IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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December 2011
1

Formulation and Evaluation of Perindopril Erbumine Buccal Films

M.Aruna*,Y.S.Manjunath, G.Ganesh Kumar
Srikrupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Vil. Velkatta, Mdl: Kondapak, Dist. Medak, Siddipet, Andhra Pradesh – 502 277, India.

Abstract

The buccal region of the oral cavity is an attractive target for administration of the drug of
choice. To increase bioavailability and prevent first pass metabolism of drug, Perindopril
Erbumine was embedded in sustained released buccal patch over period of 6 hour. The
objective of present work was to characterize the effect of HPMC with Eudragit, sodium
CMC and EC for water soluble drug by preparing mucoadhesive buccal patch. Each
formulated batch was subjected to various evaluation parameters. The swelling percentage
was found to be function of solubility of drug and polymer. The mucoadhesive strength and
in-vitro released of water soluble drug through water insoluble HPMC base matrix were found
satisfactorily. The physical appearance of buccal patch was examined by scanning electron
microscopy. In the present study, attempts were made to prepare and evaluate the Buccal
films containing Perindopril hydrochloride, an antihypertensive drug using Hydroxy propyl
methyl cellulose, Eudragit RL-100, Eudragit RS-100, Dichloro-Methane, Methanol. The
results showed that buccal patches prepared Using 15% propylene glycol w/w of polymer
weight was found to have good physical characteristics. A remarkable increase in thickness,
FTIR, drug content uniformity, drug release and stability studies percent swelling index,
percent moisture uptake and mechanical properties with an increase in the percent hydrophilic
polymer (HPMC). All the patches were, thin, smooth and flexible, uniformity in drug content,
weight and thickness were observed with their low SD values. In-vitro drug permeation
through sheep buccal mucosa was performed using Franz diffusion cells. The film showed
maximum permeation at the end of 6 hrs. The release mechanism from all membrane
controlled systems followed diffusion mechanism. All the systems were found to be stable
with respect to drug content as well as physical changes at 400C and 75% RH.

2

Review Article: Carbon Nanotubes Treats Cancer

A Arun kumar*1, Subal debnath1, Arghya Acharjee2, Saurav Nandi2,
1Sr ikrupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vil. Velkatta, Kondapak (mdl), Dist. Medak, Siddipet,
Andhra Pradesh – 502 277.
2Aurobindo Pharma Ltd, Maitrivihar, Ameerpet, Hyderabad, A.P.

Abstract

This article examines an over view about Carbon nanotubes, their properties which are
useful to treat cancer barriers for implementing targeted delivery of cancer treatment drugs
by using carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It was established that this technology is highly viable
as a means of treating cancer but its development was still immature. The group found a
number of key areas that could potentially be explored further in research, but ultimately
recommend the further exploration of issues surrounding toxicity of CNTs in medical
applications. Carbon nanotubes can be used in various therapeutic applications like cancer
therapy, intracellular targeting, prolonged systemic circulation, vaccine adjuvant, per oral
absorption, ocular delivery, DNA delivery, oligonucleotide delivery applications. The main
advantage of using CNTs as a drug carrier compared to free drug is the potential to target
delivery for selective destruction of certain types of cells, reducing the toxicity to nontargeted
cells. As the micro-environments of extra cellular tissues of tumors and
intracellular lysosomes and endosomes are acidic, the situation will potentially facilitate the
active drug release from SW-CNT delivery vehicles. Hence CNTs shows potential for
selective and specific targeting of cells. Recently, there have been new studies on carbon
nanotubes which have given cancer patients and their loved ones new hope to beat this
terrible disease. This type of research could be the future of fighting cancer or other
diseases and it is going to be up to chemical engineers and people in related fields to
continue this research to better the world. For our paper we intend to elaborate on the
discussion of this existing technology and to tell how it is being developed into a better
cancer fighter.

3

A review: Liposome drug delivery system

P. Priyanka*, P. Nandini, Subal Debnath, Santhosh Kumar C, 1Atul N Chandu.
Sr ikrupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vil. Velkatta, Kondapak (mdl), Dist. Medak, Siddipet, Andhra Pradesh – 502 277.
1Pydha College of Pharmacy, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh.
Corresponding

Abstract

Liposomes are the smallest artificial vesicles of spherical shape that can be
produced from natural untoxic phospholipids and cholesterol. Liposomes are
concentric bilayered vesicles in which aqueous volume is entirely enclosed
by a membranous lipid bilayer mainly of natural or untoxic synthetic
phospholipids. Liposomes are extremely versatile due to the variability of
their composition. However, their predominance in drug delivery and
targetting has enabled them to be used as therapeutic tool in fields like
tumour targeting, gene and antisense theraphy, genetic vaccination,
immunomodulation, lung therapeutics, fungal infections and skin care and
topical osmetic products. By this topic we can know different innovative
and unique technological formulations of liposomes for the different
ailment of diseases.

4

Optimization of fast dissolving aceclofenac tablets using factorial design

Prabhuling VR1*, PK kulkarni1, Srikrihna R.M1, Niraj kumar1, Nansri Saha Ghosh2, Soumik Ghosh3
1JSS college of pharmacy, SS nagar, Banimantap road, Mysore, Karnataka – 570015.
2 SSJ college of pharmacy, Vattinagula pally, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh– 500 075, India.
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

The Aceclofenac is available in tablets dosage form and is yet not official in any
pharmacopoeia except B.P. Aceclofenac is practically insoluble in water and peak blood
level rechease between 1.25 to 3 hrs after oral administration. It is practically insoluble in
aqueous fluids. The rate and extent of dissolution of the drug from any solid dosage form
determines the rate and extent of absorption of the drug. Present work was undertaken to
study the effect of variables on the characteristics of fast dissolving tablets of aceclofenac
utilizing the factorial design. Solid dispersion containing aceclofenac and carrier in the
proportion of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4 were prepared by either melt solvent or solvent
evaporation method. A 32 full factorial design was adapted to optimize the variables6.
Amount of crospovidone (X1) and amount of mannitol (X2) were selected as independent
variables. In vitro dissolution study of tablets were conducted using USP dissolution
apparatus II (model TDT-06T, Electolab) at 50 rpm, using phosphate buffer pH 6.8 as a
dissolution media9, 10 maintaining at 37 ± 0.5 0 C. Sample were withdrawn at various time
intervals, filtered through a whattmen filter paper, diluted and assayed at 275 nm using UV/
Vis double beam spectrometer. Solid dispersion of drug with mannitol was prepared by
melt solvent method. The formulated tablets were characterized for various parameters like
hardness, friability, disintegration, wetting and in vitro dissolution.

5

Formulation and Evaluation of Gastroretentive Floating Microballoons of Norfloxacin

Joydeep Dutta*1, G.Ganesh Kumar2, Vikas Dash3, Savendu Saha4
*Vignan Institute of Pharmaceuticals Sciences, Vignan Hills, Pochampalli.(A.P.)
2Srikrupa Institute of Pharmaceuticals Sciences,Siddipet,(A.P.)
3Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceuticals Sciences, Atchend, Rourkela, Orrisa.
4Prasad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Warangal, A.P.

Abstract

The present study involves preparation and evaluation of floating
microballoons with norfloxacin s model drug for prolongation of gastric
residence time. The microballoons were prepared by the solvent evaporation
method using a combination of polymer Eudragit RS 100 and Eudragit L
100. The shape and surface morphology of prepared microballoons were
characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. In
vitro drug release studies were performed and drug release kinetics was
evaluated using the linear regression method. Effects of stirring rate during
preparation, polymer concentration, solvent composition and dissolution
medium on the size of microballoons, and drug release were also observed.
The prepared microballoons exhibited prolonged drug release (8 hours) and
remained buoyant for >10 hours. The mean particle size increased and the
drug release rate decreased at higher polymer concentration. No significant
effect of the stirring rate during preparation on drug release was observed. In
vitro studies demonstrated diffusion-controlled drug release from the
microballoons.

6

A REVIEW: HERB-DRUG INTERACTIONS

P.Naveen*, B.Gopi shankar, V.Srikanth, Ch.Laxmaiah, Satheesh Prathapani
Department of pharmacology, Srikrupa institute of pharmaceutical sciences, Siddipet, Medak, Andhra
Pradesh, India -502277.

Abstract

Alternative medicine is becoming popular worldwide and this is clearly evident from
the rapidly escalating sales figures. The time tested and clinically proven herbal
medicines like Aloe vera, St John’s wort, Gingo biloba, Garlic, Ephedra etc., make up
most of the world’s market as for as alternative medicine is concerned. Advances in
western medicine have dramatically increased health conditions and life expectancy of
people. In spite of the latest developments in allopathic system of medicine people still
seek alternative and complimentary system. The use of herbal medicine to treat a wide
range of conditions is rising rapidly, leading to increased intake of phytochemicals.
Recent studies reveal potential fatal interactions between herbal medicines and drugs.
Herbal medicine is amongst the 16 alternative systems of medicine, which is used to
treat existing illness and also for preventive and health conditions. Herbs like Aloe
vera, St John’s wort, Ginkgo biloba, Feverfew, Ginger and Kava make most of the
market. The increasing popularity of alternative therapies, including herbal remedies is
a new challenge for health care providers because the evidence on safety for herbal
remedies incomplete, complex and confusing. The herbal medicines are certainly
associated with risks and benefits. Interaction between herbal medicines and drugs are
based on the same pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles as like drug-drug
interactions. Now present condition patients taking both ayurvedic and allopathic
treatment remain aware of potential herb-drug interaction and avoid taking medications
.which might prove hazardous to their already deteriorating health. This article
provides brief idea about pharmacist can change the present scenario and utilize their
knowledge in providing healthy information about herb-drug interaction.

7

Matrix Tablets as Controlled drug delivery systems

Kiran Kumar.S*, T,Rama Rao1, K.N.Jayaveera2
*1Vijaya college of Pharmacy, Munaganoor (v), Hayath Nagar (M),Hyderabad, India.
2J.N.T.U, Anantapur, India.

Abstract

From the point of patient compliance, dosage regimen of an orally
administered drug may be considered to be optional when the therapeutic
effects are maintained for the desired duration of the treatment at the lowest
frequency of administration.The development of delivery system from
which the active substance is released at a passively controlled release rate
over an extended period of time. One of the most rational ways to increase
the therapeutic efficacy of drugs consists in creating their ready to use forms
with controlled release, which allows the desired therapeutic effects by
reduced number of drug intakes, thus decrease the level of toxicity and risk
of side effects. The modern ready-to-use medicinal forms for per oral
administration with controlled drug release include matrix tablets.

8

Matrix Tablets as Controlled drug delivery systems

Kiran Kumar.S*, T,Rama Rao1, K.N.Jayaveera2
*1Vijaya college of Pharmacy, Munaganoor (v), Hayath Nagar (M),Hyderabad, India.
2J.N.T.U, Anantapur, India.

Abstract

From the point of patient compliance, dosage regimen of an orally
administered drug may be considered to be optional when the therapeutic
effects are maintained for the desired duration of the treatment at the lowest
frequency of administration.The development of delivery system from
which the active substance is released at a passively controlled release rate
over an extended period of time. One of the most rational ways to increase
the therapeutic efficacy of drugs consists in creating their ready to use forms
with controlled release, which allows the desired therapeutic effects by
reduced number of drug intakes, thus decrease the level of toxicity and risk
of side effects. The modern ready-to-use medicinal forms for per oral
administration with controlled drug release include matrix tablets.

9

VALIDATED FOR THE ESTIMATION OF AMLODIPINE IN HUMAN PLASMA OVER

Rajesh Manyam1*, Karuna Prasad1, P.Y.Naidu1, Arghya Acharjee2, Subal debnath3
1Orchid pharmaceuticals,SIPCOT Industrial area, Irrungattukottai, kanchipuram road, Chennai, T.N.
2College of Pharmacy, SRIPMS, Coimbatore, India.
3Srikrupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vil. Velkatta, Mdl: Kondapak,Dist. Medak, Siddipet, Andhra
Pradesh – 502 277.

Abstract

The present study aims to develop the bio-analytical method for the
estimation of amlodipine in human plasma and evaluate the pharmacokinetic
variables after a single oral dose in eight healthy male human volunteers in a
two way, two period, and complete crossover design. For the estimation of
the drugs present in the biological fluid, LC-MS/MS method is considered
to be more suitable. The limit of quantification was 0.1 ng/ml for plasma
amlodipine analysis. The geometric mean and the 90% confidence interval
(CI) test/reference ratios were 101.2 (92.9-110.2%) for AUClast, 99.6 (91.5-
108.4%) for AUC0-inf and 98.5 (89.0-109.1%) for Cmax. Since the 90% CI for
AUClast, AUC0-inf and Cmax ratios were within in the 80-125% interval
proposed by the US FDA, it was concluded that Amlodipine® 10 mg tablet
(test formulation) was bioequivalent to Norvasc® 10 mg tablet, in terms of
both rate and extent of absorption.

10

Formulation and Evaluation of Gastroretentive Floating Microballoons of Norfloxacin

Joydeep Dutta*1, G.Ganesh Kumar2, Vikas Dash3, Savendu Saha4
*Vignan Institute of Pharmaceuticals Sciences, Vignan Hills, Pochampalli.(A.P.)
2Srikrupa Institute of Pharmaceuticals Sciences,Siddipet,(A.P.)
3Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceuticals Sciences, Atchend, Rourkela, Orrisa.
4Prasad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Warangal, A.P.

Abstract

The present study involves preparation and evaluation of floating
microballoons with norfloxacin s model drug for prolongation of gastric
residence time. The microballoons were prepared by the solvent evaporation
method using a combination of polymer Eudragit RS 100 and Eudragit L
100. The shape and surface morphology of prepared microballoons were
characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. In
vitro drug release studies were performed and drug release kinetics was
evaluated using the linear regression method. Effects of stirring rate during
preparation, polymer concentration, solvent composition and dissolution
medium on the size of microballoons, and drug release were also observed.
The prepared microballoons exhibited prolonged drug release (8 hours) and
remained buoyant for >10 hours. The mean particle size increased and the
drug release rate decreased at higher polymer concentration. No significant
effect of the stirring rate during preparation on drug release was observed. In
vitro studies demonstrated diffusion-controlled drug release from the
microballoons.

11

Quality and regulatory affairs of herbal drugs: A world-wide Review

G. Sushma, Subal debnath1, Santhosh Kumar C, 1Atul N Chandu.
Sr ikrupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vil. Velkatta, Kondapak (mdl), Dist. Medak, Siddipet,
Andhra Pradesh – 502 277.
1Pydha College of Pharmacy, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh

Abstract

Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 75 - 80% of the world
population, mainly in the developing countries, for primary health care. This
is primarily because of the general belief that herbal drugs are without any
side effects besides being cheap and locally available. According to the
World Health Organization (WHO), the use of herbal remedies throughout
the world exceeds that of the conventional drugs by two to three times. This
review highlights the current advances in knowledge about the safety,
efficacy, quality control, marketing and regulatory aspects of botanical
medicines. Phytotherapeutic agents are standardized herbal preparations
consisting of complex mixtures of one or more plants which contain as
active ingredients plant parts or plant material in the crude or processed
state. Regulatory affairs and clinical trails should be made on herbal drugs to
improve their availability.