rational co –prescription of drugs and a close monitoring of patients in whom these drugs are prescribed is recommended .The recommendation is based on the special monitoring and the perspiration of the clinical pharmacist .The Drug interaction observed in the geriatric patient are more severe and common in compared to the other group of study. The geriatric patient are physiological disability in correspond with the first pass metabolism and the presence of the other disease which also enables the multiple prescription causing poly pharmacy. The gender specification also the cause of the interaction , the female are more prone to the drug interaction due to the hormonal distribution in the body and inability of the physiological function to absorb and the distribution .The special training should be provided to the pharmacist for looking forward of the geriatric patient and female patient .The training regarding the prescription their adherence, use, toxicity, dosage regimen ,are being properly enabled in the training for the practical application. This study helps to know the different interaction related to the cardiovascular agent with own class of the drug and the other class of drugs used therapeutically to care the disease.In total, of 173 prescriptions of the patient the total number of 329 drug interaction was found in which the 240 interaction was found in male and 89 in the female beraing the 72.90% and 27.10% respectively. Patient was of various age groups in which the maximum frequency was seen in the age group of 61- 70 years having 105 interaction bearing the percentage of 31.9% . According to the participation of different age group of the male and female with their corresponding age .The participation of male is high having frequency of 240 (72.9% )than female participation of frequency 89 (27.1%).The participation of male in the age group of 61-70 years is 83 and the female is 40 in the age group of 51-60 years. Potential drug interactions were categorized based on the gender. In that compared to 13 (40.6) females, males 19 (59.4%) were found to have more potential drug interactions. Our study more potential drug interactions in adult patients. Because, in adults lacking of nutrition’s and in elderly patients multiple prescribers, multiple drugs and multiple diseases. The number of potential DDI increased with an increase in the number of drug prescribed. The numbers of drug prescribed increase with age. This drug interaction have a potential to increase or decrease the therapeutic effect or to increase the risk of ADR. An increased awareness of PDDIs ,rational co –prescription of drugs and a close monitoring of patients in whom these drugs are prescribed is recommended .The recommendation is based on the special monitoring and the perspiration of the clinical pharmacist .The Drug interaction observed in the geriatric patient are more severe and common in compared to the other group of study. The geriatric patient are physiological disability in correspond with the first pass metabolism and the presence of the other disease which also enables the multiple prescription causing poly pharmacy. The gender specification also the cause of the interaction , the female are more prone to the drug interaction due to the hormonal distribution in the body and inability of the physiological function to absorb and the distribution .The special training should be provided to the pharmacist for looking forward of the geriatric patient and female patient .The training regarding the prescription their adherence, use, toxicity, dosage regimen ,are being properly enabled in the training for the practical application. This study helps to know the different interaction related to the cardiovascular agent with own class of the drug and the other class of drugs used therapeutically to care the disease.In total, of 173 prescriptions of the patient the total number of 329 drug interaction was found in which the 240 interaction was found in male and 89 in the female beraing the 72.90% and 27.10% respectively. Patient was of various age groups in which the maximum frequency was seen in the age group of 61- 70 years having 105 interaction bearing the percentage of 31.9% . According to the participation of different age group of the male and female with their corresponding age .The participation of male is high having frequency of 240 (72.9% )than female participation of frequency 89 (27.1%).The participation of male in the age group of 61-70 years is 83 and the female is 40 in the age group of 51-60 years. Potential drug interactions were categorized based on the gender. In that compared to 13 (40.6) females, males 19 (59.4%) were found to have more potential drug interactions. Our study more potential drug interactions in adult patients. Because, in adults lacking of nutrition’s and in elderly patients multiple prescribers, multiple drugs and multiple diseases. The number of potential DDI increased with an increase in the number of drug prescribed. The numbers of drug prescribed increase with age. This drug interaction have a potential to increase or decrease the therapeutic effect or to increase the risk of ADR. An increased awareness of PDDIs ,rational co –prescription of drugs and a close monitoring of patients in whom these drugs are prescribed is recommended .The recommendation is based on the special monitoring and the perspiration of the clinical pharmacist .The Drug interaction observed in the geriatric patient are more severe and common in compared to the other group of study. The geriatric patient are physiological disability in correspond with the first pass metabolism and the presence of the other disease which also enables the multiple prescription causing poly pharmacy. The gender specification also the cause of the interaction , the female are more prone to the drug interaction due to the hormonal distribution in the body and inability of the physiological function to absorb and the distribution .The special training should be provided to the pharmacist for looking forward of the geriatric patient and female patient .The training regarding the prescription their adherence, use, toxicity, dosage regimen ,are being properly enabled in the training for the practical application. This study helps to know the different interaction related to the cardiovascular agent with own class of the drug and the other class of drugs used therapeutically to care the disease.In total, of 173 prescriptions of the patient the total number of 329 drug interaction was found in which the 240 interaction was found in male and 89 in the female beraing the 72.90% and 27.10% respectively. Patient was of various age groups in which the maximum frequency was seen in the age group of 61- 70 years having 105 interaction bearing the percentage of 31.9% . According to the participation of different age group of the male and female with their corresponding age .The participation of male is high having frequency of 240 (72.9% )than female participation of frequency 89 (27.1%).The participation of male in the age group of 61-70 years is 83 and the female is 40 in the age group of 51-60 years. Potential drug interactions were categorized based on the gender. In that compared to 13 (40.6) females, males 19 (59.4%) were found to have more potential drug interactions. Our study more potential drug interactions in adult patients. Because, in adults lacking of nutrition’s and in elderly patients multiple prescribers, multiple drugs and multiple diseases. The number of potential DDI increased with an increase in the number of drug prescribed. The numbers of drug prescribed increase with age. This drug interaction have a potential to increase or decrease the therapeutic effect or to increase the risk of ADR. An increased awareness of PDDIs ,rational co –prescription of drugs and a close monitoring of patients in whom these drugs are prescribed is recommended .The recommendation is based on the special monitoring and the perspiration of the clinical pharmacist .The Drug interaction observed in the geriatric patient are more severe and common in compared to the other group of study. The geriatric patient are physiological disability in correspond with the first pass metabolism and the presence of the other disease which also enables the multiple prescription causing poly pharmacy. The gender specification also the cause of the interaction , the female are more prone to the drug interaction due to the hormonal distribution in the body and inability of the physiological function to absorb and the distribution .The special training should be provided to the pharmacist for looking forward of the geriatric patient and female patient .The training regarding the prescription their adherence, use, toxicity, dosage regimen ,are being properly enabled in the training for the practical application. This study helps to know the different interaction related to the cardiovascular agent with own class of the drug and the other class of drugs used therapeutically to care the disease.In total, of 173 prescriptions of the patient the total number of 329 drug interaction was found in which the 240 interaction was found in male and 89 in the female beraing the 72.90% and 27.10% respectively. Patient was of various age groups in which the maximum frequency was seen in the age group of 61- 70 years having 105 interaction bearing the percentage of 31.9% . According to the participation of different age group of the male and female with their corresponding age .The participation of male is high having frequency of 240 (72.9% )than female participation of frequency 89 (27.1%).The participation of male in the age group of 61-70 years is 83 and the female is 40 in the age group of 51-60 years. Potential drug interactions were categorized based on the gender. In that compared to 13 (40.6) females, males 19 (59.4%) were found to have more potential drug interactions. Our study more potential drug interactions in adult patients. Because, in adults lacking of nutrition’s and in elderly patients multiple prescribers, multiple drugs and multiple diseases. The number of potential DDI increased with an increase in the number of drug prescribed. The numbers of drug prescribed increase with age. This drug interaction have a potential to increase or decrease the therapeutic effect or to increase the risk of ADR. An increased awareness of PDDIs ,rational co –prescription of drugs and a close monitoring of patients in whom these drugs are prescribed is recommended .The recommendation is based on the special monitoring and the perspiration of the clinical pharmacist .The Drug interaction observed in the geriatric patient are more severe and common in compared to the other group of study. The geriatric patient are physiological disability in correspond with the first pass metabolism and the presence of the other disease which also enables the multiple prescription causing poly pharmacy. The gender specification also the cause of the interaction , the female are more prone to the drug interaction due to the hormonal distribution in the body and inability of the physiological function to absorb and the distribution .The special training should be provided to the pharmacist for looking forward of the geriatric patient and female patient .The training regarding the prescription their adherence, use, toxicity, dosage regimen ,are being properly enabled in the training for the practical application. This study helps to know the different interaction related to the cardiovascular agent with own class of the drug and the other class of drugs used therapeutically to care the disease.




11

IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF DRUG RELATED PROBLEMS IN INTENSIVE CARE UNITS AND EMERGENCY WARD OF A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Sushilkumar P L*, Anisha Thomas, Anuja P Solomon, Chinnu Kurian, Denitta Edassery
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davangere, Karnataka India.

Objective: To identify and assess the drug related problems in Intensive Care Units and Emergency Wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: This was a prospective observational study in which all patients above 18 years of age admitted to ICU’s and emergency ward were considered in inclusion criteria. Exclusion criteria involved patients not willing to participate and poisoning related cases. After the initial visit the patients’ case sheets were followed and the collected data was analyzed for possible Drug Related Problems. Results: In this study 160 cases were analyzed for DRPs. In terms of DRP, 146 cases were identified with DRP and 14 cases without DRPs. Major poly-pharmacy was common in the hospitalized patients as 69.4% of patients were given more than 10 drugs during the hospital stay. Drug-Drug interactions (64.47%) were the top ranking DRP followed by Drug Choice Problems (30.19%), Dosing Problems (3.77%) and ADRs (1.57%). The most common class of drugs involved in DRPs was Loop Diuretics. Azithromycin and Ondansetron was the most common drugs that interacted with each other. Potentially inappropriate drugs for geriatrics include Acetaminophen (9), Tramadol (7). Y-site drug incompatibility was 13.9%. There was an association between age, poly-pharmacy, co-morbidities and length of hospital stay with DRPs. Conclusion: Considering the results and conclusions, this study shows the significance of the need for clinical pharmacy services for better management of disease in order to reduce DRPs and improve quality of life. 


12

PRESCRIBING PATTERN AND SUSPECTED ADRs ASSOCIATED WITH ANTIBIOTICS PRESCRIBED FOR RTI IN PAEDIATRIC DEPARTMENT

T.Chaitanya Kumar*, Jerlin John, Minnu Jacob, Neena George, Neeta Reji
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davangere, Karnataka, India.

The study objective is to assess and analyze the prescribing pattern and suspected ADRs related with antibiotics prescribed for respiratory tract infections to the paediatric inpatients of a tertiary care hospital. A prospective observational study was carried out for a period of 6 months. One hundred and twenty case records of the inpatients were enrolled. Total of 120 inpatient prescriptions were collected. Males were predominant over females. Majority of the patients were between the age group 1- 5 years. The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (51.67%) among 110 lower respiratory tract infectious patients. The total number of antibiotic prescribed in our study was 178. Penicillins (48.32%) were the top most used class of antibiotics in this study followed by Cephalosporins (27.53%). Among Penicillins, Amoxicillin + Clavulanic acid (38.76%) were found to be mostly used. Monotherapy of antibiotics was high (52.81%). 85.4% of the antibiotics were given parenterally. Antibiotics were prescribed to paediatric patients based on empirical therapy. Among 84 Fixed Dose Combinations prescribed Amoxicillin + Clavulanic acid (82.1%) was the most commonly prescribed. In conclusion, we provide evidence justifying the need to modify the current approach to the management of RTI in the paediatrics. Minimizing inappropriate antibiotic use is thus the best way to control resistance. 


 


13

MICROEMULSION BASED GEL TECHNIQUE: - A NOVEL APPROACH FOR SUSTAINED DELIVERY TO TREAT FUNGAL INFECTION

Saran Kumar Das*1, Aisha Khanum1, Anirban Ghosh2
1Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, Hosur road, Opposite of Lalbagh Main gate, Pin- 560027.
2NHPL, Novartis Knowledge City, Inorbit Mall Road, Hitech City, Hyderabad, Pin:- 500081.

These modern days we have many problem and unsolved question about tablets and liquid preparation for treatment of chronic fungal diseases. To overcome all such problems semisolid preparations especially gels were came into picture. Gels are more prominent for delivering the drug to the site of action on skin. But the major problem with the gel is they are aqueous in nature and they cannot incorporate lipophilic drugs in them, and unfortunately most of the antifungal drugs are lipophilic in nature. So to solve the issue oil in water type emulsion is prepared. Then emulsion mixed with aqueous gel and a new drug delivery system emulgel is formed. The microemulgel is prepared by reducing the globule size of the emulsion (less then 200nm) so that drug particle can easily penetrate through the stratum corneum. In spite of penetration the microemulgel for skin has several other advantages like longer shelf-life, easily removable, self administration etc. It also has several favourable formulation advantages like easily spreadable, non grease, thixotropic, transparent, non-staining, and bio-friendly. This novel drug delivery system can use as targeted delivery for treatment of superficial fungal infection. The Novel vesicular drug delivery system also can be used for delivering analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, anti-acne, anti-viral drugs. This review gives detailed information about fungal diseases and their causative agents and properties, formulation consideration, various method of preparation, advantages, application and Characterization of microemulsion based gel for drug delivery system.