IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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MARCH 2014
1

SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL 2-PHENYL-1,3- OXAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS NON-ACIDIC ANTI INFLAMMATORY AGENT AND EVALUATION BY IN SILICO, IN VITRO AND IN VIVO METHODS

Elessy Abraham1*, Anil V Chandewar2

1Prist University, Vallam, Thanjavur – 613403 (T.N.)

2P.Wadhwani College of Pharmacy,(Amravati University), Moha Fata, Yavatmal – 445001 (M.S.)

Abstract

A series of novel 2-phenyl-1,3-oxazole derivatives ( 3 and 6-16) have been synthesized. The structures of these compounds were established by IR, 1H NMR, Mass spectral data and elemental analysis. Compounds were evaluated by in vitro anti inflammatory activity by human red blood cell (HRBC) stabilization method and were subjected to in silico prioritization for biological activity score (BAS)  using PASS server. Molecules having acceptable BAS and with good HRBC stabilization activity were evaluated for their in vivo anti inflammatory as well as acute ulcerogenesis effects. Derivatives  8, 9, 11 and 14 exhibited  good anti inflammatory  activity in carrageenan- induced rat paw edema  with very low ulcerogenicity compared with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

2

ROLE OF PHARMACIST IN ASSESSMENT AND EDUCATION REGARDING AWARENESS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING AMONG THE FARMERS OF FARTHABAD VILLAGE OF GULBARGA DISTRICT

Vinod Immanuel1*, S.S.Biradar2.Shakeel Ahamed3

1Research Student, Dept. of Pharmacy Practice, BTGH, HKES’ MTRIPS, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India.

2S PG.S Biradar, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Pharmacy Practice, BTGH, HKES’ MTRIPS, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India.

3Shakeel Ahamed, Lecturer, Dept. of Clinical Pharmacy, KCT College of pharmacy, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

To assess and educate the people for creating awareness in handling of organophosphorus poisoning. The main objective of the present study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and handling of toxic effects of organophosphorus poisoning, and to create an awareness regarding the storage, usage and first aid measures to avoid accidental/ occupational poisoning.It is an educational intervention study, in which the interviews were conducted among the study subjects, randomly selected agricultural members aged 18 years and above who attended the programme. The pre-designed and pre-tested oral/written questionnaire were administered to the study subjects before and after educational programme and data were collected and analyzed using student ‘t’ test.Data’s were collected and analyzed under the five aspects of knowledge, they are: storage, handling before spray, handling after spray, organophosphorus poisoning and first aid measures. The results revealed that there was significant improvement in the knowledge scores after the educational intervention. It was also statistically (p<0.0001) highly significant.It can be concluded that there is an increase in the need of agrochemical poisoning related information among the agricultural workers in Farthabad village of Gulbarga district. Appropriate educational programmes to increase the knowledge among rural public is of prime importance, which not only helps to develop healthy lifestyles in handling, storage, using of agrochemical poisons, but also helps to give first aid measures in case of accidental/ occupational poisoning.

3

EFFECT OF GRAMICIDIN IN PLASMODIUM BERGHEI-INFECTED MICE

Mukesh Kumar1, Rajinder Singh2, Vandana Dhiman2, Anita Sharma2

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, S. A. S. Nagar, Mohali, Punjab, India- 160062

2Department of Pharmacy, Manav Bharti University, Solan, HP, India- 173229.

Abstract

With the onset of drug resistant in Plasmodium parasites, new strategies are required to combat the widespread disease. Numerous natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides, well-known as antibacterial agents are reported against the malarial parasite. In the present study gramicidin was investigated for activity against Plasmodium berghei. Mean percent parasitemia of infected mice was calculated by studying infected erythrocytes (IE) after microscopic examination of 104 erythrocytes of infected mice on day 4th, 7th, 10th, 14th and 21st after Plasmodium berghei infection in control and gramicidin treated groups. From the present study, it is anticipated that gramicidin is effective against Plasmodium berghei malaria parasite.

4

PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF PROCION BRIGHT TURQUOISE MX-G DYE USING BIOGENIC SILVER NANOPARTICLES (AGNPS) SYNTHESIZED FROM ALPINIA CALCARTA ROSC

Sachindri Rana1, K. Ghanapriya2, K. Priadharsini2, K. Rajagopal1 and P. T. Kalaichelvan2

1 Department of Biotechnology, Vels University, Pallavaram, Chennai-600117, Tamil Nadu, India.

2 Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600025, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

In this study, a green approach of synthesizing stable biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extracts of rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata Rosc. and silver nitrate has been reported and is being used in the photocatalytic degradation of Procion Bright Turquoise MX-G reactive dichlorotriazine dye. Green synthesis biogenic silver nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of dry rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata Rosc. take place within 30 minutes. The bioreduced silver nanoparticles have been characterized by Ultraviolet-visible Spectroscopy, Powder X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and have been found to be 2-20 nm in size. The photocatalytic degradation effect on Procion Bright Turquoise MX-G dye takes place within 60 minutes and is confirmed by the decrease in absorbance in the concentration of the dye with increase in time. This method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles is found to be very cost effective and eco-friendly and thus can be economical and an effective alternative for a large scale production of biogenic silver nanoparticles. These biologically synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are also very effective in photocatalytic degradation of Procion Bright Turquoise MX-G dye which is a commercial reactive dichlorotriazine dye. These biogenic silver nanoparticles can thus be used in degradation of dyes in textile industries before leaving out the dye effluent into the environment.

5

A STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND ZIDOVUDINE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM

Santosh kumar m*, venkateshwar rao jupally

TallaPadmavathi College of Pharmacy, Urus, Warangal.

 

 

Abstract

A new stability indicating reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and successfully validated for the simultaneous estimation of Lamivudine and Zidovudine. A Hypersil BDS C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5µ.) analytical Column was used for chromatographic separation and column temperature was maintained at 30ºC. Mobile phase used was a mixture of Buffer (pH 4.6): Acetonitrile (80:20) at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The UV wavelength used for detection was 272 nm for Lamivudine and Zidovudine. The stability-indicating capability of the method was demonstrated through adequate separation of aged and stress degraded Lamivudine and Zidovudine stability samples. Different analytical performance parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and robustness were determined according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH Q2B) guidelines. The linearity of the calibration curves for each analyte in the desired concentration range was good (r2 >0.999). The recovery of the method was 100.32% and 100.51 % for Lamivudine and Zidovudine respectively. Hence the proposed stability indicating method was rapid, simple, highly sensitive, precise and accurate and it can be successfully applied to determine the amount of Lamivudine and Zidovudine in the formulations.

6

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF RESERVOIR TYPE TRANSDERMAL PATCHES OF 18-Β-GLYCYRRHETIC ACID WITH PIPERINE AS BIOENHANCER

V H Bhaskar1, Prachi Patel*2 

1Department of Medicinal chemistry, Gahlot Institute of Pharmacy,University of Navi Mumbai,India.

2Department of Pharmacognosy, M.P.Patel College of Pharmacy,Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad, India. 

A reservoir-type transdermal delivery system (TDS) of 18 β-Glycyrrhetic acid (GA) with Piperine as bioenhancer was prepared using 2*3 factorial design allowing for independent variables like penetration enhancers, formulation matrix and rate controlling membranes. The formulations were evaluated for drug content, in vitro and ex vivo studies. Cellophane membrane and Fresh abdominal skin of goat were used in in vitro and ex vivo permeation experiments with Franz diffusion cell respectively. In conclusion, current reservoir transdermal patch containing 5% menthol as a permeation enhancer, 42% ethanol, 2% carbopol 934 gel base (50 g) with 0.5% piperine as bioenhancer provided an improved sustained release of phytopharmaceuticals through transdermal administration. The 18 β-Glycyrrhetic acid patch was demonstrated the feasibility for future biopharmaceutical study in rats and clinical trials.

7

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MEDICATED CHEWING GUM CONTAINING CHLORPHENIRAMINE MALEATE

Ganesh S. Bhoi*, Nagesh H. Aloorkar, Namdeo G. Shinde, Riyaz M. Osmani.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Satara College of Pharmacy, Degaon, Satara (MH) India-415004.

Abstract

Oral route is most convenient for the patient therefore it is very popular in the society. Chewing gum delivery system is convenient, easy to administer anywhere, anytime and is pleasantly tasting, making it patient acceptable. It is a novel drug delivery system containing masticatory gum base with pharmacologically active ingredient and intended to use for local treatment of mouth diseases or systemic absorption through oral mucosa. Chewing gum is the convenient and effective means of rapidly administering chlorpheniramine maleate, as it is readily soluble, permeable and used to relieve symptoms of allergy, hay fever and common cold. In present study medicated chewing gum of chlorpheniramine maleate has been formulated using gum base, sorbitol, mannitol, magnesium stearate, lecithin, menthol. This medicated chewing gum was prepared by direct compression method and formulated by using various compositions of gum base and lecithin like 30-35-40 % and 5-10-15 % accordingly. In the formulation Soya lecithin was used as a plasticizer and it was found that it acted on the drug release to some extent. When concentration of Soya lecithin was increased, drug release was also found to be increased.

8

FORMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF PROLONGED RELEASE NASAL IN SITU GEL FOR TREATMENT OF MIGRAINE

M. D. Godbole*, Priti W. There, P.V. Dangre

Department of Pharmaceutics, Kamala Nehru College of Pharmacy, Butibori Nagpur-441108

Abstract

The nasal route has been found to be useful in targeting drugs to the central nervous system. The nasal mucosa offers numerous benefits as a target tissue for drug delivery. Systemic delivery of drug via nasal route is associated with the several positive factors such as relatively large surface area available for absorption and avoidance of first pass effects. The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by the conventional nasal sprays and drops due to rapid nasal elimination of the drug may be overcome by the use of in situ gelling systems that are instilled as drops into the nasal cavity and undergo a sol-to-gel transition. The purpose of this research was to develop and optimize nasal in situ gel of Zolmitriptan by using Cold method. The effect of two independent process variables like combination of thermoreversible polymers and bioadhesive polymer on gelation time, gelation temperature and drug release of nasal in situ gel containing Zolmitriptan was optimized using 32 factorial design. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values, given by the optimization technique. The optimized the optimized nasal in situ gel shows gelation time 59.73±0.02, gelation temperature 31.93±0.11, and drug release 65.2±0.23 after 8 hrs. Compatibility studies of drug and excipients were carried out using FTIR. The developed formulations were characterized for gelation time, gelation temperature, bioadhesive strength, gel strength, viscosity, in-vitro drug release, ex -vivo drug release and in-vitro, ex -vivo drug release kinetics.

9

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF SOLID DISPERSION BASED TOLVAPTAN IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS

Dipak D. Magar *, Manoj D. Magar , Dinesh M. Sakarkar , Sunil B. Jaiswal

Janata Shikshan Prasarak Mandal’s, Sudhakarrao Naik Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad, Maharashtra India.

Abstract

In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare and evaluate rapid-release solid dispersion based tablet formulation of practically water insoluble drug Tolvaptan by utilizing hydrophilic polymeric excipients as the solubilizer(s) and crystallization inhibitors. Immediate release solid dispersion based Tolvaptan tablets with desired physicochemical attributes were successfully developed. The prepared immediate release solid dispersion polymeric nanoparticle based Tolvaptan tablets were evaluated for In vitro dissolution testing to estimate rapid-release characteristics of various prototypes as compared to marketed formulation Samsca®. Stability studies at elevated storage condition to determine shelf-stability of prototype C2 and conformance of product to desired quality attributes. Both hydrophilic polymers and hydrophilic surfactant in combination with top spray deposition on water soluble carrier was found to be an effective approach in obtaining the desired product with equally fast dissolution rate as the innovator product. Polymeric nanoparticles that produce solid dispersion of drug (prototype C) enabled the drug to demonstrate desired dissolution, which was facilitated by – Povidone, that functions as solid solvent for the drug having good aqueous solubility, and Sodium lauryl sulphate (or polysorbate 80) that facilitates rapid dissolution of both polymer and drug in water through wetting, and micellization. Synergistic effect of both povidone and SLS in preventing drug from crystallizing out on prolonged storage at elevated storage conditions.  An important key in the design of polymeric nanoparticle based solid dispersion produced by spray deposition onto water soluble carrier is that all the components viz. drug, polymer and surfactant should be soluble in a solvent system. In the present case, this was achieved by using ternary solvent system comprising of methylene chloride, isopropyl alcohol and water. Methylene chloride and IPA enabled dissolution of drug and polymer while water facilitated dissolving SLS and IPA prevented the SLS aqueous solution from precipitating out in the presence of methylene chloride.

10

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ISOLATION AND EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY ON THE LEAVES OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE

Lavanya D, Arindam haldar. Chandi priya S

Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, Sri krishna chaithanya college of pharmacy, Madanapalli.

Abstract

In this present reasearch work Gymnema sylvestre of family Asclepiadaceae,is selected to isolate the chemical constituent known as gymnemic acid and to evaluate the efficiency of analgesic activity of the isolated constituent using wister albino rats of either sex. The method of extraction is carried out with soxhlet apparatus and the process of column chromatography is used to isolate the chemical constituents. Physical parameter like, physical state (color, nature), percentage of yield, solubility, molecular weights are determined and I.U.P.A.C name, melting point and molecular formula were elucidated for the isolated compound. The purity of the compound are tested by thin layer chromatography. The structures of the compounds were characterized by FTIR – 8400s, pfresence of the different functional group in the isolated compound is identified by interpreting FTIR graph. NMR spectroscopy study enabled us to deduce how many different kinds of environments are present in the molecule, and which atoms are present in neighboring groups. The UV spectrum of the isolated compound in Ethanol shows in 212 nm.  presence of  moiety. IR- spectral data for Carboxylic group with ranges OCH3 Stretching-2953.02,  C=O Stretching – 1708.93, C-O Stretching-1271.09, OH Bending – 1373.32. IR- spectral data for Aromatic group with ranges CH Stretching – 3437.15, C=C Stretching – 1348.54, C-H Bending - 617 – 859. H1 - NMR (proton chemical shift ranges) with groups and no. of protons and δ –PPM. H- 1- 5.76, OH- 1- 5.50, Benzene- 4- 6.13 to 7.72, OCH3- (aliphatic) - 4 - 3.54. C13 - NMR (CARBON CHEMICAL SHIFT RANGES) with groups and no. of carbons and δ –PPM. ETHYL – (CH) - 104, 163, Benzene- (C)- 106 – 183, OCH3 (Aliphatic) -  56 – 60. Finally we conclude that the isolated compound exhibited significant analgesic activity.

11

EFFECT OF CANTEEN OPACITY ON THE VIRTUE OF SOLAR WATER DISINFECTION

Farah Shireen1*, Salman Shehzada2, Maria Qamar1, Hamayun Khattak3, Usman Shahzada4

1Center of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan

2Aga Khan University and Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan

3Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, KUST, KPK, Pakistan

4Center for Disaster Preparedness and Management, University of Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan

Abstract

Water is chief paramount of sentience. But provision and consumption of adulterate water caused many gastro-intestinal and cutaneous complications leading to escalating cases of prepubescent deaths.  To impede the atrocious amenities of the world, a novel economical solar water disinfection procedure was evaluated involving PET bottles at mercurial opacity i.e. 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and last 100% transparent. Anterior to solar disinfection, all the accrued ten potable water samples from quotidian springs were prior to total bacterial counts via pour plate method. From the spotted copious bacterial colonies, the samples were arraigned bacteriologically dire. The samples were then prosecuted for solar water disinfection utilizing amalgamates of solar verve. Finally it was adjudged that solar moxie was obstructed by mistiness of the PET container, thus decelerate the rate of disinfection and as a consequence accelerate bacterial counts responsible for multifarious maladies. Therefore, from the plotted research work, it was surmised that populace of the world specifically indigent clan of underdeveloped countries must be edified to cope and preempt epidemics of disease caused by consumption of substandard water mostly in catastrophic and turbulent circumstances.

12

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PHARMACOSOMES OF KETOPROFEN

Mali Kamalesh*1, Dr. Baviskardiraj1, baviskarkiran1, waghkalpesh1

*1 Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Boradi, Tal- Shirpur, Dist-Dhule, M. S.  India 

Abstract

Pharmacosomes of Ketoprofen was formulated by conventional solvent evaporation technique to increase the solubility and bioavailability in different media with minimizing the GI disturbance. Two different ratio of drug: phosphatidylcholine (PC) in 1:1 and 1:2 were used to form pharmacosomes. Drug content was found to be 93.28% (w/w) for Ketoprofen phospholipid complex (1:1) and 85.44% (w/w) Ketoprofen-phospholipid complex (1:2). Ketoprofen phospholipid complex (1:1) showed better solubility profile than Ketoprofen-phospholipid complex (1:2). Further studies were carried out by optimizing the Ketoprofen phospholipid complex (1:1) ratio. Scanning electron microscopy and particle size analysis revealed differences between the formulations as to their appearance and size distribution-ray and DSC examination showed the amorphous nature of the drug. Solubility of pure Ketoprofen is 8.741 mg/ml in pH 6.8 which improve up to 18.232 mg/ml which increase in 2.09 fold. Dissolution profile of the prepared complex was found to be 93.30% which was much better than pure Ketoprofen which was 49.77% in 5 hrs. So finally we get positive approach for improving solubility and bioavailability of poor soluble drug.

13

METHOD DEVELOPMENT & VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DIACERIN AND GLUCOSAMINE SULPHATE BY RP-HPLC IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM

A.Praneeth Kumar1, P.Sunil Kumar Chaitanya*1, G.Rohini Reddy1, SK.Umadevi2

1Dept of Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality Assurance, St.Pauls College of Pharmacy, Turkayamjal (v), Hayathnagar (m), Hyderabad-501510

2Dept of Pharmaceutics, St.Pauls College of Pharmacy, Turkayamjal (v), Hayathnagar (m), Hyderabad-501510

Abstract

In the present work a simple, sensitive and a specific RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of diacerin and glucosamine sulphate in bulk drug and dosage form. The elution was carried through isocratic mode with INTERSIL C-18 column as stationary phase and buffer:methanol:acetonitrile (30:20:50) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The UV detection was carried out at 274nm. The retention times were found to be 2.210 & 3.740 for diacerin and glucosamine respectively. The method is validated for system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, LOD and LOQ. The method was found to be linear with regression coefficient values 0.998 and 0.999 for diacerin and glucosamine sulphate respectively. The accuracy of the method was evaluated at 100,120&140% and the percentage recovery for Diacerin and Glucosamine Sulphate were between 98.67-100.43% & 99.55-100.89% respectively. Inter & intra day precision studies were carried out for the proposed method and the %RSD values were less than 2.The LOD and LOQ for estimation of Diacerein& Glucosamine sulphate are found to be 1.5789 µg / ml and 5.2631 µg / ml, and 2.3730 µg / ml, 7.9103 µg / ml respectively. Proposed method can be successfully applied for the quantitative determination of Diacerein and Glucosamine sulphate in Bulk drug and Pharmaceutical dosage form.

15

ANTIDIABETIC EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC COMBINED PLANT EXTRACT OF PORTULACA OLERACEA AND CARALLUMA ATTENUATA IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

Virendra Singh1 and Mohan Lal Kori2

1Research Scholar, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Research Centre, Bhagwant University, Sikar Road, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India- 305004

2Vedica College of B. Pharmacy, Constituted Institute of R.K.D.F. University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India- 462033

Abstract

The objective of present study is to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic combined plant extract of Portulaca oleracea and Caralluma attenuata in streptozotocin induced diabetic wistar albino rats. Hypoglycemic agents from natural and synthetic sources are available for treatment of diabetes. Indian medicinal plants have been found to be useful to successfully manage diabetes. The effect of hydroalcoholic combined plant extract containing seeds of Portulaca oleracea, and whole plant of Caralluma attenuata was investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg b.wt.). After 72 hrs rats with marked hyperglycaemia (blood glucose above 220 mg/dl) were selected and used for the study. Antidiabetic effect was evaluated by oral administration of hydroalcoholic combined plant extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt. for 28 days. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed marked hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Significant decrease in body weight and liver glycogen levels were observed with diabetic control, which was partially restored upon administration of hydroalcoholic combined plant extract. The treatment with hydroalcoholic combined plant extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg significantly improve the alterations in blood glucose levels, serum triglyceride, serum cholesterol, liver glycogen, glycosylated haemoglobin and body weight in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study indicates that hydroalcoholic combined plant extract which is a mixture of hydroalcoholic extract of Portulaca oleracea and Caralluma attenuata have significant antidiabetic activity to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications.

16

Evaluation of anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant activities of Eclipta alba using animal models

Swati Mishra, Monalisa Jena, S.S.Mishra

Dept. Of Pharmacology, IMS & SUM Hospital,  Siksha O Anusandhan University,BBSR,India 

Abstract

Eclipta alba (L.) (E. alba) is commonly known as false daisy or bhringraj. It has great traditional importance because of being used as  medicinal resource in India for centuries .It is reported to have anthelmintic, antipyretic ,anti-inflammatory ,antihistaminic, hepatoprotective, expectorant properties. Thus the present study has been undertaken to evaluate the anticonvulsant & muscle relaxant activity of Eclipta alba leaf extract(EALE) using animal models. Eclipta alba  leaf extract (EALE) at doses of 50,100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o were studied for anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant activity on maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES) , rota rod and traction test respectively in rats. Eclipta alba  leaf extract (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.)  reduced seizures induced by MES, decreased  the duration of tonic hind limb extension (THLE) and decreased motor coordination showing anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant activity.

17

DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF IBUPROFEN LOADED SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES

Sankha Bhattacharya

Department of Pharmaceutics , B.Pharmacy College. Rampura–Godhra. (Affiliated To: Gujarat Technological University, Pharmacy Council Of India, & AICTE-New Delhi –India) Gujarat-389001, Panchmahas.

Abstract

Ibuprofen is common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) with analgesic,  anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties, is also effective in relieving symptoms of  osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acute sciatica  and low  back pain. Solid lipid nanoparticles  (SLNs)  can  be  used  for  the targeting  of anti- inflammatory drugs, thereby achieving major benefits such as reduction in total dose  and avoidance of systemic toxicity and other side effects. SLNs were prepared by o/w Microemulsion technique and characterized by  particle size analysis, FTIR spectroscopy,  drug entrapment efficiency, SEM, in vitro In vitro  release  studies  were  performed in Franz  diffusion  cell  using  dialysis  membrane  in phosphate  buffer solution of  pH  7.4. The kinetics of  release  was  determined and fitted to an empirical equation. The influence of experimental factors such as surfactant concentration, lipid carrier concentration and stirring speed on the  nanoparticles size and distribution were investigated to optimize the formulations. At highest speed the resultant SLNs were smaller in size and their size  increased with increase in lipid concentration. Smaller size SLNs were obtained with 1 % (1:1 w/v) of lecithin/ tween-80. Tristearin  SLNs showed maximum entrapment  efficiency and controlled release. SLNs prepared with stearic acid showed maximum release. The surface characters were  found  to be  better  with all  the lipid carriers.All  the formulations showed significant inhibition and anti-inflammatory  properties. Accelerated stability studies indicated that  there  were  no significant changes  when  stored between 2-8 & 40 ± 20C / 75 ± 5% RH.

18

SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NOVEL THIAZOLIDIN-4-ONES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS

 Babasaheb V. Kendre *1, Mahadev G. Landge 1, Sudhakar R. Bhusare 2 1Department of Chemistry, Vaidyanath College, Parli-Vaijnath-431515, MS, India. 2Department of Chemistry, Dnyanopasak College, Parbhani-431401, MS, India.

 Abstract

A short series of new thiazolidin-4-ones 6a-h was synthesized via the cyclo-condensation reaction of aldimines with thioglycollic acid under reflux conditions in glycerol and synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities using Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and fungal strains (Fusarium oxysporium, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus). Among the tested compounds, 6h and 6d were found to be more potent antibacterial and antifungal drugs. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity screening of some selected derivatives reveals that the compound 6b of them exhibited more potent anti-inflammatory activity. In a series 6a-h, compounds 6d i.e. 4-chloro-2-(3-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4-oxothiazolidin-2-yl) phenyl-4-methylbenzene sulfonate and 6b i.e. 2-(3-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4-oxothiazolidin-2-yl)-4, 6-diiodophenyl-4-methylbenzene sulfonate were found to exhibit best antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. All synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic methods and microanalysis.

19

OXIDATIVE STRESS AND CHRONIC ALCOHOL LIVER DISEASE: THE CURRENT PERSPECTIVES

Ms. Mamta Singh1, Dr. Seema Gupta 2, Dr. Rajesh Pandey3, Dr. H.K. Aggarwal4, Dr. S. K. Aggarwal5

1Research scholar, Department of Biochemistry, NIMS Medical College, NIMS University, Jaipur, India

2Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Haldwani, Uttarakhand, India

3Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry, M. M. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India

4Professor, Department of Medicine, PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana, India

5Professor, Department of Biochemistry, M. M. Medical College and Hospital, M. M. University, Kumarhatti, Solan, H.P. India

Abstract

Alcohol liver disease (ALD) is characterized by genetic, psycho-social and environmental attributes that influence its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and is considered to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcohol, the most important hepatotoxin, can injure the liver cells directly and/or through its toxic metabolites, i.e. acetaldehyde and free radicals. Besides promoting the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), long term ethanol ingestion might deplete the hepatocytes of some important secondary components of the antioxidant defence system (enzymatic and non-enzymatic). Thus, alcohol and its metabolites tip the balance in favour of sustained oxidative stress which seems to be is one of the important biochemical manifestations of ALD. It is therefore, worthwhile to evaluate the degree of oxidative stress and the front line component of antioxidant defense system in patients suffering from ALD. Current research is contributed in a better understanding for the role of oxidative stress in context of the disease severity to augment the antioxidant defence system in the supportive management of ALD. Antioxidant’s administration is a good therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ALD and suggests the regular screening of antioxidant levels should be done to know the deficient or the excess status.

20

HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON KIDNEY OF CADMIUM CHLORIDE EXPOSED FRESHWATER CATFISH, HETEROPNEUSTES FOSSILIS (BLOCH

J.D. Saroch1, Rekha Shrivastav2 and T.A.Quereshi1

1Department of Zoology and Applied Aquaculture, Barkatullah University Bhopal (M.P.) 462026-India.

2Department of Zoology, Sarojini Naidu Govt., Girls P.G. College, Bhopal (M.P.) 462016-India.

Abstract

Present investigation deals with the effect of cadmium chloride on the histo-architectural changes in kidney of a freshwater fish, Heteropneustes fossilis. Fish was exposed to sublethal concentrations (6.0 and 9.0 mg/l) of cadmium chloride for a period of forty-five days. Histological observation exhibited progressive degenerative changes which are marked by shrinkage of glomeruli, increase in Bowman’s space, damage of haematopoietic tissue and necrosis in tubular cells. In conclusion, the changes observed indicate that histological parameters can be used as indicators of cadmium related stress in fish exposed to elevated cadmium levels in the water bodies as the deleterious effects of heavymetals like cadmium chloride can on one hand affect fishes and on the other can affect the respective population consuming the fishes exposed to the lethal heavy metal, so a need of check is utmost in the liberation of cadmium chloride into the waterbodies.

21

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF THIOCOLCHICOSIDE AND DICLOFENAC IN BULK AND ITS PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

Satyanarayana MV 1*, Satyadev TNVSS 2, Dr  Ganji Ramanaiah, Dr Anuradha V 3

1Asst. Prof., Dept. of freshman engineering, PVP Siddhartha institute of Technology, Kanuru, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh India.

2Lecturer, PG Centre, P.B. Siddhartha college of Arts and Science, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India

3Professor and Head. Dept. of Chemistry, Vignan P.G. College, Pedapalakaluru, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

A well developed and validated RP – HPLC method was used for the simultaneous determination of Thiocolchicoside and Diclofenac in combined dosage form. The developed method was rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate in the estimation of two drugs simultaneously. An isocratic C18 column was used with mobile phase of composition Methanol: Acetonitrile : Phosphate buffer (40:20:40 v/v at pH 5.0) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 263 nm for separating Thiocolchicoside and Diclofenac. The retention time of Thiocolchicoside and Diclofenac were 2.8 min and 4.2 min respectively. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and robustness as per ICH guidelines. Linearity for Thiocolchicoside and Diclofenac were found in the range of 7.5 – 25 µg/ml and 100-300µg/ml, respectively. The percentage recoveries for Thiocolchicoside and Diclofenac ranged from 99.3-100.9 % and 100.1-100.6%, respectively. The proposed method could be used for routine analysis of Thiocolchicoside and Diclofenac in their combined dosage forms. The proposed method was found to be uninfluenced and uninterrupted from the other formulation excipients. Hence this method can be conveniently used for the routine analysis of Thiocolchicoside and Diclofenac in quality control formulations and also in the dissolution studies.

22

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF BRIMONIDINE TARTRATE AND BRINZOLAMIDE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM

Parmar Vijya*1, Dhara Patel1, Sharav Desai2, Dhananjay Meshram1

1Department of Quality Assurance, Pioneer Pharmacy Degree College, Nr. Ajwa Crossing, Vadodara-390019

2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and biotechnology, Pioneer Pharmacy Degree College, Nr. Ajwa Crossing,

 Vadodara- 390019

Abstract

The fixed combination of brinzolamide/brimonidine tartrate (ophthalmic suspension) is indicated for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Derivative spectrophotometry offers a useful approach for the analysis of drugs in multicomponent mixtures. Objective of the current study was to develop simple and rapid simultaneous methods for the determination of brimonidine tartarate and brinzolamide in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. This method involves first-order derivative spectroscopy using 232nm and 219.40 nm as zero crossing points for brimonidine tartarate and brinzolamide, respectively. For spectrophotometric method methanol was used as a solvent. The linearity was established over the concentration range of 1-7μg/mL and 5-35μg/mL for Brimonidine tartrate and Brinzolamide with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9972 and 0.9985, respectively. Interday and intraday studies showed repeatability of the method. The method was found to be specific and robust. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation, with no interference from excipients as indicated by the recovery study. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

23

PHYSALIS ANGULATA L.: AN ETHANOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW

Mahalakshmi AM1, Ramesh B. Nidavani1*

1Department of Pharmacology,JSS College of Pharmacy,JSS University, SS Nagar Mysore- 570015.

Abstract

Physalis species are annual or perennial, erect or decumbent, sometimes rhizomatous, glabrous or pubescent, and with variously toothed or lobed leaves. Physalis angulata L. (P. angulata L.) belongs to Solanaceae family and it includes about 120 species with herbal characteristics and perennial habits. It is widely used in traditional medicine to cure several disorders such as malaria, asthma, kidney and bladder diseases, jaundice, gout, cancer, inflammatory disorders mainly rheumatism, constipation, digestive problems and others; and used in other manifestations like fever, boils, sore or wounds. A variety of phytoconstituents are isolated from the P. angulata L. which includes carbohydrates, lipids, minerals and vitamins; and secondary metabolites include, physalins B, E, F, G, H and I, phytosterols, withangulatin A, flavonol glycoside and others. The plant having potential pharmacological values screened for its various pharmacological activities namely, antiinflammatory, immunomodulating, anticancer,  and antibacterial activities which are reported in the extracts of different parts and its phytoconstituents of this plant. An overview of the ethanopharmacological investigations of the P. angulata L. is presented in this review.

24

IN VITRO COMPARISON BETWEEN ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS AND NYCTANTHES ARBORTRISTIS ON ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAIN

Suparna Show1, Shreyashi Banerjee1, Indrani Chakraborty2 and Mausumi Sikdar1*

1Department of Biological Sciences (Physiology Unit), Presidency University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

2Department of Physiology, Krishnagar Government College, Krishnagar,Nadia, West Bengal, India.

Abstract

Among the important plants mentioned in AYURVEDA (an Indian Sanskrit literature), Catharanthus roseus (PERIWINKLE) and Nyctanthes arbortristis (SIULI) are used in folk medicine. The antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of these two leaves was screened against antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a cause of nosocomial and post-surgical wound infections. This study aims to evaluate the possibility of the presence of any novel bio-active antibacterial agent(s). The test organism, S. aureus has developed drug resistance against all commonly used antibiotics. Ethanolic extracts of the leaves of these plants were used in agar well diffusion assay and effective zone of inhibition was found at the concentration of 0.5gm/ml. Further, MIC value of C. roseus and N.arbortristis extract against S. aureus was 125mg/ml and 250mg/ml respectively and the pattern of inhibition of growth of the organisms were observed as bacteriostatic. This study indicates a future for designing potentially active antibacterial agents from common Indian herbs like C. roseus and N. arbortristis.

25

POLYELECTROLYTE MULTILAYER CAPSULE: A REVIEW

Vishal G. Rathod1, Vaishali Kadam1, S. B. Jadhav1,  Md. Zamiruddin1, V. B. Bharkad2

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Indira College Of pharmacy,Vishnupuri Nanded, Maharashtra India .

2SSS College Of pharmacy,Vishnupuri Nanded, Maharashtra India.

Abstract

A few years ago a novel techniques for vesicle called as polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) capsule was introduced in the field of drug delivery. Multifunctional polyelectrolyte capsules fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique possess remarkable properties, even though they are held together by electrostatic attraction. From the beginning of the nineties controlled radical polymerization techniques such as Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization and Nitroxide mediated Polymerization have used as new tool in polymer chemistry field of drug delivery. Electrostatic interaction between polyelectrolyte and charged surfaces are basis for the formation of multilayer of polyelectrolyte by using alternate charge. The colloidal core can be varied in diameter from 0.1 to 10µm. The thickness of the shell can be in nanometer range by varying the adsorption condition and number of layer. The unique colloidal structure of LBL assembled capsules offers a very versatile platform for encapsulation, storage and delivery of diverse substances. Mobile pH-sensors are developed for monitoring the local pH inside living cells. Ion sensors are obtained by encapsulation of ion-sensitive fluorophores-conjugated dextran into the multilayer microcapsules. The LBL multilayer capsules are coated with kinesin, which can drive cargos such as vesicles, proteins, and organelles along microtubules. The use of polyelectrolyte capsules as carrier in pharmaceutical products, capsules stable for extended periods of time (years) should be developed.

26

A STUDY ON TOTAL PHENOLS, FLAVONOIDS CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY FOR THE LEAF EXTRACTS OF HOLOSTEMMA ADA KODIEN SCHULT TRADITIONALLY USED FOLKLORE MEDICINAL PLANTS.

Rubesh Kumar. S1*, Sridhar. C2 and Jayaveera. K.N 3

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, JNTU-OTRI campus, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Ananthapuramu, AP, India.

2Professor & Director, Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy, Tiruchanoor, Tirupathi, AP, India.

3Professor, Department of Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur college of Engineering, Ananthapuramu. AP, India.

Abstract

Holostemma ada Kodien schult (Asclepiadaceae) important medicinal plant and widely distributed in tropical forest in India. The ethno botanical survey reports the usage of plants by the folklore healer on remedies for antidiabetic, rejuvenative, aphrodisiac, expectorant, galactogogue, stimulant, Orchitis, pain, stomach ache, gonorrhea and in ophthalmic disorders. In the present investigation an attempt was made to determine the anti-oxidant property, total phenol, and total flavonoid content for the various leaf extract of  Holostemma ada Kodien schult. The leaves were extracted sequentially with n-hexane, ethyl acetate,  methanolic and hydro-alcoholic (1:1), among all the extracts; methanolic and ethyl acetate  extracts proven to show increased amount of  % inhibition  substantial anti-oxidant activity on free radical scavenging effects on DPPH, superoxide anion radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging, metal chelating ability, hydroxyl radical scavenging, reducing power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging models, the percentage inhibition and IC50 values were determined, the studies indicates that the methanolic and ethyl acetate  extracts of Holostemma ada Kodien schult  has a potent anti-oxidant activity when compared with other extract with standards respectively. These extracts also showed the presence of total phenol and flavonoids. The % inhibition and IC50 values show that the leaf extracts of Holostemma ada Kodien schult possess and potent anti-oxidant activity.

27

ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM LEAVES EXTRACTS ON EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS

Nitin Ghiware1*, Aseemuddin Naimuddin1, Rajendra Kawade1, Sudhir Vadvalkar2

1Department of Pharmacology, Nanded Pharmacy College, Nanded.

2Centre for Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nanded Pharmacy College, Nanded.

Abstract

Objective:Saccharum officinarum Linn., has long been used in folk medicine in treatment of number of disorders as antidote, antiseptic, antivenomous, bactericide, cardio-tonic, demulcent, diuretic, intoxicant, laxative, ulcer and stomach disorder. Therefore, present study was designed to investigate the antiulcer effect of ethanolic (EtSO) and methanolic (MeSO) extract of leaves of S. officinarum using different models of gastric ulceration in rats. Method:Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of ethanol and by pylorus‐ligated technique. Gastric total acid output was estimated in the pylorus ligated rats. Gastric tissue was also examined histologically. Saccharum officinarum extracts (EtSO & MeSO) were tested for their antiulcer property at a dose of 100, 200, 300mg/kg against both gastric ulcer model in albino rats Omeprazole was used as a reference drug in both the models. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing the ulcer index in the test drug group with that of the vehicle (negative) control group and standard (positive) control group.Results: The extracts of Saccharum officinarum Linn leaves shows significant protection against induced gastric ulcer model in animal model Result reveals protection by EtSO (84.13%; ulcer index 0.66±0.1054) & MeSO (80.04 %, ulcer index 0.83±0.1054) against pylorus ligation and by EtSO (76%; ulcer index 1.08±0.2006) & MeSO (72.22 %, ulcer index 1.25±0.25) against ethanol induced ulcer which are comparable to standard.Conclusion: The present finding suggests that protective effect extracts of leaves of S. officinarum might have been mediated by cytoprotective mechanisms. Moreover, further insight into the precise mechanism of action is essential to exploit the complete potency and increase its usage in contemporary medicine

28

ANTI FUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS EXTRACTS AGAINST SOIL BORN PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI

P. Lakshmi Narasimha Reddy1*, S. Chengal Reddy2 , P. Saritha1  and A. Sreeramulu1

1Dept of Botany, S. V. University, Tirupati-517502, A. P,  India.

2 Dept of Fishery Science and Aquaculture, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, A.P, India

Abstract

Synthetic fungicides have been removed from the market due to their harmful effects on the environment. However, the fungicides derived from plant products are safer alternatives for fungal control because they are richest source of bioactive phytochemicals.In this present study fifteen different medicinal and aromatic plants used in   medicine were examined against Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Chaetomium globosum, Cladosporium cladosporides, Nigrospora sphaerica, Penicillium sp using poisoned food technique. The  aqueous extracts of  six  plants exhibited varying degrees of inhibition activity against the fungi. Among the 15 plants studied 60 % of the plants had antifungal activity while the remaining 40% had no antifungal activity. The extract from  Cymbopogan citratus, Cymbopogan caesius showed maximum activity. Balanites aegyptica, Cassia occidentalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Indigofera barberi, Cassia tora, Cassia senna, Eucalyptus citriodora and Corollocarpus apigaeus did not exhibit antifungal activity at the condition studied. 

29

EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION OF SOME TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HAIR GROWTH PROMOTING ACTIVITY

Sneha Anarthe*, Bhavanam Jaya Sandeep Reddy, Mane Pradeep Uttam, M. Ganga Raju

Department of Pharmacognosy, Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, affiliated to Osmania University, Bachupally, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract

Hair growth problems can affect human physical and mental health, and are of particular relevance during the aging process. Present study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of polyherbal formulation prepared from methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (5% w/w), Trigonella foenumgraecum (5% w/w), Vitex negundo (5% w/w), Lawsonia inermis (5% w/w), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (5% w/w), Bacopa monnieri (5% w/w), Nordostachys jatamansi (5% w/w), Eclipta alba (5% w/w) and combination of Trigonella foenumgraecum, Nordostachys  jatamansi, Vitex negundo (5% w/w) in hydrophilic USP base for its potential role on hair growth. The prepared extracts were incorporated into ointment base and applied topically on shaved skin of Wistar albino rats for 30 days. After 30 days, 25 hairs were picked and hair length was measured. Significant hair growth was observed for mixed extract as compared to single extracts of Emblica officinalis, Trigonella foenumgraecum, Vitex negundo, Lawsonia inermis, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Bacopa monnieria, Nordostachys jatamansi and Eclipta alba when compared with Neuzen hair oil as standard.

30

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY OF NAPROXEN SODIUM USING GUAR GUM AND XANTHAN GUM

Sunil J. Aher*1, Swati Jagdale2 and Dr. D. Dhachinamoorthi

1Dept. of Pharmaceutics, SRES’s Sanjivani College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Kopargaon, Dist-Ahmednagar, MS, India-423603.

2Dept. of Pharmaceutics, MAEER’s Maharashtra Institute of Pharmacy, Pune, Dist-Pune, MS, India-411038.

Abstract

The present study is directed towards the development of compression coated tablet with different ratio of guar gum and xanthan gum with colon specific drug delivery. The formulations were developed in such a way that it should deliver the drug content in colon. Which can be achieved through prolong drug release using some polysaccharide based excipients like guar gum, xanthan gum etc.  The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. The formulation code CT3 was able release the 99.88% of Naproxen in the presence of rat cecal content media at the end of 24 hours and also the increase of drug release was observed after 6 hour that mean the formulation need the activation for the release of drug from the formulation in this case it is activated by the enzymes present in the cecal content media. The compression coating of Gum ratio of GG: XG 2:1 is capable of targeting the Naproxen release in colon, thus the formulation shows the Diffusion as swelling mechanism ((n=1.38 and Higuchi Plots Coefficient Correlation R2 =0.90) in the delivery of Naproxen. It means the gum concentration in GG: XG 2:1 is capable of producing the synergistic effect (V.R.Sinha.et al., 2004) in retardation of drug release in stomach and small intestine and also release the maximum amount of drug at the end of 24 hours. Thus the colon specific drug releasing formulation was developed.

31

DETERMINATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF FIXED OILS OF ARGEMONE MEXICANA

M. Amin Mir1, Muntazir Mustafa1, Bilal Ahmad Mir1, Anuj Kumar2

1Uttaranchal College of Science and Technology, Dehradun-01 

2 Gurukul Kangri University Haridwar

 Abstract

The present study carried out on the extracted oil sample of Argemone mexicana was collected from Nagal region of Dehradun, Uttarakhand. Soxhlet extraction method was employed for the pure oil extraction. The oil was subjected to determination of physicochemical properties showed acid value of (1.34± 0.03), iodine value (39.39± 0.09 mg/g), peroxide value (2.06 ± 0.11) R. M. value (3.08± 0.01) and saponification value (81.34 ± 0.12 mg/g. The physicochemical parameters of Argemone mexicana fall within the scope of  international standards of the FAO/WHO. 

32

EXTRUSION-SPHERONIZATION VS SOLUTION / SUSPENSION LAYERING TECHNIQUE FOR FORMULATION OF ITOPRIDE HYDROCHLORIDE PELLETS: A TRUCE

Prateek Kulshrestha 1*, Arun Kumar Das1, R. Raja Reddy1, A.Pavani1, N. Srilakshmi1

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Malla Reddy Pharmacy College, Maisammaguda, Dhulapally (Post-Via Hakimpet), Secunderabad-500014, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to formulate itopride hydrochloride sustained release pellets by Extrusion–Spheronization and Solution/ Suspension layering technique and to compare the pellet characteristics prepared from both the techniques. In the Extrusion-Spheronization technique, the drug pellets were prepared by mixing the drug with excipients along with a binder solution, the resultant mass was extruded through extruder followed by spheronizer.In Solution/suspension layering technology the pellets were prepared by coating the drug solution/suspension on the sugar spheres in a fluidized bed processor (FBP). The prepared drug pellets from both the techniques were seal coated with HPMC 5cps followed by sustained release coating of Ethyl cellulose 7cps in the FBP. Formulation F3, F4 prepared using Extrusion-Spheronization and formulation F7, F8 prepared using Solution/suspension layering technique were selected for comparison. The formulations F4 & F8 showed good reproducible dissolution profiles. Pellets of formulation F4 showed better drug content whereas pellets of F8 had good surface morphology. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the Sustained release ItoprideHCl pellets prepared by Solution/Suspension layering technique had good surface quality but compromises uniform drug distribution over the pellet whereas the pellets prepared from Extrusion-Spheronization technique had uniform drug content but had poor surface quality and requires continuous monitoring of every processing parameters viz. granulation, extrusion.

33

ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AND IN SILICO INVESTIGATION OF PUTATIVE DRUG TARGETS IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS ISOLATED FROM BOVINE MASTITIS MILK

Pramod  C. Bhasme,  Rohit B. Kaliwal, Basappa  B. Kaliwal* 

Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Karnatak University, Dharwad – 580003, Karnataka INDIA.

Abstract

Bovine mastitis is a multifactorial disease. It can be caused by many different bacterial species. The prevalence of different species varies geographically, temporally and also due to control measures adopted in herds. In the present study 21 Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) were isolated and identified by conventional methods. All the isolates were screened for antibiotic susceptibility test out of which Amoxyclave, Norofloxacin, Erythromycin, Amikacin, Gentamicin, Methicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Tetracycline are shows 100% susceptibility, followed by Streptomycin (85.72%), Cefriaxone (85.46%), Ampicillin (76.20) and the lowest susceptibility was shown in penicillin (66.67%) respectively. Further the most resistant CNS was identified to be S. haemolyticus by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. 66 pathways of  S. haemolyticus retrieved from  web server were found to be non homologous  to the host Bos taurus, out of which 57 pathways were found to be in cytoplasm, 8 in cell wall and 1 in the cell membrane. Pathways of cell wall were believed to be the most putative targets for the drug discovery. The knowledge of the present study could make the drug discovery easier which have high affinity to the target site of the causal organism.

34

RAPID AND SENSITIVE RP-HPLC ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT & VALIDATION FOR ESTIMATION OF RIFAMPICIN IN BULK AS WELL AS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION BY USING PDA DETECTOR

S. Ashutosh Kumar*1, Manidipa Debnath2, Dr. J. V. L. N. Seshagiri Rao3, B. Chaitanya1­, A. Durga Pavani1, G. P. Sri Ramya1, M. Ujjwala1 , P. R. N. Govinda Raj1, P. Ganesh Babu1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality Assurance, A.K.R.G College of Pharmacy, Nallajerla, West Godavari, 534112, A.P, India

2Department of Pharmaceutics, A.K.R.G College of Pharmacy, Nallajerla, West Godavari, 534112, A.P, India

3 Prof. Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Yalamarty College of Pharmacy, Visakhapatnam, A.P, India.

Abstract

APPROACH: The present work was undertaken with the aim to develop and validate a rapid and consistent RP-HPLC method development in which the peaks will be appear with short period of time as per ICH Guidelines. A simple, rapid, and precise method has been developed for quantitative analysis of Rifampicin in bulk as well as in pharmaceutical dosage forms. SUMMARY:  The chromatographic separation of Rifampicin was achieved on an ODS C18 (4.6 x 150mm, 3.5µm) analytical column with Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Buffer (pH adjusted to 3.0 by using Orthophosphoric Acid) & Acetonitrile [HPLC Grade] in the ratio of 50:50 (v/v), as mobile phase at ambient temperature. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and detection was by absorption at 238 nm using a PDA detector. The number of theoretical plates and tailing factor for Rifampicin were 4092.567 and 1.46 respectively. The linearity of the method was excellent over the range 10–50 ppm for the drug Rifampicin. The correlation coefficient was 0.9999. The relative standard deviations of peak areas from five measurements were always less than 2%. The LOD for Rifampicin was found to be 0.026µg/ml. The LOQ for Rifampicin was found to be 0.087μg/ml .The drug content formulations were quantified by using the proposed analytical method. The proposed method was found to be suitable and accurate for quantitative analysis of Rifampicin. CONCLUSION: The proposed method was adequate sensitive, reproducible, and specific for the determination of Rifampicin bulk as well as in its Pharmaceutical dosage form. The validation of method was carried out utilizing ICH-guidelines. The described RP-HPLC method was successfully employed for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing the dosage form. The proposed method was simple, fast, accurate and precise method for the Quantification of drug in the dosage form, bulk drug as well as for routine analysis in Quality control. Overall the proposed method was found to be suitable and accurate for the Quantitative determination and stability study of the drug in Pharmaceutical dosage form.

35

ASSESSMENT OF DNA DAMAGE IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS BY COMET ASSAY

Narmadha M.P.1, Ushananthini A. S1, Murugan A.2, Saravanan R. 3, Sridhar D.4

1 Swamy Vivekanandha College of Pharmacy, Tiruchengodu.

2 Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai.

3 Govt Veterinary Colleges and Research Institute, Namakkal.

4 Tuberculosis Unit, Govt Hospital, Tiruchengodu

Abstract

The present study was aimed to determine the extent of cell damage in Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients with the help of comet assay. This is a prospective study carried out in Tiruchengodu Govt. Hospital from September 2011 to April 2012. Blood samples were collected from 1000 subjects [Healthy volunteers (Go), newly diagnosed TB patients (G1), Three months treated TB patients (G2), Six months treated TB patients (G3). n=25 subjects in each group]. Blood samples from anticubital vein were collected, embedded in agarose gel, lysed in high ionic strength solution with Triton X-100, and then electrophoresed at pH>13, ethidium bromide stained were then subjected to analysis under Fluorescent microscope. Subjects of newly diagnosed TB (G1) patients did not show any remarkable cell damage as compared to TB patients under treatment. Extent of cell damage in six months treated TB patients (G3) was greater than three months treated TB patients (G2) (P= <0.0001). Among quantitative comet metrics, comet length was significantly greater in males compared with females (P= <0.0003). Extent of cell damage was observed significantly high in anti-tubercular drug treatment patients both three months treated and six months treated TB patients. DNA damage was found to be significantly increased in smoking & alcoholic tuberculosis patients. Anti-tubercular drug and social habits seem to be the major contributor of the cell damage.

36

SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM MORINGA OLEIFERA: FORMULATION AND EVALUATION AGAINST CADIDIA ALBICANS

Vibhute SK*, Kasture VS, Kendre PN, Wagh GS

Sanjivani College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Kopargaon,

Dist: Ahmednagar (MS), India, PIN: 423 603.

Abstract

The aim of present study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Moringa oleifera against Candida albicans. The work focused on to compare activity of plain aqueous leaves extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by using Moringa oleifera leaves. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green synthesis method and characterized by UV-visible Spectroscopy. Further study carried out to assess in-vitro diffusion and activity from two topical dosage forms viz. cream and ointment. Particle size and polydispersity index of topical ointment formulation were determined by using dynamic light scattering Malvern Zetasizer Nano-ZS90. Skin irritancy test on healthy albino rabbits proved safety of ointment containing AgNPs synthesized using Moringa oleifera leaves.

37

ADSORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE SOLUTION BY HEAVY KAOLIN

*1Mrs. Lata. C. Potey, 2Ms. Rashmi K. Tawari, Mrs. Rajeshwari S. Sarode, 4 Mr. Mahesh A. Hadke, 5 Ms. Varsha B. Modak

1Hi-tech College of Pharmacy, padoli phata, Nagpur high way, at Morwa, Chandrapur, Maharashtra (India)

2 Roselabs Bioscience Ltd. Ahmedabad

Abstract

Heavy Kaolin is a native hydrated aluminium silicate which is freed from most of impurities by elutriation and dried. It does not contain any dispersing agent. Heavy kaolin used as Pharmaceutical aid, adsorbent in many Pharmaceutical preparations, in poisoning to adsorb toxin and its adsorption property has been checked in methylene blue solution in which heavy kaolin can adsorb color of methylene blue on its surface.

38

STUDIES ON SOME FRESH WATER FISHES FOUND INFECTED WITH DERMATOMYCOSES, COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT WATER BODIES IN AND AROUND BHOPAL, INDIA.

Dr. Rekha Chauhan

Department of zoology and applied aquaculture, Barkatullah University, Bhopal.

Abstract

Six water bodies of Bhopal and surrounding areas were surveyed weekly for the collection of mycotic infected fishes. Data was collected for the period of twelve months, from December 2012 to November 2013. Fishes were brought to the laboratory for further examination. Maximum percentage of infection was recorded in Upper lake (37.8%). From the collected fishes total   194 isolates were collected and maximum (53) isolates were obtained from fishes of upper lake and minimum (19) from fishes collected from Mansarovar lake. Seventeen species of fishes found infected among them twelve species from upper lake. Twenty one species of fungi belonging to nine genera viz. Achlya, Allomyces. Alternaria, Aphanomyces, Aspergillus, Leptomitus, Fusarium, Pythium and Saprolegnia have been isolated from fishes. Most infected fish species was Mystus spp. (M.cavasius and M.seenghala). Achlya was the most prevailing genera found from the isolates of infected fishes. Maximum  percentage of infection was recorded during winter months.

39

SERUM SELENIUM CONCENTRATION IN PATIENTS WITH VIVAX AND FALCIPARUM MALARIA BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

Saira Baloch1, Shahzad Ali Mughal2, Agha Taj Mohammad3, Mohammad Ali Pir4

1*Medical Research Center, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

2 Human Resources Department, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

3Department of Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan

4Department of Community Medicine & Public Health, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

Abstract

Malaria is one of the most serious tropical diseases in the world and has been a health risk to humans for many generations. It is very widespread disease, covering many areas of Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Africa. It is also a major public health problem in Pakistan. Selenium is an essential antioxidant trace mineral for the human body. In the present study, Selenium concentration was determined in the serum of Patients with vivax and falciparum malaria (n=50) with comparison to healthy control subjects (n=50). Selenium was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS, Model Varian A-20). The serum concentration of selenium determined to be in vivax 42.92±1.21, in falciparum 41.72±1.1 malaria were lower as compared to the 49.01±1.01in healthy control subjects. It is concluded that selenium supplementation should be recommended in the therapies used for the management in patients with viavx and falciparum malaria.

40

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND POWDER MICROSCOPY OF THE FLOWERS OF TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA R. BR.

Bijeshmon P.P1 and Shibu George2

1Sreedhareeyam Ayurvedic Research and Development Institute, Koothattukulam, Ernakulam, Kerala-India.

2Department of Zoology, St. Aloysius College, Edathua, Alappuzha-689573; affiliated to Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam-Kerala, India. 

Abstract

Tabernaemontana divaricata R.Br. is a medicinal shrub belongs to the family Apocynaceae. The medicinal properties of its leaves and flowers are well known to the traditional medicine. The flowers are useful to cure burning sensation, ophthalmic and dermatopathic diseases. However, the antibacterial effect of its flower is not yet unravelled. Therefore, the present investigation was mainly focused on the antibacterial activity of the flowers of Tabernaemontana divaricata. For validating the taxonomic description of flower, powder microscopic study was also carried out. In the study, different flower extracts were tested against standard bacterial strains by disc diffusion method. Microscopic character of the flower powder was studied by trinocular microscope. The results of the study indicated that only the methanolic extract of the flower was effective to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The different flower extracts were ineffective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. Powder microscopy revealed that the flower has light fragrant spirally thickened xylem vessels, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, trichomes, small starch grains and pollen grains. The study concludes that the flower extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata has significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Therefore, the flower extract in methanol can be taken for the purification of active principle. The various flower characteristics obtained from the powder microscopy can be used as a taxonomic tool for identifying the flower and plant species.

41

SKIN BARRIERS: CHALLENGE FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

Richa Sharma1, Pankaj Sharma2, Kapoor Ankita3

1School of pharmacy and emerging sciences, Baddi University of Emerging Sciences and Technology, Makhnumajra Baddi. Distt Solan, H.P., India.

2School of pharmacy and emerging sciences, Baddi University of Emerging Sciences and Technology, Makhnumajra Baddi. Distt Solan, H.P., India.

3School of pharmacy and emerging sciences, Baddi University of Emerging Sciences and Technology, Makhnumajra Baddi. Distt Solan, H.P., India.

Abstract

Transdermal system is a self contained and discrete dosage form. for systemic action of various drugs. Skin is the main barrier to be overcome for this delivery system. Three mechanisms are involved in skin permeation kinetics such as sorption by stratum, penetration of drug through viable epidermis and uptake of the drug by capillary network in dermal papillary layer. Polymer matrix, drug, permeation enhancers and excipients are main components of transdermal drug delivery systems. Various permeation enhancers are used to overcome these barriers. Recent advances in this system include the formulation of emulgel which contains properties of both emulsion as well as gel.

42

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PURE AND CADMIUM DOPED ZNO THIN FILM

Deepu Thomas 1, 2*,  Jyothi Abraham 1, 3,  Sunil C. Vattappalam2,  Simon  Augustine2, Dennis Thomas T3

1Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India-641046.

2Department of Physics, St. Thomas College, Pala, Kottayam, India-686574

3Department of Botany, St. Thomas College, Pala, Kottayam, India-686574

Abstract

ZnO thin films were prepared by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption Reaction (SILAR) method. The structural analysis of the thin films was done by X-ray diffraction. A rapid and uncontrolled multiplication of pathogenic microbes can seriously compromise health and hygienic living standards. Growing resistance of microorganisms to potent antibiotics has renewed a great interest towards investigating bactericidal properties of nano thin films. ZnO is an inorganic compound which strongly resists microorganisms. The advantage of using these oxides as antimicrobial agents is that they contain mineral elements essential to human and exhibit strong activity even when administrated in small amounts. The Cd doped ZnO sample showed maximum activity (zone of inhibition 16mm) against Salmonella typi whereas; it showed moderate activity against Streptococcus haemolyticus (zone of inhibition 13mm). Pure ZnO sample showed maximum activity against Staphylococcus aureus (zone of inhibition 14mm) like the CdZnO. In the same way, CdZnO showed maximum activity against Proteus vulgaris (zone of inhibition 17mm). Pure ZnO sample and CdZnO were showed minimum zone of inhibition against Serratia marcesens of 8.4, 10.8 respectively. The study revealed that the CdZnO showed an increased biocidal activity against the bacteria than pure ZnO. In this paper it is shown that the antibacterial activity of pure ZnO thin film is enhanced by Cd doping.

43

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF IMMEDIATE RELEASE IRBESARTAN PELLETS AND TABLETS

P.Pranavi*, Md.Gulshan, M.Eswar Gupta, N.Rama Rao

Department of Pharmaceutics including Industrial Pharmacy, Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to prepare and characterize immediate release pellets and tablets of irbesartan as it is a class II drug according to Biopharmaceutical Classification System.   Irbesartan pellets were prepared by solution layering technology in which PVP K – 30 as a binder and alcohol as solvent were used. Tablets were prepared by both wet granulation and direct compression method. In order to obtain acceptable product, several trials were conducted and effect of fillers and disintegrants were explored. Physical properties of granules such as Bulk density, Tapped density, Hausner’s Ratio, Carr’s index, Angle of repose, Weight variation, Hardness, Disintegration time, Friability index and in – vitro Dissolution studies were conducted. From the studies and data obtained, best formulation was found to be F – 13 which contains PEG 6000 (5%W/V solution as binder), Sodium starch glycolate (disintegrant) and lactose (diluent) along with magnesium stearate and talc as lubricant and glidant respectively.   As 80 % of irbesartan was released from formulation F -13 and pellets within 10 min, it states that PEG 6000 increases the dissolution rate of a poorly soluble drug in combination with super disintegrants.  Hence they are likely to be better  bioavailable  though  they   belongs to class II drugs.

44

ZEA MAYS LEAF EXTRACTS EXHIBITS ANTICANCER PROPERTY AND ENHANCE THE CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC ACTION OF ETOPOSIDE IN CANCER CELLS

KiruthikaBalasubramanian1 ,Sudhadevi, M.1and PalghatRaghunathan Padma2

1Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Deemed University, Coimbatore - 641 043, Tamil   Nadu, India.

2Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Deemed University, Coimbatore - 641 043, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Agents that influence cell death, especially those that can induce apoptosis in cancer cells, have always been sought upon as a source of anticancer drugs. Zea mays leaf extracts were checked for its anticancer property in comparison with anchemotherapy drug.Therefore, in the present study, the extent of cell death induced by etoposide-induced oxidative stress and the role of Zea mays leaf extracts were followed in Hep 2 (laryngeal carcinoma cell line)cells. Various apoptosis related parameters like cell viability, morphological changes, nuclear changes and apoptotic index were characterized. SRB and MTT assays were used to quantify the extent of cell death in the group exposed to etoposide, plant extracts and their combination. The treatment with etoposide exhibited cytotoxity in the Hep 2 cells. The administration of extracts alone also increased the number of Hep2 cells showing apoptotic morphology. When the cells were exposed to both etoposide and the leaf extracts, the extent of cell death increased further, compared to that induced by etoposide alone. Conclusion:Zea mays leaf extract exhibits anticancer property and can also augment the chemotherapeutic activity of etoposide in the cancer cells.

45

A REVIEW ON PARENTERAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

S.D. Sanghai, V.S. Kadam, S.B. Jadhav, Md. Jameeruddin, V.B. Bharkad*

Department of Pharmaceutics, Indira College of Pharmacy, Nanded, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Parenteral formulations, particularly intravascular ones, offer a unique opportunity for direct access to the bloodstream and rapid onset of drug action as well as targeting to specific organ and tissue sites. Parenteral preparation have been traditionally used to accomplish these tasks and there are several products on the market using these injectable & control release novel drug & implant formulations. The broader application of these novel control drug delivary systems in parenteral drug delivery, however, particularly with new chemical entities, has been limited due primarily to the following reasons: a) only a small number of parenteral drug excipients are approved, b) there is increasing number of drugs that are partially or not soluble in conventional oils and other lipid solvents, and c) the ongoing requirement for site-specific targeting and controlled drug release. Thus, there is growing need to expand the array of targetable control drug delivery & drug implant systems to deliver a wide variety of drugs and produce stable formulations which can be easily manufactured in a sterile form, are cost effective and at least as safe and efficacious as the earlier developed systems. These advanced parenteral implant-based systems are at various stages of preclinical and clinical development which include nanoemulsions, nanosuspensions, liposomes, niosomes, nano partical, micro partical,pro- drug and needal free injection. This review article will showcase these injectable controlled release systems, advanced parenteral drug delivary system,implant&novel technologies in implant, recent innovations in sterile drug delivery devices and discuss advances in relation to formulation development, processing and manufacturing, and stability assessment.

46

ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM AND SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE BY RP- HPLC METHOD

Gandhi Parikshit1, Dhande Swati1, Kadam Vilasrao1

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai. Maharashtra.

Abstract

Analytical methods are made to establish the identity, purity, physical characteristics and potency of the drugs. Methods may also support safety and characterization studies or evaluations of drug performance. Atorvastatin calcium (ATV) and Sitagliptin phosphate (STG) are usually co-administered and as there was no analytical method developed so far a new reverse phase analytical high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the simultaneous estimation of ATV and STG was developed. The proposed method was based on the separation of two drugs in reversed phase mode with the help of HiQ Sil C-18 HS (4.6mm ø 250 nm) analytical column. Both the drugs were detected with the help of UV detector at the wavelength of 255 nm. The current method was validated according to the ICH guidelines for Linearity, Accuracy and Precision, System stability, Detection and Quantification and Percent recovery etc.

47

POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT OF CREMOPHORE-EL AND POLYSORBATE 80 AS CO-SURFACTANTS FOR FORMULATION OF SELF NANOEMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS (SNEDDS) CONTAINING DOCETAXEL

B. Chandrasekhara Rao1*, S.Vidyadhara 2, RLC Sasidhar2 and Y.A.Chowdary3

1S.S.J College of Pharmacy, Vattinagula Pally, Hyderabad-500 075, India.

2Chebrolu Hanumaiah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chowdavaram, Guntur, A.P

3NRI College of Pharmacy,Agiripalli,Nunna,Vijayawada,A.P,India.

Abstract

Purpose:The main Objective of the present investigation was to explore the potential of cremophore-EL, Polysorbate-80 and Ethanol as co-solvent for use in formulation of Self Nano Emulsifying Drug delivery system loaded docetaxel. Method: Seven Different formulations of SNEDDS were prepared by using different oils, surfactants and co-surfactants such as Capmul,transcutol-HP as oil and Cremophore EL, Polysorbate 80 as surfactant, PEG-400,glycerol,ethanol as co-surfactants/solvents in different concentrations. Ternary phase diagrams were plotted to identify the efficient self nano emulsifying region. Seven formulations (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6 and F7) were prepared with optimized concentrations of ingredients. Comparative account of these formulations on the basis of the parameters like droplet size and dilution study was prepared. From the present study, it was investigated that among the seven formulations.Results: SNEDDS formulated with F7 was clear, of smallest vesicle size, exhibiting no change on dilution even after 8 hours. Thus, cremophore-EL, Polysorbate 80 has the excellent surfactant property to formulate SNEDDS.*SNEDDS- Self Nano Emulsifying Drug Delivery System.

48

EFFECT OF INSECTICIDE DICHLOROVOS ON THE GROWTH OF FRESHWATER PRAWN “MACROBRACHIUM DAYANUM”

Nahila Sujad and Kamlesh Borana

Department of Zoology and Applied Aquaculture, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, India.

Abstract

The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium dayanum is a small prawn widely distributed all over India and has commercial importance. The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium dayanum was subjected to acute (96 hr) static bioassay toxicity test with the insecticide Dichlorovos and the LC50 value was 0.075 ppm. Prawns were exposed for 30 days under static condition to three sub-lethal concentrations viz. 0.01 ppm, 0.005 ppm and 0.0025 ppm of dichlorovos. Reduction in growth was found in direct relation to increase in the concentrations of the toxicants.

49

A STUDY TO COMPARE DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES TO DEVELOP VALSARTAN SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS

*Eman Abdo Ali1, Abu Tahir2, Khar R.K3, Kanchan Kohli4

1*Ph. D. Research Scholar, Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.

2Research Scholar, Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.

3Professor, Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.

4Associate professor, Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.

Abstract

Context: Cardiac arrest occurs due to excess strain of the heart which results in retrenchment of its structure were by thickens nerve walls and increases cholesterol. Recently, valsartan (angiotensin-2 receptor antagonists) stays successful over various groups of patients.  Commonly these attacks are prone to occur in the early morning hours so there is a need of delivering required drugs appropriately at required time and required place. Objective: Therefore our main objective of the present work is to develop sustained release tablets of valsartan which would be effective for 24 hr from the time of administration. Parallel studies were conducted between three different techniques of formulation methods to reveal the role and nature of different excipients and methods employed in the release profile. Materials and methods: Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose 15cps was used as granulating agent in the range of 10 to 35 mg to optimize the release. The role of Sodium starch glycolate was also studied by incorporating it in the range of 8-12.5 mg. Results and conclusion: The optimized formulation followed both diffusion and erosion mechanism in all cases according to Korsmeyer's equation drug release. The formulation would be worthy in large scale production as its consumption of production time and materials involved are very less which plays effective role in the market value when compared with other methods. The comparative valsartan release studies revealed that the release rate was dependant on the polymers relative amounts, the technique used to prepare the tablets, and the absence or presence of the SSG. It is evident from the results that  sustained release tablet prepared with HPMC and a hydrophobic disintegrating agent (SSG, 5% w/w) is a better system for once-daily sustained release of a drug like valsartan.  The tablets made were found to satisfy the compendial requirements of hardness and friability.  Invivo study demonstrated that the investigated sustained-release matrix tablet was capable of maintaining constant plasma valsartan concentration through 24 hours.

50

BREAST CANCER VACCINATION- AN ENVISIONED FUTURE

Kiran Shahbaz­1, Ashar Mehfooz3, Waqas Khadam2, Misbah-Ud-Din1, Kanwal Shahbaz1, Umer Shahbaz1

1Department of Oncology, Perfect Health, Islamabad, Pakistan

2Department of Pharmacology & Physiology, University Of Agriculture Faisalabad

3Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University Of Agriculture Faisalabad

Abstract

It is possible to make breast cancer vaccine however using body’s own immune system to cure this cancer. Preventing breast cancer in the manner we prevent early diseases as cholera, influenza and polio is the key investigation of today’s work. Further prototypical strategies are presented for the development of prophylactic breast cancer vaccines. The main focus of this review is about various researches (2000-2014) and hypothesis for breast cancer vaccination which are on the main platform. To know various mechanism employed to treat breast cancer and if it is long living and effective or not. .A virus, called HMTV or human mammary tumor virus, has been found in 40% of breast tumors. Thus if we know the causative agent, a vaccine is possible. Various researches used various proteins and virus plus prophylactic techniques to get a vaccination and remained successful or progressing towards it. This review article depicts all those mechanisms one by one. Similarly what future vision can be drawn using all the recent work on breast cancer vaccination?

51

DIVERSITY OF FRESH WATER ALGAE FROM THE SAHASTRAKUND WATERFALL, NANDED, MAHARASHTRA

Narwade K. B.1,MulaniR.M.1, Bhosle A. B.2, Yannawar V. B.2

1School of Life Sciences/ Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded.

2School of Earth Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded.

Abstract

In spite of these intelligences, a comprehensive account of algal flora of this region is still lacking. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a floristic chart and data base of the present day freshwater macro algal flora of Sahastrakund Waterfall and surroundings.In the present investigation seven algal taxa of Sahastrakund Waterfall have been reported as an initial step of floristic study.In presentstudy it is remarkable that the class Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Zygnematophyceae is the most abundant in selected study area.

52

DETERMINATION & VALIDATION OF PROPRONOLOL IN HUMAN PLASMA BY ELECTOSPRAY IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY

VNS Ramprasad M, Tata Santosh#, B. Syama Sundar*

Department of Chemstry, Acharya Nagarjuna University Guntur,–Andhra Pradesh, India. 

Abstract

A rapid, specific and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of propronolol in K2EDTA human plasma using tramadol as internal standard was developed and validated using an Electrospray Ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry detection. The extraction process involved a solid phase extraction. Both propronolol and the internal standard were eluted under isocratic mode using a Inertsil 50 X 4.6 mm i.d, 5 µm column. The mobile phase composed a mixture of 10:90 % v/v 5mM ammonium acetate solution and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/minute. The injection volume is 5 µL. The runtime of the method is 2 minutes. The method showed good linearity in the range of 1.000 – 402.171 ng/mL. The mean recovery of propronolol from all the quality control samples is 65.83 % with a % coefficient of variation of 7.38 % and recovery of internal standard was 82.12% with a % coefficient of variation of 3.37 %. Matrix effects were not observed. The method is validated as per ICH guidelines.

53

Stability-indicating LC Method for Metformin Embonate and its related substances and its application in bulk Drug

Ramesh Prajapati1, Swarup S. Prabhune2, Nitin Prdhan3

1Wanbury R&D Centre, Mahape,New Mumbai 400710

Abstract

A stability-indicating HPLC method for related substances has been developed and validated for Metformin Embonate in bulk drug. A gradient RP-HPLC was achieved on a Hypersil BDS C-18 column (250mm×4.6mm i.d., 5 µ) utilizing a mobile phase of acetonitrile and decanesulphonicacid of pH 3.0 and wavelength 230 nm. The Metformin embonate was well resolved from related substances and resolution was more than 2.The stress testing of Metformin embonate was carried out under acidic, alkaline hydrolysis, and oxidation conditions. Metformin embonate was well resolved from its related substances, a main related substance (RS1) and with the resolution ≥2. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The method can be used for determination of related substances in Metformin embonate and its application for quality control purpose.

54

EFFECT OF MASTITIS ON MAMMARY GLAND BIOCHEMICAL AND OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED LACTATING MICE

Jayaraj F. Chinchali and Basappa B. Kaliwal*

Department of Studies and Research in Biotechnology and Microbiology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, INDIA.

Abstract

The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of experimentally induced bacterial mastitis on mammary gland biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in lactating mice. 25 Lactating mice were divided into five groups, PBS vehicle served as control and four induced groups of 5 mice each i.e., Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) an endotoxin, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were used to induce mastitis by intramammary inoculation into the mammary gland of mice. Clinical observations, rectal temperature (ºC) of mice and body weight (g) were recorded for every 12 h of post infection during the study period. After 48 h of infection blood was collected through cardiac puncture for analysis of oxidative stress parameters, mice were euthanized and mammary glands were dissected out for the evaluation of biochemical contents such as DNA, RNA, protein, glycogen, cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activities and oxidative stress parameters such as, levels of glutathione (GSH), thiobarbaturic acid reactive substances (TBARS); superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Histopathological responses of the tissue damage were studied. The results exhibited contrasting indications depicting the effects of experimentally induced bacterial mastitis on mammary gland biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in lactating mice. There was a significant decrease in biochemical contents such as DNA, RNA, protein, glycogen levels with increased cholesterol level in the induced groups compared to control group. LDH and AKP activities were significantly increased with decreased SDH and ACP activities compared to control group. Equally oxidative stress parameters such as level of GSH and SOD, CAT and GST activities were decreased with increase in the level of TBARS in induced groups compared to control group of both mammary gland tissue and blood serum. Histopathological evidences revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN), damage of alveoli and secretory products in the induced groups compared to control group of the mammary gland tissue.

55

HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF TESTIS OF MERCURIC CHLORIDE CHALLENGED FRESHWATER CATFISH Clarias gariepinus

Brij Lal1, J.D.Saroch1 and Rekha Shrivastav2

1Department of Zoology and Applied Aquaculture, Barkatullah University Bhopal (M.P.) 462026-India.

2Department of Zoology, Sarojini Naidu Govt., Girls P.G. College, Bhopal (M.P.) 462016-India.

Abstract

In the present study, the histopathological alterations in testes of African catfish Clarias gariepinus, caused by the mercuric chloride were observed. The organism is a representative species and widely used in aquaculture throughout the world. Mercuric chloride is the hazardous pollutant of aquatic environment. The experiment was set for 60 days and the fishes were divided into two groups. First one, the control and second one exposed with lethal concentration of mercuric chloride @ 0.08mg/l. After 60 days of exposure of mercuric chloride in fish Clarias gariepinus, marked degenerative changes were observed in the histoarchitecture of testis. From the present investigation it can be concluded that mercuric chloride can cause deleterious effects in the reproductive assets of the fishes and consequently lead them to be infertile.

56

HISTOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS CAUSED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN THE LIVER OF Clarias gariepinus

Mudassir Kanth1, J.D.Saroch1 and Rekha Shrivastav2

1Department of Zoology and Applied Aquaculture, Barkatullah University Bhopal (M.P.) 462026-India.

2Department of Zoology, Sarojini Naidu Govt., Girls P.G. College, Bhopal (M.P.) 462016-India.

Abstract

In the present study, the fish, Clarias gariepinus was exposed to 0.08 mg/l mercuric chloride for a period of 60 days. The fishes were divided into two groups. Group first was kept as control and Group second was exposed to 0.08 mg/l mercuric chloride. In the exposure period the drastic changes like disintegration and loosening of hepatic parenchyma, bunching of hepatocytes, enucleation and a reduction in the amount of hepatocytes was observed and finally necrosis was also persistent in the liver of the exposed fish conferring that mercuric chloride can harm the liver histology and can ultimately lead the fish and its consumers to be unhealthy.

57

EFFECT OF PARASITIC INFECTION ON HISTOLOGY OF LYMPHOID AND PRO-NEPHRIC ORGANS OF SNAKE-HEADED MURREL

Nusrat Yaqoob1, Pinky Kaur1 and Abha Swarup2

1Department of Zoology and Applied Aquaculture, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (M.P.)

2Madhya Pradesh Council of Science and Technology, Bhopal (M.P.) pkaur.18@gmail.com

Abstract

Present investigation was carried out to reveal, the effect of parasitic infection on histology of lymphoid and pro-nephric organs of snake-headed murrel, Channa marulius. Channa marulius is one of the important commercially available edible fish in Madhya Pradesh. The histology effect of digenetic trematode on spleen and head-kidney of host fish showed loosening of splenic parenchyma, Infiltration of lymphoid cells with several and enlarged melano-macrophage centers were observed in several sections. Whereas histology changes of head-kidney was characterised by degeneration and dispersion of interrenal and chromaffin tissue and with a sign of necrosis. Therefore a conclusion can be drawn that parasites possessed necessary effect on fish immune organs, which may be due to parasitic load or intensity of infection in host fish.

58

IN VITRO HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Commiphora caudate (wight&arn) Engl ON THE BRL3A CELL LINE

Nisha Pothan1, Jyoti Harindran2

 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences ,Karpagam University, Karpagam, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu-641021, India.

2University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Rubber Board (P.O), Kottayam , Kerala, India. 

Abstract

An investigation has been carried out to evaluate the in vitro hepatoprotective effect of extract of Commiphora caudate(wight&arn)Engl using antitubercular drugs(Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Rifampicin)  and D (+)-Galactosamine as toxicant and silymarin as standard drug by MTT assay[(3-(4,5 dimethylthiazole –2 yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. Commiphora Caudata (Burseraceae) is a potential medicinal plant used traditionally in the treatment of rheumatism, ulcers, diarrhea and diabetes. The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Commiphora Caudata for evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity of on the BRL3A (Rat, Liver cell line) cell line. The various solvent extracts were tested for its inhibitory effect on BRL3A (Rat, Liver cell line) cell line. The percentage viability of the cell line was carried out. However, a very limited information available on the pharmacological activity of this plant . Hence, it was proposed to carry out a preliminary in vitro analysis of the hepato protective activity of the plant, which gave promising results. The results of this study indicate that roots extracts of  plants have good potentials for use in hepatic disease.

59

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GASTRO RETENTIVE FLOATING TABLETS OF ATENOLOL

Y.Upendar Rao1, M.Sambasiva rao1, K.Navaneetha2, B.Venkateswara Reddy2,

T.Lavanya2, Ch.Divya2, M.Arjun Kumar2,  N.Karthik Rao3.

1 Department of Pharmaceutics, khammam College of Pharmacy, khammam.

2 Department of Pharmaceutics, St.Pauls College of Pharmacy, Turkayamjal, R.R.Dist.

3 Department of Pharmaceutics, Rosory College of Pharmacy, Hanasparthy, Warangal.

Abstract

Gastroretentive floating drug delivery systems (GFDDS) of atenolol, an antihypertensive drug, with an oral bioavailability of only 50% (because of its poor absorption from lower gastrointestinal tract). Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose of different viscosity grades (K4M and K100M) were used as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as gas generating agent to reduce floating lag time. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. The addition of Guar gum aided in the reduction of the drug release due to its viscous nature. The concentration of these agents was also optimized to get desired sustained drug release. The floating formulations were evaluated for physical characterization, drug content, swelling index, in‐vitro drug release, hardness, friability and weight variation. The results indicated that gas powered floating tablets of Atenolol containing 37.5 mg HPMC K4M, 37.5 mg Guar gum, and 22.5 mg NaHCO3 provides a better release for 24 hrs i.e. 99.16%. The drug release pattern of this optimized formulation was found to be non‐fickian anomalous diffusion type.

60

TYLOPHORA SUBRAMANII HENRY.AN ENDEMIC MEDICINAL HERB - A SOURCE OF POTENTIAL ANTIOXIDANT

Meenu Krishnan VG, Lubaina AS, Aswathy JM, Pradeep DP, Remya Krishnan, Manoj GS, Sunu Kumar SS & Murugan K*

Plant Biochemistry and Molecular biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University College, Trivandrum 695 034, India

Abstract

Tylophora subramanii, a climbing herb belongs to Asclepiadaceae and endemic along the southern Western Ghats. The local people use this plant for curing many rheumatic ailments.  The objective of this study is to explore the phytochemistry and the antioxidant potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Tylophora subramanii which is considered traditionally as an important medicinal plant. The methods adapted includes (a) phytochemical analysis to  find out the presence of various bioactive compounds (b) in vitro antioxidant analysis of ethanolic leaf extract  by 1,1diphenyl, 2 picryl hydrazyl assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay, superoxide scavenging potential, ex vivo superoxide dismutase assay, catalase assay. The major outcomes are the following: ethanolic leaf extract showed remarkable levels of the phytochemicals such as flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrates. Similarly, it also showed potential antioxidant activities. High catalase and superoxide dismutase activity with low lipid peroxide level, which were comparable with the synthetic antioxidant L-ascorbic acid. Thus the work concludes that T. subramanii display a wide range of pharmacologically useful phytochemicals which exhibited significant antioxidant potentials. Future works are planned to elucidate the lead molecule and its biological potentialities.

61

HAEMATOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS CAUSED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN FRESHWATER CATFISH, Clarias gariepinus

Rakesh Saloch1, J.D.Saroch1 and Rekha Shrivastav2

1Department of Zoology and Applied Aquaculture, Barkatullah University Bhopal (M.P.) 462026-India.

2Department of Zoology, Sarojini Naidu Govt., Girls P.G. College, Bhopal (M.P.) 462016-India.

Abstract

The present study deals with the haematological alterations caused by mercuric chloride (HgCl2) in the African catfish Clarias gariepinus for a period of 60 days. The fishes were divided into two groups. Group first was kept as control and group second was exposed to 0.08 mg/l mercuric chloride. After 60 days of exposure the group 2nd showed the value of red blood cells (RBCs) as 4.10, 3.51, 2.86, 1.48 and 0.82 x 106 mm-3, total white blood cells (WBCs) showed mean values as 7.80, 10.34, 11.86, 13.08 and 14.78 x 106 mm-3 and the estimation of haemoglobin (Hb) showed mean values as 12.36, 10.86, 9.04, 7.76 and 6.42 g/dl for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days, respectively. The fishes exposed to mercuric chloride showed drastic deviation from the normal haematolological parameters of the fish.

62

RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF TRIMETAZIDINE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM

B. Rajani* and K. Mukkanti

Center for Chemical Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University - H, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-500085

Abstract

A new simple, sensitive reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the estimation of Trimetazidine in pharmaceutical dosage form. In this method, an Altima C-18 column (4.6 x 150mm, 5μ particle size) was used as stationary phase and Phosphate buffer: acetonitrile (90:10v/v) was used as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 30°C and the detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 233 nm. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention time for Trimetazidine was 3.2 min. The method was fast, accurate, precise and sensitive hence it can be employed for routine quality control of Trimetazidine tablets in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.