IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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MARCH 2015
1

PREPARATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF POLYMETHACRYLATE RESIN BASED SUSTAINED RELEASE LOSARTAN POTASSIUM MICROCAPSULES BY USING MINITAB16® SOFTWARE

Ashani Basu, Aisha Khanum, Shaikh M
Al Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, India.

Abstract

This study is an attempt to formulate sustained release Losartan potassium microcapsules using a combination of Polymethacrylate resin based polymers (Eudragit RSPO and Eudragit RLPO) by a newly developed modified double emulsion solvent evaporation method. A 32 full factorial design which comes under Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to study the effect of independent variables like drug: polymer ratio (X1) and stirring speed (X2) on specific selected responses like particle size and entrapment efficiency. The whole optimization was done by using statistical software Minitab 16® trial version. With the help of software the selected best batch of formulation F3 exhibited a particle size of 292 μm and entrapment efficiency of 84%. Further characterization of optimized microcapsules for surface morphology was also done and release of the drug from prepared microcapsules was sustained for more than 14 hours. The present study exhibited a software based methodical way to find the optimized best formulation and also prove the sustained release property of the prepared microcapsules.

2

TREATMENT AND DISEASE RELATED FACTORS AFFECTING NON-ADHERENCE AMONG PATIENTS ON LONG TERM THERAPY OF ANTIDERPRESSANTS

M. Sriharsha1 P. Alekhya1 B. Shivanandh2 R. Venkata Ramudu2 K. Siva Kumar Reddy1 T. Priya Darsini1 Y. Hrushikesh Reddy3
1P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa. AP.
2Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science (RIMS), Kadapa. AP.
3P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa.

 Abstract

Nonadherence to antidepressant medications is a common problem in the treatment of depression. Although clinical guidelines mention antidepressants be non-stop for at least 6 months after symptom remission, approximately 1/3rd of patients withdraw antidepressants within the first month of treatment, and 44% discontinue them by the third month of treatment. Risk factors for non-adherence are lacking health insurance, access obstacles to high-quality care, lower socioeconomic status, less acculturated, therapists relying on interpreters, lower age, stigma towards medication, shorter duration of illness, co-morbid illness, Poor therapeutic alliance, limited family support, less sharing of treatment development by patient. There are patient, therapy, condition associated factors affect adherence. To study the treatment and disease factors that influence compliance to the treatment of depression. The present Cross sectional study was carried out in the department of General Medicine (IP) of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Kadapa, AP, A total of 103subjects were participated in the study during 6months). Among the 103 psychiatric patients 31 patients were adherent and 72 patients were non-adherent. In our study significant effect on adherence seen in patients with polypharmacy and fear regarding medication. It is very difficult to maintain adherence to the therapy for a long period of time. As the condition may tend to worsen, relapse & requires hospitalization. Hence the present study clearly suggests that the barriers of non-adherence should be prevented to achieve better outcome for a disease.

3

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTITUBERCULAR EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA

S.Arun Satyadev1*, M.Viswanadha Murthy1, R.Saroja2
1A.U College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University ,Visakhapatnam, INDIA.
2Avanthi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bhogapuram, Vizianagaram, INDIA.

Abstract

The objective of the current research work was to determine the phytochemical constituents in leaf extracts of Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae) by using different solvents like hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethylacetate and water and also to screen anti tubercular activity by in vitro assay method using MABA(Micro plate alamar blue assay) technique. Methanolic and chloroform extacts of of Leucaena leucocephala showed significant activity on Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a MIC value of 6.25μg/ml which is equipotent as that of streptomycin which is used as one of the standard drug. Intermediate activity was found with ethyl acetate extract with a MIC of 12.5μg/ml and least among the five extracts was found to be with hexane and aqueous extracts with MIC value of 25μg/ml. The pharmacological activity of the above extracts can be attributed due to the presence of any of these phytoconstituents like glycosides, reducing sugars, tannins, phenols, terpenoids, flavonoids present in the plant extract whose presence is estimated from the general chemical tests. The above results drive us to explore different flora as a potential anti tubercular remedies. It can be concluded that different other Leucaena sps can be explored for antitubercular activity and compare the secondary metabolites present in different species and identify the constituents responsible for antitubercular activity.

4

GC-MS ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN ETHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF PALMYRA PALM (Borossus flabellifer L.)

P.C.Vengaiah1, B.Vijayakumari2 and P.Kiranmayi2*
1Dr.Y.S.R.Horticultural University, East Godavari (Dist.), A.P., India.
2Department of Biochemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, A.P., India.

Abstract

In the present study, the ethanolic root extract of Borossus flabellifer was subjected to GC-MS analysis. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of bioactive compounds like n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z), lactose, 2(3H)-Benzofuranone, hexahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl, D-Glucose,4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl, Squalene, 13,16-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, Z-8-Methyl-9-tetradecenoic acid, 9-Tetradecen-1-ol, acetate(E), α-D-Glucopyranoside, O-α-D-glucopyranosyl- (1.fwdarw.3)-α-D-fructofuranosyl. Based on the above results, the roots of this plant could possess various bioactive compounds, they may have role in health promoting benefits.

5

EFFECTS OF ALOE VERA JUICE ON HISTOPATHOLOGY OF EXCISION WOUND IN ALBINO MICE

Mukesh Kumar , Neelmani, Nandjee Kumar, Karunesh Ranjan
Mahavir Cancer Institute & Research Centre, Phulwarisharif, Patna.

Abstract

This study is undertaken to establish Comparasion between different conc. of Aloe vera juice (5%; 25%; 50% v/v topically) with respect to chemotherapeutic agent like betadine solution on healing of dermal wound in albino mice. Aloe vera juice used in the present work in the concentration of 5% , 25%, 50% v/v have shown wound healing effect on excision wound model in albino mice The maximum effect was found with 5% Aloe vera juice followed by , 25% and 50% respectively. Histopathological studies revealed that wounds treated with 25% and 50% Aloe vera juice, proliferation of fibroblast and mononuclear cell infiltration was markedly higher than the NSS and Betadine (control) treated wound.But in case of 5% Aloe vera juice treated wounds the fibroblast cells were found to be maximum as compared to all other group .The collagen fibres in these treated groups were thin ,fine and dispersed and markedly prominent as compared to the NSS and Betadine treated (control) wound.The constitution of these collagen fibres was found to be maximum with more thicker ,dense, and wavy fibres in the healing wound tissue by 5% Aloe vera juice. As per histochemical studies the collagen formation appeared to be increasing gradually in wound of all group. However the collagen formation was more marked and distinct in Aloe vera juice treated wound with maximum in 5% Aloe vera juice as compared to 25% and 50% Aloe vera juice as well as NSS and Betadine (control) treated wound. The elastin synthesis showed gradual increase in all the healing wound tissue with maximum by 5% Aloe vera juice. Among all concentrations of Aloe vera juice used in this study, 5% Aloe vera juice appeared to be the best in promoting the wound healing. The stability profile and release characteristic of 5% Aloe vera juice appear to be desirable.

6

COLOSTRUM: AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL GROWTH AND ITS ROLE IN DISEASE PREVENTION

Ashish Kumar Pareek*, Dr.Shiv Garg, Manoj Kumar, Sardar mal yadav
Maharishi Arvind College of Pharmacy Ambabari, Jaipur

Abstract

Colostrum is the first milk of the lactating mother, and it is very important for physical and mental development as well as in prevention of diseases. Colostrum is a complete nutritional food stuff produced in 48 hours of the child birth in all mammals. Colostrum works as a naturally and 100% safe vaccine. Colostrum protect the child from a large number of infections by providing a strong immune system(high concentration of leucocytes and white blood cells that destroy the bacteria and pathogen).New born intestine is very permeable, Colostrum seals the holes by painting the gastro intestinal tract that prevents the penetration of the foreign substance from mother to the new born. Colostrum is a perfect food for the child, It contain all the essential components required for the proper development of the child. Child those does not fed the Colostrum in proper quantity the Colostrum supplements are choice for them. Colostrum supplements are prepared by the use of Colostrum of cows, goats and other animals. The Colostrum obtained from these animals are most commonly similar to human beings in composition so its utility is increases in these days. The following article covers all the components present in the colostrum, importance of colostrum and role of colostrum in disease prevention.

7

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE MICROPARTICLES OF DEXIBUPROFEN

Ujjwala Y. Kandekar1*, Praveen D. Chaudhari2, K.B. Chandrasekhar3
1PES’s Modern College of Pharmacy (For Ladies), Moshi, Pune-412105, Maharashtra, India.
2PES’s Modern College of Pharmacy, Nigdi, Pune-411044, Maharashtra, India.
3Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur-515001, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Dexibuprofen belong to NSAID category which have side effect on stomach. To bypass that small intestine targeted microparticles are prepared by applying central composite response surface design. Design is based on variation in the level of chitosan and glutaraldehyde. Formulations prepared were evaluated for particle size, entrapment efficiency, mucoadhesion and in-vitro drug release. Particle size is found in the range of 71-266 microns, Drug entrapment was is 40.51 to 80.24 percent, Percentage mucoadhesion was in the range of 42- 91 percent and formulation F1 to F9 shows release in the range of 68.32 to 96.54 percent at the end of 12 hrs. FITR study shows the compatibility between drug and polymer and SEM image of the optimized formulation shows smooth spherical particles. It can be concluded that all the batches were prepared successfully and F2 batch is found to be optimized formulation.

8

FACTORS AFFECTING EXPOSURE OF HIV/AIDS AMONG SCHOOL YOUTH, METTU TOWN, SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIA

Zenebu Begna Bayissa*1, , Ebisa Negara2, Geremew Tolesa2, Gobezie Temesgen Tegegne1

1Department of Health Officer, Ambo University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ambo 19, Ethiopia.

2Department of Nursing, Mettu University, Faculty of Health Sciences.

Abstract

Young people between the age of 15 and 24 years are both the most threatened population, accounting for half of all new cases of HIV and the greatest hope for turning the tide against AIDS. The aim of this study was to assess factors influences school youth exposure to HIV/ AIDS, in the study area. School based cross-sectional study was employed. Sample size was determined by using single population proportion formula and four hundred twenty three youths from grade nine to twelve was selected by Simple random sampling technique from registration books. Self administered questionnaires were employed. All explanatory variables that were associated with the outcome variable during bivariate analysis were included in the final logistic model. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was made to identify factors that influence school youths exposure to HIV/AIDS at the p-value of < 0.05. In this study 51 (12.9%) of the respondents reported that they practiced sexual intercourse. All students engaged in sexual activity, 51 (100%) reported to have one sexual partner. All students were aware of HIV/AIDS and all of them knew that HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse. Condom utilization, having sexual intercourse, drinking alcohols and smoking were found to be the independent predictor for HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that school youths have risky behaviors like beginning sexual intercourse earlier, low proportion of condom use, alcohol consumption and smoking. So that education on sexual issue should be given by all concerned bodies.

9

STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPHYLAXIS PATTERN IN SURGICAL PROCEDURES AND INCIDENCE OF POST OPERATIVE INFECTION – A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Koya Jagadish Babu*1, Kaveetha Devarajan1, Neelakanta Rao Paidi1, Rajeswari Ramaswamy1, Dr.Sudarshan P2
1Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Chikkabellandur, Carmelaram Post, Varthur Hobli, Bangalore-560035.
2Department of General Surgery, MVJ MC&RH, Hoskote.

Abstract

Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality and adds significantly to the cost of care. These events represent the most common nosocomial infection in surgical patients. The national Surgical Infection Prevention (SIP) program ensures timely administration of prophylactic antibiotics, a key factor to reduce postoperative infection. However, in actual practice surgical prophylactic antimicrobial agents are often not administered at the optimal time to ensure their presence in effective concentrations throughout the operative period. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the timely antibiotics usage in surgical procedures and find out the incidence of Post-operative infections in surgical cases and to develop system-based guidelines to raise awareness for the need of timely administered antibiotic prophylaxis. A retrospective study is conducted for the period of 6 months in the department of general Surgery in the study hospital. A total of 110 subjects who underwent clean contaminated and contaminated surgeries were included. The subject‟s case data were collected from the medical records and analysed for prophylactic antibiotic administration & incidence of post operative infection. The study period was about six months in the hospital .Antibiotic prophylaxis was administered only in 46 cases (48.81%), out of total 110 patients observed during the study period. The Incidence of post operative infection was found to be 37.27%, out of which the clean contaminated surgeries were 48.78% and contaminated surgeries were 51.21%. Among the infection cases children was 2.43%, 7.31% in adolescence, early adulthood 43.90%, adulthood 31.7% and the late adulthood 9.75%. In the antibiotic administered patients, the incidence of post operative infection among patients timely administered with antibiotic prophylaxis was 2.43% and among non timely administered patients was 97.56%.There are considerable variations in the use of antimicrobial surgical prophylaxis in the study hospital. The timely administration of antimicrobial prophylaxis in any surgical procedure may reduce the risk of post operative infection rate.

10

ENANTIO SEPARATION BY HPLC – A REVIEW

*G. Nagamalleswari, P. Prachet, A.E. Prabahar, P.V. Suresh, N. Rama Rao

Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur, India.

Abstract

The main goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of chiral separations to researchers on separation, types of interaction, modern Chiral stationary phases, Mobile phase’s types and mechanisms. This review focuses more on most recent developments in the preparation of chiral phases & on their application to the resolution of racemic mixtures. It is important today to develop fast, cost effective chiral chromatographic methods in discovery labs and stimulate chemists to take advantage of available chiral stationary phases for enantiomer or ligand screening.

11

FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF DONEPEZIL HCL BY USING CO-PROCESSED SUPERDISINTEGRANTS

M. Jeevitha* and V. P. Pandey
Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram – 608002, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

The present study was aimed towards the formulation and in vitro evaluation of Orodispersible tablets using co- processed superdisintegrants by the direct compression method using Donepezil as a model drug to enhance patient compliance. Donepezil is a centrally acting reversible acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor, its main therapeutic use in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Orodispersible tablets of donepezil were prepared using novel co-processed superdisintegrants consisting of crospovidone and croscarmellose sodium in the ratio (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3) of each. The formulated powder mixtures were imperiled to both pre and post compression evaluation parameters including; FTIR spectroscopy, micromeritics properties, tablet weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, wetting time, disintegration time and in vitro drug release. FTIR studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and the excipients used. The hardness and friability of the tablet indicated that the tablets had a good mechanical strength and resistance. The formulation containing a high concentration of crospovidone showed faster disintegration. The present study concluded that using co-processed superdisintegrants are an effective approach than using a normal mixture and formulation F6 shows the maximum amount of drug release within 20 mins which contains the maximum amount of crospovidone.

12

FORMULATION & EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLET MONTELUKAST SODIUM BY USING QbD APPROACH

Omprakash G. Bhusnure*, Ashwini V. Nandgave, Sachin B. Gholve, Sanjay S. Thonte, Chanderkant A. Shinde, Nitin Shinde
Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College, Maharashtra, India- 413512.

Abstract

The focus of the current investigations was to apply quality by design (QbD) approach to the development of fast dissolving tablets. Critical material and process parameters are linked to the critical quality attributes of the product. Variability is reduced by product and process understanding which translates into quality improvement, risk reduction and productivity enhancement. The development of Montelukast sodium fast dissolving tablet was proposed in the current study through a QbD paradigm for a better patient compliance and product quality. Montelukast sodium is a leukotriene receptor antagonist used in treatment of asthma & its bioavailability is 63%. It is usually administered orally. It has extensive first-pass metabolism & show a very poor dissolution rate. Montelukast sodium is widely used as an antiasthmatic drug, It has low bioavailability due to first pass metabolism. Fast dissolving tablets of Montelukast sodium was developed, optimized and characterized by statically designed by using 32 factorial design in which three variables namely concentration of Gum Guar, CCS(Croscarmellose sodium) & MCC(Microcrystalline cellulose) were at two levels. The main interactive influences were tested using statistical model. The response surface plots were generated by software for analyzing effect of the independent variables on the response. All the batches were prepared by direct compression. The tablets were evaluated for Precompression parameters e.g. Angle of repose, Bulk density, Tapped density, Carr‟s compressibility index and Hauser‟s ratio and post compression parameters like drug content uniformity, hardness, wetting time, friability, Thickness, Disintegration time & In vitro dissolution. Before the formulation of the tablets IR Spectroscopic studies were also performed to check the compatibility with the excipients. The 32 full factorial design revealed that the amount of superdisintegrant significantly affect the dependent variables disintegration time. the negative value indicates that the increase in concentration of that particular excipients retards the disintegration time. The same value i.e. -0.75 for the two factor interactions (Gum Guar & CSS) & three factor interactions (Gum guar, CSS & MCC) indicates that the disintegration caused due to both superdisintegrants Gum guar & CSS is unaffected by the use of MCC. Increase in concentration of particular excipient retards disintegration time. All these interpretations and implications of disintegrates characteristics over release profile were supported statistically.

13

CONCEPT OF PROLAPSED LUMBOSACRAL INTER-VERTEBRAL DISC (HADBAH) AND ITS MANAGEMENT IN UNANI MEDICINE

1Uzma Bano, 1Akhter Siddiqui, 1Azhar Jabeen, 1Fasihuzzaman, 2Asrar Ahmad, *1Shafia Mushtaq
1Department of Moalejat. Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.
2Department of AYUSH Government of Haryana

Abstract

Back Pain, is common ailment, it is an affliction that affects a substantial proportion of entire population, at least at some point in their life. About 80% of population suffer from low back pain at some time in life. Prolapsed inter-vertebral disc being one of the frequent causes of low back ache has been known since time immortal in Greeko-Arabic medicine. The symptoms Like other joint disorders low back pain has been evaluated in the Unani literature as Darad-e-Kamar/Darad-e-pusht/Wajah-u-zahr. In modern system of medicine, the back means the low back or lumbosacral region, defined as the area on the surface of the body from bottom of the 12th rib to gluteus fold. The pathology, clinical features, signs and symptoms of prolapsed intervertebral disc has been found to resemble Hadbah wa Riyah Al Afrasaah in Unani system of medicine. Hadbah is name given to displacement of vertebrae from the original place. According to displacement it can be Hadbah Mukadahmah, Hadbah Muakhaer, Altawah. Hakeem Kabiruddin referring to Sheikh has indicated many causes of it. Sheikh says that pain in back can be because of involvement of internal muscles, ligaments or external muscles. Other cause described by eminent scholars are Simple cold temperament predominance Phlegmatic humour, It can be because of vertebral lesions of bone, Pneumatic (Riyah) changes in bone, Exertion, Heavy weight lifting (Acute pain strain), Postural Disturbances, Excess of Coitus, etc. This aim of review article is to show that Unani scholars had knowledge of Hadbah (PIVD) without the investigation facilities available at that time.

14

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE

Jadhav Dnyaneshwar *, Kharat Rekha, Jadhav Santosh, Patil Manojkumar
Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade, Sangola-413307, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The present investigation concerned with formulation design and evaluation of oral sustained release matrix tablets of Propranolol hydrochloride prepared by direct compression method using various proportion of release retarding polymer viz; HPMC K4, K15 and HPMC K100M alone. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, percentage friability, hardness and in vitro dissolution studies and all the formulations showed compliance with pharmacopeia standards. In vitro release studies were performed using USP type I apparatus (Electro lab 8 vessel). The formulations F7 sustained release of drug for 12 hrs with 22.80%, release of drug after 1hr and more than 90% at the end of 12 hrs. The release kinetics were analyzed using Zero-order model equation, Higuchi’s square root equation and Korsmeyer and Peppas’ empirical equation. The regression coefficient obtained for Higuchi model was found to be higher (R2: 0.969) when compared with those of the Peppas model (R2: 0.6367).

15

A NOVEL STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND ZIDOVUDINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

B. Venkateswara Rao*, S. Vidyadhara, B. Praveen Kumar, V. Lakshmi Annapurna and N. Sai Prudhvi
Chebrolu Hanumaiah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chandramoulipuram, Chowdavaram, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India-522 019.

Abstract

A simple, precise, accurate, reproducible, rapid and economical stability- indicating reverse phase liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the quantitative simultaneous estimation of Lamivudine and Zidovudine, in bulk and marketed formulations. Estimation of drugs in this combination was done with a Kromasil 100-5C18 column [250mm x 4.6mm] using a filtered and degassed mobile phase of composition Methanol and Water (50:50 v/v). The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min and the separation was monitored at 270 nm by using UV variable wavelength detector. The retention time of Lamivudine and Zidovudine were 3.3 min and 5.0 min respectively. The method was found to be linear over a range of 5-25 g/ml for Lamivudine and 10-50 g/ml for Zidovudine. The stressed samples were analyzed and this proposed method was found to be specific and stability indicating as no interfering peaks of degradation compounds and excipients were noticed. The method was validated according to the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and was successfully employed in the estimation of commercial formulations. The obtained results proved that regression value for linearity, %RSD values for precision and percentage recovery for accuracy was within the specified limits. Hence the proposed method can be utilized for qualitative and quantitative estimation of selected drugs by the modern analyst with 100% confidence.

16

BIOCHEMICAL AND CYTOARCHITECHTURAL EVALUATION OF DIMETHOATE INTOXICATION IN RAT LIVER AND KIDNEY: AN IN VIVO STUDY

Nazia Nazam1, Mohammad Iqbal Lone1, Monika Sharma1, Aijaz A Khan2, Abdelhakeem M Kelany3, Waseem Ahmad1*
1Gene-Tox Laboratory, Division of Genetics, Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, UP, India.
2J N Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, UP, India.
3Department of Medical Biology, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, KSA.

Abstract

The study aimed at investigating the effect of dimethoate on oxidative damage to liver and kidney of rat in vivo. Male rats grouped into three sub-groups (five each) were dosed intraperitoneally with sub-lethal concentrations of dimethoate (DM) for multiple time periods. DM caused hepatotoxicity confirmed by the increase in hepatic marker enzymes - alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and total bilirubin (TBIL) along with the hepatic malondialdehyde. Significant reduction (p<0.05) in antioxidant enzyme – Superoxide dismutase (SOD), reflecting a dose and time dependent manner was seen viz-a-viz control. Dimethoate strongly affected renal specific markers like higher serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine at all concentrations for 24h duration. Uric acid level at 24h interval was markedly elevated (p<0.05) in the test group administered with medium and highest concentrations. Interestingly, these biochemical alterations were accompanied by marked enhancement of lipid peroxidation in kidney and alteration of SOD antioxidant level of exposed groups. These perturbations in tissues corresponded histologically, as evident by low to severe injury signs upon microscopic evaluation. Thus, dimethoate is a potent hepato – and nephrotoxic at acute exposures and has the potential of bringing alteration in antioxidant homeostasis.

17

ANALYSIS OF DISPENSING PRACTICES AT COMMUNITY PHARMACY SETTINGS IN AMBO TOWN, WEST SHEWA, ETHIOPIA

Jimma Likisa Lenjisa1, Biruk Mosisa1, Minyahil Alebachew Woldu1, Dumessa Edessa Negassa2, Gobezie Temesgen Tegegne1, Belayneh Kefale Gelaw1*, Gurmu Tesfaye1
1Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Unit, Ambo University.
2School of Pharmacy, College Of Health Sciences, Haramaya University.

Abstract

The purpose of the present study is to generate valuable data about overall dispensing practices available at the later settings in one of the largest town in Ethiopia; Ambo town. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at 15 community pharmacy settings found in the town from April to June 2014 including 255 clients. Dispensing practices were evaluated using WHO standards for dispensing. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0. Out of 18 dispensers working at these settings, only 3(17%) were pharmacists and surprisingly 5(27.8 %) were not professionally qualified (without having any college diploma or university degree). The average dispensing time obtained was 60 seconds. From the total of 225 clients visiting these settings, only 17 (7.6%) of them were found to be knowledgeable about drugs dispensed to them. Regarding adequacy of labeling, generic name, strength, dosage, and quantity of drugs were written on only 11.1%, 11.1%, 29.8% and 11.6% of the labels respectively. It was found that for more 90% of the clients, drugs were dispensed without checking patients’ identity like age. While for 6.7% wrong strength, 12% incorrect frequency and 24.4% incorrect total quantity were dispensed. Only dispensing spoon was available as dispensing aids at all settings. None of them were found to check the temperature of the refrigerator regularly & maintained with acceptable range. Generally, dispensing practices found at these pharmacy settings were mostly irrational. This could be ensured through the involvement of non-pharmacy professionals in dispensing, very short dispensing time, poor clients’ knowledge, poor labeling of medications, significant number of dispensing errors and unavailability of essential dispensing aids. So there is a need for urgent managerial and educational intervention to improve dispensing practices in the country and in the study area particularly.

18

ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITY HEALTH AND HEALTH RELATED PROBLEMS IN DEBRE MARKOS TOWN, EAST GOJJAM, ETHIOPIA

Belayneh Kefale Gelaw1*, Gobezie Temesgen Tegegne1, Yeshanew Asinake Bizuye2
1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.
2Debire Markose Hospital, North East Ethiopia, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Community Based Training is an on-site training program tailored to an employer’s specific hiring needs. The training takes place in the actual work area in the workplace, and a professionally trained job coach is located on-site to provide additional support in training. The study was conducted in keble 05 Debre markos town found in Amhara region, East Gojjam Zone, which is located 299 km for away from Addis Ababa and 265km away from Bihar Dar town. The Administration has 8 sefer the keble has 8551 population of these 4447 were female and 4104 male, its climate condition, woynadega and had 45 government and private health institution. The aim of the study was to assess the community health status and health related condition in keble 05 Debre Markos town, East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia, 2013. Community based cross sectional survey conducted from 25/08/2013-24/09/2013 by using interviewer administrative questioner and observation. The study conducted in urban population keble 05 Debire markos town. The cross sectional descriptive study, 94% of house hold in the keble had latrine facility Among this 50% of house don’t have hand washing facility connected with latrine among women who were pregnant 100% were attained at least 1st ANC and 90 of them deliver in the health facility from breast feeding 18 % of children stop breast feeding before the age of 6 month and early and late feeding also present in 9% of children. Most of the house hold in the kebel had latrine constructed but most of them had no hand washing facility connected with latrine and low coverage of solid and liquid waste disposal system. There were also different problems like low immunization coverage’s, low family planning, utilization poor wining and exclusive breast feeding.

19

NON-ADHERENCE AND ITS CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE MEDICATION IN AMBULATORY HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS IN ADAMA REFERRAL HOSPITAL, OROMIA REGION, ETHIOPIA

Remedan Anuwer*, Muluneh Fromsa Seifu, Belayneh Kefale Gelaw, Thirumurugan Gunasekaran, Esayas Tadesse Gebremariam, Mustefa Ahmed Mohammed
Ambo University, College Of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department Of Pharmacy. P.O.Box: 19, Ambo, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Hypertension (HTN), or high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg) is an overwhelming global challenge which ranks third as a cause of disability-adjusted life-year. Hypertension causes 7.1 million premature deaths each year worldwide and accounts for 13% of all deaths globally. There are effective medical therapies for hypertension management; but the problem of non-adherence to medical treatment remains a challenge for the medical professionals and social scientists. The objective of this study is to assess the magnitude of adherence and factors for non adherence related to anti-hypertensive treatments in hypertensive patients visiting Adama Referral Hospital. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at Adama Referral Hospital to assess patient adherence towards antihypertensive therapy. The data was collected by using a pre-tested structured questionnaire after translated to local language, in exit interview method immediately after the patients have got the service, and the collected data was processed and analyzed by using SPSS version 20 computer software. There were 96 respondents during the study period, from 96 respondents 42(43.75%) were males and the rest were females. Among the respondents 33.34% were > 64 years old and 20.83%% were employed. Regarding the educational level larger proportions of respondents can read and write. Among the study population 45.83% of the respondents were orthodox and only 3.12% were others. 29.16% of the respondents had an income of 100-800 Ethiopian birr per month. Majority of respondents were non adherent due to lack of money. It was found that the level of education does not significantly affect knowledge towards adherence. Also majority of patients >64 ages were non adherents to their medication. The overall research finding shows that among 96 respondents of hypertensive patients in Adama Referral Hospital 44(45.8%) were non adherent to the prescribed medication. It was recommended that health professionals must educate hypertensive patients about their disease with specific emphasis on its causes, the severity of the disease, their medications and the consequences of non-adherence with treatment.

20

DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN IN MEDICINE DEPARTMENT IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN UTTAR PRADESH

Chaudhary K Pankaj1, Dr. Maurya K Arvind1, Dr. Jain Atul1, Dr. Pathak Asha1, Dr. Neha Sharma2
1UP RIMS and R, Etawah, UP, India.
2NIMS Medical College, Jaipur.

Abstract

Patients admitted to the Indoor patient department receive multiple medications from a variety of pharmacological classes due to various life threatening illnesses. This study was conducted to assess the patterns of prescribing antimicrobial agents to achieve rational therapeutic practices in order to Prevent Drug- Drug Interactions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the pattern of antibiotic usage amongst the patients admitted in Medicine IPD (Indoor Patient Department) in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Uttar Pradesh. It is an Observational study was carried out at UP RIMS & R, Uttar Pradesh from 20th November 2014 to 15th January 2015. The relevant data of drug was collected from the prescription of each patient in the indoor ward. The demographic data, disease pattern and the use of different classes of antimicrobial agents as well as other drugs were analyzed. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and values were presented descriptively in percentiles. Altogether 231 patients, 146 (63%) males and 85 (37%) females were enrolled. Highest rate of drug prescription was observed for patients aged between 25 to 40 years. Highest rate of antimicrobial prescription was observed for the patients of Diabetes Mellitus which consist of 22.5% patients followed by other complications. Highest frequency of drug prescription was observed for Cephalosporin which consist of 268 (48%) followed by other drugs. Overall 36% patients were treated with a monotherapy antimicrobial. This study showed that average drug prescribed per prescription was 4.05. In conclusion different types of clinical disorders were noticed. Overall poly‐pharmacy among antimicrobial agents was noticed. Hence, we have attempted to show the current pattern of antimicrobials being used and to promote rational prescribing.

21

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES

Mohd Khader, Mohd Mahboob Shareef, Syeda Huda Noorain, Osman Ahmed
Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana. India.

Abstract

To admix and characterize novel pyrimidine derivatives and screening them for anti-anxiety activity. A series of four 6, 7-dihydro-3-aceto substituted pentaleno [2, 1-d] pyrimidin-4-one derivatives (PM1-PM4) were synthesized from 2-amino-3, 4, 5, 6-tetra hydro pentalene-1-carboxamide. The obtained compounds were characterized on the basis of satisfactory analytic and spectral (H1NMR, C13NMR, Mass and Elemental) data. Studies were agitated out for the novel compounds which were evaluated for anti-anxiety action by Forced Swimming Test (FST) model and Avoidance Exploratory Behaviour Test (AEBT). Diazepam is used as standard anti-anxiety agent. The synthesised compounds showed adequate anti-anxiety activity, compared to accustomed drugs. Two of the compounds PM1 and PM3 credible cogent anti-anxiety activity, as compared to accustomed biologic Diazepam. Hence, the synthesized novel pyrimidine derivative may be considered as potent anti-anxiety agents.

22

FORMULATION, OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF RAFT FORMING TABLET OF NIZATIDINE

Tanvi Patel1*, Talele Ajay1, Dr. Sanjay kumar2, Dr. Anil Jadhav1
1Smt B.N.B Swaminarayan Pharmacy College Salvav, Vapi (Gujarat), India.
2University of Petroleum and Energy Studies Dehradun.

Abstract

The objective of present work is to formulate, optimize and evaluates Raft forming tablet of Nizatidine for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, heart burning. The aim of present study is to provide sustained effect of Nizatidine by using Sodium alginate and Pectin as raft forming agent and use sodium bicarbonate as gas generating agent.Raft formulation is newly imerging approch of Gastroretentive drug delivery system used to overcome the disadvantages associated with floating system. Thus raft formulation provide pH neutral barrier on stomach content which is used to reduce acidity and prevent reflux of acid into esophagus. Nizatidine is H2 antagonist absorbs from upper part of GIT and has a short biological half life so it will beneficial to retain in stomach. Raft forming tablet is evaluated by measuring Hardness, Thickness, Diameter, raft strength, raft weight, raft volume, in vitro drug release study, Weight variation, % drug content. 32 full factorial designs were used in present study for optimization. amount of sodium alginate and amount of sodium bicarbonate was used as an independent variable and raft strength, % drug release was used as dependent variable.A6 batch was optimized on based on maximum raft strength (6.11) and good in vitro drug release within 12 hr (98.96%).Stability study of optimized formulation showed that tablets were stable at accelerated Condition.It can be concluded that as the both polymer amount increase raft strength will increase and drug release in a sustain manner.By formulating raft forming tablet of nizatidine dose frequency will get reduced and patient compliance will increase.It can be conclude that raft forming tablet containing Nizatidine could be an efficient dosage form for treatment of heart burning, gastroesophageal reflux disease than all traditional antacids.

23

COMPARATIVE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT OF BLEPHARIS MADERASPATENSIS (L.) HEYNE EX ROTH. AND BLEPHARIS MOLLUGINIFOLIA PERS. OF MYSORE DISTRICT BY DPPH METHOD

Neelambika H S*, Leelavathi S.
Manasagangotri, University of Mysore, Mysore-570 006, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Antioxidants have been reported to prevent oxidative damage caused by free radical and can be used in anti-inflammatory diseases. This study is aimed to evaluate the free radical potentiality of Blepharis maderaspatensis (L.) Heyne ex Roth. and Blepharis molluginifolia Pers. whole plant. The present study was undertaken using in vitro antioxidant method such as DPPH radical in different concentrations of three different extracts such as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract was increased with the increasing concentration. The reducing power of extract was carried out with rutin as a standard reducing agent. The percentage inhibition by DPPH method was compared in terms of IC50 value, which was found to be about 39.33±0.58 μg/ml for Blepharis maderaspatensis ethyl acetate extract and 49.67±0.58 μg/ml for Blepharis molluginifolia ethanolic extract when compared with IC50 value of the standard Rutin (31.61±0.98 μg/ml). These two extracts of the plants show highest activity with the lowest IC50 value. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extracts of the above plants have potent antioxidant activity against free radicals and these observations will encourage further research and also in clinical applications of the constituents of these plants.

24

IN VITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF IPOMOEA OBSCURA (L.) KER - GAWL LEAF

Saravana Prabha P, Gopalakrishnan V.K
Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India 641021.

Abstract

The objective of the study is to find the free radical scavenging of ethanolic extract of Ipomoea obscura (L.) in vitro. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl -2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, hydroxyl radical activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide  radical scavenging activity and reducing power activity. Ipomoea obscura (L.) exhibited potential antioxidant activity with a concentration-dependent manner. The results presented in the leaf of Ipomoea obscura (L.) have a strong antioxidant property against free radicals and could be further exploited for their anti cancer properties.

25

ENOXAPARIN INDUCED LOCAL HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS -A RARE CASE REPORT

Dr. M Sureswara Reddy1 P Venkata Ramana2 Gangula Amareswara Reddy2 B. Narasimha2 M Venkata Subbaiah2
1Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, India.
2P Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India – 516003.

Abstract

Enoxaparin is extensively used in the treatment of venousthrombo-embolic disease (VTED) which inhibits blood clotting inside the blood vessels by the inhibition of factor Xa activity through antithrombin. Local hypersensitivity reactions are one of the rare adverse drug reactions (ADR) of enoxaparin which may lead to hospitalization and excessive burden to the patient. A 72 years male patient was admitted in general medicine department with retrosternal pain even at rest and was diagnosed with unstable angina pectoris. He was administered with anti-coagulantEnoxaparin 0.4ml (40 I.U)subcutaneouslyalong with other supportive medications. Patient have developed severe local hyper sensitivity reactions like erythema,pain,swelling,irritation at the site of injection, and suspected as an ADR of Enoxaparin and immediately drug was withdrawn, then it was confirmed through causality assessment and this ADR have shown +ve for rechallenge;patient was fallowed for improvement and the symptoms especially swelling and irritations were not subsidedeven on 9th day. By this case study we strongly recommend the testingof drug sensitivity before initiating Enoxaparin therapy,and need to collect past history comprehensively for safe and effective outcome of therapy.

26

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF 1-(4-METHYLPHENYL)-2-PHENYL-4-(4-SUBSTITUTED BENZYLIDENE)-5-IMIDAZOLONES

Rajendra M. Kedar, Suraj A.Deshmukh
Department of Chemistry, Shri Shivaji Science College, to Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, AmravatiMaharashtra State, India.

Abstract

The main objective of this work is to synthesise some new imidazolones and at the same time to reduce reflux time and to increase percent yield of the product. Imidazolones are reported to show several pharmacological activities .The work presented here involves preparation of oxazolones from benzoylglycine and substituted aldehydes in presence of anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride .These oxazolones were further reacted with aniline in presence of Zeolite as a catalyst to afford the formation of -5-imidazolones.The characterisation of newly synthesized compounds was made by chemical properties, elemental analysis and FT-IR,1H-NMR By employing zeolite as a catalyst , we could reduce reflux time substantially and increase percent yield of the product.

27

REGULATION OF MEDICAL DEVICE AND ITS COMPARISON IN EUROPE, AUSTRALIA AND INDIA

Pooja Brijeshkumar Patel, Ms. Krupa Chaitanyakumar Thula*, Dr. Dilip Girishbhai Maheshwari.
L. J Institute of Pharmacy, Sarkhej, Ahmedabad – 382210, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

Millions of patient’s world widely depends on ever widening arrays of medical devices for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention and management of diseases. In Europe medical devices are regulated by European Commission and covered under New Approach of Directives. In Australia medical devices are regulated by Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) and in India it is regulated by central drugs standard control organizations (CDSCO). All these countries have slight different classification system and registration process for classifying and registering the medical devices in respected countries. This article mainly includes classification, registration process for approval, labeling requirements, adverse drug reaction reporting system and registration requirement for approval of medical devices in these three countries. This type of evaluation is helpful for newly developing industries for better understanding of all requirements as a regulatory point of view. Time duration limit for review of medical device registration fixed in Australia divergence to India regulation. Medical device registered for five year as per European and Australian regulation whereas in India only for three year. Application fees for registration of medical device in Australia and Europe seen costly as compared to Indian application fees.

28

IMPACT OF LEAF EXTRACT OF NEEM(AZADIRACHTA INDICA) ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETION IN ALBINO MICE

Neelmani ,Mukesh kumar,Nandjee kumar,Karunesh Ranjan
Mahavir Cancer Institute & Research Centre, Phulwarisharif, Patna.

Abstract

The effect of NLE was studied on separate set ulcer model, which enabled detailed observation of the antisecretory and antiulcer effect of NLE. NLE in dose of 20,40, 80 and 160 mg/kg was administered by subcutaneously route immediately after pyloric-ligation. The advantage of this mehod is that it allows analysis of the gastric contents (volume, pH, pepsin, mucous, polysaccharides etc) and study of the stomach mucosa as well for the occurrence of ulceration, petechiae, hemorrhage etc. Anatomically, the Albino mice stomach is divided into upper two-fifth non-secretory portion and lower three-fifth glandular secretory portion, which resembles the body of the stomach in man both anatomically and functionally. NLE within the dose range of 20 to 160 mg/kg reduced the mean volume in a dose- dependent manner. The range gastric secretion in each group gradually decreased with concomitant increase in dose. A 160 mg/kg dose NLE produced a volume reduction to fifty percent of the control value. The volume of gastric secretion was significantly reduced by ranitidine 25 mg/kg. This experiment has clearly brought in to focus the effect of NLE in reducing gastric volume of the gastric acids content. The optimum result has been obtained in the dose of 80mg/kg and 160mg/kg of body weight. Following the administration of NLE in doses of 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg, the value of mean number of ulcers per albino mice stomach recorded in this investigation were 4.67, 4.3, 3.1 respectively. Significant reduction was obtained by dose of 80 mg/kg and 160 mg/kg in our study.

29

EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF SEED EXTRACTS OF THYMUS SERPYLLUM

N. Jaya Raju*, Ch. Avinash, P.V. Suresh
Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur, A.P, India.

Abstract

This study evaluated the scientific basis for the traditional use of Thymus serpyllum (Labiatae or Lamiaceae) seeds extract as an anthelmintic agent. The study design were investigation of the traditional anthelmintic medicinal plant Thymus serpyllum using in vitro anthelmintic properties of four extracts of the plant were evaluated using earthworms. The earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) resembles both anatomically and physiologically to the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. The four crude seed extracts of Thymus serpyllum were Petroleum Ether extract (50 &100 mg/ml), Chloroform extract (50 &100 mg/ml), Methanol extract (50 &100 mg/ml) and Aqueous extract (50 &100 mg/ml). The paralysis time of Petroleum Ether extract (85±3.73 &72±4.22), Chloroform extract (112±1.58 &95±4.21), Methanol extract (59±6.23 &46±6.14) and aqueous extract (150±3.05 & 132±1.92) were compared to the standard drug Albendazole suspension 100mg/5ml (3.48±1.00). The results shown that the four extracts produced dose dependent and significant anthelmintic activities. From these findings the four extracts of Thymus serpyllum are rich source of naturally occurring anthelmintic activity. Further work is recommended to evaluate the in vivo anthelmintic activity and toxicity of the extracts.

30

SYNTHESIS AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF SOME NOVEL INDOLE AND BIPHENYL DERIVATIVES AS A HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITORS

K. Rajaganapathy*, V.K. Kalaichelvan, S.Kabilan, P.Balaji
Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002.

Abstract

The present investigations demonstrate that development of new novel HDAC inhibitor to specific HDAC 8 disruption. The novel compound having similar structure of protein – protein interfaces of NCoR-SIN 3 – HDAC complexes. Hydroxamic acid is a new effective drug targets for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and T-cell lymphoma. The hydroxamic acid based newly designed certain indole and Biphenyl derivatives was screened against HDAC8 inhibition assay, in this result the compound number 10 and 11 was showing most active compound as a comparison of trichostatin-A.

31

S-ADENOSYL HOMOCYSTEINE HYDROLASE: A FUTURE TARGET

*Yadav Rupali1, Asirvatham Sahaya1 , Chaube Hitesh2
1St. John Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Palghar-401404.
2Oriental College of Pharmacy, Sanpada.

Abstract

S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcyase) controls intracellular levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). AdoHcyase is a cytoplasmic enzyme which is responsible for catalysing the hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine to adenosine and L-homocysteine. When this enzyme is inhibited accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine occurs, which in turn inhibits cellular S-adenosyl-L-methionine dependent transmethylation reactions. Inhibition of methylation interferes with the formation of the 5c-terminal-methylated N7-guanosine mRNA cap of most animal infecting viruses, without which replication of this viruses becomes impossible. Thus effective AdoHcyase inhibitors can be proved as broad spectrum antiviral drugs. Many compounds have been synthesized and evaluated as AdoHcyase inhibitors. These inhibitors are largely classified into two groups Type I and Type II. Amongst these Type I is reversible whereas Type II is irreversible inhibitors. With the help of this review clearer insights on targeting of S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase as antiviral drugs is described which can lead to newer future prospects for research in antiviral drugs.

32

MANKIND FORMULATION OF HERBAL MEDIPREPARATION FOR ANTIDIABETIC

Manish RA*, Rajni HS
G. N. A. Arts, Commerce and Science Collage Barshitakli, Dist- Akola.
Medical Product of Science College of Pharmacy, Dist- Akola.

Abstract

Dibeties is one of the critical stages not only in 21th century but for an ancient time. It is a arise question for challenging to a researcher. Dibeties mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder resulting for insulin deficiency. In traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine physician treat a dibeties mellitus is easier but there is a side effect. So in this research here studies less side effects herbal plants. Which is available various hilly and climatic surroundings very effective for dibeties. Tincture Wrightia combines with Arjuna and Hirda with best base like honey bee was used. A number of med formulation are found in marketed to be useful are a treat a dibeties patient. This short study is a good indicator for idealness of a dibeties therapy. In a different in between investigation reduction in blood glucose level an increase a body weight is a study of hypoglycemic activities. Present study has been made to comparative and efficiency and a med digestive formulation of their hypoglycemic activity. A present investigation was under taken in an med formulation for antidiabetic preparation containing 3 different herbs and one base for stay to stabilize stander glucose level to control hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. For these herbal plants preparations have Anti-diabetic activity our review result shows that diabeties medicinal plants preparation could prevent from disease of Diabetes.

33

GC-MS/MS ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS in Terminalia catappa L, ANTIMICROBIAL ASSAY

M. Krishnaveni,* G. Krishna kumari.C. Ragina banu, M. Kalaivani.
School of Bio-Sciences, Periyar University, Salem.

Abstract

The leaves of Terminalia catappa are rich in phytochemicals and are used in traditional medicine for several ailments. So, the present study was undertaken to study the phytochemicals present through GC-MS/MS and also its antimicrobial activity by Kirby-Baur test. The phytochemical present in highest concentration was Propane, 1, 1-diethoxy-, t-Butyl hydrogen phthalate but Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, oct-3-en-2-yl ester, Thiophene-2-carboxamide N-(2-furfuryl)- was present in lower concentration. Likewise, the ethanol extract was found to be active against Aspergillus niger compared to Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, it was concluded from the study, that ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa leaves found to possess the ability to fight against the infectious microbes, which might be due to the phyto-chemicals identified in the leaf, thus acting as a potent antimicrobial agent.

34

VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING RP – HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SAROGLITAZAR IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Sureshbabu Kapavarapu1, Ramu Golkonda2, Rambabu Chintala*1
1Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
1Satavahana College, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Sir C.R.Reddy College, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

An isocratic reverse phase stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of Saroglitazar in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The Waters HPLC system equipped with UV Visible detector, Altima ODS C18 (150 mm x 3.9 mm; 5μ) column and a mobile phase of mixture of disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile in a ratio of 40:60 v/v at a flow rate of 1.2mL/min were adopted for the separation. Empower-2 software was used for data handling. About 20μL of working standard solution of concentration 40μg/mL was injected into the column, and the component was separated by carrying out elution for a run time of 7 minutes and the component was retained at column for 2.827 minutes and wavelength was detected at 294 nm. Repeatability, reproducibility, robustness, ruggedness and linearity of the developed method were determined. Linearity (10-60μg/mL), slope (11373) and intercept (1739.3), correlation coefficient (0.9994), limit of detection (0.13μg/mL) and limit of quantification (0.41μg/mL) were evaluated. The proposed method was readily applied for the assay of pharmaceutical formulations and the results were found to be accepted, therefore the proposed method can be adopted for the routine analysis of any quality control laboratory.

35

ZERO ORDER AND AREA UNDER CURVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

Gavandi Sandip1, Jadhav Santosh2, Sapkale Geeta1, Tamboli Ashpak2
1ASPM’S K. T. Patil College of Pharmacy Osmanabad, Maharashtra, India.
2Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade,Sangola-413307, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Simple, fast and reliable spectrophotometric methods were developed for determination of Diltiazem hydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The solutions of standard and the sample were prepared in Methanol. The quantitative determination of the drug was carried out using the zero order derivative values measured at 238 nm and the area under the curve method values measured at 234-240 nm (n=2). Calibration graphs constructed at their wavelengths of determination were linear in the concentration range of Diltiazem hydrochloride using 2-10μg/.ml (r²=0.9938 and r²=0.9981) for zero order and area under the curve spectrophotometric method. All the proposed methods have been extensively validated as per ICH guidelines. There was no significant difference between the performance of the proposed methods regarding the mean values and standard deviations. Developed spectrophotometric methods in this study are simple, accurate, precise and sensitive to assay of Diltiazem hydrochloride in tablets.

36

FORMULATION, DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF EMULGEL FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY OF MELOXICAM IN THE TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

Wesley Z. D’Souza1, Mrs. Rajashree Gude2
1Quality Assurance ( Student) , Goa College of Pharmacy / Goa University, India.
2Associate Professor Pharmaceutics Department , Goa College of Pharmacy / Goa University, India.

Abstract

Objective: Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve the symptoms of arthritis, primary dysmenorrhea, and as an analgesic. The aim of the present study was to enhance the permeation of the drug Meloxicam through the skin by formulating an Emulgel using suitable permeation enhancers. Method: Tween 20 and Span 20 were used as emulsifiers ( 2 and 4 %), Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4) and Carbopol 934 were used as gelling agents. The Emulgels were prepared using various combinations of oil, emulsifiers and gelling agents. Menthol ( 5 %), Clove Oil (8%), Isopropyl Myristate (5%), Dimethyl sulfoxide (5%)and Oleic Acid (1%) were used as permeation enhances. Results: Prepared Emulgels were evaluated in terms of their appearance, pH, Spreadability, Extrudability, Drug Content, and In- Vitro Drug Release ( 8 Hours). The drug release profile exhibited zero order kinetics. The optimized formula was found to be formulation F9b containing highest concentration of Emulsifiers (4%) and Menthol as Permeation Enhancer. The amount of drug release from the optimal formula F9b was found to be 87.79 % after 8 Hours.Conclusion: The overall drug release from all the formulations were observed to follow zero order kinetics and the data obtained fitted well with Higuchi’s equation following non-Fickian mechanism. It was thus proved from this research work that Emulgel containing Meloxicam was a promising delivery system for the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

37

SYNTHESIS, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PIPERIDINE ANALOG CONTAINING TRANS CINNAMAMIDES

Seelolla Gangadhara, Cheera Prasad, Ponneri Venkateswarlu*
Sri Venkateswara University,Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India 517502.

Abstract

Cinnamamides were prepared by using piperidine and different cinnamicacids. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their IR, LC-MS, 1H & 13C NMR spectral data and tested in vitro for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Most of the synthesized compounds showed moderate to good activity comparable to that of the standard drugs Streptomycin and Amphotericin B as an antibacterial and antifungal strain respectively. Compounds 4a and 4b exhibited good activity against Gram-positive bacterial strains S.aureus and B.subtilis respectively. Compounds 4a and 4i displayed good activity against fungal strains C.albicans and A.flavus respectively.

38

SYNTHESIS, EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDY OF 2- SUBSTITUTED BENZOTHIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

Gollapalli Nagararaju*, Karumudi Bhavya Sai, Kota Chandana, Madhu Gudipati, P.V. Suresh, Nadendla Ramarao
Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guntur-522 034, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Benzothiozoles are an important class of heterocyclic compounds which possess wide spectrum of biological properties. In the present research work, a series of new 2-substituted benzothiozole derivatives are synthesized and evaluated as enhanced antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. The chemical structure of newly synthesized 2-substituted benzothiazole derivatives are characterized by the spectral studies (IR, Mass and CHN analysis). The compounds were evaluated for their in -vitro antioxidant activity by using five standard protocols namely diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity, reducing power ability study, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and by lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid was used as standard for DPPH, nitric oxide, reducing power ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Antibacterial activity was evaluated against B. pumilis, A. niger, S. aureous, C. albican and S. dysentriae using Norfloxacin, Ampicillin and Griseofulvin were standard. It was observed that the 2-substituted benzothiazole derivatives confirmed the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

39

ADJUNCTIVE DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN IN ONCOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF A TERITIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

G. Sneha*1, S. Aparna1, B.N.V.B. Sri Lakshmi1, A. Sravya Varma1, Dr. D.S. Raju Naidu2
1Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Government General Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The objective of the study is to know the proportion of adjunctive drugs used, to improve the quality of health care like appropriate drug usage, reduce potential side effects, to list out drug chart for proper planning of indent and budget of adjunctive drugs. The study was conducted in the Oncology (Radiotherapy) Department of Guntur Medical College, Government General Hospital, Guntur. The study method includes prioritizing the patients based on inclusion and exclusion criteria with the approval from ethical committee. Information regarding adjunctive drug utilization is collected with the aid of a data collection form from the inpatient’s case sheets. In our study, 226 patients of all age groups were observed over the period of 6 months. Prevalence of cancer was more at 46-60 years of age group. Out of all the most commonly observed types of cancer in the patients were cervix n= 60 (26.54%) followed by Head and Neck n = 54 (23.9%). 32 adjunctive drugs and their oral formulations (77%) were used than parenteral formulations (23%). Ondansetron (17.5%) was the mostly prescribed drug followed by diclofenac (12.7%) and ranitidine (12.5%) and other commonly used drugs are Metronidazole, Ciprofloxacin, B-Complex, and Pantoprazole. From our study we conclude that 32 adjunctive drugs and their oral formulations were mostly prescribed, among them antibiotics, antiemetics, and NSAIDs were inappropriately used. The study assisted health care team in cognising the appropriate drug therapy and adverse drug reactions management and in precise indent and budget preparation without any drug lackage.

40

A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON RELATIONS BETWEEN HAND-LENGTH & BODY HEIGHT IN KASHMIRI PANDITS POPULATION AND ITS ROLE IN SEXUAL DIMORPHISM

Maharaj Kumar Mattoo1, Tarsem Kumar2, Sunil Shekhar Ghimire3
1Department of Anatomy at National Dental College Dera Bassi Punjab.
2Santosh Medical College, Santosh University Ghaziabad, NCR-Delhi.
3National Dental College Dera Bassi Punjab, INDIA.

Abstract

It is vital concern for forensic medicine, forensic pathology and anthropology experts to estimate the complete stature, especially when fragmentary remains of victims of mass disasters are brought for postmortem. Complete stature reconstruction from available fragments depends upon the facts that each part exhibit consistent ratios when compared with complete height of an individual. Present study is devoted to find out ratio between hand-length and body height in Kashmir region of India. Results of the study reveal highly significant gender differences between the selected parameters necessitating the need for separate data for two sexes. The results of present study reveal that the mean values for males height is 1894.07±65.93 and for females is 1703.70±51.71 and mean right and left hand lengths for males are 181.79±8.92 and 183.63±9.15 respectively and mean right and left hand-lengths for females are 170.84±9.57 and 170.70±12.00 on statistical analysis these figures shows highly significant differences between left and right as well as in males and females ≤0.001 and the mean values for right and left hand-length/body height ratio were 0.10±0.01 and 0.11±0.01 except for females having equal right and left hand-length/body height ratios i.e 0.11±0.01. The values were found out to be positively significant with correlation coefficient of 0.535 and 0.702 for present population. Mean values thus obtain for both sexes of Jammu and Kashmir, part of north India can be used practically in anatomy, forensic and archeological investigation.

41

BIOANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF LOSARTAN IN RABBIT PLASMA BY RP-HPLC

Sandhya Pamu*1,2, Subrahmanyam C V S2, Rao Patnaik K S K1
1Department of Pharmacy,University College of Technology, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, India.
2Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy College, Bachupally, Hyderabad 500090, Telangana State, India.

Abstract

A simple and selective RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Losartan potassium in rabbit plasma. Chromatographic separation of Losartan was achieved on a Thermosil ODS C-18 column (150×4.6mm) 5μ particle size, using mobile phase consisting of a mixture of Phosphate buffer and Acetonitrile (60/40 v/v, pH 4) at 245nm. Linearity was observed in the range of 20-150 ng/mL for Losartan potassium with a mean correlation coefficient of 0.999. The accuracy of the method was assessed by recovery studies at three different levels. Recovery studies indicated that the absence of interference from commonly encountered pharmaceutical additives. The method was found to be precise as indicated by the repeatability analysis, showing % RSD less than 2. All statistical data proved validity of the method and can be used for pharmacokinetic analysis of Losartan in rabbit plasma.