Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
JUNE 2023


Nayanthara KB*, Vivek D, Shahin Muhammed TK, Mridula K, Shibla Nasrin

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Govt. Medical College, Pariyaram, Kannur, Kerala University of Health Science, India-670503.

PIM Kinase is indeed a serine/threonine protein that is discovered to be overexpressed and functions as an oncoprotein in a range of cancers. PIM-1, PIM-2, and PIM-3 are the three members of the PIM kinase family, and they have strikingly similar functions. They are mainly accountable for the regulation of the cell cycle, controlling anti-apoptotic activity, mediating the destruction of bones, etc. PIM kinase is concerned with downstream physiological events by phosphorylating cellular substrates like HP1, NFATc1, p21WAF1/CIP1, p100, etc. Recent research has identified PIM kinase as a clinical indicator and potential therapeutic candidate for the tailored treatment of advanced cancer. The results of the current review provide insight into the function of PIM protein as pilot oncogenes in tumorigenesis and their applicability as therapeutic targets.



A. Srivani*, G. Krishna Mohan

Centre for Pharmaceutical Sciences, JNTUH University College of Engineering, Science & Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad - 500085, Telangana, India.

The phytochemical investigation is effective in discovering bioactive markers of plants for their therapeutic value. Hence several phytochemical surveys have been carried out for detecting diverse groups of naturally occurring phytochemicals. Identifying different classes of phytoconstituents present in various parts plants and extracting the active components could be further taken for investigation and research. Present study describes some quality control parameters like extractive values, preliminary phytochemical studies, ash value, foreign organic matter, foaming index, swelling index, loss on drying and crude fibre of selected plants namely Pterospermum suberifolium,  Givotia moluccana, Ixora parviflora. All methods were carried out using standard methods. For extractive values and preliminary studies various solvents like hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, ethanol and water were used. Three plants showed more extractive value and significant phytoconstituents like alkaloids, flavoniods, glycosides, saponins, phenols, terpenoids, and tannins in methanolic extract. There was no foreign organic matter in all three plants. The foaming index was less than 100 for P.suberifolium, G.molucanna and greater than 1000 for I.parviflora. The total ash value was obtained as 12.36%, 11.58%, 11.78%, the swelling index was 7.4cm, 6.2cm, 3.6cm, LOD was 11%, 4.68%, 9% and crude fibre content was 26.58%, 14.18%, 41.24% for P.suberifolium, G.molucanna and I.parviflora respectively. The plants resulted in identification of major secondary metabolites by which various pharmacological activities can be established. Other proximate values gave the quality control aspects of plants that are helpful for standardization.



Ameerunnisa*, Shijith KV

Department of Pharmaceutics, Govt. College of pharmaceutical sciences, Kannur (Affiliated to Kerala University of Health Sciences).

Nowadays, herbal drugs are having wide attention in pharmaceutical research due to their cultural acceptability, and safety when compared to synthetic drugs. There are several phytoconstituents which are pharmacologically active. Mangiferin is one among the phytoconstituents with extensive pharmacological action. Mangiferin (MGF) is a secondary metabolite of plants that contains a polyphenol structure. Chemically mangiferin is 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-?-D-glucoside and it is also a xanthone derivative, that has been reported to occur naturally in several genera. It exhibited a wide range of pharmacological activities, offering a wide possibility to upcoming research fields to explore the drug molecule in clinical application.This review gives the information about source of mangiferin, its chemistry and the various biological activities it possesses. 




M. Muthukumar*, J. Arunpandiyan, T. Rajeev, R. Thaila, B. Jayalakshmi and M. Senthilraja.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Kasthooribha Gandhi Pharmacy College, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India-637401.

Microorganisms like bacteria, fungus, and dermatophytes can infect the nails and cause diseases including onychomycosis, paronychia, and leuconychia. Pain, redness, swelling of the nail folds, thickness of the nail plate, and separation of the nail folds and cuticles are the symptoms of this kind of nail infection. Oral and conventional topical therapies (ointment, gel, cream) are frequently used to treat certain nail diseases. The drawbacks of oral medicines include their toxicity and the possibility that conventional topical preparations may wash off, which results in less drug penetration into nails. The novel formulations, such as medicated nail lacquers intended for transungual drug administration for the efficient treatment of nail infections, should be used instead of these conventional formulations. Long term use of synthetic drug has side effects. Many of the phytoconstituents used today have been valued for their antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Investigating phytoconstituents with antimicrobial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties that can be used as active ingredients in medicated nail lacquers to treat nail infections is the main objective of the article.



Shivani Sharma, Dr. Dinesh Kaushik

Department of Pharmaceutics, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Sonipat-131001, Haryana, India.

A new SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VoC) omicron was reported. The Omicron was initially discovered in Botswana and South Africa, and it is rapidly spreading throughout the world. As of December 16, 2021, it had spread to five continents.More than 30 mutations overlap with those in the alpha, beta, gamma, or delta VoCs. These deletions and mutations are known to lead to increased transmissibility, higher viral binding affinity, and higher antibody escape. Molecular docking is a technique of virtual simulation which is used to model the interaction between a small molecule and a protein at the atomic level. This technique is also used to characterize the behavior of the small molecules in the binding site of target protein. Molecular docking is a computational technique to study the interaction between a target receptor and ligand at the molecular level and allows ranking of the legends by assessing their binding affinity towards the receptor using various scoring functions. The docking process involves two basic steps -prediction of the ligand conformation and 2nd is binding of ligand within a target active site with accuracy that’ why it technique is commonly used in structure-based drug design (SBDD). Steps of molecular Docking are Protein structure preparation, the top five medications, based on their binding energy, and were chosen from a pool of 50 drugs as Dihydroergotamine, Ergotamine, Nofamostat, Methylergonovine, and Clarithromycin.



Prasad S. Galande, PramodkumarJ. Shirote, Roshan S. Ghorapde, Nikhil S. Dhumal

Department of Pharmaceutics, Arvind Gavali College of Pharmacy Jaitapur, Satara 415004, Maharashtra, India.

The non-effervescent, gastro-retentive drug delivery technology known as floating microspheres (hollow microspheres). They are free-flowing powders between 1 and 1000 micrometres in size, made of proteins or artificial polymers. The goal of the floating microsphere is to increase stomach retention time. Low-density systems with enough buoyancy to float over gastric contents and stay in the stomach for a long time are referred to as gastro-retentive floating microspheres. In addition to tablets, capsules, and pills, there are also laminated films, floating microspheres, granules, and powders that are accessible as gastro-retentive dosage forms. Since dose frequency is reduced, the main advantage of floating microspheres is improved patient compliance. Spray drying, solvent evaporation, ionotropic gelation, single emulsion, double emulsion, phase separation coacervation, and solvent diffusion are some of the numerous methods used to prepare floating microspheres. This review discusses preparation techniques, characterization benefits, the mechanism by which pharmaceuticals are released from floating microspheres, a list of drugs, a list of uses, and a list of polymers.



Mohammad Waseem, Mr. Mohammad Muztaba, Sharma Ritik Shyamdev, Roshni Chaurasia, Sarvesh Shukla, Shreyansh Srivastava

Department of Pharmacology, Praduman Singh Sikshan Prasikshan Sansthan Pharmacy College Sansarpur Phutahiya Basti, 272001.

This study was conducted with the intention of determining the total phenolic and flavonoid content (TPC and TFC) of methanolic extract (ME) of P.guajava from the Himalayas  region, in addition to analyzing its antibacterial activity (against oral pathogenic bacteria) and its capacity to scavenge free radicals. Substantial action was also achieved against both of the fungal strains that were examined, with Candida albicans demonstrating the highest level of activity. According to the results of the antibacterial activity, the organisms most susceptible to the treatment were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The extract contained a total of 26 components, seven of which were discovered in the extract for the first first time as a result of high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry testing.



Mateshwari Nandan, Mohammad Muztaba, Nandoo Kumar, Maneesh Kumar Chauhan

Department of Pharmacognosy, Praduman Singh Sikshan Prasikshan Sansthan Pharmacy College Sansarpur Phutahita Basti, 272001.

In this investigation, the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, sedative, and muscle-relaxing effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Syzygium cumini were evaluated, along with its many other pharmacological properties.  One of these three solvents is used to extract the chemicals found in the jamun plant, including alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, and more. For the purpose of this review, information regarding the botany, traditional applications, phytochemical components, and pharmacological properties of S. cumini (L.) Skeels (jambolan) has been assembled. We looked up Eugenia jambolana, S. cumini, jambolan, common plum, and java plum in many internet databases. Anti-diabetic properties have been attributed to the plant ever since it was made available for commercial use several decades ago. The anti-diabetic properties of this plant have been the focus of research conducted by both traditional medicine practitioners and scientists over the course of the past four decades



Nikunj Koradiya, Krupa Patel, Bhavna Parwani, Shrinit Chourasiya, Dr. Fatima Tadwala, Dr. Roshan Patel

Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim, Surat, Gujarat – 394110.

Background: Stroke is a significant health issue that affects people worldwide, with a particular impact on the elderly population. The prescribing patterns of neurologists and physicians can shed light on the choice of medications for stroke management and how they are adjusted after a stroke occurs. The incidence of stroke has been increasing in low- and middle-income countries, including India, over the past few decades. Furthermore, the number of stroke survivors has nearly doubled between 1990 and 2010 and is expected to continue to rise in the coming years. This underscores the importance of effective stroke management and prevention strategies. Objective: Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide As appropriate and safe drug use is a key factor in achieving quality health and accurate healthcare for hospitalized patients So it is necessary to assess the prescription pattern, percentage of each drug used and to find out the most commonly prescribed drugs along with assessing the warning signs and symptoms, uncontrollable and controllable risk factors of stroke in the hospitalized patient. Method: A retrospective, observational study was conducted, and the data of 120 patients was collected from the medical record department of BAPS Pramukh Swami Hospital. Patients of age 18 and above with ischemic stroke with or without comorbidities will be selected while patients below the age of 18 years and pregnant women will be excluded from the study. The study was conducted for a period of six months and the data collected was analyzed using statistical methods. Result: A total of 120 patients were analyzed during the 6 months study period. The study population consisted of 72 male patients (60%) and 48 female patients (40%) the study found that males have a slightly higher stroke risk compared to females. The highest risk for stroke is in the 60-69 age group (42.5%). The most common signs of stroke patients are arm paresis (55%), leg paresis (53.33%), facial paresis (27.5%), and ataxia (20%) and the most common symptoms of stroke patients are arm weakness (55%), leg weakness (53.33%), speech difficulty (50.83%), general weakness (41.66%), giddiness (39.16%), headache (28.33%), and facial weakness (27.05%). Major controllable risk factors include hypertension(73.33%), diabetes mellitus(45%), dyslipidemia (8.33%), smoking(12%), and alcohol(7%). Among these risk factors, hypertension is more prevalent (73.33%). The current prescribing pattern was the most commonly prescribed thrombolytics drug like alteplase N=5(4.16%), enoxaparin N=84(70%) was the most commonly prescribed anticoagulants drug, a common combination of antiplatelet drugs prescribed in the study was aspirin and clopidogrel, used in N=75(62.05%)of patients aspirin alone was used in N=55(45.83%), atorvastatin was highly prescribed N=108(90%), commonly prescribed class of antihypertensive drugs was CCBs N=49(38%), ARB N=24(18%) and ?-blockers N=16(12%). The most commonly prescribed individual drugs were amlodipine n=31(25.83%), telmisartan N=22(18.33%), and nifedipine N=15(12.05%). Among the different classes of anti-diabetic drugs and insulin are prescribed. Insulin-like human act rapid N=26(21.66%) and drug-like glimepiride + metformin N=21(17.5%) were most commonly prescribed. Gabapentin N=9(7.50%) was the most prescribed antiepileptic. Drugs used for Alzheimer’s are memantine N=09(7.05%) other drugs like antibiotics, steroids, nootropics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, thyroid drugs, multivitamins, PPI and H2 blockers, NSAIDS, and analgesics. Conclusion The present study aimed to identify cases with predominant signs and symptoms of stroke, estimate various risk factors and determine the appropriate prescribing pattern of drugs based on stroke severity and associated co-morbid conditions. The study found that arm paresis (55%) and leg paresis (53.33%), were the most common signs of stroke patients. Arm and leg weakness, speech difficulty, general weakness, and giddiness were the most common symptoms reported by patients Recognizing the signs and symptoms of stroke is crucial for minimizing its damage, and seeking immediate medical attention is essential. The study also identified hypertension (73.33%) and diabetes (45%) as the most common risk factors. Managing risk factors such as Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Dyslipidemia, Heart Disease, Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity for preventing stroke. Additionally, creating awareness among the elderly population about the risk factors associated with stroke can help to reduce the incidence of stroke The study analyzed the prescribing patterns of various drugs for stroke patients. Thrombolytics, such as alteplase, were prescribed in a small number of patients (4.16%), while the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant drug was enoxaparin (70%). Aspirin and clopidogrel were commonly prescribed in combination (62.05%), and aspirin alone was used in (45.83%) of patients. Atorvastatin was highly prescribed (90%) to manage dyslipidemia. Stroke requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach, including medications, rehabilitation, lifestyle modifications, and interventions to prevent future strokes. Prescribing drugs should consider individual patient needs and characteristics Individualized care and adherence to guidelines are essential for stroke management and prevention.



P. Babu*, K. Nandhagopal, V. Aarthi, S. Selvarajan

Central Council for Research in Siddha, GST Road, Tambaram Sanatorium Chennai 600047.

Introduction: Siddha systems of medicine is one of the Indigenous Systems of Medicines (ISM) time tested and followed by the ancient Tamil speaking people for more than 5000 years. Erukku (Calotropis gigantea) has anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, analgesic, wound healing& antibacterial action. All parts especially leaves are effective in Bronchial Asthma. Approximately 300 million people worldwide currently have asthma which estimates suggesting that asthma prevalence increases globally by 50% every decade. Materials & Methods: This herbal preparation VellerukkuSamoolaparpam (VSP) was prepared as the herbal parpam to reduce the quantity of medicine and increasing the efficacy and bio-availability as per the literature. The trial drug had proved the safety by its toxicity studies and bronchodilator and antihistaminic pre-clinical studies with the proper IAEC approval. Results: The physico-chemical analysis provides proper buffering action and reduces the auto immune activity and Magnesium promotes healthy lung function by acting as a bronchodilator, preventing the bronchial passages from going into spasm. The FTIR and ICP-OES studies strongly showing the safety of the drug by proving heavy metals are in below detectable levels and also the trial drug has high Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium. With the help of SEM, the trial drug consists of particles within 100 to 200 nm in size. Conclusion: By this we came to know that the drug has been finished perfectly and able to produce good therapeutic values. Hence this trial drug proved its safety and having the Nano particle in size it is very much useful in the treatments of asthmatic and other -lung diseases. 



A Review of Bio Medicine Compounds Derived from Plant Sources and Their Actions.

Balakrishnan D*, Selvarajan S, Nandhagopal K

Central Council for Research in Siddha, GST Road, Tambaram Sanatorium Chennai 600047.

Medicinal plants based traditional systems of medicines are playing an important role in providing healthcare to large section of population, especially in developing countries. Herbal medicines are the fundamental method adopted in traditional methods to cure various diseases and physiological conditions. They are Siddha, Ayurveda,Unani, Folklore, Ethanomedicine and Naturopathy. Some of the traditional medicines are still used by man for their habitual treatment for various diseases. Phyto-chemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties. Phytochemicals are used for the prevention and treatment of many health conditions including cancer, heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, kidney disease, psychiatric illness, skin disease and arthritis and high blood pressure. The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, flavanoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, tannins and glycosides. Medicinal plant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer, HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer’s disease. List of Bio Medicines derived from plant sources were collected and searched in the published papers, research articles, text books and grey articles. In those more than 75 % are identified from the published papers and research articles. Remaining 25 % only obtained from text books and grey articles. Totally 123 bio-medicine compounds were identified from various plant sources, these compounds are used in many form of medicines in modern system as chemical entity. It is concluding that most of the bio medicine compounds were isolated or modified only from plant sources. The individual compounds may produce more adverse effects but the natural plant sources are very much less to produce complications when they are given in a appropriate doses.