IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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JUNE 2015
1

ANTISECRETORY AND ANTIULCER EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA

Rasika D. Bhalke, Seema A. Gosavi, Mahendra A. Giri

Sanjivani College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Kopergaon,

A/P- Kopergaon, (Pin- 413736), Tal- Kopergaon,, Dist-Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Argyreia nervosa has long been used in indigenous system of medicine, to treat chronic ulcers, gonorrhea, strangury and gleet. Therefore, Present study was designed to investigate the antiulcer effect of hydro alcoholic leaves extract of A. nervosa (HLEAN) using different models of gastric ulceration in rats. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including aspirin or ethanol or indomethacin. Anti-secretory studies were undertaken using pylorus-ligated technique. Gastric total acid output and pepsin activity were estimated in the pylorus ligated rats. Gastric tissue was also examined histologically. HLEAN was administered in the dose of 400 mg/kg orally in all experiments. Omeprazole, ranitidine, misoprostol were used as a reference drug. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing the ulcer index in the test drug group with that of the vehicle (negative) control group and standard (positive) control group. HLEAN at the dose of 400 mg/kg produced a significant reduction in the ulcer index. HLEAN significantly inhibited gastric mucosal damage induced by aspirin, ethanol and indomethacin. In pylorus-ligated Shay rats, HLEAN significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion, acidity. HLEAN reduces pepsin activity. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically. The anti-ulcer activity of HLEAN was however, less than that of standard drugs. The present finding suggests that protective effect of HLEAN might have been mediated by both anti-secretory and cytoprotective mechanisms. Moreover, further insight into the precise mechanism of action is essential to exploit the complete potency of HLEAN and increase its usage in contemporary medicine.

2

“ONE POT SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTITUTED BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES AND THEIR CHARCTERIZATION”

Pramod R. Padole1, Shrikrushna S. Ubarhande1, Ankita K. Shelke1, Baliram N.Berad2

1Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravti (MS)-444603.

2Rastra Sant Tukdoji Maharaj, Nagpur University, Nagpur (MS).

Abstract

Benzimidazole is the heterocyclic compound formed from benzene and imidazole containing hetero-atoms and it is wide interest because of their diverse biological activity and clinical applications. Various 2- Substituted benzimidazole derivatives in moderate to good yield have been prepared in a one-pot reaction by condensation of o-phenyldiamine and aldehyde in the present of ammonium chloride as a catalyst ethanol 800-900C. The reaction is green and economically viable. The characterisation of newly synthesized compounds was made by chemical properties, elemental analysis and FT-IR,1H-NMR and Mass Spectra. The advantage of this method are extremely mild reaction conditions , short reaction time , high yield , simple experimental technique and compliance with green chemistry protocols.

3

ANTICANCER, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY SCREENING OF IMINE ANALOGUES THROUGH HSP90 INHIBITION

Vasantha Laxmi Marepally1, Swathi Prathapa1, Dr. Ganga Raju M1, Sayan Dutta Gupta2

1Department of Pharmacology, Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Bachupally, Hyderabad-500090.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Bachupally, Hyderabad-500090.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the pharmacological screening of two Hsp90 inhibitor drugs 1 and 2. The study conducted here was an attempt to explore the role of Hsp90 in different activities like anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of two drugs 1 and 2 were evaluated using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration for fungi was low when compared to bacteria. Anticancer activity was performed using MNU induced breast cancer model in female Sprague Dawley rats. At a dose of 100 mg/kg the two drugs has shown significant decrease in tumor size. In vitro antioxidant study was performed using reducing power assay with four different concentrations. The in vivo antioxidant studies were performed using lipid peroxidation and catalase activity by taking liver homogenate as a medium. Both the drugs have shown significant antioxidant activity when performed in in vitro and in in vivo conditions. Anti-inflammatory activity was performed using carrageenan induced paw odema model in rats. At a dose of 30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg the drugs have shown dose dependent decrease in paw odema. From the above results, it was concluded that the two test drugs possess antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

4

A NOVEL VISIBLE SPECTROSCOIC DEVELOPMENT METHOD AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ATENOLOL IN BULK AND MARKETED FORMULATIONS

G. Raveendra Babu1*, B. Sivasai Kiran2 , M. Venkata Kumari2 , P. Sambasiva Rao3 , P. Madhuri4

1*Alluri Krishna Rao and Govindamma College of Pharmacy, Nallajerla-534112, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2Dhagubhati Chenchu Ramaiah Memorial Pharmacy College, Inkollu- 523167, Andhara Pradesh, India.

3Vijaya College of Pharmacy, Hayathanagar- 501511, Telangana, India.

4Vivekananda Group of Institutions, Batasingaram-501511, Telengana, India.

Abstract

A simple, rapid, accurate and economical visible spectroscopic method was developed and validated for estimation of atenolol in bulk and marketed formulations. This method based on coloured chromogen formation (resorcinol). Atenolol lambda maximum was found to be 380 nm for bulk and market formulations with help of beers lamberts law. The present method was validated to regard linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity. Beers law was obeyed concentration range of 4-12 mcg/ ml having line equation Y = 0.4392C – 0.0314 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. The method proved the regression value of linearity, percentage relative standard deviation values of precision and percentage recovery of accuracy values within the limits. Hence the present method used for routine analysis in quality control.

5

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS OF BACE1 AND PHYTOCONSTITUENTS USING DOCKING APPROACH

Lalit Rajan Samant1,2 Anuya Rege2, Abhay Chowdhary1, 2

1Systems Biomedicine Division, Haffkine Institute for Training Research and Testing.

2Department of Virology and Immunology, Haffkine Institute for Training Research and Testing.

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disease of the brain. It is the most common form of dementia which demolishes the vital brain cells causing trouble with memory, thinking and behaviour, brutal enough to affect work. Recognized factors in Alzheimer’s disease include acetylcholine deficiency, free radicals and inflammation of the brain tissue. Many of the current drugs used to treat the disease like Donepezil have unpleasant side effects and doctors are keen to find alternatives. There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but the available drugs lead to slow disease progression. Herbal medicines are being used by 80% of the world population in developing countries for primary health care. Some herbs may help to improve brain function, but scientific evidence to prove that they can treat Alzheimer’s disease, is limited. A list of medicinal plants that would be effective on AD was collected from literature and their phytoconstituents were tabulated. The chemical structures of the phytoconstituents (ligands) were drawn in Chem sketch and converted into mol format. The target BACE1 was found from literature and downloaded in PDB format. Phytoconstituents and few commercially available drugs for AD were docked against Alzheimer’s disease target. The phytoconstituent beta sistrol present in plants was found to have better results than the commercially available drugs galantamine and nicardipine with a highest docking score of -6.82 Kcal/mol. For the phytoconstituents such as jatamansin Valeranone and Gamma gurjenone were better binding energy than nicardipine.

6

NINE-VALENT HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS VACCINE (V503/GARDASIL9®): A REVIEW

Vikrant Chandrakant Sangar*, Abhay Chowdhary

Department of Virology and Immunology, Haffkine Institute for Training Research and Testing, Parel.

Abstract

Human papillomaviruses are the primary etiologic agents of cervical cancer. Thus, cervical cancer and other Human papillomavirus (HPV) associated malignancies might be prevented by HPV vaccines. Currently, two Human papillomavirus L1 Virus -Like Particle vaccines namely Gardasil®-quadrivalent (HPV4) (Merck) and Cervarix™-bivalent (HPV2) (GlaxoSmithKline) are widely internationally commercially available. The limitation of HPV2 and HPV4 vaccine is that they cannot prevent HPV infection which occurs due to another HPV types. To overcome this problem, Merck pharmaceutical developed a nine-valent recombinant vaccine (V503/ Gardasil9®) which covers HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 types. The advisable period of Human papillomavirus vaccination is before the onset of sexual activity. Human papillomavirus vaccines should not be given to people who have experienced severe allergic reactions after a previous vaccine dose or to a component of the vaccine. These vaccines are not recommended for use in pregnant females. The mechanisms by which these vaccines induce protections are not fully defined but involve both cellular immunity and neutralizing immunoglobulin G antibodies. This review brings up to date information on the three prophylactic Human papillomavirus vaccines.

7

DETERMINATION OF (-) Α-BISABOLOL IN MATRICARIA CHAMOMILE OIL AND IN NANOFORMULATION BY HPTLC METHOD: IT’S APPLICATION IN EX VIVO STUDIES

Zrien Naz1, Mohd. Shah Faisal1, Abdul Muheem1, Surender Singh2, Roop.K.Khar3, Farhan J.Ahmad1*

1Nanoformulation Research Lab, Faculty of Pharmacy, JamiaHamdard, New Delhi, India.

2Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

3Principle, B.S Anangpuria Institute of Pharmacy, Faridabad, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

A simple, accurate sensitive and stability indicating high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the estimation of (-)-α-bisabolol in chamomile oil and in nanoformulation was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines. The quantification of (-)-α-bisabolol was done by applying standard drug solution on precoated HPTLC plates (silica gel 60 F254) that act as stationary phase, kept in twin trough glass chamber presaturated with mobile phase consisting of toluene: chloroform: methanol: acetic acid in the ratio 9.2:0.4:0.4:0.2:0.04 (v/v/v/v). Linear ascending mode was used for the development of chromatograms and spectrodensitometric analysis was done at 430nm. The linear regression analysis data,in concentration range of 100-1000 ng per spot for (-)-α-bisabolol (Rf = 0.46±.02), showed best relationship (r2=0.99) with respect to peak area. The limit of detection (8.68 ng per spot) and limit of quantification (26.30 ng per spot) were determined by standard deviation method. Stress degradation studies confirmed that the developed method gave well resolved peaks of the drug and degradation products, hence this can be used to separate pure compounds from impurities.The developed HPTLC method was used for the estimation of (-)-α-bisabolol in bulk drug and in nanoemulsion formulation. It can also be employed for ex-vivo skin permeation and skin deposition studies as the developed method is economical, robust and time saving.

8

SYNTHESIS OF ARYL ESTERS BY ACTIVATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS USING PHOSPHONITRILIC CHLORIDE

Jitendra S. Pulle*1, Ashok D. Sagar2, Sanjeev M. Reddy3, Manjusha V. Yadav4
1Department of Chemistry, S.G.B. College, Purna (Jn.), Dist. Parbhani (M.S.), India.
2School of Chemical Sciences, S.R.T.M. University, Nanded 431 606, India.
3Department of Chemistry, G.M.V. Kotgyal, Dist. Nanded (M.S.) India. 4Department of Chemistry, Government Polytechnique College, Nanded (M.S.) India.

Abstract

A simple, clean and efficient procedure was described for the synthesis of phenyl esters from carboxylic acids using phosphonitrilic chloride (PNT) and N- methyl morpholine (NMM) in dichloromethane. The method is applicable for the substituted phenols and aromatic as well as aliphatic carboxylic acids affording excellent yields. Both phenols and carboxylic acids having electron withdrawing substituents gave higher yields compared to electron donating substituents.

9

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOCRYTALINE ZnAlO3 BY SOL-GEL CITRATE METHOD

Saurabh S.Deshmukh*

Department of Chemistry, Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati-444603.

Affiliated to Sant Gadege Baba Amravati University, Amravati, Maharastra State, India.

Abstract

Several novel methods had been developed during past decades to prepare nanocrytalline material. In the present work nanocrytalline Aluminate( ZnAlO3) prepared by sol-gel citrate method. Zinc nitrate hexahydrate Zn(NO3)2.6H2O, Aluminum nitrate nonhydrate Al(NO3)3.9H2O, Absolute alcohol and Citric acid is had been used in this work as a Precursors. Nanocrytalline material prepared by sol-gel citrate route and this material was characterized by XRD and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The mean size of Nanocrytalline material calculated by using Scherer Equation was 42.78 nm and it further investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy which was in range 7-40nm both XRD and TEM size value was correlated with each other. The results show that the pure nanocrytaline Aluminate (ZnAlO3) formed when product was calcinated at 5500 C for 3 hours.

10

IMPROVED SYNTHESIS OF AZILSARTAN: DEVELOPMENT AND CONTROL OF PROCESS RELATED IMPURITIES

Ambati V.Raghava Reddy1,2, Srinivas Garaga1*, Chandiran Takshinamoorthy1, Badrinath Gupta P1, Andhra Naidu2

1Chemical Research and Development Department, Aurobindo Pharma Ltd, Survey No:71&72, Indrakaran Village, Sangareddy Mandal, Medak district, Hyderabad -502329, Telangana State, India.

2Department of Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India.

Abstract

Improved synthesis of azilsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, has been developed. The present work describes the control of process related impurities, formed during the synthesis of azilsartan. Impurities are controlled to below 0.10% level by isolating the intermediate, azilsartan methyl ester as DBU salt. The present modification results in high overall yield (71%) with high purity (> 99.9% purity by HPLC).

11

FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CAPSULES CONTAINING ROSUVASTATIN CALCIUM NANOPARTICLES AND EPIGALLOCATECHIN GALLATE NANOPARTICLES

Ramkumar Ponnuraj1, Janakiraman K1, Sivaraman Gopalakrishnan2, Arunkumar Arumugam2

1Faculty of Engineering and Technology, AnnamalaiUniversity, India.

2Product Development, Apex laboratories, India.

 Abstract

Rosuvastatin Calcium is a statin used extensively for the treatment of dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Like all statins, Rosuvastatin can possibly cause myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. It was reported that statin induced the expression of atrogin-1, a key gene involved in skeletal muscle atrophy. In this process the function of mitochondria play a vital role in limiting the atrophy. Epigallocatechin gallate promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and thereby prevents the atrophy caused by statin. Similarly, Epigallocatechin gallate can also helps in reducing the LDL cholesterol. Both Rosuvastatin Calcium and Epigallocatechin gallate has a poor bioavailability and it can be improved by the use of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were filled in hard gelatin capsules along with Microcrystalline Cellulose, Colloidal Silicon Dioxide, Magnesium Trisilicate and Magnesium Stearate. The ratio of Colloidal Silicon Dioxide, Magnesium Trisilicate and Magnesium Stearate was studied using two level Factorial design. The final product is stable and provides a sustained release for 24 hours. The combination proved to be promising with improved efficacy and reduced side effects.

12

BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF INVIVO DIURETIC, AND ANTIUROLITHIATIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM

M.N.Palaksha1*, K.Ravishankar2, V. Girija Sastry3

1Research Scholar, Department of Pharmacy, JNTUK, Kakinada.

2Sri Sai Aditya Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Surampalem, E.G.Dist-533437.

3University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Visakhapatnam-530003.

Abstract

The present work was investigated to evaluate the diuretic and antiurolithiatic activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Saccharum officinarum. The ethanolic leaf extract was administered to experimental rats orally at a dose of 200mg/ kg and 400mg/kg. Furosemide (5mg/kg) was used as standard for diuretic activity. The parameters measured for diuretic activity was total urine volume; urine electrolyte concentrations such as sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonates. In in-vitro antiurolithiatic activity, Calcium oxalate crystallization was induced by the addition of 0.01M sodium oxalate solutions in synthetic urine. The effect of extract (100, 200 and 500μg/ml) was studied by time course measurement of absorbance at 620 nm for ten minutes by means of a spectrophotometer. Ethanolic extract showed inhibition at 120 sec (40.31, 60.46 and 63.56 %), and maximum inhibition of the crystallization of calcium oxalate at 600 seconds (55.24, 69.93 and 72.72%). In in-vivo antiurolithiatic activity, urolithiasis was induced in male rats by administering ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v) in drinking water for 28days and the parameters such as oxalate, calcium and phosphate were estimated in urine. Serum creatinine, calcium and uric acid were also estimated. Treatment with the leaf extract of Saccharum officinarum restored all biochemical, urinary parameters. The results obtained justified the importance of the leaf extract of Saccharum officinarum as a diuretic and antiurolithiatic agent.

13

IDENTIFICATION, SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW IMPURITY IN CEFPODOXIME PROXETIL

Ambati V.Raghava Reddy1,2, * Srinivas Garaga1, Chandiran Takshinamoorthy1, Andra Naidu2, Ramesh dandala3

1Chemical Research and Development Department, Aurobindo Pharma Ltd, Survey No:71&72, Indrakaran Village, Sangareddy Mandal, Medak district, Telangana State, India -502329.

2Department of Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India.

3JNTUH Affiliated Supervisor, Department of Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India.

Abstract

Cefpodoxime proxetil is an oral, third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. During the synthesis of cefpodoxime proxetil, along with known impurities one unknown impurity was detected at a level of 0.1-0.2% at relative retention time of ~0.43 by HPLC analysis. Using LCMS analysis and mass fragmentation data we have assumed a structure to this unknown impurity and is named as desmethyl cefpodoxime proxetil. This impurity was synthesized and characterized by spectral data (1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and IR). The impurity was confirmed as 1 - (isopropoxycarbonyloxy) methyl ( 6R ,7R) - 7 - [(Z)-2-- ( 2 – amino – 4 – thiazolyl ) – 2 - ( methoxyimino) acetamido] – 3 – methoxymethyl – 3 – cephem – 4 - carboxylate. The present invention describes the identification, synthesis, characterization and control of the unknown impurity.

14

PREVALENCE OF THROMBOCYTOPENIA IN SEROPOSITIVE DENGUE PATIENTS

Mahendranath P1, Vijaykumar K2

1Department of Pathology, ACS Medical College and Hospital, Ponnamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai-600077.

2Department of Pharmacology, ACS Medical College and Hospital, Ponnamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai-600077.

Abstract

The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of thrombocytopenia in seropositive dengue patients and bleeding manifestations in association with the severity of thrombocytopenia.Blood samples of suspected dengue cases attending A.C.S Hospital during January-2014 to December-2014 were collected. ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) method was performed to identify the dengue. For all the dengue positive cases during this period platelet count was done by Sysmex KX -21 Automated Hematoanalyzer.In the present study, out of 85 seropositive dengue cases, 63 patients were males and 22 patients were females. 53 patients had mild thrombocytopenia, 29patients had moderate thrombocytopenia and 3patients had severe thrombocytopenia. There were no bleeding manifestations noted in the present study. Present study confirms that, the thrombocytopenia a major complication associated with dengue and bleeding manifestation was not related to the platelet count.

15

A STUDY ON EFFECTS OF COMBINING VITAMIN D WITH HYPERTENSION THERAPY

Syed Ameena Afrose*, Amreen Fahmeed, Arshia Mujtaba, Mubasheer Khan

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Deccan School of Pharmacy, INDIA.

Abstract

Hypertension is a common condition with high mortality from associated diseases. Epidemiological evidence suggests that a deficiency of vitamin D may be a risk factor for hypertension. The objective was to conduct systematic review and analyze the effect of vitamin D supplementation as a supportive antihypertensive therapy. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on hypertensive patients, a prospective observational study was performed on30 out-patients, who were suffering from hypertension and fitted the study criteria in general medicine department of Princess Esra hospital. All the data required for the study was collected, reviewed and recorded. Subjects were prescribed with anti hypertensive drugs alone for 45 days and then the prescription was added with vitamin D supplements for next 45 days. Changes in blood pressure readings were compared. Using the paired t- test the results were significant. In patients who were given vitamin D the average systolic blood pressure with anti hypertensive was 140 ±9.2mmHg, the average systolic blood pressure with both anti hypertensive drugs and vitamin D was found to be 136±5.6mmHg. The diastolic blood pressure doesn’t seem to have much fluctuation on vitamin D intake. From observations it can be concluded that combining vitamin D along with anti hypertensive therapy had moderate blood pressure lowering effect.
16

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE AND DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC

P. Madhuri*1, G Raveendra Babu2

1Vivekananda Group of Institutions, Batasingaram, Hyderabad.

2A.K.R.G. College of Pharmacy, Nallajerla.

Abstract

A modified simple, selective, rapid, precise reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of ketorolac and Dexamethasone Sodium. The separation was made in a HYPERSIL C18, 250 X 4.6 mm, 5μ column using Mixed Phosphate buffer (1.36 gms of potassium Dihydrogen phosphate and 0.6gms of DiPotasssium hydrogen phosphate in 1 Liter water pH 6.8±0.1): Methanol in the ratio 45: 55 at 273 nm. The mobile-phase flow rate and the sample volume injected were 1 ml/min and 20 μl, respectively. Retention time of ketorolac and Dexamethasone Sodium was found to be 3.383 and 4.896 minutes respectively. The standard and sample preparation required less time and no tedious extraction were involved. A good linear relationship (Ketorolac r=0.999 & Dexamethasone r=0.998) was observed between the concentration range of 20-80 μg/mL. The assay of Ketorolac was found to be 99.84% & the assay of Dexamethasone was found to be 99.85%.From the recovery studies it was found that about 101% of drug was recovered which indicates high accuracy of the method. It is suitable for the routine analysis of Ketorolac and Dexamethasone in pharmaceutical dosage form. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for Ketorolac was found to be 3.7367μg/mL & 11.3236μg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for Dexamethasone were found to be 0.5502μg/mL &1.66736μg/mL. It was concluded that in the present developed HPLC method, the standard and sample preparation required less time and no tedious extraction were involved.

17

THE SCREENING OF HERBALS AS IMMUNOMODULATORS IN THERAPEUTICS: A REVIEW

Tasfi Shafi, Suchitra Banerjee

Govt M L B PG Autonomous College Bhopal.

Affiliated to Barkatullah University Bhopal.

Abstract

Immune system is a network of biological structure and processes that does a remarkable job of defending the body against foreign invaders and any kind of impairment in its development or functioning leads to various disorders and dysfunctions. Researchers are going on the modulation or alteration of immune system network to repair or regain the functionality of immune system. Immunomodulation is a part of Immunotherapy that alters the immune response. This either potentiates or suppresses the response of immune system. Recently various side effects from chemical or synthetic therapeutics came into visibility, therefore more emphasis is on the use of herbals as immunomodulatory objects as they rarely effect the in vivo environment and chances of side effects are least. Immunostimulating and immunosuppressing plant extracts have their own importance and till date many plants have been investigated for their immunomodulating properties. Searches have been going on for better agents with such activities are becoming the field of interest all over the world.

18

REVIEW ARTICLE – SEAWEEDS AND ITS POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS

J. Jayabarath1, K. Jeyaprakash2

1Research Scholar, PG & Research Department of Biochemistry, Rajah Serfoji Government College (Autonomous), Thanjavur-05.

2Head, PG & Research Department of Biochemistry, Rajah Serfoji Government College (Autonomous), Thanjavur-05.

Abstract

Macro algae can grow both in freshwater and marine system and it is known as seaweeds. They are capable of performing the photosynthesis by which they approximately produce half of the atmospheric oxygen and which is almost essential for all living system. Seaweeds can grow at suitable conditions such as light, temperature and nutrients. When Seaweeds are subjected to variety of stress, they can able to produce both primary and secondary metabolites. Those valuable components can be used in wide range of spectrum applications such as food, feedstock, chemicals and biofuels etc. It can serve as renewable energy because they convert lipids to biofuels through thermochemical and biochemical process. Seaweeds are good potential source of proteins, polysaccharides, fibers, vitamins and minerals and also consists of trace elements like iodine, bromine, vitamins, stimulatory substances and they are antibiotic in nature. Seaweeds phytochemicals act as gelling, stabilizing and thickening agent. Its has wide range of application in the medical field.

19

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL ARYLIDENE CHALCONE LINKED IMIDAZOLONES AS POTENT ANTIOXIDANTS AND CYTOTOXIC AGENTS

Anitha Sadula, Usha Rani Peddaboina, Prameela Subhashini N J*

Department of Pharmacy, University College of Technology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India.

Abstract

A series of five 4-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene)-1-(4-(3-(substituted aryl)acryloyl) phenyl) -2-phenyl-1H-imidazo-5(4H)-ones (9a-e) have been synthesized by condensation of 1-(4- acetylphenyl)-4-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene)-2–phenyl-1H-imidazol-5(4H)-one (7) with different aryl aldehydes (8a-e). DMF/POCl3 complex was used for intramolecular cyclization and cyclodehydration of imidazolinones (7). The precursor was synthesized by the reaction of 4-(4-(dimethylamino) benzylidene)-2-phenyloxazol-5(4H)-one (5) with p-aminoacetophenone (6). The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Mass spectral studies and elemental analysis. All the synthesized final compounds were screened for their anticancer and antioxidant activity. Among all the screened compounds 9d showed potent antioxidant activity and 9c showed potent anticancer activity.

20

AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF IMIDAZOLONE DERIVED CHALCONES AS POTENT ANTICANCER AGENTS AND ANTIOXIDANTS

Usha Rani Peddaboina, Anitha Sadula, Prameela Subhashini N J*

Department of Pharmacy, University College of Technology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India.

Abstract

Chalcones and its derivatives have attracted increasing attention due to numerous pharmacological applications. They have displayed a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. DMF/POCl3 complex was used for intramolecular cyclization and cyclodehydration of imidazolinones (7a-e). A new series of six substituted imidazolone-chalcone derivatives (9a-f) have been synthesized by the condensation of imidazolones (7a-e) with various aldehydes (4a-e). The precursor was synthesized by the reaction of arylidene-2-phenyl-oxazolones (5a-e) with p-aminoacetophenone (6). Structures of the intermediate and final compounds were confirmed by IR, MS and NMR studies. In this present work, imidazolones linked chalcones were synthesized in presence of general reagents, at a faster rate in excellent yields. All the final compounds (9a-f) were screened for their anticancer and antioxidant activities by MTT assay on various cell lines and Nitric Oxide scavenging assay respectively. All the compounds have good to excellent activity.

21

SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF LEVETIRACETAM IN PURE AND DOSAGE FORMS THROUGH DERIVATIZATION WITH 9-FLUORENYLMETHYL CHLOROFORMATE USING STRUCTURAL ELUCIDATION OF THE REACTION PRODUCT BY LC-MS/MS

Mohamed. Rizk1, Mona S. Elshahed1, Ali K. Attia2, Amir S. Farag1*
1Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy,University of Helwan,P.O. Box 11795, Cairo, Egypt.
2National Organization for Drug Control and Research, P.O. Box 29, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract

A new, simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method is developed for the determination of levetiracetam (LEV). The proposed method is based upon its reaction with 9-Fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) in borate buffer of pH 10 to produce a highly fluorescent derivative at λ emission 308 nm after excitation at 265 nm. All parameters required for the reaction conditions are investigated. Linearity is verified with a range of 5 - 50 ng mL-1. Validation of the procedure is evaluated according to ICH guidelines and shows good accuracy and reproducibility, with mean percentage recovery 99.89%. The Correlation Coefficient is 0.9998 (n = 6), with limit of detection 1.1 ng mL-1 and limit of quantification 3.3 ng mL-1. The proposed method is applied for analysis of LEV in its different dosage forms (tablets and syrup) with percentage assay (100.4 ± 1.2% RSD and 100.3 ± 0.71% RSD respectively) without interference from common additives. Statistical analysis of the results reveals no significant difference between the data of the proposed method with those of the reported method (t-test = 0.615 and F-test = 8.327).

22

IN SITU GELLING SYSTEM AND RECENT TRENDS IN OCULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Jasbeer Singh1*, Ankita Kapoor2, Dr. Ghanshyam Das Gupta1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Research Division, Amar Shaheed Baba Ajit Singh Jujhar Singh Memorial College of Pharmacy, Bela (Ropar), Punjab, India.Pin-140111.

2School of Emerging Sciences and Technology. Baddi University of Emerging Science and Technology, Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, India.Pin-173205.

Abstract

Eye-drops are the conventional dosage forms that account for 90% of currently accessible ophthalmic formulations. Despite the excellent acceptance by patients, one of the major problems encountered is rapid pre-corneal elimination of drug resulting in poor bioavailability and therapeutic response. This problem can be tackled by using in situ gelling system which are prepared from polymer which exhibit sol-to-gel phase transition due to change in a specific physiochemical parameter such as pH, temperature, and ion-sensitive. The sol-gel transition occurs as a result of a chemical/ physical change induced by physiological environment. In situ gelling systems are preferred as they can be delivered in drop form with sustained release properties. This type of gel combines the advantage of solution (accurate and reproductive administration of drug) and gels ( prolong residence time) for improving ocular bioavailability. Current review intends to summarize the existing conventional formulations for ocular delivery and their advancements followed by current nanotechnology based formulation developments. Also, recent developments with other ocular drug delivery strategies employing in situ gels, implants, contact lens, erodible inserts have been discussed.

23

ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF PETROLEUM - ETHER EXTRACT OF VANDA TESSELLATE ROXB

Sailakshmi K, Sireesha JV and Vijayal K

Department of Pharmacology, Dr. V.R.K. Women's Medical College Teaching Hospital & Research Centre Aziz Nagar, R.R. District, Telangana, India.

Abstract

Present study was designed to investigate the antiulcer activity of petroleum ether extract of Vanda tessellata leaves. Wistar rats were used and divided into three groups. Group one to three received tween 80 (negative control), aspirin (Positive control), and 200mg/kg of petroleum ether extract with aspirin respectively. After 12 hour of fasting period, aspirin 200mg/kg orally administered to group two and three. Rats were sacrificed 5 hours after aspirin treatment. Stomach was analyzed for histological changes. Aspirin control shown damaged gastric architecture with dead neutrophils and pus formation of gastric mucosal layer, whereas rats pretreated with petroleum ether extract showed few inflammatory cells presented only in the base of the mucosal layer. Results of this study showed that pretreatment with petroleum ether extract of Vanda tessellata provided moderate significant protection against aspirin induced gastric ulcer. Further studies on different animal ulcer models required to confirm the antiulcer activity of petroleum ether extract of Vanda tessellate.

24

STUDY OF PRESCRIPTION PATTERN OF INSULIN IN DIABETIC PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Nikky Jain Thomas, Honey.K.R, Amrutha Abraham, Meenu Pandey, M.Kumaraswamy, B.P Sathish Kumar

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy/ Rajiv Gandhi University, Karnataka,India.

Abstract

Diabetes has become one of the major causes of premature illness and death in various countries. Insulin administration was found to be a better choice for diabetic patients who started surviving for longer periods till they developed vascular complications or infections. Although proper and appropriate insulin administration can prevent many of the adverse outcomes associated with hyperglycemia, there is a lack of patient education on proper glucose monitoring and optimization of insulin therapy. Ourobjective wasto study the prescription pattern of insulin in diabetic patients in a Rural Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. This study is a Prospective and Observational study. Adults and geriatric patients of either sex, diagnosed as Diabetes and those on insulin therapy were included in the study. A special design pro-forma was used to collect the data. Data was collected from patient prescriptions, patient case sheets, questionnaires. The data obtained was categorised as age, gender, medical and family history, distribution of insulin brands, oral hypoglycemics. During the study period of six months(October 2013 to April 2014), a total of 120 patients diagnosed with diabetes were enrolled in the study, out of 81(67%) were males and 39(33%) were females,7 patients(5.83%) belonged to the age group 30-40, 18 patients(15%) belonged to the age group 41-50, 35(29.6%) were from the age group 51-60, 43(35.835%) were from the age group 61-70, 13 patients(10.83%) belonged to the age group 71-80 and only 4 patients(3.33%) were found to be in the range of 81-90 years. Among the study population, 96(80%) were found to be having an history of Type2 DM and 29(24.16%) patients were found to be having family history of Type2 DM.96(80%) had a history of Type 2 DM and it can be illustrated that among this 96 patients, 7(7.29%) patients were having a history of diabetes not more than 1 year, 1-5 years of medical history were found for 37(38.54%)patients, 35(36.45%) patients were having medical history between 5-10 years ,12(12.5%) patients were found having medical history between 10-15 years, Between 15-20 years, only 4 (4.16%)patients were found to have the history of Diabetes and only 1(1.04%) patient had a medical history greater than 25 years,109(90.83%) patients were found to be administered with Human Actrapid and 11(9.16%) patients were prescribed with Human mixtard, 84 patients(70%) were on insulin monotherapy and 36 patients(30%) were found to be administered with both insulin and other oral hypoglycemics, the total number administered with oral hypoglycemic were 49,out of which 40(81.63%) patients were prescribed with metformin alone, 8(16.32%)patients were prescribed with metformin+glimepiride and only one patient(2.02%) were found prescribed with Metformin+glibenclamide.

25

DISSOLUTION RATE ENHANCEMENT OF A POORLY SOLUBLE DRUG AMLODIPINE BESYLATE USING LIQUISOLID COMPACTION METHOD

Raghuveer Pathuri*, Divya Martha, Sai Chaitanya Angalakurthi, S Baje Basha, Maruthirao Amara

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh-522510, India.

Abstract

Amlodipine besylate is a vasodilator in which reduces blood pressure. Since, the drug has low bioavailability, it can be increased by enhancing solubility in stomach. The Liqui-Solid compacts of amlodipine besylate having improved solubility were prepared and the dissolution profile is noted. The dispersions of amlodipine besylate were prepared in different concentrations and compressed. The resultant compacts are evaluated for their drug content, flow properties, disintegration & dissolution rate. The amlodipine loaded liquid-solid compacts are prepared using various carrier materials: Micro crystalline cellulose PH101, PH102, PH 200, coating materials: Aerosil& non-volatile solvents: Propylene glycol, Tween 80, PEG 400, Liquid paraffin. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to evaluate the drug-polymer interaction. The amlodipine compacts shows good wettability, rapid disintegration, and acceptable dissolution rate compared to the conventional tablets. The cumulative percent drug release of formulation LS-F11 & LS-F13 shows 98% of which greater than marketed conventional tablets of amlodipine besylate (83%).

26

RAPID SEPARATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF CERTAIN ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE AGENTS IN THEIR DOSAGE FORMS BY REVERSED PHASE-HIGH PERPROMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

P. Ravisankar*1, G. Devala Rao2

1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, Guntur (Dist.) - 522213, Andhra Pradesh, India & Faculty of Science, Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Viswa Maha Vidyalaya (SCSVMV University), Enathur, Kanchipuram – 631561, T.N., India. 2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, KVSR Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

For the first time the author bring forward newly developed RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous separation and determination of Atenolol (ATN), Metoprolol succinate (MET), Hydrochlorothiazide (HZT) and Amlodipine besylate (AML) individually and in combination with ATN with AML in tablet formulations which is quite distinct from that of other methods in vogue till today. The most important advantage of developed method was that the 4 separate drugs and combinations can be determined on a single chromatographic system without modifications in detection wavelength and mobile phase composition by RP-HPLC. The chromatographic separation of the selected drugs was carried out on Welchrom C18 column consisting of 250 mm X 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size utilizing mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.0): Acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50, v/v as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1mL/min with detection wave length at 235 nm by using UV spectrophotometric detector with total run time of 6 minutes. The retention times for ATN, MET, HZT, and AML were found to be 2.240, 2.813, 3.543, 3.753 and Combination of ATN and AML were arrived at 2.240 and 3.753 minutes respectively. All calibration curves for four drugs showed linearity over a concentration range of 2 - 10 μg/mL and for Amlokind - AT tablet 5 - 25 μg/mL for ATN and 1 - 5 μg/mL for AML. The corresponding correlation coefficient were also calculated from the linear regression analysis and found to be above 0.9995 in all cases. For intra and inter-day precision the % RSD values for each drug were evaluated and found RSD percentages of all above specified drugs were found less than 2 %. The results relating to limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for ATN, MET, HZT, AML and (ATN and AML combination) were found to be 0.3177 μg/mL and 0.9627 μg/mL; 0.1840 μg/mL and 0.5578 μg/mL; 0.1266 μg/mL and 0.3836 μg/mL; 0.2251 μg/mL and 0.6823 μg/mL; and for combination of drugs are 0.4941 μg/mL and 1.4973 μg/mL; 0.1181 μg/mL and 0.3580 μg/mL, respectively. The method was validated for its recovery, intra- and interday precision, selectivity and specificity. Therefore it is concluded that these methods are successfully feasible for the application of routine analysis within the said four antihypertensive drugs and binary combination of ATN and AML.

27

ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANT – AN APPROACH TO ARTHRITIC THERAPY

Gunjan1*, Vijender Singh1 , Mohd. Ali2

1BBS Institute of Pharmaceutical &Allied Sciences, Knowledge Park-III, Greater Noida, Gautam Budh Nagar, UP, India.

2Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi.

Abstract

Traditional medicinal plants are practiced worldwide for treatment of arthritis especially in developing countries like India. This article presents the selected plants inhabiting throughout the world regarding their traditional usage by various tribes/ethnic groups for treatment of arthritis. Antioxidant investigation was carried out by analysing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last six decades. Plants and their two types of extracts mainly hydro and alcoholic was further tested for their antioxidant activity by in vitro method. This study concludes that among the four plants selected alcoholic extract of Vitex negundo is more potent and comparable to standard. The purpose of this study was to conduct a study to examine the evidence for the use of herbal medicines for anti arthritic potential based on the scientific methods. Further the work will be focused on the impact of herbs in managing arthritic patient.

28

ESSENTIALITY OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST IN OUT PATIENT COUNSELING FOR BETTER THERAPEUTIC OUTCOME

K.Srilakshmi Silpa, Fathima Pothuraju, Venkateshwarao.R, P.Naga Rot Kumar, K.Chaitanya

Intern at Department of Pharmacy Practice, Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Government General Hospital, Guntur.

Abstract

Tertiary care hospital is a large health care set up which is always engaged in emergency and non emergency cases. Present study is an observational study done on the patients who visited government general hospital. This mainly depicts the present patient understanding levels regarding his health status. The study is carried out for the period of four months in the out-patient department. Many of the people visiting the hospital are low at understanding levels. In the present scenario hypertension, diabetes, alcoholism, depression etc are the most prevailing diseases which require regular follow-ups to check for the disease progress. These are the condition which requires regular medications alas! Patients are non adherent. The reason behind decreases adherence is lack of patient counseling and lack of time which is mandatory in the health care system earlier patients used to get diagnosed and receive medications and return to their homes without proper counseling. And now after the establishment of counseling set up each and every patient is counseled. In the total of 5154 patients 3499 female patients and 1655 male patients approached for patient counseling and benefited with the counseling provided. In these patients 4126 patients are non adherent and 1028 are adherent .After counseling many of the people themselves came forward to check their progress and got counseled on each of their next visits. Patients are given space to discuss their health problem and got counseled accordingly. Each patient is counseled on various grounds about disease, drugs, life style modifications, diet for their condition. After counseling the status of patient’s adherence improved that total 3074 patients showed adherence to the given medications. Patient counseling is a major requirement for the public to for better understanding and good therapeutic outcome.

29

SYNTHESIS OF BENZOXAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

ChilumulaNageshwar Rao1, B.Kalyani1, K.B.Priyanka2, G.Dayakar1

1Dept.of Chemistry,Kakatiyauniversity,Warangal,Telangana.

2Dept.of Pharmacy,Kakatiyauniversity,Warangal,Telangana.

Abstract

The novel 5 – substituted – N - (5 – aryl - 1, 3, 4 – oxadiazol – 2 - yl) benzoxazol – 2 - amines were synthesized evaluated for their antimicrobial and in - vitro anti-inflammatory activities. The 5 – substituted – 2 - aminophenol was treated with Cyanogen bromide to oxadiazole moiety. That was treated with phenylchloroformate to get benzoxazolecarbamate. The benzoxazolecarbamate was treated with hydrazine hydrate to get benzoxazolecarbamide. That was treated with bromine to get the titled compounds. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by IR, PMR and Mass data. The titled compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity by rat paw edema method and antimicrobial activity by cup plate method.

30

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF EPERISONE AND LORNOXICAM IN THEIR SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

Jawed Akhtar*1, Jatin Prajapati2, Shamim Ahmad1 Gamal Osman Elhassan3

1Translam Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh-250001.

2Astra Life Care Pvt. Ltd, Ahmedabad.

3Unaizah College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, KSA.

Abstract

Present work describes a precise, accurate and reproducible reverse phase high performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) methods for simultaneous estimation of Lornoxicam (LXM) and Eperisone (EPE). Both the drugs were resolved in a synthetic mixture, using a 250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size, C18H column using acetonitrile:water (70:30 v/v) mixture as a mobile phase of pH 2.8 adjusted with triethanolamine and orthophosphoric acid. The detection of the synthetic mixture was carried out at 291 nm with a flow rate of 0.8 mLmin-1. The retention times were 3.350 and 4.710 minutes for EPE and LXM, respectively. The correlation coefficient was 0.9975 and 0.9987 for EPE and LXM, respectively. The relative standard deviation values for repeatability and intermediate precision studies were less than 2 %, and % recovery was greater than 98% for both drugs. The developed method was found to be suitable for the routine estimation of EPE and LXM in tablet dosage form. As per ICH guidelines the developed method were validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantification, and the results were found to be satisfactory.

31

RESEARCH PROGRESS IN CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF EBOLA VIRUS, A ROAD TO SUCCESS

AroojThair Kayani1, Zarnab Shokat*1, Farhana Riaz1, Saima Kalsoom2, Nyla Jabeen1

1Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Interernational Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan.

2Department of Chemistry, Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.

Abstract

Objective: Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), a deadly viral disease caused by the virus of filoviridae family is one of the worst recent outbreaks with the fatality rate of 90%. There are four different types of Ebola Virus includes Sudan (SUDV) Bundibugyo (BDBV), Tai Forest (TAFV), Reston (RESTV). Main host of the Ebola virus is the Pteropodidae family which includes fruit bats. It is transmitted through the close contact with blood, serum and other bodily fluids of different infected animals. Expression of symptoms occurs in 2 to 21 days. It majorly targets the immune system of the host through dendritic and macrophage cells and turns the body defense against itself resulting in the causation of infection. Its major symptoms are hemorrhagic fever and MODS (multiple organ dysfunctions). Other general symptoms include fever, fatigue, diarrhea, headache and abdominal pain. In an attempt to fight this pandemic and make a novel drug this study is a subsequent contribution. Outcome: Currently, there is no effective treatment of Ebola virus that has been proven. Using drug repurposing screens we have found 18 approved drugs that block Ebola virus like particles (VLP) entry in assay. Conclusion: Some active compounds at an IC50<10μM are identified. Each drug with a different target protein is still being tested. We can use these drugs for Ligand Based pharmacophore designing and further computational studies in order to identify the lead compound of the Ebola Virus. This lead compound could then be used for further optimization studies.

32

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP – HPLC METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF BOCEPREVIR AND RELATED IMPURITIES IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

Shiny Ganji1*, Dr. D.Satyavati2

1Asst. Prof, St. Ann’s College of Pharmacy, Chirala, Prakasam Dt.

2Dr. D. Satyavati, Director, Brilliant Grammer School Educational Society’s Group of Institutions, Hayath Nagar, R.R.Dt.

Abstract

The main aim of the current work is to develop and validate a novel, specific, sensitive, precise, rapid and faster gradient elution by RP HPLC method for estimation of Boceprevir and related impurities in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. No method is available in the literature for the estimation of Boceprevir and also its process related impurity. The chromatographic separation was achieved on X – Terra RP -8, 250 mm X 4.6 mm, 5 μ with mobile phase composed of 0.1 M ammonium acetate in 1000 ml of water (PH 7.5) and acetonitrile using an gradient mode. The temperature is maintained at 45oC, detection was made at 235 nm and the flow rate was maintained at 1.0ml/min. The run rate was 20 min. The developed method was validated according to ICH guide lines and different analytical parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation were determined. The linearity of calibration curve for each analyte in concentration range of 400 μg/ml – 1200 μg/ml was good. There exists a correlation between peak area and analyte concentration. Relative standard deviation values for boceprevir and its impurity were 0.028 and 0.031 respectively. LOD for the active ingredient and its impurity was found to be 0.20 % and 5.00 % respectively. LOQ for active ingredient and its impurity was found to be 0.60 % and 15.00% respectively. From the above observations, the proposed method was found to be highly sensitive, precise, accurate, robust and fast. The shorter retention time allows the analysis of large number of samples in short period of time and it is cost effective, so it can be successfully applied for routine analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients and related impurities in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

33

IN-VITRO ANTIDIABETIC EFFECT OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION

Sharma Parul R., Laware Shankar L. *

Department of Biotechnology, JJT University Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India.

Department of Botany, Fergusson College, Pune-411004, SPP University (MS), India.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is characterised by hyperglycaemia and unbalanced carbohydrate metabolism. Under hyperglycaemic condition, regulation of blood glucose level happens to be indispensable for preventing various diabetes related complications. Treatment with herbal drugs has always remained a choice of treatment for protecting or rejuvenating β-cells and smoothing out fluctuation in glucose levels. A polyherbal medicine (PHM) formulated and tested with different in-vitro anti-diabetic assays in present study indicate that PHM possesses good antidiabetic activity. In vitro human salivary amylase (HSA) inhibition assay exhibited 81.27 % amylase inhibition and yeast glucose uptake assay showed 25% increase in glucose uptake at the concentration of 250 mg ml-1. Generally the haemoglobin glycosylation is determined mainly to identify the average glucose concentration over a prolonged period of time. Higher values of glycated haemoglobin indicate poor control of blood glucose level under diabetic condition. The in-vitro haemoglobin glycosylation inhibition assay showed considerable inhibition of glycosylation over a period of 72 hrs as compared to gallic acid, which clearly indicates the capacity of PHM to decrease the formation of glucose-haemoglobin complexes at physiological glucose concentration. Overall results of in-vitro antidiabetic assays clearly indicate that PHM has considerable antidiabetic activity and may be used in management of hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients.

34

A STUDY OF HOMICIDE SUBSEQUENTLY FOLLOWED BY SUICIDE IN SOUTHERN PART OF INDIA: RISK FACTORS AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES

Mohd Muneeb Quraishi1, Sandhya Manohar2, Simmi Soni3, RamaKranthi Tumu4, Durdana Begum1

1Department of Forensic Medicine, Dr. V.R.K. Women's Medical College Teaching Hospital & Research Centre, Aziznagar, R.R. District 500075, Telangana, India.

2Department of Forensic Medicine, Gandhi Medical College, Secunderabad, Telangana State, India.

3Department of Anatomy, Dr. V.R.K. Women's Medical College Teaching Hospital & Research Centre, Aziznagar, R.R. District-500075, Telangana, India. 4Department of Physiology, Dr. V.R.K. Women's Medical College Teaching Hospital & Research Centre, Aziznagar, R.R. District-500075.

Abstract

Homicide-suicide is a violent 2-stage event in which an individual commits homicide and subsequently suicide. We aimed at identifying commonly occurring factors in Homicide-suicide to provide insight into its prevention. The study consisted of Homicide-Suicide cases in Hyderabad from 01.08.2009 to 31.07.2011 with 86% filicide-suicide and 14% intimate partner homicide-suicide incidents. There were an equal number of male and female perpetrators (50%), while maximum perpetrators belonged to the second decade of life (43%). Mode of death of victims was either Strangulation or drowning (28.5% each) and perpetrators was Hanging (58%). Most of the perpetrators were ironically educated graduates (43%) and employed. Majority of cases had history of intimate partner conflicts (67%). Contributing factors were evidently related to socioeconomic causes, interpersonal relationship disappointments and less frequently psychiatric disorders. Identification of the link between family conflicts and homicide-suicide incidents and collaboration between legal and mental health systems might prevent these incidents.

35

EVALUATION OF ADAPTOGENIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF Tamarindus indica IN RATS AND MICE

A.Sudheer1, Hari Prasad Sapkota1*, Nim Bahadur Dangi1, Nabin Wagle1, R.Hima Bindu1, B.Sreedhar Naik1, S.Nagarjuna1, Ashish Adhikari2

1Division of pharmacology, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, (RIPER) Krishnam Reddy Palli cross, Chiyyedu, Anantapuramu-515721, and Andhra Pradesh, India

2Department of pharmacology, Sree Siddaganga College of Pharmacy, B. H. Road, Near Dr. Sree Shivakumara Swamiji Circle, Ward No. 18, Ashok Nagar, Tumakuru, Karnataka 572102.

Abstract

The present study is aimed at evaluating the adaptogenic activity of the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (METI) leaves using various acute stress experimental animals models. The various biochemical parameters were estimated to assess the study, like Glucose, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Total protein, SGPT, SGOT, BUN, RBC, WBC (Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, and Eosinophils). In Swimming endurance model animals were divide in to 3 groups (six rats/group), after 7 days dosing of METI (500mg/kg, P.O.) the treated group was compared with normal group showed a significant (p<0.01) increase in swimming time, significantly reduction on biochemical and haematological parameters. In Restrain model animals were divided into 4 groups (six rats/group), test group was treated for 14 days with METI (500mg/kg, P.O.) and compared with negative control group showed significantly reduction on biochemical, haematological parameters and the weight of the spleen, adrenal gland were significantly increased and weight of the liver was significantly decreased. In Cold stress model animals were divided into 4 groups (six rats/group), test group was treated for 10 days with METI (500mg/kg, P.O.) and compared with negative control group showed significantly reduction on biochemical parameters, haematological parameters, where the weight of the spleen, adrenal gland were significantly increased and the weight of the liver was significantly decreased. In writhing test model animals were divide into 3 groups (six mice/group), after 7 days dosing of METI (500mg/kg, P.O.), the treated group was compared with normal group which showed a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the number of writhing. These results suggest that Tamarindus Indica have positive adaptogenic activity.

36

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF SETARIA VERTICILLATA

Chintala Shivakoti*. K.Ramanjaneyelu. Alluri Ramesh

Department of Biochemistry, Vishnu institute of pharmaceutical education and research, Vishnupur, Narsapur, Medak, Telangana, India.

Abstract

Drugs from the plants are easily available less expensive, safe and efficient and rarely have side effects. The alkaloids, tannins, flavanoids and phenol compounds play a major role in preventing a number of chronic diseases by a definite physiological action on the human body like anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective and anticarcinogenic activities. Setaria verticillata (family: poacae) commonly known bristly foxtail and hooked bristle grass. Parts of the plants are also being used for many disorders like rheumatism, psoriasis and chronic eruptions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phytochemical analysis an aqueous extract of whole plant of Setaria verticillata. Phytochemical screening was carried out for aqueous extract. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of various bioactive components which include alkaloids, flavanoids, sterols, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, phenols and terpenoids.

37

TESTO INDUCED OVULATION SUCCESSFULLY IN WOMEN OF POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME

Sanjeeda Parveen1, Shabnam Ansari2*

1Tetotia Hospital Test-Tube Baby Center, Bulandshehar, India.

2Faculty of Medicine [U], Jamia Hamdard, India.

Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by anovulation, hyper-androgenism and polycystic ovaries on scanning and is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Testo, is an Ayurvedic poly-herbal preparation has been used by physician for infertility and menstrual irregularity since centuries. To assess the effect of Testo as the first-line medication to be used in anovulatory cycles in patients with PCOS for ovulation induction. We conducted a case series on 11 females of PCOS with anovulatory cycles. After informed consent, patients were treated with Testo, one capsule twice daily. Outcomes were based on serum progesterone test at day 22nd of each treatment cycle, ultrasonography finding of ovulation and effect on menstrual cycle irregularity. We observed, the rate of ovulation in 1st treatment cycle was 45.45% while in 2nd treatment cycle, the rate of ovulation was highly significant 81.81% without any adverse effects. Menstrual cycle got regulated in all the patients along with relief in dysmenorrhea. The rate of ovulation observed with Testo treatment in second cycle of treatment, was 81.81% while with clomiphene citrate [CC], ovulation rate was 59 % and with combination therapy (metformin + clomiphene citrate), was 68% in a clinical trial, revealing potential of Testo in ovulation over CC and metformin. We reviewed the literature related to the Testo, its constituents, have exhibited potential folliculogenetic, estrogenic, progesteronic, anti-inflammatory, analgetic, astringent activities, suggesting plausible mechanisms of action in these patients. The preliminary findings indicate the safe and potential ovulation inducing role of Testo. Further trials is undergoing, which is aimed to explore the therapeutic potential of this medicine in anovulatory infertility.

38

DOES DIABETES DELAY THE PROCESS OF WOUND HEALING- KNOW HOW AND WHY?

Dr. Neha Sridhar. N1, Dr. L.Britto Duraisingh2, L. Gowtham2, M. Shakthi2 , Dr. Saravanan. T3

1Clinical Pharmacist, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana State.

2Department of Pharmacy Practice, PSG College of Pharmacy, PSGIMSR, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.

3Unit Chief, Department of General Medicine, PSGIMSR, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.

Abstract

All forms of diabetes mellitus are characterized by macro vascular and micro vascular complications. As a consequence of micro vascular pathology, diabetes is the leading cause of blindness, end stage renal disease and neuropathies. Patients with diabetes are at a high risk of myocardial infarction, lower limb amputations and stroke. Intracellular hyperglycemia causes abnormalities in the blood flow and increased vascular permeability. Changes in the extracellular matrix overproduction induced by the growth factors; leads to edema, ischemia and hypoxia induced revascularization in the retina; proteinuria, mesangial matrix expansion and glomerulosclerosis in the kidney and multifocal axonal degeneration in the peripheral nerves. There are four proposed mechanisms involved in the microvascular and macrovascular complications caused due to hyperglycemia. The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing all over the world, India with the largest diabetic population. The so called “Asian Indian Phenotype” refers to unique clinical and biochemical abnormalities. This phenotype makes Asian Indians more prone to diabetes and premature coronary artery disease. Wound healing is a dynamic process that involves four continuous overlapping phases - Homeostasis; Inflammation; Proliferation and Remodeling. Interruptions, aberrancies or prolongation in this process can delay the process of wound healing or non- healing chronic wound. Multiple factors lead to impaired wound healing. They can be categorised as local and systemic factors. Local factors are those directly influence the wound itself. Whereas, systemic factors are the overall health or disease state and the ability of the individual to heal. In conclusion, wound care and prevention of non -healing chronic diabetic foot ulcers are treated with extracellular matrix replacement therapies; and wound care in diabetes plays an vital role.

39

REVERSED-PHASE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF NORETHINDRONE ACETATE AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

Ajitha Koneru, Ritu Kimbahune*, Mubeen. G, Lalitha. N, Krishnasis Chakraborty

Department of Quality Assurance, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Opposite to Lalbagh Main Gate, Hosur Road, Bangalore-560027.

Abstract

RP-HPLC method has been proposed on phenomenex BDS C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5μ) using the mixture of methanol: phospahte buffer, 10 mM (pH adjusted to 2.0 with 0.1% O-phosphoric acid) in the ratio of 84:16 v/v as mobile phase. The flow rate was maintained at 1mL/min and the analytes were monitored at 220 nm. Ethinyl Estradiol and Norethindrone Acetate eluted at 3.5 and 4.7 min respectively with resolution of 4.17 min. The peaks obtained were symmetrical with tailing factor less than 1.5 and theoretical plates more than 2000. The developed method was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and the results of all parameters were found within acceptable limits. The method was found linear in the concentration range of 5-1000 μg/mL and relative standard deviation of the precision study was found about 2.0%. The assay results was found 102.94 (±2.01) and 105.37 (±1.94) % with mean % Recovery 106.30 and 95.45 for Ethinyl Estradiol and Norethindrone Acetate respectively. The developed method has been found suitable for routine analysis of Ethinyl Estradiol and Norethindrone Acetate in mixture and formulation.