IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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OCTOBER 2015
1

FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF IN SITU OPHTHALMIC GEL OF EPINASTINE HYDROCHLORIDE

Azmat Shaikh1*, Talat Farheen1, Sadhana Shahi2, Zahid Zaheer1
1Y.B. Chavan College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Aurangabad-431001, Maharashtra, India.
2Government College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Aurangabad-431005, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The poor bioavailability of ophthalmic solutions caused by dilution and drainage from the eye can be overcome by using in situ forming ophthalmic drug delivery system prepared from polymer that exhibit reversible liquid–gel phase transition. The objective of the study was to develop optimized formulation of in situophthalmic gel of Epinastine hydrochloride using ion activated polymer, Gelrite (gellan gum) as a gelling polymer, HPMC E-50LV (hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose) as release retardant and benzalkonium chloride as a preservative. The 32 full factorial design was employed to optimize the formulation wherein HPMC E-50LV (X1) and Gelrite (X2) were taken as independent variables & the dependent variables were viscosity (Y1) and release of drug (Y2). The formulations were assessed for appearance, gelation ability, sterility, pH, drug content, viscosity, release through cellophane membrane & corneal membrane of goat, ocular irritation study & stability study.The developed formulations F4 and F5 werefound to be stable, non-irritant to rabbit eyes and in vitro drug release were found to be 95.56% and 95.13% over the period of 12 hr through cellophane membrane and 91.24% and 91.22% through corneal membrane of goat respectively.The stable in situ gelling system of Epinastine hydrochloridewas successfully developed using Gelrite and HPMC E-50LV.

2

AN ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY ON NICOTINE BEHAVIOR AT ANTHRAQUINONE-CARBON PASTE SENSOR AND ITS ESTIMATION IN CIGARATTE TOBACCO SAMPLES VOLTAMETRICALLY

Tadesse Abrha1, Rishi Pal2, Abraha Tadese1, Amaha Woldu1, Ram Chander Saini1*
1Department of Chemistry, College of Natural & Computational Sciences, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
2SBMN Institute of Pharma Scences & Research, Baba Mastnath University, Asthal Bohr-124021, Rohtak, Heryana, India.

Abstract

Nicotine, one of the major contents of tobacco smoke, is highly deleterious to smokers and companion non-smokers. For its qualitative and quantitative measurement electrochemical techniques are gaining importance due to their accurate and quick response under typical environments. A new method involving anthraquinone-carbon paste based sensor has been developed and applied for determination of nicotine in cigarette tobacco, voltametrically. Well-defined irreversible and reproducible oxidation peak signal of 2.02 μA was observed at 927.5 mV vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode using phosphate buffer solution of nicotine in strong basic medium (pH 12). Square wave electrochemical parameters such as pulse amplitude, step potential and frequency were optimized. Nicotine solutions between 5.0 μM to 200.0 μM concentration, observed a linear behavior of its anodic oxidation peak signals vs concentration. Standard calibration curve has been constructed for its quantification in the extract of real samples of two brands of cigarette tobacco. The calculated magnitudes of detection and quantification limits for nicotine were 0.52 μM and 1.73 μM, respectively. The diffusion-controlled electrochemical oxidation behavior of nicotine has been observed at the interface. The validity and reproducibility of the results obtained by using the present technique was established through, quantification of nicotine from standard spiked real samples under investigation and the effect of ageing on features and performance of the developed sensor. The present methodology may prove a valuable tool for detection and estimation of nicotine in real samples of even foods and drugs that are related to daily use for the wellbeing of humanity.

3

COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF INHIBITORY ACTION OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AGAINST WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI RECEPTOR IN COMPARISON TO CHEMICAL DRUGS

Hridya Ramesh, Pooja Venkat, Riya Rane, Rahul Ravichandran*
School of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, D. Y. Patil University, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Filariasis, a parasitic disease caused by the species of the superfamily Filariodia. Elephantiasis a common symptom of filariasis causes thickening of the skin. The current study deals with evaluation of selected 5 chemical compounds and 9 phytochemicals that act on the receptor protein targeted by these parasites. The chemical compounds along with the phytochemicals where screened and docked against the receptor molecule. It is concluded that the phytochemicals have better binding efficiency than the drug molecules.

4

DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CYCLODEXTRIN DERIVATIVES INCLUSION COMPLEX OF EZETIMIBE FOR FAST DISSOLUTION TABLETS

Nishan N. Bobade1, Ashish K Khrobragade2, Shagufta A Khan3, Pramod G Yeole3
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Vidya - Bharati College of Pharmacy, C. K. Naidu Road, Camp Amravati, Dist Amravati, State Maharashtra. India 444602.
2Macleods Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Ganesh Industrial Estate, Survey No. 363/1, Kachigam, Daman-396210 India.
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (IPER),Borgaon (Meghe), Wardha,442001, Maharashtra State, India.

Abstract

The objective of present research work was to select cyclodextrins derivative for inclusion complex with Ezetimibe and formulate fast dissolution tablets to enhance pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic performance of drug. Ezetimibe is a poorly water soluble drug and erratically absorbed in stomach and possess several dissolution related problems thus it has poor bioavailability, attempts have been made to formulate inclusion complexes using various water soluble carriers with objectives .The phase solubility studie was performed with drug and betacyclodextrin, hydroxyl propyl betacyclodextrin and methylated betacyclodextrin. The inclusion complex was prepared with Hydroxy propyl beta-cyclodextrin and Methylated betacyclodextrin by Kneading Method, Ultrasonification Method and Physical Mixture. The Characterization Of Inclusion Complexes was performed by sophisticated analytical technique FTIR Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, DSC. The results of these studies indicated that complex of the EZE molecule into the cyclodextrins cavities Inclusion complexes of Ezetimibe prepared with M--CD and HP--CD showed improved stability and dissolution behavior as compared to plain drug. Cyclodetrine derivative inclusion complex was evaluate for UV Interference, Drug content,Solubility,Dissolution studies and stability studies. Complexes were stable with non siginificants changes in drug content, solubility and dissolution rate after three month stability testing under 75±5% RH & 40±20C. hydroxypropyl cyclodextrin and methylated beta cyclodextrin inclusion complex was incoperated into fast dissolution tablets with various concentration of cross povidone . Fast dissolution tablets for drug were evaluated for different test Uniformity of weight, Hardness, Friability,Thickness,Drug content,Disintegration study,dissolution studies and stability studies. Tablet formulation HP-4 (HPUS 1:1) and Me-4 (MeUS 1:2) showed highest dissolution of all.

5

FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CAPSULES CONTAINING EPIGALLOCATECHIN GALLATE AND ROSUVASTATIN CALCIUM NANOPARTICLES

Ramkumar Ponnuraj1, Janakiraman K1, Sivaraman Gopalakrishnan2, Arunkumar Arumugam2
1Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Annamalai University, India.
2Product Development, Apex Laboratories, India.

Abstract

Rosuvastatin Calcium is a statin used extensively for the treatment of dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. As reported statin induced the expression of atrogin-1, a key gene involved in skeletal muscle atrophy [1] and hence Rosuvastatin can possibly cause myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. In this process the function of mitochondria play a vital role in limiting the atrophy. Epigallocatechin gallate promotes mitochondrial biogenesis [2] and thereby prevents the atrophy caused by statin. Similarly, Epigallocatechin gallate can also helps in reducing the LDL cholesterol. Both Rosuvastatin Calcium and Epigallocatechin gallate have a poor bioavailability and it can be improved by the use of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were filled in hard gelatin capsules along with Microcrystalline Cellulose, Colloidal Silicon Dioxide, Magnesium Trisilicate and Magnesium Stearate. The ratio of Colloidal Silicon Dioxide, Magnesium Trisilicate and Magnesium Stearate was studied using two level Factorial design. The final product is stable and provides a sustained release for 24 hours. The combination proved to be promising with improved efficacy and reduced side effects.

6

A REVIEW ON COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH

Sandeep Gapat*, Mayuri Gaikwad, Vishwanath Morkhande, S. R. Sayyed, Yadav Vivek, Kure Sapana
Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College, Kava Road, Latur.

Abstract

Day by day there are new developments in the field of colon specific drug delivery system. Lot of research is undergoing in colon specific drug delivery as this route is not only useful for targeting the drugs required in the treatment of diseases associated with colon like Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, etc., but also as a potential site for the local and systemic delivery of peptide and proteins and other therapeutic drugs anti-asthmatic drugs, antihypertensive drugs (Isosorbide, Cyclosporine, Desmopressin) and anti-diabetic agents. The colon is the terminal part of the GIT which has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for both local and systemic administration. To achieve successful colon targeted drug delivery, a drug need to be protected from degradation, release and absorption in the upper portion of the GI tract and then to be ensured abrupt or controlled release in the proximal colon and that system refers to delivery of drug in to lower part of the GI tract, mainly large intestine. When this is the most important delivery of those drug which are normally inactivated in the upper parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). To achieve the maximum site specific and time dependent delivery of drugs to colon, combinations of two or more approaches are preferred over individual approaches. Because of limited success of primary approaches newly developed approaches are preferred.

7

ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFIXIME TRIHYDRATE AND ORNIDAZOLE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC METHOD

K.Veena*, D. Sireesha, T. Rajini, M. Akiful Haque, S. Harshini, B.Vasudha
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, Anurag Group of Institutions.
(Formerly Lalitha College of Pharmacy), Venkatapur (V), Ghatkesar (M), Rangareddy (D), Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Abstract

The main objective of this method was to develop a simple, accurate, precise, economical and sensitive reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method which can separate and quantitatively estimate Cefixime trihydrate (CEF) and Ornidazole (ORD) in combined dosage form. The chromatographic sepration for CEF and ORD was achieved with mobile phase containing 1% triethyl amine (pH adjusted to 5 with 0.1% orthophosphoric acid) and methanol (40:60 % v/v), reverse phase Thermo scientificTM HypersilTM BDS 5μ C18 120A (250 × 4.60 mm i.d ) column in isocratic mode at room temperature and UV detection 302nm. The compounds were eluted at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The retention times of CEF and ORD were found to be 2.565min and 3.557min respectively. The above method was validated in terms of System suitability, linearity, accuracy, precision, Limit of Detection (LOD), Limit of Quantification (LOQ) in accordance with ICH guidelines. The results which are obtained from the method validation were within the acceptable limit. In conclusion a method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of CEF and ORD in combined dosage form. The developed method was simple, rapid, precise, economical and suitable for routine quality control analysis and quantification of these drugs in combined dosage form.

8

STUDY ON ALGAL BIODIVERSITY OF FATEH SAGAR TALAB IN BAGAR, JHUNJHUNU (RAJ.) INDIA

Sunita Verma, J. B. Khan
Department of Botany, Govt Lohia PG College, Churu-331001(Raj.) India.

Abstract

In the present study algal samples were collected at monthly intervals from July 2012 to June 2014. A total 6 group of algal specis have been identified and recorded from Fateh Sagar Talab in Bagar of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan. Algal members belonged to Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Charophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Xanthophycae were recorded in which Chlorophyceae group was found dominant. Algal genera such as Spirogyra, Scenedesmus, Cosmarium, Nitzschia, Oscillatoria, Lyngbya were found dominant in present study sity. In the present investigation, algal flora of seven different sites of water body is rich and it is found in diverse form that indicates the water body became polluted gradually. The aim of present study to provide basis for further investigation on algal biodiversity and to protect the water bodies for maintain the aquatic ecosystem.

9

“RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF IMATINIB MESYLATE AND APPLICATION TO ITS DOSAGE FORMS (TABLETS AND CAPSULES)’’

Shaik Munwar Pasha *, R. Vani
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Deccan School of Pharmacy Darussalam, Hyderabad.500023.

Abstract

The objective of the present investigation has been to develop simple, accurate and economical RP-HPLC method for the estimation of imatinib mesylate and application to its dosage forms (tablets,capsules). Chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically using C18 column (hypersil ODS, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) in isocratic mode The mobile phase consisted of water and acetonitrile 30:70 v/v (pH3.5) using ortho phosphoric acid. The detection was carried out at 272nm for Imatinib mesylate. The flow rate was 1 ml/min. The run time was found to be 6 min. Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 50-150 % for Imatinib mesylate . Percent recoveries obtained for the drug was 98.99%. The percentage RSD for precision of the method was found to be less than2%. The developed method is acurate for the estimation of Imatinib mesylate present in dosage forms. The validation of method was carried out utilizing ICH-guidelines. The described HPLC method was successfully employed for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations (tablets and capsules) containing Imatinib mesylate .the percentage purity of imatinib mesylate tablets and capsules was found to be 100.08% and100.57% respectively. Conclusion: From the above experimental results and parameters it was concluded that, this newly developed method for the estimation of Imatinib was found to be simple, precise, accurate and high resolution and shorter retention time makes this method more acceptable and cost effective and it can be effectively applied for routine analysis in research institutions, quality control department in industries, approved testing laboratories, bio-pharmaceutical and bio-equivalence studies and in clinical pharmacokinetic studies in near future.

10

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CHEWABLE TABLETS OF IBUPROFEN USING COPROCESSED EXCIPIENTS

Rohan A. Khutale1, Dr. Nagesh H Aloorkar2

1Department of Pharmaceutics,Gourishankar Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Limb, Satara/ Shivaji University, Maharashtra

2Department of Pharmaceutics,Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara/ Shivaji University, Maharashtra

Abstract

In the present work, chewable tablet of ibuprofen were prepared using novel coprocessed excipient consisting of dicalcium phosphate and magnesium stearate, in different ratios. The developed excipient were evaluated for angle of repose, cars index and hausners ratio in comparison with physical mixture of excipient. The angle of repose of developed excipient was found to be less than 200, cars index in the range of 10-20% and hausners ratio in the range of  1.10 -1.17. Chewable tablet of ibuprofen were prepared using the coprocessed excipient and evaluated for pre compression and post compression parameters. In vitro drug release pattern were taken in PBS- 6.8 and short term stability study (at 400C/75% RH for 3 months),drug excipient interactions (IR,DSC) were studied. Among the designed formulations, the formulation (B1) containing (21:0.5  mixture of dicalcium phosphate and magnesium stearate) emerged as the overall best formulation, based on drug release characteristics in PBS-6.8 compared to other formulation. Short term stability studies on promising formulation indicating that there were no significant changes in drug content and in vitro drug release. Thus successful development of a novel coprocessed excipient and formulation of chewable tablet of ibuprofen fulfils the objective of work.

11

ASSESSMENT OF METABOLIC DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH ATYPICAL ANTI PSYCHOTIC AGENTS

Dr. R Venkata Ramudu1, K Dharani2, T Mahendra2, D Srawanthi2, N Prasad2, E Sam JeevaKumar3, Dr. M Purushothaman4

1M.D, Department of Psychiatry, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, India. 

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, P RamiReddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, India.

3Department of Pharmacy Practice, P RamiReddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, India.

4Principal, P RamiReddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, India.

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome is a disorder of energy consumption and storage. The use of atypical antipsychotics were reported to cause the metabolic disorders which occurs in medical circumstances like abnormal findings include insulin resistance, elevated fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride levels (TG), cholesterol levels (TC) and BMI. Our aim was to assess the metabolic disorders associated with atypical antipsychotics. A Prospective Observational Study (follw-up study) was carried out in Psychiatric department of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science, Kadapa for a period of 6 months. The patient’s base-line values of blood glucose, lipid profiles (TG, TC) and BMI were recorded and regular follow-ups were done for every 4 weeks until 3 months and finally the metabolic disorders associated with atypical antipsychotics were assessed. Finally in framing results we have recruited 23 patients out of 180 and incidence rate of 0.12. The baseline values were normal and at end of the study their values were for the particular metabolic disorder and shows that BMI (50.43%) tends to vary most next weight (48.64%) and FBS (42.48%) varies with the use of atypical antipsychotics.The drugs tends to cause metabolic disorders fall in the order, OLANZAPINE (10mg) > CLOZAPINE (10mg) + RISPERIDONE (3mg) > RISPERIDONE (3mg) > OLANZAPINE (5mg) > OLANZAPINE (10mg) + CLOZAPINE (50mg) > RISPERIDONE (2mg). AAPs are producing an increased incidence of metabolic diseases (blood glucose, TC, TG, weight gain) so the management of psychiatric disorders should be multidisciplinary including psychiatrist, diabetologist and paramedical staff.

12

COST ANALYSIS AND PRESCRIBING PATTERNS OF ANTIBIOTICS IN POSTOPERATIVE SURGERY PATIENTS

Mohammed Imranuddin1, Meenaz Asfin2, VV. Sruthi, Shreya Deshpande, Mr. Praveen Kumar. T, Dr. M. V. Ranga Reddy, Dr. B. V. S. Lakshmi

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Maisammaguda, Secunderabad, Telangana.

2Department of General Surgery, Malla Reddy Hospital, Suraram, Rrangareddy Dist, Telangana.

 Abstract

Background: Antibiotics are one of the most common drugs prescribed in the hospitals. The present survey was performed to study the style of prescription and brands prescribed of different types of antibiotic regimens in different surgeries in and assess the appropriateness of antibiotic therapy through a comparison with the standard guidelines for antibiotic prescription. Methodology: A prospective and observational study was carried to evaluate the patients undergone surgery through six months duration from January 2015 to June 2015. The total number of 500 post operative prescription of patients were enrolled in study and suitable questionnaires were prepared to collect the patient data like demographic details, type of surgery, and parameters of antibiotic therapy including selection of antibiotic, dose, route and duration of therapy were taken. Results:  A total of 500 patient’s data was entered according to the patient demographic details in which 275(55%) male and 225(45%) female. The total numbers of antibiotics used were 1065 in which 55.77% of third generation Cephalosporin and 18.49% of Metronidazole were used. In the study seven different combinations of antibiotics were prescribed. The most common surgery performed was appendectomy. The number of antibiotic 183 patients receiving one antibiotic and  161 patients receiving two antibiotics and other 156 patients three or more antibiotics (antibiotic combination). Cefotaxime was the common antibiotic prescribed it was written for 300 patients as a single agent or in combination with other antibiotics. Cefotaxime with Metronidazole was the common antibiotic combination, prescribed for 148 patients. Conclusion: The role of clinical pharmacist by studying the prescribing patterns will be useful to avoid irrational use of antibiotics and Cost analysis can be useful. If implemented could reduce the economic burden on the patients by reducing the length of hospital stay.

13

MIGRAINE - A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

Panchumarthy Ravisankar1, Anusha Hundia1, Jasti Sindhura1, Bandi Sudha Rani1, Panchumarthy Sai Anvith2, Panchumarthy Pragna3

1Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, Guntur (Dist.) - 522213, Andhra Pradesh State, India.

2Sri Chaitanya Educational institution, Medical Academy, Lakshmipuram-522 007, A.P. State, India.

3Malla Reddy Medical College for Women, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad-500055, Telangana State, India.

Abstract

Headaches are general and some out of them are worse than others which are defined as migraines. Migraine headaches are one of the most common problems owing to alterations in the brain and surrounding blood vessels and may exist from four to seventy two hours. Over a lifetime, only one percent of us escape headaches altogether. Over a year, it is estimated that ninety percent of the population get at least one headache. About sixteen to seventeen percent of the population get a migraine headache sometime in their life – that is to say over a billion people worldwide at some point get migraine. Migraine may bring a suffering phase in an individual’s schedule yet it can be handled with the familiarity of some self-care remedies and by making simple modifications in the routine lifestyle. Depending upon the severity and occurrence of the attacks, it becomes essential to take migraine medications on a temporary basis or long duration. However, natural care along with appropriate drugs, if need be may expedite the healing process. In fact, holistic approach may even avert the happenings of migraine episodes in the first place. During adolescence migraines become more common among women and this carry on for the rest of the lifetime, and two times more common among elderly females than male.  In women migraines without aura are more common than migraines with aura, however in men the two types happen with similar rate of recurrence. On the whole, maintaining a healthy weight, regular and healthy meal routine, regular sleeping schedule, exercise and lastly positive and stress-free attitude towards life may facilitate to pave the clear way to recovery and make things easier for migraine management.

14

FORMULATION AND INVITRO- EVALUATION OF GASTRO- RETENTIVE SUPERPOROUS HYDROGEL TABLETS OF FAMOTIDINE

P. Sushma,* P. Vishnu, V. Uma Maheshwar Rao, K. Naveen Babu

Department of Pharmaceutics, CMR College of Pharmacy, Kandlakoya, Medchal Road, Hyderabad-501401, Telangana, INDIA.

Abstract

Superporous hydrogel (SPH) is three dimensional network of hydrophilic polymer that are not soluble and absorb large amount of water in short period due to its numerous inter connected microscopic pores. These systems swell rapidly and maintain integrity in the harsh stomach environment. Because of its porous structure SPH posses more surface area and shorter diffusion distance. They not only show fast swelling but also have properties like slipperiness, biodegradability, biocompatibility, high mechanical strength, high swelling capacity and stability in acidic condition of stomach. Swollen hydrogel will be strong enough to withstand with shear force, abrasion, pressure generated in stomach by gastric fluid. Because of this property these devices are proposed for extending gastric residence time of drug. To overcome the problems associated with conventional superporous hydrogels related to mechanical strength are modified by developing second generation of superporous hydrogel composite (SPHCs) and third generation of superporous hydrogel hybrids (SPHHs).

15

FORMULATION, OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERES OF CAPTOPRIL

Mukesh Kumar1, Sudha Dhiman2, Noopur Johari1, Arun Nanda1, Prabhat. K. Sahoo3

1Deptt. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, 124001, Haryana India.

2 UIPS, Kurukshetra University, 136118.

3 Vice President, R&D, Neclifesciences, Derrabassi, Punjab.

Abstract

The objective of this research is to develop a new oral drug delivery system utilizing both the concept of controlled release and mucoadhesion to obtain a unique drug delivery system which would remain in stomach for longer period. Captopril is a potent ACE inhibitor. Given orally, Captopril has a bioavailability of 65-70%. The drug is cleared with a half life of about 2 h.  The research involves the formulation, optimization and evaluation of gastroretentive mucoadhesive microspheres. The mucoadhesive microspheres were successfully developed by Ionotropic gelation technique, using Sodium alginate, and Sodium CMC as mucoadhesive polymers in various proportions. Further, the prepared mucoadhesive microspheres were characterized for particle size, morphology, entrapment efficiency, mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, release kinetics, compatibility studies(DSC) and stability studies. This research involves the formulation, optimization and evaluation of gastroretentive mucoadhesive microspheres via 22 factorial design approach using mucoadhesive polymers, i.e., Sodium CMC and Sodium Alginate on the basis of mucoadhesive strength & In-vitro drug release. Out of different formulations prepared, ‘F2’ formulation  with Sodium Alginate & Sodium CMC (6:1) was found to be best optimized formulation showing the highest modified release (85% in 9 h) along with good mucoadhesion property. 

16

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF TAGETES ERECTA ON SOIL MICROBES AND NEMATODES OF PAPAYA

S. Iruthaya Kalai Selvam*, R. Aruna Devaraj, C. Sagaya Rani

PG and research Centre of Zoology, Jayaraj Annapackiam College For Women (Autonomous) Periyakulam.625601, Theni District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Allelopathy refers to the process involving secondary metabolites of plants, microorganisms, viruses and fungi enhancing the development and growth of biological and agricultural systems. Five experimental plots were used and each individual plot was 10×10m and consisted of 5 pairs of Papaya plants spaced with 5 feet. For the first, second, third and fourth experimental plots, the Papaya plants intercropped with 2 rows, 3 rows, 4 rows and 5 rows of marigold seedlings respectively, at one foot/30cm distance within the row and between the rows. The fifth plot was considered as the control without marigold. The study ended 65 days after intercropping of Tagetes erecta. Soil samples were collected from all plots for microbial and nematode analyses before and after intercropping of Tagetes erecta in the experimental plots. T4 sample with 5 rows of T.erecta intercropped plants alone exhibited single gall. M. incognita population of J2 individuals got reduced to 87.5% in T1, 58% in T2, 47% in T3 and 33% in T4. Gall index did not decimate immediately. The population density of papaya parasitic nematode gradually decimated and was gradually increasing of beneficial bacteria while increasing the number of intercropping of T.erecta. Though T4 which had 5pairs of papaya plants intercropped with 5 rows of T.erecta showed higher reduction in nematode population it is not economical. Hence T2 which had 5pairs of papaya plants intercropped with 3 rows of T.erecta is advised to practice for the best and economical one.

17

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF DERIVATIVE SPECTSROSCOPIC METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF INDAPAMIDE TABLETS

Dr. Usha Rani N*, Saroja N, Kishore B, Govardhini J, Keerthana K

Maharajah’s College of Pharmacy, Phoolbaugh, Vizianagaram-535002.

Abstract

Indapamide is an antihypertensive and diuretic. It is used in the treatment of hypertension. Three simple, sensitive, accurate and precise spectroscopic methods have been developed for the estimation of Indapamide in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulation.  The drug obeyed Beer’s law in the concentration range of 5-25µg/ml in methanol. The regression equation and the correlation coefficient were found to be y = -0.00044x+0.00068, R2 =0.994 for second order, y = -0.00009x-0.00028, R2 = 0.997 for third order and y = -0.00001x-0.00005, R2 = 0.998 for fourth order derivative spectroscopy. The detection wavelengths were shown at 254 nm, 221 nm and 256 nm respectively for second, third and fourth order spectra. The proposed methods were validated for accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) as per ICH guidelines. The authors aim to propose a fast and accurate method compared to other derivative methods suitable for routine quality control analysis of Indapamide tablet formulations. 

18

STABILITY INDICATING ISOCRATIC RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF CLONIDINE AND CHLORTHALIDONE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

P.V.V. Satyanarayana*1, G. V. Adilakshmi 2

1Retd.Professor, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur-522510(A.P), India.

2Asst.Professor, Vijaya Institute of Technology for Women, Vijayawada-521108 (A.P), India.

Abstract

A new simple, precise, accurate and stability indicating isocratic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed on Kromasil RP-C18 column (250mm X 4.6mm; 5μm) for the simultaneous estimation of Clonidine and Chlorthalidone in combined pharmaceutical formulation. At ambient temperature, the separation was achieved by using the mobile phase methanol: acetonitrile: phosphate buffer in the ratio of 50:30:20 (v/v), at pH 5.8, with a flow rate of 1.0ml/min. By using UV detector quantization was achieved at 248nm over the concentration range of 0.3-1.8μg/ml for clonidine and 15-90μg/ml for chlorthalidone. The retention time of clionidine and chlorthalidone were 3.142 min and 4.890 min respectively. Method of validation was done with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision robustness and ruggedness. Linearity of the method was determined from the equation y=65653.x+67960(R2=0.999) for clonidine and y= 2911.x + 11360(R2=0.999) for chlorthalidone. Clonidine and chlorthalione exhibited good resolution of the order 4.95. The percentage recoveries of Clonidine and Chlorthalidone were within the range of 98.197-100.206 and 98.105-101.913 respectively. Relative standard deviation of precision and ruggedness were less than 2%. The stability of the molecule was measured under different stress conditions like acidic, basic, aqueous, peroxide, thermal, light and UV light. Percentage Assay of clonidine and chlorthalidone were found to be 98.01 and 99.45 respectively. Thus, due high resolution, linearity, precision, accuracy and stability, this method can successfully be applied for the simultaneous analysis of clonidine and chlorthalidone in combined pharmaceutical dosage form.

19

SYNTHESIS OF P-NITROBENZOATES OF PHENOLS BY ACTIVATING P- NITROBENZOIC ACID USING PHOSPHONITRILIC CHLORIDE

Jitendra S. Pulle*1, Ashok D. Sagar2, Sanjeev M. Reddy3, Manjusha V. Yadav4
1.Department of Chemistry, S.G.B. College, Purna (Jn.), Dist. Parbhani (M.S.), India.
2.School of Chemical Sciences, S.R.T.M. University, Nanded, (M.S.) India.
3.Department of Chemistry, G.M.V. Kotgyal, Dist. Nanded (M.S.) India.
4.Department of Chemistry, Government Polytechnique College, Nanded, Dist. Nanded (M.S.) India.

 

Abstract

An efficient and convenient method for the esterification of phenols from p-nitrobenzoic acid using phosphonitrilic chloride (PNT) and N-methyl morpholine (NMM) was developed. PNT was been efficiently used for the activation of p-nitrobenzoic acid. Various p-nitrobenzoates of phenols were obtained with excellent yields. The phenol with electron withdrawing nitro group was found to afford higher yield of the product than that of electron donating groups.

20

EFFECT OF PECTIN CAPPED SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON EXPRESSION OF BCL -2, BAX AND GAL-3 IN CANCER CELLS

Baisakhi Moharana1, SP Preetha1, S.Selvasubramanian1, C.Balachandran2, K.G. Tirumurugaan3, P. Acharya4

1Department of Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai. India.

2Department of Veterinary Pathology, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai, India.

3Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals,TANUVAS, Chennai, India.

4Division of LPM, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India.

Abstract

Fractionated pectin powder (FPP) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have proven anticancer properties. In this study the role of pectin capped Ag NP's in the expression of different apoptosis related genes in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) mice model were ascertained. Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was conducted for apoptotic genes Bcl-2, Bax and Gal-3 with reference gene as GAPDH. Amplification was performed in a Roche thermal cycler. The cycling conditions were initial PCR activation step for 30 seconds at 95ºC followed by 45 cycles of two step amplification at 95ºC for 5 seconds and 60ºC for 30 seconds of single acquisition for denaturation and extension and final dissociation and annealing at 95ºC for 20 seconds, 65ºC for 60 seconds followed by 95ºC for 1 second of continuous acquisition. At the end of the experiment there were no significant differences among the different experimental groups. Further studies are needed to better understand the underlying mechanism by which the pectin capped Ag NP's caused death of the tumour cells.

21

PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDYS FOR INVESTIGATION OF ANTIHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF Cleome gynandra AGAINST ADULT INDIAN EARTHWORM PHERITIMA POSTHUMA

Nadiminti Satish Reddy, D. Santhosha, Ch. Venu, B. Vijaya Laxmi, B. Pravanthi
Vishnu Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Vishnupur, Narsapur, Medak, India.
Department of Pharmacology, Vishnu Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Telangana, India.

Abstract

The present research program was carried out to investigate the antihelmintic activity of the Ethanolic extract of Cleome gynandra against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Various concentrations (25, 50, 100mg/ml) of ethanolic extract evaluated for antihelmintic activity by recording the time required for paralysis and death of worms. Albendazole was used as standard. Result indicates ethanolic extracts of Cleome gynandra significantly (p<0.01) exhibited antihelmentic activity in dose dependent manner when compared with standard drug Albendazole. The short time required for paralysis and death was observed with concentration of 100mg/ml. Further studies are under progress to confirm the possible chemical constituents responsible for activity.

22

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AMLODIPINE AND METOPROLOL IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Mounika. Pokala*, P. Jhansi Rani, G. Pranathi, M. Akiful Haque, D. Sireesha, S. Harshini, B. Vasudha
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance Anurag Group of Institutions (Formerly Lalitha College of Pharmacy),Venkatapur (V), Ghatkesar (M), Rangareddy (D), Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Abstract

The goal of the current investigation was to simultaneously separate the anti-hypertensive agents, amlodipine and metoprolol in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation for amlodipine and metoprolol was achieved with mobile phase containing acetonitrile and methanol (70:30 % v/v), reverse phase Thermo scientificTM HypersilTM BDS 5μ C18 120A (250 × 4.60 mm i.d ) column in isocratic mode at room temperature and UV detection 222nm. The compounds were eluted at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The retention times of amlodipine and metoprolol were found to be 1.665min and 2.866min respectively. The above method was validated in terms of System suitability, linearity, accuracy, precision, Limit of Detection (LOD), Limit of Quantification (LOQ) in accordance with ICH guidelines. The results which are obtained from the method validation were within the acceptable limit. From the results it was concluded that the method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine and metoprolol in combined dosage form. The developed method was simple, rapid, precise, economical and suitable for routine quality control analysis and quantification of these drugs in combined dosage form.

23

PHYTOCONSTITUENTS FROM AERIAL ROOTS OF FICUS BENGHALENSIS LINN

Jain Saloni Jayeshkumar*, Khan Tabassum
SVKM’s Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy,Gate No.1, Mithibai College Campus,V.M. Road ,Vile Parle (West),Mumbai 400 056.

Abstract

The aerial roots of Ficus benghalensis Linn (Moraceae) have been reported to have immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial and hair growth promoting activities. There are no reports on isolation and characterization of phytoconstituents from the aerial roots. The aim of present study involved isolation and characterization of phyto constituents from the aerial roots. Hence in this study an extract rich in flavonoids (i.e ethyl acetate rich extract) of aerial roots was prepared and isolation of constituents was done using column chromatography. A total of 7 compounds were identified and characterized from the ethyl acetate rich extract of the aerial roots of Ficus benghalensis using LC-MS and HPLC-UV techniques. These includes Kaempferol 3-O-acetyl-glucoside, Quercetin 3-arabinoside 7-rhamnoside, Quercetin 3-O-(6"-malonyl-glucoside) 7-O-glucoside, Naringenin-feruloyl hexose, Pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside, Epicatechin gallate, Cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside. The results of phytochemical investigations indicate that flavonoids are major class of compounds present in this part of plant which can be used as as potential antioxidants and anticancer agents.

24

LEAD INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN BEHAVIOR AND BRAIN CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM IN FEMALE RATS: AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF α-TOCOPHEROL

N. Sreenivasulu1, M. Ram Kumar2, D. Chand Basha3, G. Rajarami Reddy1*
1Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India-517502.
2Department of Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India-517502.
3Watson Life sciences, Air Bypass Road, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India-517502.

Abstract

Most of the available studies on the neurotoxic effects of Pb exposure are on the children with little attention paid on pregnant women. In this study, we have examined Pb-induced alterations in brain cholinergic system and behaviour of pregnant and adult female rats. Further, we examined the protective effect of α-tocopherol against Pb-toxicity. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.2% Pb from gestation day 1 (GD 1) to postnatal day (PND) 21 and stopped at weaning. Adult female rats (3 months) were also exposed to same dose with same time frame (42 days) and α-tocopherol (100mg/kg) was given orally through gavage for a period of 21 days (last 3 weeks) after Pb exposure to both pregnant and adult female rats. The results showed increased synaptosoamal acetylcholine (ACh) levels and decresed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus regions at 7th day and 30th day following exposure to Pb in both pregnant and adult female rats. Pb exposure significantly altered spatial learning, locomotor activity and open-field behaviours at 7th and 30th days in female rats. However, supplementation of α-tocopherol significantly reversed the Pb-induced alterations in both cholinergic system and behavioural parameters. In conclusion, present data demonstrated that Pb exposure significantly altered the cholinergic system as well as behavioural functions and these alterations were greater in adult female rats than pregnant rats. Further, it is suggested that α-tocopherol supplementation provide protection for pregnant women against Pb-toxicity.

25

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS BY CHLORAMINE – T AND GALLOCYANINE

K. Raghu Babu, K Sandhyarani,* M Srividhya
Department of Engineering Chemistry, AU College of Engineering (A), Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhrapradesh, India.

Abstract

Simple and cost effective spectrophotometric method was described for the determination of Olmesartan Medoxomil in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the formation of colored chromogenic when the drug reacts with Chloramine – T and Gallocyanine in acidic medium. This method was applied for the determination of drug contents in pharmaceutical formulations and enabled the determination of the selected drug in microgram quantities (0.5 to 3.0 mL). No interferences were observed from excipients and the validity of the method was tested against reference method. The colored species has an absorption maximum at 540 nm for Olmesartan Medoxomil and obeys beer’s law in the concentration range 4-24 mg/mL of Olmesartan Medoxomil. The apparent molar absorptivity was 1.74*104and sandell’s sensitivity was0.0226. The slope is1.2423 the intercept of the equation of the regression line is 0.2699. The optimum experimental parameters for the reaction have been studied and the validity of the described procedure was assessed. Statistical analysis of the results has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Olmesartan Medoxomil in pharmaceutical formulations.

26

Investigation of the In Vitro Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Xanthosoma sagittifolium Leaf

Md. Sarwar Hossain*, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Md. Sahab Uddin, Md. Ali Asif Noor, Md. Ashikur Rahman, Mst. Shirajum Munira, Md. Asaduzzaman
Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka-1213, Bangladesh.

Abstract

Plants are store house of phytochemical constituents used to diseases from the ancient era. The hunt for new remedies from natural origin is still going on to discover noble therapy against new and existence diseases. In this study ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n-Hexane fraction (NHF), chloroform fraction (CLF) and aqueous fraction (AQF) of Xanthsoma sagittifolium (XS) leaf have been investigated for the evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. For determination of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), reducing power activity (RPA), DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and brine shrimp lethality (BSL) assay were performed respectively. TFC of EAF (54.44 mg/g GAE) was found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions. Among four different fractions CLF showed the highest total antioxidant activity at 600 μg/ ml concentration followed by EAF, NHF and AQF. The ranking order for RPA was EAF > AQF > CLF > NHF. The IC50 values for the DPPH radical scavenging test were in the order of EAF (52.16 μg/ml) > CLF (99.78  0.24) > AQF (190.73  1.11) > NHF (394.01  10.49). Among all extracts of XS, NHF showed the highest cytotoxicity activity with LD50 value of 24.00 g/ml and the AQF showed the lowest cytotoxicity activity with LD50 value of 39.48 g/ml respectively. Our study suggests that XS leaf have strong antioxidant and cytotoxic effect confirming the traditional uses of this plant and different opportunities have been exposed that will lead further research.

27

A REVIEW ON NATURAL REMEDIES FOR PREVAILING POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN DISORDER

Sneha Latha T, Lakshmi Prasanna J*, Jhansi Rani M, Divya K, A M S Sudhakar Babu
A M Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Petlurivaripalem, Narasaraopet.

Abstract

Poly cystic ovary syndrome is one of the common condition related to the hormonal imbalance in the women of reproductive age which directly impacts the fertility. Every 1 in 15 women or about 40% of teenagers are suffering from this type of condition. It is characterized by high levels of androgens in the body and also having too much insulin in the body acne and hirsutism. Women with PCOS have also been found to have low-grade inflammation, contributing to insulin resistance. There is a growing interest in herbal remedies or allopathic medication to cure the PCOS. There is a need to change the lifestyle management, diet to control the PCOS level. . The natural remedies include treatment with phytoestrogenic and non-estrogenic herbs such as Liquorice, Ginseng, Black cohosh, Dong, soy, evening primerose, honey, fenugreek, schisandra root, and many other which are effective and safe. Many plants have been highly esteemed sources and have advantages which reduce PCOS and also having hypoglycemic effect. The present review discusses some of the familiar plants which plays a crucial role in the management of PCOS. It is concluded that with the use of easily available and highly beneficial herbs along with the lifestyle management PCOS can be cured in a short period of time.

28

THE STUDIES OF NATURAL DIABETES INHIBITORS OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE INSULIN

Abdul Rahaman*, Ankita Kumari, Anjani Kumar Seth, Shiv Kumar Jayant, Taj Mohammad
School of Studies in Biochemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, MP, India 474011.
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Natural Science, Jamia Millia Isalami, A Central University, Delhi.
 

 Abstract

Diabetes mellitus leads to the metabolic abnormalities and is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from dysfunctional insulin secretion. Although, oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin are the mainstay of treatment diabetes, they have prominent side effect, and fail to significantly rework the course of diabetic complications. Use of herbal drugs and neutraceuticals are safer and more efficacious than synthetic drugs. Use of neutraceuticals and herbal drugs become main stream globally. The Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon, is used as herbal remedy for diabetes from long back in ayurvedic literature. The various components of this putative herb have been reported to express hypoglycemic activity. An attempt was made to cognize the mode of action for alkaloid using bioinformatics tools of molecular dynamic and drug designing. The common alkaloids of Momordica charantia, namely, charantin and stigmasteryl glucoside were used as ligands and there binding affinity with insulin was studied by in silico docking tools. Thus, the crude alkaloid extracted from bitter melon may be an alternative therapy potential use for lowering glucose level in diabetic patents. Derivative compound of the alkaloid can be further studied for better remedy as ligand compound quantitative structure activity relationship. So for, compound known as oleanolic acid glycoside has been observed to improve glucose tolerance in type II diabetes.

29

EFFECT OF STORAGE ON THE DRUG RELEASE OF TABLET FORMULATIONS PREPARED BY NOVEL PLANT MUCILAGE’S AS BINDING AGENT

Yogesh Joshi*, Kaushal Kishore Chandrul
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shri Venkateshwara University, Gajraula, Amroha, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of storage on drug release profile of tablets prepared by using mucilage isolated from the leaves and stems of Ficus palmata and fresh fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Preformulation studies performed on isolated mucilage’s involved the determination of macroscopic properties, solubility behavior and other physicochemical properties of the mucilage’s. Compatibility studies including FTIR spectral analysis and drug-excipients physicochemical compatibility studies showed no signs of incompatibility between drug and isolated mucilage’s. Using different drug: polymer ratios viz. 1:0.25, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2, four formulations of Diclofenac sodium each containing 100mg of pure drug were prepared by wet granulation method. It was analyzed from the release pattern that even after storage up to one year, formulation FP-4 showed a slow and complete drug release of 96.12%, 95.89%, 92.11%, 89.26% over a period of 10-12 hr after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of storage respectively and AH-3 showed a slow and complete drug release of 97.06%, 95.08%, 90,32%, 87.14% over a period of 10-11 hr after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of storage respectively while H-4 showed complete drug release of 96.22%, 93.34%, 89.72% and 86.84% over a period of 8-10 hr after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of storage respectively for comparative purpose. Finally, it was concluded that, Ficus palmata mucilage and Artocarpus heterophyllus mucilage can serve as a good binding agent in formulating oral sustained release matrix tablets and also had the potentiality to give good drug release effects even after long term storage.

30

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MONTELUKAST AND LEVOCETIRIZINE IN ITS BULK AND LIQUID DOSAGE FORM BY RP- HPLC

Azra Naaz*, R. Vani

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Deccan School of Pharmacy Darussalam, Affiliated to Osmania University, Hyderabad-500002, Telangana, India.

Abstract

To develop and validate a new method for simultaneous estimation of montelukast and levocetirizine in liquid dosage form. Chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically on a Waters C18 column hypersil (4.6mm × 250mm ×5µm) using a mobile phase, 55:45 (phosphate buffer: acetonitrile). The flow rate was 1 ml/min and effluent was detected at 228 nm and 20μl of sample was injected. The run time was found to be 6min. The Retention time of Montelukast and levocitirizine was found to be 4.247 min. and 2.823 min respectively. Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 25-75 % for levocetirizine and 40-120% for montelukast. Percent recoveries obtained for both the drugs were 999-999%. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2% as per the ICH these method was rugged. The percentage purity thus found is 98.65% and 99% for montelukast and levocitirizine. Conclusion:- A simple, selective, linear, precise, and accurate RP-HPLC method  was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of montelukast and levocetrizine in its bulk and liquid dosage form. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and ruggedness. The new rp-hplc method was developed successfully it is applied for the analysis of simultaneous estimation of montelukast and levocetirizine in syrup

31

STABILITY INDICATING RP - HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR PSEUDOEPHEDRINE SULPHATE AND DESLORATADINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM

Ekta A. Sharma*1, Dr. Nehal J. Shah2
1Ph.D Scholar, School of Pharmacy, RK University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India.
1Assistant Professor, R.H Patel College of Pharmacy, Dahemi, Anand, Gujarat, India.
2Principal, Indubhai Patel College of Pharmacy and Research Centre, Dharmaj, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

To develop and validate a simple, rapid, accurate and precise RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of Pseudoephedrine sulphate (PSE) and Desloratadine hydrochloride (DES) in pharmaceutical formulation. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Zorbex Eclipse XDB C18, (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase contains a mixture of Phosphate Buffer and Acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40 (%v/v) and it was investigated to separate the drugs from their stressed degradation products. The flow rate was 1 ml/min, injection volume of 20 μL, run time of 15 minutes, at column oven temp 30°C. The detector wavelength was 220 nm. PSE and DES were subjected to stress degradation conditions of hydrolysis (acid and base), oxidation and thermal degradation. Stressed samples were analyzed by the developed procedures. The described method shows excellent linearity over a range of 72 to 720 μg/ml and 2 to 20 μg/ml PSE and DES, respectively. Degradation of PSE was observed in alkaline condition but found to be stable in other stress conditions while DES degradation was observed in oxidative conditions and found to be stable in other stress conditions. The proposed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection and limit of quantification. Furthermore, no interference was observed with excipients in tablet for routine quality control analysis of PSE and DES in pharmaceutical formulations. This method is capable of complete chromatographic separation of PSE and DES peaks.

32

IN VIVO AND IN VITRO HISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ANISOCHILUS CARNOSUS L.

Nissar Ahmad Reshi*, Sudarshana M.S., Deepu K.S., Dorothy P.
Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Studies in Botany, Manasagangotri, University of Mysore, Mysore Karnataka, India-570006.

Abstract

The study was carried out to evaluate the nature and localisation of different phytoconstituents in leaf, stem and their respective calli of A. carnosus- An ethnomedicinal herb. Results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glucosides, tannins, lignin, pectin, starch, cellulose and carbohydrates in in vivo and in vitro plant material. The study could pave a way for the production and isolation of biologically active secondary metabolites from callus culture and can be used as alternatives for in vivo plant material. Chemotaxonomy and drug adulteration check substantially relies on histochemical analysis.

33

DEVELOPMENT AND SENSORY ANALYSIS OF ORAL VEHICLE TO CARRY DRUGS FOR PEDIATRIC USE

S. G. Cruz Fonseca1,2, M. S. Garruti Medeiros2, J. Castro Fonseca2, M. A. Alexandre Josino2, L. A. Araújo Batista2, F. Nervo Raffin3, H. L. Luna Coelho2
1Postgraduate Program for Development and Technological Innovation in Medications, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte.
2Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Ceará, Brazil.
3Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

Abstract

The shortage of pharmaceutical formulations appropriate for different age subgroups that compose of the pediatric population, requires health professionals to prepare extemporaneous formulations. The present study deals with the development of a low-cost vehicle to be used in transformation of solid dosage form into liquid form for use on children, the study of the product’s stability and the acceptability by healthy children. We formulated preparations with different suspending agents, and evaluated in terms of manufacturing facility, flavor, compatibility with actives and rheological behavior. The vehicle without actives was investigated by acceptance testing with the hedonic scale, involving 61 healthy children, between the ages of four and twelve years. The vehicle with the mint, cherry and strawberry flavors was widely accepted by children. Has pseudo-plastic behavior, density close to 1.00, sweet flavor, low cost, few components, absence of unsuitable substances to the health of children, physical, chemical and microbiological stability and acceptability. The vehicle was successfully employed for the preparation of oral liquid dosage forms containing furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide and valganciclovir with stability above 3 months.

34

STUDY OF SERUM MAGNESIUM LEVELS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

Dr. Tabassum Rashid1, Dr. Sheikh Ishaq2*, Dr. Saima Mushtaq2, Dr. Shabhat Rasool2, Dr. Imran Shafi2, Prof Sabhiya Majid3
1Lecturer, Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir.
2Demonstrator, Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir.
3Professor & Head, Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir.

Abstract

Background: Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral and the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation and is a cofactor for over 300 metabolic reactions in the body. Hypomagnesaemia has been reported to occur in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but frequently overlooked. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients of diabetes admitted to SMHS Hospital of Government Medical College, Srinagar, were studied. 200 age and sex matched non diabetic patients were taken as controls. Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum magnesium and fasting blood glucose in type 2 Diabetes mellitus cases and compare them with controls. Results: A significant difference between levels of serum magnesium levels among diabetics and controls. The mean serum magnesium levels in cases and controls are 1.349 mg/dl and 2.355 mg/dl respectively which was statistically highly significant (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia, is common amid patients with type 2 diabetes. It is wise that routine scrutiny for hypomagnesemia be done in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and the condition be treated whenever possible since magnesium levels correlates with various complications.

35

REDUCTIVE AMINATION OF CARBONYL COMPOUNDS USING LIGNIN SULPHONIC ACID AND SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE

Sanjeev M. Reddy1, Ashok D. Sagar2, Jitendra S. Pulle*3
1Department of Chemistry, G.M.V. Kotgyal, Dist. Nanded (M.S.) India.
2School of Chemical Sciences, S.R.T.M. University, Nanded, (M.S.) India.
3Department of Chemistry, S.G.B. College, Purna (Jn.), Dist. Parbhani (M.S.), India.

Abstract

An efficient reductive amination of carbonyl compounds (aldehydes) with amines using lignin sulfonic acid as catalyst and sodium borohydride as reducing agent in ethanol at room temperature is described. The corresponding products were obtained in excellent yields.