IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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APRIL 2016
1

FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS – A NOVEL APPROCH TO DRUG DELIVERY

Adchitre Vaishali B.*, Dr. S. S Khadbadi, Purushottam. R Patil, Malik Shaikh
Government College of Pharmacy, Hotel Vedant Road, Osmanpura, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India-431005.

Abstract

Novel drug delivery system assists to accomplish better patient compliance. Fast dissolving tablets are one of them and provide innovative drug delivery system in which the consumption of the dosage form without any use of water in taking. Fast dissolving tablets are solid dosage forms containing drugs that get disintegrated within one minute without need of water. In order to overcome the swallowing problems in pediatric and geriatric patients by conventional dosage forms, these fast dissolving tablets are formulated. In recent trends fast dissolving technology is most important and useful for geriatric, pediatric and mentally ill patients. This article overview the salient features, mechanisms of superdisintegrants, technologies and evaluation parameters in the fast dissolving drug delivery systems. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several mouth dissolving tablet technologies for preparation. The current article is focused on ideal characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, formulation aspects, formulation technologies, evaluation of products and future potential. Various marketed preparations along with numerous scientific advancements made so far in this avenue have also been discussed.

2

FORMULATION, CHARACTERISATION AND COMPARATIVE INVITRO - INVIVO EVALUATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF SATRANIDAZOLE SOLID DISPERSION

Manju Maria Mathews*, Dr. D. Kilimozhi, Dr. S. Kuppuswamy
Department of Pharmaceutics, Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Muvattupuzha Ernakulamdist, Kerala.

Abstract

Objective of this study was to formulate directly compressible orodispersible tablets (ODTS) of Satranidazole solid dispersions with sufficient mechanical integrity,and content uniformity with an objective to enahance the bioavailability of the drug. The tablets were made using different proportions of superdisintegrants, croscarmellose sodium and crospovidone alone and in combinations,in addition to various excipients like sweetening agent, flavouring agent,lubricant and diluent. Orodispersible tablets were made using direct compression method. Formulated tablets were subjected to evaluation tests such as weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, and in vitro drug release. Other parameters such as wetting time, water absorption ratio, invitro dispersion time and invitro disintegration time were also evaluated. The formulated tablet and conventional tablets were subjected to pharmacokinetic evaluation following an oral dose of 54mg /kg body weights of healthy wistar rats. Parameters like Cmax, Tmax, Ke, Ka, AUC0t, AUC0,MRT, t1/2, Vd, ClT and relative bioavailability F were determined from plasma concentration – time profile. Based on the results obtained, formulation F9 containing 2.5% crospovidone and 7.5% croscarmellose sodium is selected as the optimized formulation. It showed lowest disintegration time (29.67 seconds) and highest dissolution rate (99.87%) when compared with other formulations and conventional tablet. Pharmacokinetic evaluation data indicate that the drug was more rapidly absorbed from the ODTs and a higher plasma concentration was achieved in a short interval after dosing than pure drug and conventional tablet. Enhancement of solubility by converting into solid dispersion and formulating into orodispersible tablets using superdisintegrants could increase the dissolution rate and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs such as Satranidazole. Thus an ODT with fast disintegration, dissolution rate and melt in mouth property can be achieved by producing solid dispersions and incorporating superdisintegrants in suitable proportions. ODTs prepared by direct compression have good mechanical properties and strength.

3

QUINOLINE: A PROMISING AND VERSATILE SCAFFOLD FOR FUTURE

Shrinivas D. Joshi*, Nilesh M. Jangade, Sheshagiri R. Dixit, Ashwini S. Joshi, Venkatarao H. Kulkarni
Novel Drug Design and Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, SET’s College of Pharmacy, Sangolli Rayanna Nagar, Dharwad 580 002, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Quinoline is one of the condensed heterocyclic systems reported for its wide range of chemotherapeutic importance. Subsequently, quinolines have been highlighted as the important biologically active scaffold. Quinoline not only has a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities but there are several established protocols for the synthesis of this ring. This article aims to assess various routes for the synthesis of quinoline ring, pharmacological aspects and future aspects of quinoline scaffold.

4

SERINE PROTEASE INHIBITOR FROM GUIZOTIA ABYSSINICA

Sneharani A. H.*
Department of Studies in Biochemistry, P. G. Centre, Mangalore University, Chikka Aluvara, Kodagu – 571232.

Abstract

Proteinase inhibitors are important for the regulation of proteinases involved in numerous biological processes. Protein inhibitors of proteinases are widely distributed in plants, being particularly abundant in storage tissues such as seeds and tubers. In seeds, proteinase inhibitor plays a role in defense in protecting the seeds from infestation against insects, nematodes and phytopathogens. Protease inhibitors from plant origin are shown to be effective in combating various diseases. Niger (Guizotia abyssinica) is an oil yielding plant cultivated for its oil rich seeds. The seed of niger contains ~ 18% of protein. Serine protease inhibitors were isolated and partially purified from niger seeds. The isolated protein inhibited the trypsin and chymotrypsin activity. The inhibition of serine proteases by the isolated protein was found to be concentration dependent. The trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors isolated from the oil seed of niger seeds is thermostable upto 70° C. The study highlights the abundance of protease inhibitors in oil rich seed.

5

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DOMPERIDONE PRONIOSOMAL GEL

Kondru Lalitha*, Dr.T.Satyanarayana, S. Venkata Madhava, J. Mangamma, K. Sravani, S. Laxmiprasanna
Mother Teresa Pharmacy College, Kothuru, Sathupally- 507303, Khammam Dist., T.S.

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to develop a proniosomal formulation of Domperidone and evaluate the influence of proniosomal system. Proniosomes were prepared by coacervation phase separation Method using various ratios of nonionic surfactants such as Span20, Span40, Span60 and Span80 with cholesterol as a membrane stabilizing agent and Lecithine as a charge inducer. The formulation of proniosomes and surface morphology of proniosome formulations were studied by optical microscope respectively. The prepared proniosomes have shown higher dissolution of Domperidone compared with pure drug powder. The ex-vivo permeation enhancement permeability co-efficient, Enhancement ratios were significantly higher for proniosomes formulation. The parameters were evaluated in goat ear skin and a significant enhancement in the Bioavailability was observed from optimized proniosomes formulation. The Stability study reveals that the proniosome formulations are stable when stored at 250C.

6

PRECLINICAL EVALUATION FOR ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA (L.) FRUIT PULP

Rajendra M. Kawade*, Nitin B. Ghiware, Ramrao Rokade
Department of Pharmacology, CRPS Nanded Pharmacy College, Shyam Nagar, Opp. Kasturba Matru Seva Kendra, Nanded-431602, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Annona squamosa Linn family Annonaceae commonly known as Custard Apple is a famous fruit in India, and have been commonly used for treating various diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the anticonvulsant potential of plant extract. The extract was prepared with maceration process using methanol as a solvent. The acute and sub acute toxicity where carried out using UP and DOWN procedure, result reveals that over the study duration there were no deaths, no changes were pragmatic in blood pressure, no change were observed in blood analysis of haemoglobin and biochemical data, no change in urinalysis, tissue analysis recorded in male and female animals given 2 g/kg of extracts orally. Further anticonvulsant activity carried out in mice (n=5) groups treated with vehicle, Diazepam 1 mg/kg, extracts (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) using PTZ induced model. The extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) is significantly (P<0.001) delayed the onset of first myoclonic and clonic spasms induced by PTZ demonstrating anticonvulsant activity. The data obtained indicates that Annona squamosa methanolic extract of pulp may help to control grandmal and petitmal epilepsy to the presence of flavonoids.

7

ELDERLY VICTIMS PROFILE OF TRAUMATIC CRANIAL INJURY HOSPITALIZED IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT OF REFERENCE HOSPITAL

Jocilene da Silva1, Edilson Martins Rodrigues Neto2,3, Lidia Audrey Rocha Valadas Marques2, Karla Bruna Nogueira Torres Barros3, Romênio Nogueira Borges3, Dulce Helena de Sousa1, Terezinha Almeida Queiroz1, Márcia Oliveira Coelho Campos1
1State University of Ceará. Fortaleza-CE-Brazil.
2School of Medicine. Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza-CE-Brazil.
3Catholic Faculty Queen of Sertão, Quixadá-CE-Brazil.

Abstract

The objective was to identify the frequency, age and gender of the elderly victims of head trauma, admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Retrospective study of descriptive and documentary nature, conducted with medical records of elderly patients suffering from brain injury trauma ICU of an emergency care hospital located in Fortaleza, Ceará. The research period was from January to August 2013. The results showed that the determinants of hospitalization among the elderly in the ICU were: fall from own height, car accident, fall from the first floor, stair fall, beating and unknown factor. In conclusion, the elderly require special and differentiated attention, mainly because of their physical condition, so that way they can carry out their daily activities without compromising their mobility, avoiding accidents such as those mentioned.

8

FIRST REPORT OF FUSARIUM PALLIDOROSEUM (COOKE) SACC. CAUSING WILT DISEASE OF CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA (CLUSTER BEAN) IN RAJASTHAN

Suman Saini, Dr. Mamta Goyal
Microbiology laboratory, Department of Botany, Government College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India.

Abstract

Cluster bean is annual legume which is the source of guar gum. It is also known as Guar bean. It is assumed to have developed from the African sp. Cymopsis senegalesis and further domesticated in India and Pakistan. This legume is a very valuable plant with a crop rotation cycle. In fact agriculturists in semi arid regions of Rajasthan follow crop rotation and use guar as a source to replenish the soil with essential fertilizers and nitrogen fixation before the next crop. Till date there has been no report on the occurrence of any disease from this locality. However we observed wilted plants of cluster bean from few sites of Ajmer and Jaipur districts of Rajasthan. The pathogen was isolated from the diseased beans and its pathogenicity was confirmed. The causal organism of the wilt disease was identified to be Fusarium pallidoroseum. Host beans exhibited chlorosis, followed by yellowing and which ultimately turned brown in colour. Isolation were made from the discoloured beans on PDA. Fusarium pallidoroseum was the fungus isolated and appeared from most of the diseased fragments. Macro and micro morphology of the fungus was studied in detail. All isolates obtained were identified as Fusarium pallidoroseum due to the charcteristic colour of the colony which is light pink in color and orangish tan colouration around the colony from reverse. Particular fusarial species shows two types of macroconidia. Those born in the arial mycelium were mostly straight, 3-5 septate, macroconidia born in sporodochia were curved, possesss a hyaline foot cell, 3-7 septate. Ellipsoid microconidia were born on short simple conidiophores and chlamydospores were also observed in old cultures.
9

CONTACT LENSES A UNIQUE EXPANSION IN OCULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Saad Shaikh*, Shaikh Siraj ,G. J. Khan , Patel M Siddik, Shaoor Ahmad, Mohd. Muzammil G, M Saif, Shafique Baig
Ali-Allana College of Pharmacy Akkalkuwa Dist, Nandurbar, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Ocular drug delivery system is one of the most important and difficult process in pharmaceutical researchers. One of the major impediment of ocular administration of medicine is use to produce and to maintain remedial level at site of action for extend period of time. Ocular drug delivery system is indispensable by the impediment to prevent harmful effect of the eye. For the preserve of anterior segment of the eye, various products are used to extend the retention time on the ocular surface have been introduce in the market. On different way direct into eye using biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymer technology has been generality investigating for the treatment of chronic vitriol- retinal disease. 0cular drug delivery system is necessary to provide controlled release for the treatment of chronic diseases, and to decrease dosing frequency. These review focus on various aspects of ophthalmic drug delivery with its advancement like contact lenses. The use of contact lenses marked a tremendous development for the delivery of ocular drugs in a sustained or controlled or for prolonged period of time to the eye in an efficient manner. The different devices or inserts are used in the treatment of eye infection such as erodible inserts like soluble ocular drug inserts , Minidisc, lacriserts, etc. and non-erodible like contact lenses, ocuserts, etc.

10

DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL CHARECTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW FULLY UNSATURATED 2-SUBSTITUTED-4,6 DICHLORO SYMMETRIC TRIAZINE- BASED CHALCONE HYBRIDS, AS POTENTIAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

Venkata Pavan Kumar G1*, Srinivasa Rao D1, Pooja B2, Harika G2, Anil Kumar Y3, Sadasiva Rao G3
1KC Reddy Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jangamguntapalem, Medikonduru (Md),Guntur (Dt), A.P, India.
2Sims College of Pharmacy, Mangaldas Nagar, Guntur (Dt) A.P, India.
3Hindu College of Pharmacy, Amaravathi Road, Guntur (Dt), A.P, India.

Abstract

Triazines and chalcones are interesting class of heterocyclic compounds with a prominent structural core system present in numerous pharmacologically active compounds.It is proved from the literature that the compounds containing 1,3,5-triazine moiety or chalcone bridge often shows significant biological activity profiles. Based on these observations, it was considered worthwhile to synthesize and characterize some new 1,3,5-triazine-chalcone hybrid molecules in the present investigation.As a part of our research program aimed at search for new hybrid pharmacophores as potential cytotoxic agents,we are interested to have α,β-unsaturated ketone linker to the 1,3,5-triazine basic nucleus to give a series of 1,3,5-triazine-chalcone hybrid molecules.Therefore,in the present study an attempt has been made to synthesize and characterize various analogs of fully unsaturated 2-substituted-4,6 dichloro-1,3,5 triazine based chalcone hybrids. All the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by CHN elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, 1H NMR, and LC mass spectral analysis.

11

ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF APHRODISIAC HERBAL FORMULATIONS

Nisha L. Patel1, Dr. Ashok B. Patel1, Mr. Kartik V Vikani2, Rucha J. Shah1
1B.K.Mody Government Pharmacy College, Gujrat Technological University, Ahmedabad, Gujrat.
2Aum Research Laboratories, Rakanpura, Gandhinagar, Gujrat.

Abstract

High performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of L-Dopa and Withaferin A in 0.1 N methanolic hydrochloric acid extract of Aphrodisiac herbal formulations. The method was developed by using column Phenomenex C18 BDS (250 mm×4.6 mm i.d., 5μm) and mobile phase 1% Ammonium acetate and 1% Acetic acid in water pH adjusted 7.0 with ammonia (A) and Methanol : Acetonitrile : 1% Ammonium acetate in water (50:10:40, B) by gradient technique at a detection wavelength of 230 nm. The gradient ( time,%B ) was ( 0,0% / 13,0% / 30,100% / 30.1,0% / 35,0% ). The calibration curve were found to be linear in concentration range of 2500-7500 μg/ml and 250-750 μg/ml for L-Dopa and Withaferin A respectively. The correlation coefficient of linear regression analysis (r2) were found to be 0.999 and 0.998 for L-Dopa and Withaferin A respectively, with respect to peak area. The %w/w recovered amount were found to be 1.49% and 0.16% for L-Dopa and Withaferin A respectively. The %w/w recovered amount were found to be 1.27% and 0.14% for L-Dopa and Withaferin A respectively in marketed aphrodisiac herbal formulation. All validation parameters were found to be within acceptance limit for both L-Dopa and Withaferin A. Thus, the proposed HPLC method provides a good resolution of L-Dopa and Withaferin A from other phytoconstituents present in 0.1 N methanolic hydrochloric acid extract of aphrodisiac herbal formulation and can be useful for their identification and selective quantification.

12

REVIEW ON: INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS HAVING ANTI-ARTHRITIC PROPERTY

Bansode Vijaykumar *, JadhavSantosh, SawaleJyotiram
Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade, Sangola- 413307.

Abstract

The traditional Indian medicine Ayurveda, describes various herbs with anti-arthritic as well as wound healing properties. Ayurveda is one of the oldest systems of medicine that uses plants and their extracts for treatment and management of various diseased states. Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. (Oleaceae) is an important large shrub of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Various parts of the plant like seeds, leaves, flowers, bark and fruits have been investigated for their significant phytochemicals. Phytochemicals like flavanol glycoside, oleanic acid, essential oils, tannic acid, carotene, friedeline, lupeol, have been reported for significant, hepatoprotective, antileishmaniasis, antiviral, and anti-arthritic activities. The article reviews is an attempt to compile and documented information on different aspect of ayurveedic medicinal plants with potent anti-arthritic activity.

13

ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF PAIN RELIEF HERBAL FORMULATIONS

Rucha J. Shah1, Ajay I. Patel1, Kartik V. Vikani2, Nisha L. Patel1
1B. K. Mody Govt. Pharmacy College affiliated to Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India.
2Aum Research Laboratories, Rakanpur, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

A rapid, sensitive, precise, and Robust Gas chromatography(GC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Menthol, Methyl salicylate and Linseed oil in Laboratory prepared pain relief herbal formulation and marketed pain relief formulation. The determination was carried out on capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization detector. Good separation of menthol (tR= 10.368), methyl salicylate (tR= 10.795) and linseed oil (tR= 21.912 and 25.180) and terpene hydrate (tR= 13.914) was obtained. The recovery of Menthol, Methyl Salicylate and Linseed oil was found to be 98.34%, 99.1% and 102.74% respectively. The correlation coefficients of linear regression analysis (r2) were found to be 0.999, 0.999 and 0.996 respectively. Thus Proposed GC method provides a good resolution of Menthol. Methyl salicylate and Linseed oil.

14

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PEDALIUM MUREX (FLOWERS)

D. Prabhakaran1,2*, A. Rajeshkanna1, M. M. Senthamilselvi3
1Department of Chemistry, Periyar E.V.R. College (Autonomous), Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Chettinad Cement Corporation Ltd., Ariyalur, Tamil Nadu, India.
3Government Arts College, Ariyalur, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

A large number of medicinal plants are claimed to be useful in treating skin diseases in all traditional system of medicine. The purpose of the present study was to examine the antimicrobial effect of the sample isolated from the ethylacetate fraction of flowers of Pedalium murex. This compound was shown to possess antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi, viz. Six bacterial strains were Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus substilis, Lacto bacillus and two fungal strains Curvularia lunata and Candida albicans by using disc diffusion method. The anti bacterial activity of the compound isolated from ethyl acetate fraction is almost comparable with the standard solvent control Chloramphenicol. The anti fungal activity is almost comparable with the standard solvent control Fluconazole. From this study, it can be concluded that Pedalium murex (flowers) reveal antimicrobial activity against various human pathogenic bacteria.

15

DEFICIENCY OF VITAMIN D AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM

Pallavi Mahajan1, Amarjeet S Bhatia2
1Demonstrator, Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Jammu, J&K, India.
2Associate Professor, Head, Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Jammu, J&K, India.

Abstract

The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is 70%–100% in the general population. It exists in epidemic proportions all over the Indian subcontinent. Calcidiol is considered as the real indicator of the total vitamin D stores and is being currently used for clinical evaluation of the vitamin D. Vitamin D is recognized to be an essential element for bone metabolism and skeletal health. Its deficiency can cause rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults. It has been identified as a risk factor for cancers, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, infectious diseases and other autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D also play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine diseases, like autoimmune thyroid diseases, primary hyperparathyroidism, adrenal diseases, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The present study was conducted with the aim to estimate and compare the levels of vitamin D in normal healthy adults and patients with hypothyroidism diagnosed on the basis of raised thyroid stimulating hormone levels. The mean ± standard deviation value of vitamin D was 20.53±14.42 ng/ml in patients with hypothyroidism whereas in normal healthy adults, the mean ± standard deviation value of vitamin D was 26.88±16.11 ng/ml. The decreased level of vitamin D was found in patients with hypothyroidism. Hence, further research should be done to find the relationship of vitamin D with thyroid antibodies.

16

A COMPREHENSIVE RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

Yasmeen*, Prof.Pratima Srinivas, Dr.Sanjeev Sharma, P. Amulya, T. Payal Singh, G. Sunil Kumar
Sri Venkateshwara College of Pharmacy, Affiliated to Osmania University, Hyderabad.

Abstract

Background: Diabetic complications increase mortality and morbidity in patients. Diabetic patients in developing countries are more vulnerable to develop micro-vascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Decreased awareness on etio-pathogenic and therapeutic association between retinopathy and nephropathy and limited studies on this perspective are the main criteria for selection of this topic for our dissertation work. Aim: To review demographics, length of stay, risk factors, diagnostic tools, therapeutic regimens used to prevent progression and development of retinopathy and/or nephropathy. Methods: A retrospective review study was conducted at Apollo Hospitals which included gathering information of past 5 years and dissecting this to completely comprehend the risk factors, basis of evaluation and therapy used to anticipate advancement and development of the complications. Results: In total of 183 cases: 76 (41.53%) cases of nephropathy, 61(33.33%) cases of retinopathy and 46 (25.14%) cases of nephropathy with retinopathy were collected. The demographics revealed that 140 (76.5%) were males while 43 (23.5%) were females. The common risk factors were longer duration of diabetes, systemic hypertension & high HbA1c values. Mostly prescribed anti-hypertensive was CCB’S and its combinations and mostly used anti-diabetics were insulin’s and oral-hypoglycemics. Conclusion: Our study reviewed the most common risk factors (DM, HTN, Hyperlipidemia), therapeutic regimens in diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and in cases with both the complications. It additionally evaluated the length of stay implicating the financial burden on the patient. This information helps the pharmacist in recommending early assessment and required life-style modifications.

17

STANDARDIZATION OF AMALAKYADI CHURNA: A POLY HERBAL FORMULATION

Neha Soni, Pankaj Pradhan*, Yogesh Sharma, Darsh Gautam
Himachal Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Nadaun, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Abstract

In the few decades, there has been exponential growth in the field of herbal medicines. Most of the traditional system of medicine is effective but they lack standardization. So there is a need to develop a standardization technique. Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality, purity, safety and efficacy of the drug. Pharmaceutical ayurvedic research is aimed at meeting the medical needs of the population for whom appropriate therapeutic remedies are not available or at those that are available are but not effective for various disorders. While meeting medical needs of a polyherbal formulation set some parameters to ensure that the formulation shows desired pharmacological action against various diseases. The selection of an appropriate drug should take into account apart from medical needs and innovative potential for success. The standardization of crude drug materials includes authentication, organoleptic evaluation, ash values, extractive values, moisture content determination and Carr’s index etc. These parameters are required for authentication of any herbal drug and its formulation.

18

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF FLOATING IN SITU GEL OF TAPENTADOL HCl

Dipal R. Prajapati*, Dr. Kanu R. Patel, Dr. Mukesh R. Patel
Department of Pharmaceutics, Shri B. M. Shah College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, College Campus, Dhansura Road, Modasa- 383315, Dist: Arvalli, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this research work was to formulate a floating in situ gelling system of Tapentadol HCl for the treatment of severe to moderate pain. Methods: High dose of Tapentadol HCl (600 mg) is ideal for the liquid dosage form. Sodium alginate based in situ gelling systems were formulated by various concentrations of sodium alginate, HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M, HPMC K100M as polymer and calcium carbonate as gas generating agent. Sodium citrate is used for liquefying agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to check the presence of any interaction between the drug and the excipients. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization. The concentrations of sodium alginate (X1) and Calcium carbonate (X2) were selected as the independent variables. The amount of the drug released after 1 hr (Q1), 4 hr (Q4), 8 hr (Q8), viscosity and floating lag time were selected as the dependent variables. The gels were studied for their viscosity, in vitro buoyancy, swelling index and drug release. Result: The drug release from the in situ gel fixed to Higuchi model, Korsemeyer-peppas model, First order release and Zero order release which indicates a diffusion controlled release and drug release from in situ gel follows Zero order and first order which is independent to the drug concentration. Formulation F4 was measured as optimum batch which had sodium alginate (0.5%) and calcium carbonate (1.5 %) showed 99.73% drug release at 12 hrs and maximum similarity factor (f2) 84.18 and minimum dissimilarity factor (f1) 2.02 which was similar to the theoretical predicted dissolution profile of tapentadol HCl. Conclusion: The studies indicated that the drug release rate decrease with increase in concentration of sodium alginate. The optimized formulation can be competent alternative to conventional oral solid dosage form. The formulation was convenient for geriatric and pediatric patient and increase drug residency to GIT.

19

ANTI-SALMONELLA ACTIVITY AND CYTOTOXICITY STUDIES ON THE METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF SWIETENIA MAHAGONI

R. N. Sivanandan*, A. Veni, D. Kalaivani, Arti Kumari
Department of Biotechnology, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.,is a medicinal tree species from Meliaceae with numerous pharmacological and enthnomedical activities. The methanolic seed extracts of this plant species which are rich in triterpenoids have shown good activity against Salmonella Typhi and S. paratyphi. Hence, the less explored methanolic extract of the leaf parts of S mahagoni was chosen to study its antibacterial activity against Salmonella Typhi. Disc diffusion and thin layer agar diffusion assays were performed for in-vitro screening of the crude methanolic leaf extract followed by bioautography to detect the bioactive principles in the extract. The methanolic extract showed a good inhibition of 7.25, 8 & 8.5 mm at 500, 750 & 1000 μg/mL (15 μg/well) against S Typhi in thin layer agar diffusion method. The MIC for the crude methanolic leaf extract was determined as 4.37 mg/ml. The bioautography for screening the bioactive components in methanolic leaf extract revealed the presence of 7 bioactive compounds at various Rf provides the reason for the activity of this methanolic leaf extract. Cytotoxic potential of the crude extract was evaluated using Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay which showed a very low LC50 value of 13.59 μg/ml. On an overall, the methanolic leaf extract of Swietenia mahagoni tested for its antisalmonella activity showed a good concentration dependent potency against Salmonella Typhi with less cytotoxicity.

20

BUCCAL PATCHES: RADICAL APPROACH IN TRANSMUCOSAL DRUG DELIVERY

Verma Surender*, Ashima, Singh Renu
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra.

Abstract

Oral route is the most preferred route of administration for most of drugs not only as high patient compliance but because of some limitations as GI degradation and first pass metabolism of drug, so there is a utmost need to develop a new dosage form which enhances the patient compliance and bioavailablity of drug. Buccal drug delivery is a promising area for continued research with the aim of systemic delivery of orally insufficient drugs through internal jugular vein which/help in bypass the drugs from hepatic first pass metabolism which results in the increase of bioavailability as well as attractive alternative for non-vassive delivery of protein and peptide drug molecules. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is highly permeable. This review present a brief description of advantages and limitations of buccal drug delivery using various natural and synthetic permeation enhancers , anatomical structure of oral mucosa, mechanism of drug permeation followed by current formulation design in line with developments in buccal delivery system and methodology in evaluating buccal formulations.This review opens new arena for the drugs specially having excessive first pass metabolism and small therapeutic window alongwith poor solubility.

21

COMPARATIVE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HYDROETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SOME INDIAN FLOWERS OF MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE

Sarika Jain1*, Nitin Puranik1, Santosh Gaherwal2, Ashish Tiwari3, Kanchan Dixit3

1Christian Eminent College, Indore, India.

2Govt. Autonomous Holker Science College, Indore, India.

3PG tech research and training Institute, Indore, India.

Abstract

Hydroethanolic extracts of Butea monosperma, Nerium oleander and Mesua ferrea, flowers were prepared and assessed for their antibacterial potentials on E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella and P. aerugenosa at a static concentration of 400 μg/ml and the efficacy of inhbiting the growth of specific bacteria was evaluated using disk diffusion method on specific growth media. Flower extracts of all three plants found capable of inhibiting growth of all four pathogens, however N. oleader could not inhibited the growth of P. aerugenosa and Salmonella.

22

DRUG UTILIZATION STUDY IN PEDIATRIC OUTPATIENTS AT OPD CLINICS IN SOUTH INDIAN METROPOLITAN CITY

Dr. Kayamkani Abedulla Khan
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Sultan-ul –uloom College of Pharmacy, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad-34, Telangana State, India.

Abstract

To evaluate drug utilization studies in the pediatric outpatients at outpatient clinics in urban Telangana state. A prospective observational study was carried out over a period of four months from outpatient clinics in 250 pediatric outpatients. There was 30 % of patients were less than one year age. 36 % of the patients came to clinic with common cold and fever. Most of the prescriptions contain a maximum number of antimicrobials drugs. Around 43% of antibiotic prescribed were beta-lactams. Among the various route of administration oral route was prescribed ample of times. Only 8.8% of drugs prescribed by generic name. Whereas 24.78% of drugs prescribed from National Essential drug list (NEDL) / National Formularies of India (NFI). Our study highlighted some rational prescribing practices including the very low rate of prescription of injections. Drug utilization studies are powerful exploratory tools to ascertain the role of drugs in society to create sound socio-medical, health economic basis for health care decision making and also the development and implementation of drug usage protocols in pediatric units may be useful to minimize risks. Very few studies provide information on drug use patterns in children. One of the reasons for poor prescribing by generic name is the non-availability of the pediatric formulations in the pharmacy. Hence, clinicians often prefer to prescribe by brand names and they are familiar with brand names and patients also, will find it easier to procure.

23

FORMULATION, EVALUATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICIENCY OF HERBAL HAND WASH

Suresh Choudhari*, Manisha Sutar, Manisha Chavan
Alard College of Pharmacy, Pune, Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune Univeristy, Pune.

Abstract

Skin, especially hands are needed to protect from bacterial pathogens as they are the most exposed part of the body. Proper hand hygiene is the single most important, simplest, and least expensive means of preventing health care associated infections. It is required to protect humans from diseases, to save the life of person. The present research was aimed to prepare, evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of herbal hand wash gel. There are so many multidrug resistance pathogen which are habitat of hospital staff and the co workers and can be the causative factors for infectious diseases. Plants are the rich source of primary and secondary plant metabolites having particular therapeutic activities. The secondary metabolites e.g. phenolic compounds, tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids and many more. If the microorganisms reach in to the blood stream and end up in many different body sites causes wound infections, abscesses, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and pneumonia.The prepared herbal hand wash gel contains alcoholic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (LEMON GRASS) & Azadiracta indica (NEEM). The formulated herbal hand wash gel contains minimum herbs with effective anti-microbial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus. The easy availability of plants and their effectiveness helps manufactures with cost effective benefits.

24

IN VITRO MICROPROPAGATION OF ORORXYLUM INDICUM (L) KURZ AN ENDANGERED AND VALUABLE MEDICINAL FOREST TREE

Samatha Talari, Shyamsundarachary Rudroju, Rama Swamy Nanna*
Department of Botany, Kakatiya University, Warangal-506009 (Telangana State), India.

Abstract

The present investigation was carried out to conserve the species of an endangered and valuable medicinal forest tree Oroxylum indicum (L) Kurz through in vitro culture technology using cotyleonary node, nodal and shoot tip explants. All these explants were cultured on MS (Murashige & Skoog’s) medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulators(PGRs) viz., BAP/Kn (1.0-7.0 mg/L)/TDZ (0.2-1.0 mg/L) individually. Among the cytokinins used, 5.0 mg/L BAP showed the maximum percentage of response and more number of multiple shoots (15.0±0.10) formation per nodal explant followed by shoot tip explants (12.0±1.08) at 3.0 mg/L BAP. The in vitro developed micro-shoots were elongated on MS+0.5 mg/L GA3. These elongated micro-shoots were cultured on ½ strength MS medium augmented with IAA/IBA/NAA for in vitro rooting. Maximum percentage (86%) of rhizogenesis with profuse rooting (10±0.68) was observed at 1.0 mg/L IBA. These in vitro rooted plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred into field. The survival of the percentage of in vitro regenerated plants was observed as 59%. The regenerated plants were found to be similar to donor plant. Our present investigation reports that the response of nodal explants on MS+5.0 mg/L BAP followed by shoot tip explants at 3.0 mg/L found to be the best explants and hormonal concentrations respectively for multiplication and conservation of medicinally important an endangered forest tree O. indicum.

25

A SIMPLE UV- SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF TENELIGLIPTIN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM

Amit M. Sonawane,* Kiran K. Dhokale, Varsha A. Randhe
Department of Quality Assurance Techniques,Sinhgad College of Pharmacy, S. No.44/1,Vadgaon(Bk.), off sinhgad raod. Pune-411041, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

A simple, efficient, precise and accurate spectroscopic method has been developed and validated for quantitative estimation of Teneligliptin in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. Teneligliptin standard solution was scanned in the UV rang (400-200nm) in a 1cm quartz cell in a double beam UV spectrophotometer. The absorption maxima of teneligliptin were 243.6nm. The method obeys beers law in the concentration range from 10- 50μg/ml. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9991 and regression of the curve was found y = 0.0192x + 0.0087 with excellent recovery 99-102%. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.095416 mg/ml and 0.2891mg/ml respectively. The method was validated for several parameters like accuracy, precision as per ICH guidelines. Value of % RSD and % recovery was found satisfactory, hence that the proposed method is precise, accurate and economical hence can be routine analysis.

26

GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A PROMISING APPROACH

Manish Yadav1*, Pankaj Sharma2, Vandana Chaudhary1, B. Srivastava2
1SGT College of Pharmacy, SGT University, Gurgaon.
2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur.

Abstract

The recent scientific literature showed that more interest in novel dosage forms in GRDDS over several advantages of conventional dosage form which retained in stomach for longer and predictable time period. Many methodological attempts have been tried in the development of rate controlled oral drug delivery systems to overcome short residence times in stomach. Approaches include floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), also known as Hydro dynamically balanced systems (HBS), Swelling & expanding systems, High-density systems, and other Delayed gastric emptying devices. Floating dosage form can be prepared in the form of tablets, capsules by adding suitable ingredients as well as by adding gas generating agent. In this review many techniques used in floating dosage forms along with current & recent developments of stomach specific floating drug delivery system for gastro retention are discussed.

27

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF A TOPICAL ANTIFUNGAL HERBAL GEL CONTAINING ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CASSIA ALATA LEAVES

Adapa Satish Kumar*, B. Divya, G. Lavanya, K. Navya, K. Apparao, P. S. R. V. Santhosh Kumar, Dr. T. Satyanarayana
Department of Pharmacology, Mother Teresa Pharmacy College, Kothuru, Sathupally, Khammam Dist, Telangana.

Abstract

Natural medicine from a plant origin is still used as therapeutic agents especially for treating bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoal, helementic infections etc… Cassia alata is one of the best medicinal plant used for treating number of ailments from ancient days. As the anti fungal activity of ethanolic extract of Cassia alata leaves extract was already proved now we are formulating a topical herbal gel for treating the different types of microbial infections. We formulated a topical herbal gel with carbopol 940 and other excipients by adding 0.1%, 0.2% & 0.3% Cassia alata leaf extract. Both the stability and evaluation studies along with the skin irritation studies and in-vitro antimicrobial studies were performed to the prepared three formulations on 0 day, 15th day and on 30th day. All the herbal gel formulations shown pH- 6.8 and all the remaining physical parameters are shown good results in all the evaluated three days. Antimicrobial activity of the three formulations was tested by using isolated E coli. The Cassia alata herbal gel formulations shows potent antimicrobial activity in the exponential manner i.e 0.87±0.3, 1.18±0.1 & 1.83±0.4 cm for F1, F2 & F3 formulations respectively. Finally the formulation F3 shows the better antibacterial activity than the remaining two formulations and standard drug streptomycin and all the formulations are considered to be safe and stable. Anti fungal activity for these formulations is not yet performed the report will be published as early as possible. By the results it was clear that the Cassia alata Topical herbal gels were safe, stable and good for treating the both fungal and bacterial infections.

28

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF IRBESARTAN

Pramod L. Ingale1, Sampada D. Dalvi1, AbhijitR. Salunkhe2
1Department of Chemistry, MarathwadaMitraMandal’s College of Pharmacy, Thergaon (Kalewadi), Pune-33, SavitribaiPhule Pune University, Maharashtra, India.
2Department of Quality Assurance Techniques, MarathwadaMitraMandal’s College of Pharmacy, Thergaon (Kalewadi), Pune-33,SavitribaiPhule Pune University, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

A simple, specific, accurate and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of Irbesartan. AMicrosorb-MV 100-5 C-18 (250 x 4.6mm, 5 μm) column using UV detector with mobile phase containing methanol, 0.02% Formic acid (70:30, v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and detection was carried out at 234 nm. The retention time for Irbesartan was 8.18 min. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. The results of all the validation parameters were well within their acceptance values.The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of Irbesartan.

29

EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF AYU-DIA AN AYURVEDIC FORMULATION IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS IN RATS

Vijayalaxmi Hiremath1, Akshatha N1, Dr. Sunitha R Joshi2, Dr.Swarna Ranjita2, Elumalai.P2, Dr.Shivalinge Gowda KP*1
1PES College of Pharmacy, 50 ft Road, Hanumanthanagar, Bengaluru-560050.
2R & D Team - Vasishta Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd, Banashankari 3rd stage, Bengaluru-560085.

Abstract

The antidiabetic activity of AYU-DIA an Ayurvedic formulation was evaluated its hypoglycemic activity, glucose tolerance test (GTT) in normal rats, adrenaline induced hyperglycemic rats and alloxan induced diabetes insipidus albino Wistar rats1% CMC 1ml/kg po used as vehicle. In alloxan model rats were divided into five groups of 6 each. Diabetes was induced for all the groups (II, III, IV, V) except normal control (group I) by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate in rats (120 mg/kg.ip). AYU-Dia was administered orally at a dose of 105, 210mg/kg. to the group III and IV. The standard glibenclamide (4mg/kg po) was administered to the group V. The treatment was made for 7 days. Blood was withdrawn by tail vein puncture and blood glucose was estimated before and after 24 h the study period. The blood sugar was measured using glucometer and strips. . The AYU-DIA (105mg/kg.po) not showed hypoglycaemic effect when compared to normal rats. AYU-DIA (210mg/kg) showed significant decrease in the blood sugar level when compared to adrenaline induced hyperglycaemic rats. In glucose tolerance test (GTT) AYU-DIA treated rats showed decreased blood sugar levels. AYU-DIA (210mg/kg) treated rats showed significant decrease in the blood sugar level when compared to alloxan induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effect of AYU-DIA is may be due to protection of inhibition of glucokinase caused by the alloxan in the pancreatic beta cells. It may also due to prevention of ROS formation in the pancreatic beta cells.

30

VALIDATED HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ISOTRETINOIN AND ERYTHROMYCIN IN BULK DRUG FORM

Sampada D. Dalvi, Pramod L. Ingale, Sandeep S. Hatture
Marathwada Mitra Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Thergaon (Kalewadi), Pune-33, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

A simple, rapid, accurate, specific and sensitive reverse phase-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Isotretinoin(ISO) and Erythromycin(ERY) in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation was performed on C18 Column using a mobile phase of Methanol & Phosphate Buffer pH6 (60:40 v/v), at a flow rate of 1ml/min at an ambient temperature with the detection wavelength at 231nm. The retention times of ISO & ERY were 1.69min and 2.8min respectively. The linearity was performed in the concentration range of 10-60μg/ml for ISO and 100-600μg/ml for ERY with a correlation coefficient of 0.995 and 0.994 for ISO & ERY respectively. The proposed method was then validated for different parameters as per the ICH guidelines. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. The results of all the validation parameters were well within their acceptance values. The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of Isotretinoin and Erythromycin. Thus the developed method was successfully employed for routine quality control analysis in the bulk dosage forms.

31

IN VITRO MICROPROPAGATION, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ORTHOSIPHON STAMINEUS BENTH

Kannan Elangovan, Anandan Vignesh, Kandasamy Murugesan*
Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Plant tissue culture is a potentially useful technique for growing endangered or threatened plants, sometimes it’s difficult to discover the favorable conditions for re-establishment and sustainable growth of plants. The present study was carried out to study the in vitro callus, shoot and root induction from different explants (leaf and petiole) from medicinally important plant Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. Significantly more shoots were induced on the medium containing IBA (1.5 mg/l) than any other treatment. Sub-culturing regenerated shoots on a medium with (IBA 1.5 mg/l) induced the maximum rate of shoot multiplication. Methanol extract potentially decomposed the free radicals by in vitro antioxidant of DPPH at low concentration (30 μg/mL). In the present study, O. stamineus possessed the highest antioxidant and antibacterial activities and thus could be a potentially rich source of natural antioxidants.

32

A SELECTIVE AND STABILITY INDICATING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF ISOMERS CONTENT IN DARUNAVIR DRUG SUBSTANCE

Maddinapudi.Ramakrishna, Mannam.Subbarao*, Dondeti.Mogilireddy
Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India-522510.

Abstract

Astability indicating analytical method was developed for the estimation of isomers content of Darunavir drug substance. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Chiral PAK AD-H which is amylose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) phase coated on silica matrix. The separation achieved employing a Mobile phase consists of n-Hexane, Ethanol and n-Butanol in the ratio of 83:15:2 (v/v/v) respectively with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/ minute at using an ultra violet detector at 265nm.The average retention times of Isomer-5,Isomer-3,Isomre-4 and Isomer-1 are 29.5 min,37.9 min,51.1 min and 61.9 min respectively.The method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, ruggedness, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantification.

33

IN VITRO AND IN VIVO CHARACTERIZATION OF CEFACLOR LOADED FLOATING MICROSPHERES

Swathi Chilukala*1, Vijaya Kumar Bontha1, Rajeswara Rao Pragada2
1Jangaon Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yeshwanthapur, Jangaon, Warangal, Telangana, India-506167.
2College of Pharmacy, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh – 530 003.

Abstract

Cefaclor loaded floating microspheres were formulated for enhancing gastric residence time to improve its oral absorption and to get sustained drug delivery and evaluated for in vitro and in vivo studies. Microspheres were prepared by using HPMC K4M and ethyl cellulose as the rate controlling polymers by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The formulated floating microspheres were characterized for their yield, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release and buoyancy. The optimized formulation (F6) showed 93.6±1.25% of drug release after 12h and 78.8±2.5% of entrapment efficiency. All the formulations have good buoyancy which were floated over 12h in the dissolution medium. Optimized formulation was studied for in vivo pharmacokinetic activity. Optimized formulation treated group shown significant (p<0.01) improvement in bioavailability and prolonged plasma profile as compared to pure drug treated group. Cefaclor loaded microspheres are hence expected to give new choice for safe, economical, sustained and increased bioavailability of formulation for effective antibiotic therapy.

34

SEARCH FOR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE THIAZOLIDINEDIONE: A SHORT REVIEW

Mousumi Shyam1, Biplab Debnath1,2* Prithesh Devbhuti3
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi- 835215, Jharkhand, India.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga-142001, Punjab. 3Gupta College of Technological Sciences Assansol-713301, West Bengal.

Abstract

Thiazolidinedione and its analogs are versatile substrates, which can be used for the synthesis of numerous heterocyclic compounds. Thiazolidinedione and its derivatives are used in organic synthesis and they are used in evaluating new product that possesses different biological activities. This review covers updated information on the most active thiazolidinedione derivatives that have been reported to show considerable pharmacological actions such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic. From these results, ideas for future molecular modifications leading to compounds with greater favorable pharmacological properties may be derived. Further we can conclude that many other derivatives of thiazolidione can be synthesized which will be expected to show potent pharmacological activities.

35

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTI-MICROBIAL, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF DERIVATIVES OF ISOFLAVANOIDS

Alex Martin*, Dr. Rakesh Kr Jat
Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala Universisty, Vidyanagari, Jhunujhunu, Rajasthan – 333001.

Abstract

The synthesis of 7-O substituted Isoflavanone [3-(4’-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-ones] was crried out by treating p-methoxyphenylacetic acid and resorcinol in the presence of anhydrous zinc chloride and phosphorous oxychloride to yield 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-(4’-methoxyphenyl)ethanone. 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-(4’-methoxyphenyl)ethanone is then treated with N,N’-dimethyl(chloromethylene) ammonium chloride to yield 7-hyroxy-3-(4’-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one. The resulting compound on subsequent addition with acid chlorides yields the title compounds. The structure of the newly synthesized compounds was established on the basis of physiochemical analysis and spectral analysis such as IR, H1-NMR and Mass Spectral data. The synthesized derivatives are evaluated for their anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity.

36

INVESTIGATION OF MACROLICHENS FOR ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIALITY AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENS

Rashmi Shivanna, Rajkumar H. Garampalli*
Department of studies in Botany, Manasagangotri, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006, Karnataka, INDIA.

Abstract

In the present study fungicidal potential of four macrolichens Heterodermia comosa, Parmotrema margaritatum, Pseudocyphellaria aurata and Ramalina farinacea were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani. The hot crude extract was extracted from solvent methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone. The highest yield of 157 mg/ml was obtained from methanol extract of Pseudocyphellaria aurata. Important phytochemical constituents like tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates and steroids were present in most of the lichen extracts tested. Antifungal activity of the extracts was evaluated by well diffusion assay, micro dilution assay and TLC bioautographic technique. The ethyl acetate extract of Ramalina farinacea showed highest zone of inhibition against Fusarium oxysporum with 17.0±1.0 mm and Fusarium solani with 13.3±0.57 mm. Micro dilution assay showed least MIC value of 0.781 mg/ml from Ramalina farinacea and Heterodermia comosa in ethyl acetate extracts against Fusarium oxysporum and 3.125 mg/ml against Fusarium solani. Clear zones of fungal inhibition were obtained on chromatogram in the ethyl acetate extract of Parmotrema margaritatum at Rf value 0.1, 0.21, 0.48. The obtained results prove that lichens can be used as potential antifungal agents against phytopathogens. Hence lichens serves as better natural fungicides in order to keep the environment safe, and which may also increase the yield and production of the crops. Further work could be focused on the isolation and purification of active components from the studied lichens.

37

SCREENING OF TABUBEIA ROSEA DC: FOR ANTITUBERCULOSIS, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES; AN IN VITRO APPROACH

Suriyamurthy Anupriya, Rajamani Aravind, Kannan Elangovan, Kandasamy Murugesan*
Kandasamy Murugesan, CAS in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai – 600025, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

The aim and objective of this study, to screen phytochemical components which is responsible for antimycobacterial, antibacterial and the antioxidant activities. This study deals with the antimycobacterial activity of Tabubeia rosea against H37RV and MDR clinical isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) kills approximately two million peoples annually. The results revealed that 500 μg/mL of the methanolic extract possessed significant antimycobacterial activity against H37RV strain of M. tuberculosis and on the other hand, methanolic extract at 100 μg/mL inhibited the growth of clinically isolated strain of M. tuberculosis. Besides antibacterial activity was tested against 5 human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among all the pathogens, Escherichia coli was found to be highly susceptible (18 mm) was recorded at 100 μg/mL. In vitro antioxidant activities revealed that methanolic extract could be a promising source of natural antioxidants. The results confirmed traditional use of Tabubeia rosea extract to fight against tuberculosis.

38

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TOPICAL MICROSPONGE BASED GEL OF BIFONAZOLE

Shapali A. Bagde*, Namrata C. Jadhav, Manisha S. karpe, Vilasrao J. Kadam
University of Mumbai, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, C.B.D. Belapur, Sector 8,Navi Mumbai- 400614, India.

Abstract

Microsponges are tiny, true sponge-like spherical polymeric particles that consist of myriad of interconnecting voids within a non-collapsible structure with large porous surface. This results in a large reservoir within each microsponge, which can be loaded upto its own weight of active agents. The objective of the present work is to formulate a microsponge drug delivery system entrapped with bifonazole (BFZ) having controlled drug release with maximum antifungal activity. Microsponges were prepared using aqueous emulsion diffusion evaporation method. The gel phase was prepared by dispersing carbopol 940 in purified water and allowed to soak. Microsponges containing BFZ equivalent to 1%w/w were dispersed in propylene glycol. Preservatives were dissolved in the purified water. Aqueous solution was then mixed thoroughly into the microsponge containing solution. Finally, gel phase was incorporated into microsponge containing solution with stirring and the pH was adjusted to 6-6.5. Optimized microsponge based gel formulation showed slower flux of drug as compared to marketed formulation indicating controlled release of drug. No significant change in physical appearance as well as % drug content of optimum formulation was observed over the time period of stability studies. The BFZ loaded microsponge based gel was found to have good appearance, other micromeritic properties and entrapment efficiency along with controlled in vitro release profile of drug. Since BFZ, ethyl cellulose as well as carbopol has been reported as nonirritant for skin. The final formulation will not be irritating to skin. On the other ground of efficacy, avoidance of periods of over and under medication and improved patient compliance, microsponge based gel of BFZ will have better role in treating fungal infection of skin.

39

EFFECT OF VITAMIN C ON HAEMATOBIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN SODIUM FLUORIDE (NAF) INTOXICATED CHANNA PUNCTATUS FISHES

K. R Shanmugam1, A. Srinivas Reddy2*
1T.R.R. Government Degree College, Kandukur, Andhra Pradesh, India, 523 015.
2Government Degree and PG College (NAAC- A), Siddipet, Telangana, India, 502103.

Abstract

The present study was carried out to know the impact of Vitamin C on haematobiochemical parameters in Channa punctatus (Bloch) in Sodium fluoride (NaF) induced toxicity fishes. For this purpose the fishes are divided in to 7 groups and treatment was given as per the experimental protocol. Vitamin C supplementation was given to NaF fishes for 30 days and serum was separated. Then haematobiochemical parameters are like Haemoglobin (Hb), Red blood cells (RBC), White blood cells (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) are estimated. Hb, RBC, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC levels are decreased in NaF intoxicated fishes, where as WBC levels increased. However, with vitamin C administration all these heemetological parameters came back to near to normal levels. The present study proves that protective effect of Vitamin C in sodium fluoride intoxicated fishes.

40

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ACORUS CALAMUS GEL FOR TOPICAL CANDIDITIS

Stimson Jose1, Aswathy.C2, Sruthy.T3, Anusree.S.S4, Deepa Sreekanth5
1SJM Collage of Pharmacy, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India.
2Malik Deenar Collage of Pharmacy, Kasargod, Kerala, India.
3KMCH Collage of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
4Amrita School of Pharmacy, Kochi, India.
5Shaqra University, Dawadimi, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Traditional medicines take part an important role in treatment in many developing as well as developed countries. It emphasis the usage of herbal medicines in patients as an alternative therapy or a complimentary therapy. Herbal medicines are widely used for the treatment of skin and skin related disorders. The objective of this study is to formulate and evaluate the antifungal herbal gel, from rhizome alcoholic extract of the plant Acorus calamus, which is traditionally been used medicinally and also to make fragrances. Pleasant/Odourless Slight yellow extract with good consistency was extracted and converted into phytosomes and then into gel. The physiochemical parameters and invitro antifungal activities of Acorus calamus gel as well as the combination of honey with Acorus calamus gel are evaluated and compared with the standard; Candid B ointment(Clotrimazole1%+Beclomethasonedipropionate 0.025%).Alcoholic extract showed the presence of amino acid, carbohydrates, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenolic compounds and tannins. The water soluble and acid insoluble ash values of Acorus calamus was found to be 1.7% and 2.2% respectively. The alcoholic extractive value of Acorus calamus was found to be 5% and the gel obtained was found to be easily spreadable and extrudable with pH: 6.8, ie nonirritant to skin. The zone of inhibition of Acorus calamus gel preparation found for Standard, sample A and B are 2.0 cm, 1.1cm, and 1.0cm respectively. From all of observation we can conclude that the formulation showed effective antifungal activity against Candida albicans and is quite comparable with the standard.

41

A RARE AND RECENT PANDEMIC VIRAL INFECTION – ZIKA DISEASE

Bandla. Aswani*, M. Vijitha, Purushothama Reddy. K, P. Yanadaiah, P. Latha Lavanya, B. Swarna Gayathri
Narayana Pharmacy College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, South India. PIN - 524002.

Abstract

Zika virus is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family and the Flavivirus genus. In humans, it initially causes a mildness known as Zika virus. In 2014, the Zika virus spread east world across the Pacific Ocean to French, then to Easter Island and in 2015 to Central America where the Zika outbreak has reached pandemic levels. Zika virus is transmitted by day time active mosquitoes and has been isolated from a number of species in the genus Aedes as A. africans, A. apiwargenteus, A. furcifer, A. hensilli, A. luteocephalus, and A. vitatus. Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral with a non-segmented, single stranded, positive sense RNA genome. It is most closely related to the spondweni virus and is one of the two viruses in the spondweni virus clade. The pathogenesis of the virus is hypothesized to start with an infection of dendritic cells near the site of inoculation, followed by a spread to lymph nodes and the blood stream. There is possible link between Zika fever and microencephaly in new born babies by mother to child transmission. The illness is similar to the mild form of Dengue fever and cannot yet be prevented by drug or vaccines .In January 2016, the U.S CDC issued travel guidance on affected countries including the use of enhanced precautions and guidelines for pregnant womens, other governments and health agencies soon issued similar travel warning .In this review we discuss regarding transmission of zika virus and safety measures for pregnant women which may helps to provide awareness regarding this serious zika virus.

42

STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE AND CILNIDIPINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

T. Hemant Kumar*1, D. Gowri Sankar2
1Vignan Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Duvvada, Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

A simple, specific, accurate, precise and stability indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Cilnidipine in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation . The method was developed using Enable C 18G column (250 ×4.6 mm, 0.5 μm) with mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile and 0.01 M ammonium acetate (pH adjusted to 3.5 with acetic acid) in the ratio of 35:65 %v/v with a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min .UV detection was carried out at 265 nm. The retention time for Metoprolol Succinate and Cilnidipine were found to be 2.765 and 3.326 min respectively. The proposed method was validated for linearity, range, accuracy, precision, robustness, LOD and LOQ. Linearity was observed over a concentration range 2.5-30 μg/ml for Metoprolol Succinate (r2 =0.9978) and 0.5-50 μg/ml for Cilnidipine (r2 =0.9988). The % RSD for Intraday and Interday precision was found to be 0.28 and 0.18 for Metoprolol Succinate and 0.47 and 0.35 for Cilnidipine. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.12 μg/ml and 0.46 μg/ml for Metoprolol Succinate and LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.05 and 0.15 μg/ml for Cilnidipine repectively. Metoprolol Succinate and Cilnidipine were subjected to stress conditions of degradation including acidic, alkaline, oxidative, thermal and photolysis. The developed method was applicable for pharmaceutical formulations and can be used for routine quality control.

43

OPUNTIA FICUS – INDICA: AN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY REVIEW

Rishitha .N, Krishna .K .L*, Suresh J, Parashuram Punde, Chinmaya Narayana
JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagar, Mysuru-570015, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Plant Opuntia ficus-indica. (OFI) has a place with cactaceae, this plant is local of Mexico and it is broadly dispersed in all American halves of the globe and additionally in Africa and in the Mediterranean bowl. The different parts of plant including fruits, flowers and cladode having numerous customary uses, chiefly in ulcers, rheumatic agony, wounds fatigue and diabetes. An assortment of phytoconstituents are recognized and segregated from the OFI which incorporates principally, tocopherol, phytosterols, fatty acids and spirits aliphatic, 24–methylcyclophenol, cyclophenol, beta-amirin, gallic corrosive, coumaric, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, 4 kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, 5 quercetin 3-O-glucoside. Pharmacological activities against gastric ulcer, anti-incendiary action, neuroprotective, anti-viral, hepatoprotective, antioxidant property exercises are accounted for by different concentrates of OFI. A point of interest of the ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological examinations of OFI is exhibited in this survey. OFI plant can exploited for commercializing the phytomedicine for various disease or disorders. In this respect this review is written.

44

A REVIEW ON PRUNELLA VULGARIS – SELF HEAL PLANT DRUG

Reshma Jain*, Sadhana Rajput
Faculty of Pharmacy, Kalabhavan Campus, The M.S.University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

P. vulgaris L. (Labiatae), a rediscovered herb belonging to the mint family also known as self heal, was very popular in Asian, European and Chinese medicine and was used against fever, wounds and throat infections. The different health benefits of P. vulgaris for a wide variety of diseases, including cancers, viral and inflammatory diseases. Many of these effects of P. vulgaris are because of rosamarinic acid, betulinic acid, prunellin and many other bioactive constituents which make the plant interesting for immunomodulatory, antiviral and antiproliferative studies. It was used as a tea in treatment of fevers, diarrhoea, sore mouth and internal bleeding. It is antibiotic and hypotensive. This article provides a review of the data of this commonly used medicinal plant in number of countries. In addition directs us for judicious use of such valuable species under scientific supervision so as to yield maximum health benefits.