IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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FEBRUARY 2020
1

PREVALENCE AND DETERMINANTS OF INFLUENZA VACCINE ADMINISTRATION AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS AT PRIMARY HEALTHCARE CENTERS OF THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH IN JEDDAH 2019

Layan Arafah1, Shaimaa Hawsawi1, Amal Alfaifi1, Widad Berdisi1, Naeema Akbar2
1Family Medicine Program, Public Health Department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
2Clinical Preventive Medicine, Public Health Department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Background: Influenza is a substantial threat to healthcare settings, and the annual influenza vaccine (IV) is an effective preventive measure against influenza. However, the vaccination rate among health care workers (HCWs) remains low. Objective: This study aimed at assessing vaccine coverage among HCWs at the primary health care centers of the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH), and determine factors affecting compliance to vaccination. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, and by applying a multistage clustering sample method, we randomly selected 83 male and 202 female HCWs. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect information about IV uptake and its determinants. We performed the chi-square test to define associated factors and used binomial logistic regression analysis to determine the unconfounded predictors of IV. Results: The rate of IV among HCWs ranged from 53.3% during 2016 to 51.7% during the 2018 season. Compliances to successive vaccination over the past three years were only 30.2%; however, 66.2% of HCWs intended to receive the vaccine during the upcoming season. The main reasons for IV uptake included self-protection against influenza (60.7%) and caring about client's patients (44.8%). Single female nurses were more likely to be immunized against IV than other HCWs p<0.05. Both reading the official MOH IV guidelines and feeling of having sufficient knowledge about IV were unconfounded predictors for the vaccine. Conclusion: The overall immunization coverage was suboptimal, and the fact that reading the official MOH IV guidelines had a strong statistical association with a positive attitude towards vaccination emphasizes the role of governmental authorities in enhancing vaccine among the HCWsBackground: Influenza is a substantial threat to healthcare settings, and the annual influenza vaccine (IV) is an effective preventive measure against influenza. However, the vaccination rate among health care workers (HCWs) remains low. Objective: This study aimed at assessing vaccine coverage among HCWs at the primary health care centers of the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH), and determine factors affecting compliance to vaccination. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, and by applying a multistage clustering sample method, we randomly selected 83 male and 202 female HCWs. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect information about IV uptake and its determinants. We performed the chi-square test to define associated factors and used binomial logistic regression analysis to determine the unconfounded predictors of IV. Results: The rate of IV among HCWs ranged from 53.3% during 2016 to 51.7% during the 2018 season. Compliances to successive vaccination over the past three years were only 30.2%; however, 66.2% of HCWs intended to receive the vaccine during the upcoming season. The main reasons for IV uptake included self-protection against influenza (60.7%) and caring about client's patients (44.8%). Single female nurses were more likely to be immunized against IV than other HCWs p<0.05. Both reading the official MOH IV guidelines and feeling of having sufficient knowledge about IV were unconfounded predictors for the vaccine. Conclusion: The overall immunization coverage was suboptimal, and the fact that reading the official MOH IV guidelines had a strong statistical association with a positive attitude towards vaccination emphasizes the role of governmental authorities in enhancing vaccine among the HCWs. 


 


2

INTELLECTUAL PROPRIETY RIGHTS: REVIEW

Pravin Tryambak Netkar*, Mohammed Awais Iqbal, Momin Nashra Sohail, Farooqui Nilofar Mohammad Jameel
Royal College of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, SayneKhurd, Malegaon, Dist. Nashik [423203] Maharashtra, India.

Intellectual property rights (IPR) have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, nonobviousness, and industrial application. IPRs are generally understood to have two principal areas of impact in pharmaceuticals. First, there is the issue of pricing and access, where discussion focuses on the links between IPRs (particularly patent rights), exclusion of competitors and the availability and pricing of new medicines. Second, there is the issue of R & D incentives – that is to say, the role of IPRs in providing incentives to discover, develop and market new drugs – and the effect of IPRs on R & D expenditure and its allocation across diseases, countries and organizations. In this article we are providing the information about IPR. CONCLUSION: Intellectual property rights are monopoly rights that grant their holders the temporary privilege for the exclusive exploitation of the income rights from cultural expressions and inventions. 


 


3

COMPARITIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS BY AAS AND IN VITRO ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MARKETED AND IN HOUSE FORMULATIONS OF UDARKALP CHURNA

P. Sai Harshita*, R. Kanchan Sonali, M. Rajeshwari, P. Aarthi, P. Girija Sravani, Leemol Shaju, V. Jyothi
Sarojini Naidu Vanita Pharmacy Maha Vidyalaya Tarnaka- 500017.

Churna is a fine powder of a mixture of drugs or a single drug prepared by air drying, finely powdering, mixing and sieving the drugs. In any ayurvedic system of medicine, standardization is the need of the hour. The increasing use of herbal drugs by the human is the driving force to evaluate the health claim of these agents and to develop the standards of quality, purity, safety and efficacy. Divya Udarkalp churna is an Ayurvedic formulation made from various medicinal plants and is used for constipation, maintaining good digestive health, as a digestive aid, Dyspepsia, Indigestion, Inflammation of the colon, heartburn, alcohol abuse and ulcers. The main objective of the present study is to perform the comparative evaluation of the marketed and in-house formulations of divya udarkalp churna. The phytochemical screening of different extracts of both the formulations was performed. Both the samples were subjected to atomic absorption spectroscopy for heavy metal analysis to ensure the quality of the churna. The extracts were further screened for In vitro anti-inflammatory activity by protein denaturation assay. The results of the study showed the presence of essential phytochemical constituents, permissible levels of heavy metals and significant anti inflammatory activites in both the marketed and in house formulations. The results obtained may be utilized as tools of assistance to the scientific organizations for developing formulations of potential therapeutic intervention. 


 


4

PRESCRIPTION PATTERN IN MANAGEMENT OF VITILIGO IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE; A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

Dr. Amrita Singam, Dr. Mrunalini Chokhandre, Dr. Parul Gaikwad

Department of Pharmacology, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur.

Introduction: Vitiligo is an acquired disorder characterized by depigmentation of skin which affects nearly 0.5% of the world population without any gender or racial differences. The aetiopathogenic mechanisms of vitiligo are still poorly understood posing a hurdle in the progress in its diagnosis and treatment. Methodology: This prospective observational study was conducted over a period of one year in outpatient clinic of skin and VD department in a tertiary care centre to understand the prescription pattern in patients with vitiligo. Results: Tacrolimus and topical corticosteroids were found to be the most commonly used drugs in the study. Use of polypharmacy, generic names and drugs from NLEM was found to be less. Conclusion: The prescription pattern of medications was in accordance with the guidelines and recommendations for the management of vitiligo.




5

MICROWAVE ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF 1, 8-DIOXOOCTAHYDROXANTHENES USING PHOSPHONITRILIC CHLORIDE AS CATALYST

Sanjeev M. Reddy1, Jitendra S. Pulle2
1G.M.V. Kotgyal, Dist. Nanded (M.S.) India.
2S.G.B. College, Purna (Jn.), Dist. Parbhani (M.S.), India.

Microwave assisted effective procedure for the synthesis of 1,8-dioxooctahydroxanthenes through one-pot condensation of aldehydes and dimedone using Phosphonitrilic Chloride as catalyst and tetra butyl ammonium bromide as phase transfer catalyst was described. Aromatic aldehydes having electron withdrawing or electron donating groups reacted with dimedone to give corresponding 1,8-dioxooctahydroxanthenes derivatives in moderate to good yields.