IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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SEPTEMBER 2017
1

INDUCED ABORTION AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG FEMALE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILU-ABABOR ZONE, OROMIYA NATIONAL REGIONAL STATE, ETHIOPIA

Ebissa Negera, Tesfaye Sileshi, Alebachew Birhan
Public Health and Medical Science Faculty, Mettu University, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Background: Unwanted pregnancy is the major cause of induced abortion, one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in the world. Hundreds of thousands of women become pregnant without intending to, and many of them decide to end the pregnancies into abortion. Youth are more susceptible to unwanted pregnancies; this may be explained by the fact that premarital sexual activity is very common and reported to be on the rise in all parts of the world. This could be explained by the fact that youths are facing various problems with regards to their reproductive health needs including contraceptive use e.g. lack of information, misinformation, fear of side effects as well as social, cultural and economic barriers in accessing the family planning services, economic problems, violence as well as cultural and social beliefs. Objective: The study was assessed the magnitude of induced abortion among female students in Ilu-Ababor Zone. Specifically the study was tryed to examine the association between the magnitude of induced abortion among female students with other factors like contraceptive knowledge and use, socio demographic characteristics, socio cultural factors and sexual factors. Methodology: A cross sectional study, was conducted among 844 female students in Ilu-Ababor Zone using a Semi structured questionnaire. Result and discussion: A total of 844 of female students were interviewed and 837 of them were responded for the questionnaire with response rate of 99.2%.. Among those who exposed to sexual practices 106 (42.9%) had history of abortion. From the total that had history of abortion 82(77.4%) was induced in nature and only 24(23.6%) was spontaneous. Conclusion and recommendation: Although the majority of participants had no history of sexual exposure, significant number of them had history of abortion. So, since they were students and not yet prepared to bring child this can affect them socially, academically, morally and economically. Thus, youth centered services should have to be available for them at each high school.

2

REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING FIRED CLAY SOIL PILLARED WITH TEA LEAF ASH COMPONENTS

Kebena Gebeyehu Motora1*, Dejene Ayele Tesema2
1Mettu University, Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O.Box 318, Mettu Ethiopia.
2Jimma University, College of Natural Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O.Box 378 Jimma Ethiopia.

Abstract

This study reports on the adsorption of fluoride ion from aqueous solutions by using fired clay soil, pillared with tea leave ash components. The potential of low cost material fired clay soil and fired clay soil pillared with tea leave ash components for fluoride removal from aqueous solution was evaluated by using fluoride ion selective electrode. Pillaring of clay soil with tea leave ash was done by thoroughly mixing fifteen gram of tea leave ash and three hundred gram of clay soil using distilled water and it was aged for 96 hours until it was dried. Untreated clay soil and clay soil pillared with tea leave ash components were fired in an electrical furnace at 570 C for 3 hrs. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out and the effects of pH, contact time, initial adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature of the solution were investigated. Adsorption of fluoride by fired clay soil and fired clay soil pillared with tea leave ash was observed to sharply increase from pH 4 to 7 then decreased. The maximum adsorption efficiencies obtained were 75% for fired clay soil and 90% for fired clay soil pillared with tea leave ash components at pH 7 for both adsorbents. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained was 0.913 mg/g for fired clay soil and 2.746 mg/g for fired clay soil pillared with tea leave ash components. It can be concluded that fired clay soil pillared with tea leave ash is a good and cheap adsorbent with high potential for the adsorption and removal of fluoride from fluoride contaminated water and could therefore serve as effective and efficient adsorbent for treatment of drinking waters in terms of high adsorption capacity.

3

DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE IN RAW AND ROASTED COFFEE BEANS OF ILU ABBA BORA ZONE, SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIA

Kebena Gebeyehu Motora, Tamene Tadesse Beyene
Mettu University, Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O.Box 318, Mettu (Ethiopia).

Abstract

The study was done to determine caffeine content of coffee Arabica in Ilu Abba bora. Caffeine is a naturally occurring alkaloid which is found in the leaves, seeds or fruits of over 63 plants species worldwide. The most common sources of caffeine are coffee, cocoa beans, cola nuts and tea leaves. Caffeine is a pharmacologically active substance and depending on the dose, can be a mild central nervous system stimulant, improve cardiac performance, increase brain circulation, and exhibit vasodilator and diuretic effect. It is also increase heartbeat rate, dilate blood vessels and elevate levels of free fatty acids and glucose in plasma. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method was validated for determination of the levels caffeine in raw and roasted coffee sample of Ilu Abba bora zone. Shim-pack VP-ODS column was used with water: ethanol 65:35 % (v/v) eluent. The detector wavelength was set at 272 nm. Linearity of the method was check from 20-100 ppm and the correlation coefficient was 0.999. The method detection limit was 0.023 ppm and the precision was 1.25% at 40 ppm caffeine concentration. The spiked recoveries for caffeine were 105%, for both Yayo raw coffee and Chora roasted coffee, 102%, for both Chora raw coffee and Mettu raw coffee, 99% and 99.2% for yayo roasted and Mettu roasted coffee bean respectively. The caffeine contents in coffee samples were 57.23 mg/L for Yayo raw coffee, 62.63 mg/L for Yayo roasted coffee, 59.33 mg/L for chora raw coffee, 70.93 mg/L for chora roasted coffee, 64.61 mg/L for Mettu raw coffee and 78.68 mg/L for Mettu roasted coffee. As it can be concluded from the result Mettu rural coffee bean has highest caffeine content followed by Chora coffee and then yayo coffee. Roasting of coffee in all cases also increases the level of caffeine all coffee samples.

4

PATTERN OF RESEARCHES DONE ON ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN ETHIOPIA

Melaku Tileku Tamiru*, Minyahil Alebachew Woldu*
Clinical Pharmacy Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. In recent years, since the rate at which resistance occurs has outpaced the development of new drug replacements, it has become necessary to use the currently available agents, optimally and appropriately. Apart from that assessing the awareness of health professionals in the issue and providing appropriate trainings on how to use the available antibiotics is a wise approach that could help us to challenge the challenges of AMR. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the medical staff awareness towards the most common resistant bacteria species, the factors contributing to the lack of awareness, and the possible measures to address the awareness gap. Method: A structured questionnaire was administered to 205 health care professionals including physicians, pharmacists and nurses at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospitals, Addis Ababa-Ethiopia. Results: The study identified that most of the responding physicians and pharmacists considered Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as the most frequently encountered resistant bacterial species. However, nurses recognized both MRSA and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing bacilii as the most prevalent resistant species. Physicians and nurses reported prolonged hospitalization as a factor likely to contribute to the increased incidence of bacterial resistance. About 58% of pharmacists indicated that the use of antibiotics without prescription as a significant reason for the development of bacterial resistance. Most of physicians reported that appropriate infection control is the most important measure to reduce bacterial resistance. Pharmacists (58.1%) recognized better adherence to the infection control guidelines as the most important factor that could reduce the risk of bacterial resistance. Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that there was good awareness to the most common AMR etiologies and their risk factors among the different discipline health professionals. Even though there was a varying level of awareness among the health care professionals. Continuous medical education programs would be desirable to keep the health care professionals updated and diminish the future risk of excessive bacterial resistance.

5

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) AND AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA) FRUITS IN ILLU ABABOR ZONE, OROMIA REGIONAL STATE, ETHIOPIA

Lalisa Wakjira Duresa1*, Daniel Manaye2
1Mettu University, Faculty of Natural and Computational science, Department of Chemistry, P.O.Box: 318, Mettu, Ethiopia.
2Mettu University, Faculty of Natural and Computational science, Department of Chemistry, P.O.Box: 318, Mettu, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are rich in bioactive molecules that protect human cells against the detrimental effect of free radicals. The phytochemical analysis revealed the Presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, phenolics and flavonoids in both fruits. The free radical scavenging activity using total antioxidant capacity of the phosphomolybdenum method and hydrogen peroxide method were carried out on the water extracts of mango and avocado fruits. The order of antioxidant potential according to phosphomolybdenum method and hydrogen peroxide method was found to be higher in Mangifera indica L. than in Persea americana. The result for the total antioxidant capacity of the measured concentration (0.1 - 0.3 mg/ml) had mangifera indica showing the higher capacity with 0.372 mg Ascorbic Acid Equivalence (AAE) and Persea americana be with 0.265 mg Ascorbic Acid Equivalence (AAE). Further, the hydrogen peroxide scavanging activity was recorded maximum for Mangifera indica L. (70.67%) and (68%) for Persea americana. Phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. The results revealed that the antioxidant activity of mango fruit extracts is greater than that of avocado. The antioxidant activities of the same fruits type differ from place to place even in the same zone.

6

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS OF TELMISARTAN BY USING DIFFERENT SUPER DISINTEGRANTS

Venkateswara Rao. S*, Rodhay. G & Padmalatha. K
Vijaya Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences for Women, Enikepadu, Vijayawada–521108, India.

Abstract

The present research was carried out to develop mouth dissolving tablets using superdisintegrants and improve the solubility ultimately bioavailability of Telmisartan by encapsulating it inside the cavity of β-cyclodextrin. Mouth dissolving tablets improve the oral bioavailability by enhancing the drug disintegration and release of drug particles from the dosage form, which enable quick and direct delivery into the circulatory system by avoiding first pass metabolism. Total nine batches of mouth dissolving tablets were prepared using superdisintegrants like Crosscarmellose sodium (CCS), Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) and Crosspovidone (CP) by direct compression method. Precompression parameters (Angle of repose, Carr’s index and Hausner ratio) were in acceptable range as per the specifications given in IP. Prepared tablets were evaluated for thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability and the results were well within IP limits. Out of the nine formulations developed, the F7 – F9 formulations containing CP as super disintegrant had exhibited the gratifying results when compared with the other two. The results conclude that F9 is the best formulation containing 40 mg of CP. It showed the superlative results in terms of disintegration time, wetting time and In vitro drug release. F9 had low wetting time 8.22 sec, low in vitro disintegration time (5 sec), high water absorption ratio (180%) and highest drug release profile (99.81%) which releases the drug within 12 minute. The different kinetic models revealed that drug release followed zero order and diffusion mechanism. It was concluded from the results that prepared mouth dissolving tablets might decrease dosing frequency, enhance bioavailability, improves patient compliance, rapid onset of action and avoid first pass metabolism, which was the objective of the present work.

7

DEVELOPMENT OF ASSAY METHOD AND FORCED DEGRADATION STUDY OF LEDIPASVIR AND SOFOSBUVIR BY RP-HPLC IN TABLET FORMULATION

S. Naazneen*, A. Sridevi

St Mary’s College of Pharmacy, Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

IPT, Sri Padmawathi Mahila VishwaVidyalayam, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common etiologies of liver-related mortality throughout the world. Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir are inhobits HCV NS5B and HCV NS5A polymerase respectively. No published LC-MS/MS and HPLC based methods for simultaneous estimation of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir. Therefore, A stability indicating high performance liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for estimation of both drugs. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column [Xterra, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5μ] utilizing a mobile phase consisting a mixture of 0.1% trifluro acetic acid and methanol in the ratio of 40:60 v/v at a flow rate of 1ml/min with UV detection at 246nm. The retention time of Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir was 3.13 min and 4.17 min respectively. Good linearity obtained over the range of 25μg/ml to 150μg/ml for Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir. Correlation coefficient was found to be 0.998&0.998 for Ledipasvir& sofosbuvir respectively. The % RSD of precision for Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir was found to be 0.23and 0.86respectively. The % mean recovery was found to be 98.76-99.26% for Ledipasvir and 99.03-100.73.% for sofosbuvir. Thus the validated economical method was applied for forced degradation study of Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir tablet.

8

AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY ON THE ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN SOME VILLAGES OF SOUTH INDIA

Poornachand Tadisetti*, Kishore Kumar.Yadla, Gnana Deepak .B, Vivekreddy .T, Sharmila Nirojini .P, Dr. Rama Rao Nadendla
Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Background: Diabetes has become a major health care problem in India with an estimated 66.8 million people suffering from this condition and the level of morbidity and mortality due to diabetes and its potential complications are enormous, and pose significant healthcare burdens on both families and society, so it is very important to know about the etiological factors of this disease. Aim & Objectives To monitor the etiological factors of diabetes among the masses in rural settings. Methodology Observational study from December 2016 to May 2017. Results and Findings The findings among the study population includes the overall diabetic subjects constitute about 44.38 per cent and the various etiological factors of this study population includes the following 17.08 % (n=96) are showing the history of stress, 22.24 % (n=125) subjects have the family history of diabetes,20.64 % (n=116) subjects has presented the condition of obesity, 26.51 % (n=149) subjects also the history of hypertension along with diabetes and 13.52 % (n=76) subjects are not having the physical activity and from all the above findings it is clear that most of the patients are experiencing the condition of diabetes mainly due to stress, so to avoid such tensions one should practice alternative system of medicines like Yoga and Meditation so to avoid various pathological conditions of endocrine origin. Conclusion: Based on the study results it is clear that there are various reasons that are prevailing before the onset of the disease and which directly shows impact on health related quality of life and the budding health care professionals should have the sound knowledge regarding this aspects for better health care and this sort of works recommends future research in many aspects.

9

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM MICROSPHERES BY SOLVENT EVAPORATION METHOD

Aglawe Sachin B.*, Gayke A. U., Metkar P. S., Sancheti V.P., Palghadmal P.S., Mohan R.S.
S.N.D. College of Pharmacy, Babhulgaon Yeola 42340, Nashik, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Losartan Potassium loaded microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method with combination of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose and Carbopol polymers in various proportions. A total of nine formulations were prepared. The particle size of all the formulations were ranged between 112±0.02 and 183±0.01μm. The entrapment efficiency was ranged between 68.38±0.01 and 93.16±0.01 All formulations were evaluated for further studies like micromeretic properties, swelling index and in-vitro release profile. It was confirmed with the results of micromeretic property that all the selected formulations showed good flow property. A microsphere was found to be sustained over 12 hours. Hence, it can be concluded that the Formulation prepared by solvent evaporation method, has potential to deliver LosartanPotassium in a controlled manner in a regular fashion over extended period of time in Comparison to all other formulations and can be adopted for a successful oral delivery of Losartan potassium for safe management of hypertension. The Losartan potassium microspheres were prepared successfully by solvent evaporation technique using combination of novel polymers and the in vitro release studies have shown that better release profile with combination of polymers especially with increase in Carbopol concentration.

10

IN SILICO PREDICTION AND DOCKING OF TERTIARY STRUCTURE OF PROTEIN X, MULTIFUNCTIONAL PROTEIN OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV)

Sharav Desai*, Pooja Tahilramani1, Dhara Patel2, Dhananjay Meshram2, Prachi Patel1
1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Pioneer Pharmacy Degree College, Sayajipura, Vadodara-390019, Gujarat, India.
2Department of Quality Assurance, Pioneer Pharmacy Degree College, Sayajipura, Vadodara-390019, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a universal health problem and may result in acute, fulminant, chronic hepatitis liver cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The sequence for Protein X of hepatitis B virus was retrieved from UniProt database ProtParam from ExPAsy server was used to investigate the physicochemical properties of the protein. Homology modeling was carried out using Phyre2 server, and Refinement studies were done with Galaxy web browser.Five models were generated and evaluated by ERRAT, ANOLEA, QMEAN6, and PROCHECK. Antigenicity of the protein was also assessed by Chou & Fasman Beta-Turn Prediction method. Five models were generated, and model 1 was having the greatest quality by the QMEAN6 score with 0367 ERRAT analysis reveals the overall quality of 54054% whereas the initial model was having only 17730% quality The mean force potential energy, as analyzed by ANOLEA, were better compared to the original model. Stereochemical quality estimation by Procheck showed that the refined Model 1 had a reliable structure, and was therefore submitted to the protein model database PyRx with Autodock vina was used to screen the compounds from Drug bank and Protein Data Bank to find the molecules that can bind to the active site between 1 to 142 amino acids.Ten compounds with highest negative energy were selected as lead molecules. Protein X structurally evaluated computational methods can be further be experimentally and clinically investigated to develop as potential drug target in Hepatitis B infection. The steps utilized in the article can also be used to investigate the drug target for other infection.

11

GREEN SYNTHESIS OF ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES USING RUBIA CORDIFOLIA ROOT EXTRACT AGAINST DIFFERENT BACTERIAL PATHOGENS

Prachi, Asifa Mushtaq, Raman Patel, Navneet Singh, Devendra Singh Negi*, Seema Rawat
H.N.B. Garhwal Central University, Srinagar (Uttarakhand) 246174 India.

Abstract

Wide application of nanoparticles stimulates the need for synthesizing them But, the conventional methods are usually hazardous and energy consuming. This lead to focus on “green synthesis”of nanoparticles which seems to be easy efficient and ecofriendly approach. In this study the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out using root extract of Rubia Cordifolia a reducing agent and their antimicrobial activity against various bacterial pathogens. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles with effective antibacterial activity. Microbiological tests were performed using varying concentrations of green ZnO NPs with size 14.18 nm. Green synthesized NPs showed antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli. Zinc Oxide nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX and TEM. The green synthesis of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles appears to be cost effective, eco-friendly and easy as compare to other methods for the nanoparticles synthesis and its antibacterial activity.

12

EVALUATION OF MOMORDICA DIOICA SEED EXTRACT FORALPHA AMYLASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITY AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL IN RAT MODEL

P Sailaja Rao1*, G. Krishna Mohan2
1Sri Venkateshwara College of Pharmacy & Research Centre, Madhapur, Hyderabad-81, Telangana, India.
2Centre for Pharmaceutical Sciences, JNTUH, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Abstract

The effect of ethylacetate extract of Momordica dioica seeds by in-vitro alpha amylase assay and in vivo anti-oxidant potential in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats was studied. Type II diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. In vitro α-amylase activity was performed by using dinitrosalicylic acid. Experiment for in vivo antioxidant effect was carried out after a continuous treatment with ethylacetate extract for a period of 15 days at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Serum glucose levels were estimated by GOD-POD method, and ethylacetate extract of Momordica dioica seeds at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight showed significant reduction in serum glucose levels at 2hrs, 4 hrs, 6 hrs and 8 hrs respectively in STZ-induced diabetic rats (ap<0.001). In in vitro α-amylase assay, there was a significant inhibition with IC50 of 58±0.091 μg/ml in comparable to the standard Acarbose. Treatment for a period of 15 days showed significant elevation of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). ((ap<0.001). The results revealed that the Momordica dioica seeds proved to possess potent α-amylase, anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities.

13

SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF INTRACAMERAL INFUSION OF ADRENALINE DURING PHACOEMULSIFICATION

B. Arul1, B. Jayaprakash2, R. Kothai1, Hanna V Morley1, Jeena Elsa John1, Jilu P Jeenu1
1Vinayaka Mission’s College of Pharmacy, Yercaud Main Road, Kondappanaickenpatty, Salem, Tamilnadu, India.
2Vinayaka Mission’s Kripananda Variyar Medical College & Hospitals, Salem.

Abstract

Cataract surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in our ageing world. Cataract surgery is a major surgery as it is an intra-ocular surgery, technically challenging, with abundant scope for devastating complications like loss of sight. Advances in techniques including phacoemulsification and intraocular foldable silicone lens implantation through suture-less mini incisions decrease the surgical recovery period with lower complication rates and improved surgical outcomes. In this present study, an attempt was made to study the safety and efficacy of intra cameral infusion of Adrenaline during phacoemulsification. An observational prospective study was conducted in 150 patients in the ophthalmology department of a tertiary care hospital, Salem. The blood pressure, pulse rate and pupil size parameters were chosen to study the efficacy of adrenaline and the result did not show much fluctuation pre and intraoperatively. Pupillary constriction during phacoemulsification is found to be the major cause of iris damage, incomplete cortex removal, posterior capsular rupture, vitreous loss and even posterior lens material dislocation. So it is necessary to maintain mydriasis. Irrigation fluid containing Adrenaline is thought to be beneficial in this respect. Hence Adrenaline is safe and effective during the cataract surgery.

14

MANAGEMENT OF STRESS: A REVIEW

Mukkera Naga Malleswari*, Dinnupathi Haritha Goud, N.V. Kishore Raju
S.V.U College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sri Venkateswara, University, Tirupathi, A.P, India.

Abstract

This review aimed to assess the stress. Stress is a fact in our daily life. when a person needs help, it means it means that persons feel that personally and emotionally disabled. Most people believe that their capacity and capabilities are so little to encounter the stress. If you experience stress over a prolonged period of time, it could become chronic, till you take some action. About 500 million people worldwide are believed to be suffering from, stress related and psychological problems. While everyone understands the symptoms of the stress response. Stress is mainly dependence on the neuroendocrine system. However, the stress effects on the immune system is disputed, and caused various "immunodeficiency linked” diseases. Using self help techniques like yoga, adult painting , dairy writhing to reduce the stress. Mainly this paper will present a discussion of stress: how stress is defined, biology, physiology and some examples are given how manage the stress.

15

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MICROSPHERES OF GLIBENCLAMIDE BY IONOTROPIC GELATION METHOD

Priya P.Mane Deshmukh*, Archana.N.Barhate
Department of Pharmaceutics, Shivnagar Vidya Prasarak Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Malegaon (Bk), Baramati, Dist. Pune Maharashtra, India 413115.

Abstract

Microspheres is novel drug delivery system for improving therapeutic action of drug, increasing prolong action, lowering dose frequency of dosage form and to improve patient complies. Microspheres are reducing oral administration side effect such as gastric irritation in stomach. Glibenclamide microspheres were developed by ionotropic gelation method using sodium alginate and chitosan. Calcium chloride was used as a cross linking agent. Prepared microspheres were evaluated for entrapment efficiency, microsphere size, morphology, FTIR, DSC, in-vitro drug release and drug release kinetics. Prepared Glibenclamide microspheres were found discrete, free flowing and spherical. The mean particle size ranged from 349-540 μm and percentage yield ranged between 70 to 98.92%. The size of microsphere was increased by increasing concentration sodium alginate and calcium chloride while the entrapment efficiency was increased with increasing concentration of chitosan. XRD studies confirmed the crystalline nature of Glibenclamide. SEM studies showed that the microspheres are spherical and with rough surface. The in-vitro drug release study was carried out in phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Percent drug release was decreased with increase in concentration of sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Decreased drug release rate was obtained in case of F3 formulation containing sodium alginate and chitosan at 3:1 ratio and 5% calcium chloride as a cross-linking agent. The present study conclusively that Glibenclamide microsphere could be prepared successfully and formulation F3 was shows satisfactory result. The prepare Glibenclamide microspheres to maintain an effective of drug concentration in serum for long period of time and reducing gastric irritation.

16

EVALUATION OF PSYCHIATRIC COMORBIDITIES IN CARDIOVASULAR DISEASE PATIENTS AND ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PSYCHIATRIC INTERVENTION AMONG THEM

Dr. R. Venkataramudu1, C. V. Jagadishwar*2, G. Ramyasree2, G. Tejaswini2, G. Mahesh2, E. Sam Jeeva Kumar3
1Department of Psychiatry, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa.
2P.Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa.
3Department of Pharmacy Practice, P. Ramireddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa.

Abstract

Mainly, most of the psychiatric co morbidities like anxiety, depression, and psychosis are co-occurring with the cardiovascular patients in diseases like coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and thus finally results in complicative and interventional treatment for the patients. The main aim of the study is to evaluate and intervene the effectiveness of the psychiatric co morbidities like anxiety, depression, and psychosis in cardiovascular patients by assessing with some of the psychiatric scales like HARS, HDRS, BPRS. In this the study illustrates the complete picture that psychiatric co morbidities like anxiety, depression, psychosis were found mainly in the age group of 50-60 in CVD patients and their prevalence is more in male patients when compared with gender wise by assessing psychiatric scales. Our findings will be useful to researchers and other clinical pharmacists, by assessing all these co morbidities in CVD patients on giving interventional management to the patients. This management finally results in improving treatment effectiveness in cardiovascular patients.

17

VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF CARMUSTINE IN BULK AND LYOPHILIZED VIALS

Yaswanth Allamneni*1, T.E.G.K Murthy2, Mandava Venkata Basaveswara Rao3, Y Udaya Bhaskara Rao4, M Sivanath5
1Research Scholar, Department of Pharmacy, Krishna University, Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Principal, Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla, Andhra Pradesh, India.
3Dean, Department of Chemistry, Krishna University, Andhra Pradesh, India.
4Director, SP Accure Labs Private Limited, Thurakapally, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
5Head of the Department, Department of Chemistry, ANR College, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Carmustine is an anti-neoplastic agent. A reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) assay method was developed by slightly modifying the USP method and validated for quantitative determination of carmustine in bulk drug and in lyophilized vials. The column utilized for the estimation of assay was 4.6 mm X 15-cm, 5-μm Packing L1 (C18) and the mobile phase employed was a mixture of acetonitrile and water in the ratio of 3:7. The detection was carried out at a wavelength of 200 nm with PDA detector. The flow rate is 1.5 mL per minute at a set temperature of 4-6°C with a total run time of 15 minutes. The linearity range was studied ranging from 25-150% with regression coefficient value of 0.999 and the method precision for estimation of assay was below 1.0% RSD. During the forced degradation studies, the drug substance was found to be degraded in all stress conditions because of the nature of the drug substance and the purity angle was found to be less than the purity threshold in all stress conditions. The degradation products were well separated from the main assay peak. The prepared stock solutions of test and standard were found to be stable up to 24hrs at refrigerated condition. Finally it can be concluded that the validated RP-HPLC method can be successfully used as a quality control tool for the estimation of drug substance in the bulk drug and in lyophilized vials.

18

ZnO NANOPARTICLES: ROLE IN ENHANCING ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF VARIOUS ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI

Manyasree D., Kiranmayi P.*

Department of Biochemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar – 522510, India.

Abstract

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by using wet chemical method. The synthesized sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). The average crystallite size of the sample was calculated from the full width at half maximum of XRD peaks by using Debye-Scherrer’s formula and was found to be 27 nm. E.coli was used as test microorganism. Disk diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of various classes of antibiotics in the absence and presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. We also compared antibacterial activity of ZnO nanparticles and bulk ZnO. These results indicated that the ZnO nano particles potentiate bactericidal efficacy of fluoroquinolone, cephalosporin, carbapenum, polymixine and amino glycoside antibiotics.

19

PREVALENCE OF CO-MEDICATION AND POTENTIAL DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS IN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTED PATIENTS ON HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTI-RETROVIRAL THERAPY

Behailu Terefe Tesfaye*, Teshale Ayele Mega, Tsegaye Melaku Kebede
Institute of Health Science, School of Pharmacy, Clinical Pharmacy Unit, Jimma University, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Background:-Drug interaction is an important therapeutic challenge among Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected patients. They are often observed in these patients because they frequently receive multiple medications. Though this may have clinical and economic impact, its prevalence is unknown in Ethiopia. So this study was aimed at addressing this issue by determining the prevalence of Co-medication and potential drug-drug interaction (PDDIs) in HIV infected patients. Method:- initially, checklist containing the relevant variables for the study was developed; ethical approval for patient medical history card (PMHC) access was requested and obtained from the hospital. Then, before the actual data collection process takes place, pre-test was done on 18 PMHCs. After assessing the check list, data of 350 HIV infected patients was reviewed retrospectively and recorded from cards using simple random sampling method. Subsequently, PDDI was assessed using Meds cape online drug interaction checker database and Drug.com (as supportive DDI checker). Then, the data was checked for completeness, entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 and Microsoft excel and presented using tables and figures. Result:-out of 350 HIV infected patients on HAART; only 53(15.1%) patients were not co-medicated along with Anti-Retroviral drugs. Then, a total of 2431 PDDIs were identified, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions were found to occur almost in comparable frequency and almost all of the interactions were found to be moderate or minor in their severity. Conclusion:-in this study more than half of the HIV infected patients were found co-medicated and high numbers of PDDIs were identified. Accordingly, the authors of this study concluded that co-medication and PDDIs are common and, though unavoidable, since almost all of the identified PDDIs were moderate or minor in their severity, the authors’ recommend close monitoring of patients for therapeutic or toxic response.

20

JUGLANS REGIA: A REVIEW OF ITS TRADITIONAL USES PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY

Bhagat Singh Jaiswal*, Mukul Tailang
SOS in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India.

Abstract

Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most widespread tree nut in the world. The tree is commonly called as the Persian walnut, white walnut, English walnut or common walnut. It belongs to Juglandaceae and has the scientific name Juglans regia (J. regia). The array of human health benefits, derived from walnut is primarily due to the abundant presence of phytochemical components such as flavonoids, carotenoids, alkaloids, nitrogen-containing compounds, as well as other polyphenolic. All parts of the plant are important viz. kernel, bark, leaves, flowers, green husk, septum, oil etc. Oil of this plant is extensively used in ayurveda, unani, homeopathic and allopathic system of medicines. Many health benefits claimed for the consumption of J. regia includes antioxidant, antihistaminic, analgesic, bronchodilator, antiulcer, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, neuroprotective, anticancer, lipolytic, wound healing, insecticidal and several other therapeutic properties. This review article attempts, bring to light the available literature on J. regia with respect to traditional, ethnobotany, phytoconstituents and summary of various pharmacological activities on animal and humans.

21

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PERINDOPRIL AND INDAPAMIDE IN TABLET BY RP-HPLC METHOD

S. Soujanya*

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, Unity College of Pharmacy, Raigir (V), Bhongir (M), Yadadri Bhongir (Dist), Telangana State, India.

Abstract

A few methods are reported for prerequisite of telmisartan in biological samples and spectrophotometric estimation in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. Also methods have been reported for qualification of atorvastatin by HPLC, RP HPLC, voltametry and derivative spectrophotometry. But no methods reported for the simultaneous determination of Perindopril and Indapamide in bulk and dosage form. The objective of this work was to develop and validate simple rapid and accurate chromatographic methods determination of Perindopril and Indapamide in tablet dosage form. The method was based on reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, on inertsil ODS column 250x4.6mm using Phosphate buffer: ACN: methanol (40:25:35:, v/v/v) pH 4.5 as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1ml/min at ambient temperature. The mean retention time of Perindopril and Indapamide was found to be 2.350 and 3.490 min respectively. The method was validated in terms of its linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, ruggedness, LOD and LOQ. This method can be used for routine quality control analysis due to its simplicity and accuracy.

22

VOLTAMMETRIC BEHAVIOR AND DETERMINATION OF VINCAMINE IN PURE FORM, PHARMACEUTICAL FORM AND BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS

Hassan A. M. Hendawy1, Alaa S. Amin2, Mohammed A. Kassem2, M. A. Mousa1
1National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), P.O. Box 29, Cairo, Egypt.
2Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt.

Abstract

Voltammetric oxidation of Vincamine was studied in Britton - Robinson buffer by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) at glassy carbon electrode (GCE). These sensitive validation and consistent reproducible voltammetric technique were investigated for the trace quantification of the drug in pure, human urine and in pharmaceutical formulations. The optimum experiential parameters were by way of follow: Britton - Robinson (BR) (pH 6.0). The peak current exhibited a linear correlation with the drug concentration in the range limit of 0.658 - 8.36μg/ml,1.65-24.75 μg/ml, with the limit of detection 0.502, 1.67μg/ml and limit of quantitation were 0.066, 0.382μg/ml Differential pulse and Square Wave Voltammetry respectively. The proposed voltammetric procedures successfully applied for determination of VIN in its pure form and pharmaceutical formulation using GCE. The method allows a simple, rapid and reproducible determination of this compound without any interference from other ingredients present and furthermore applicability was tested in urine samples.

23

“IMPACT OF POLYPHARMACY IN GERIATRIC PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL”

Abraham Mary Anju, Paul Bibin, Jose Blessy, Sravani Tummala, J.Muneerudeen*
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davangere, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Ageing is a natural process and as age progresses, the number of incurable disease increases. This increase leads to the increase in the medications; resulting in polypharmacy. The objectives of this study was to assess the impact of polypharmacy in geriatric patients and also to assess the severity of drug interactions as a result of polypharmacy. The prospective observational study was conducted for a period of 6 months. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee of Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davangere. Data of geriatric patients collected from the Medicine and Emergency wards were included in the study. The collected cases were analyzed using the commercially available Micromedex. The identified DDIs were categorized on the basis of their severity. In our study the prevalence of polypharmacy was more in males compared to females. It was found that the age group of 60-69 had the higher incidence of polypharmacy compared to the other age groups. Among the classes of drugs prescribed, the CVS drugs were prescribed more followed by GI drugs. Not only this, most of the patients were prescribed drugs between 5-10. On analyzing the prescriptions for drug interactions, 320 drug interactions were found. Based on the severity of drug interactions, moderate interactions were found to be the highest. The actual and potential DDIs increase as per number of drugs in prescription. The management of clinically relevant DDIs can be improved by clinical pharmacist interventions. Advice on withdrawal or substituting the precipitant drug would be beneficial.

24

PHOTO KINETIC STUDIES OF METHYLENE BLUE DYE BY USING GREEN SYNTHESISZED COPPER NANOPARTICLES FROM AREVA LANATA LEAF EXTRACT

Seeram. Hari Prasad*, G.Susheela Bai, B.Kishore Babu, M S N A Prasad
Department of Engineering Chemistry, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India.

Abstract

Green synthesized copper nanoparticles are applied to photo degradation of methylene blue organic dye and their photo-kinetics also studied. copper nanoparticles are prepared from green method by using Areva lanata leaf extract. The kinetic studies are carried out at different time intervals under sun radiation of exposure of time is 90 minutes. The degradation percentage is 72.60. the rate constant obtained from this studies is 3.4545 ×10-4 Sec-1.

25

ROSUVASTATIN INDUCED SKIN AND MUCOSAL ALLERGY (ERYTHEMATOUS PAPAULAR DERMATITIS)

Dr. Arun Pandiyan. S*, Neena Baby, Neetha Sabu, Lubna Sulthana, Navya Sunil
Clinical Pharmacist, GKNM Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu.

Abstract

Rosuvastatin is a Lipid lowering agents which belong to class HMG Co-A Reductase inhibitors. In clinical trials, adverse drug reactions of rosuvastatin >10% were Neuromuscular & skeletal, in that Myalgia (2% to 13%). Only 1%, post marketing, and /or case reports reported hypersensitivity reaction (including angioedema, pruritus, skin rash, urticaria). Here we present a case with skin and mucosal allergy (erythematous papaular dermatitis) caused by Rosuvastatin.

26

EFFECT OF CATALYST ON SYNTHESIS OF 1, 5- BENZODIAZEPINE DERIVATIVES AND EVALUATION OF THEIR PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

N. Siva Subramanian*, Ch. Malathi Suvarna, Pavan Kumar. Sara, Elender. G
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Gland Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shangri La Farms, Kothapet, Medak District, Telangana State, India.

Abstract

1,5-Benzodiazepines are psychoactive drugs Benzene ring and Diazepine ring fusion, widely used as hypnotics, sedatives and in several Central Nervous System disorders. 1,5-Benzodiazepines are regularly used because of their nature of exhibiting pharmacological effects with minimal effect on patient performance. Derivatives of 1, 5- benzodiazepines were synthesized using the catalysts like Formic Acid and Glacial Acetic Acid, characterized by spectral studies using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, and FT-IR Spectroscopy. The results showed that the percentage yield of the reaction involving Formic acid as a catalyst is higher when compared to that of the Glacial Acetic Acid as catalyst. This indicates that the acidic nature of formic acid is enhancing the cyclization process thus producing higher percentage yield. Hence the use of stronger acid as a catalyst is enhancing the cyclization. The pharmacological activity of synthesized compounds are screened using animal models for muscle relaxant property and catatonic activity and are showing significant effect when compared with the standard drug diazepam. When compared the compound- A which is a derivative of acetone and 1, 2- diaminobenzene is showing more activity than the rest of synthesized compounds. Thus the study shows that the use of strong acid as a catalyst is increasing the yield of the 1,5-Benzodiazepines in synthesis of pharmacologically active derivatives.

27

IMPACT OF PHARMACIST ASSISTED PATIENT COUNSELING FOR IMPROVING MEDICATION ADHERENCE AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS- AN EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONAL STUDY

Aarsha Joby1, Allu Jaya George1, Anjali A. Nair1, Prannoy Shanker P.V.1, Rajeswari Ramasamy2, N.S. Mahesh3, Shashidhar G.4, Teena Nazeem5
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, affiliated with Rajiv Gandhi University of Health and Sciences, Bangalore-560035, India.
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bangalore- 560035, India.
3Department of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Medicine, MVJ Medical College & Research Hospital, Bangalore, India.
4Department of General Medicine, MVJ Medical College & Research Hospital, Bangalore, India.
5Department of Pharmacy Practice, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bangalore- 560035, India.

Abstract

Medication Adherence to the long course of tuberculosis treatment is a complex, dynamic phenomenon. The assessment of an association between both, HRQOL and medication adherence in TB, would provide valuable information on treatment effectiveness, optimal disease management and health policy making. In Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), the patients usually present themselves with a history of chest symptoms (cough, chest pain and hemoptysis) which further limit the patient’s role in work and social activities. Social stigmatization and negative emotions resulting from the illness could result in a long-term impairment of patient’s psychosocial well-being. This study aimed to assess the impact of pharmacist assisted patient counseling for improving medication adherence and quality of life in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. A prospective-educational interventional study was conducted from September 2016 to April 2017 in various Tuberculosis units across Bangalore. Medication adherence was assessed and measurement of QOL was done using WHO-BREF scale. Of the 164 patients enrolled, there were 2 deaths and 5 drop-outs. Among the 157 patients, 37(23%) were found to be adherent, 20(13%) were at the risk of non-adherence and 100(64%) were found to be non-adherent. There was significant impact of patient counselling in improving the medication adherence(p<0.0001*). QOL scores were also affected in these patients. The worst affected domain was physical domain followed by psychological domain. After the counseling there was a statistically significant improvement in QOL scores (p<0.0001*). Pharmacist assisted patient counseling had a statistically significant impact in improving medication adherence and QOL in pulmonary TB patients.

28

NEWER INSIGHTS INTO THE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF DATURA STRAMONIUM LINN.: A REVIEW

Tatini Debnath1*, Raja Chakraverty2
1Pharmacist under NUHM, West Bengal.
2Bengal School of Technology (A College of Pharmacy), Sugandha, Delhi Road. Hooghly- 712102. West Bengal.

Abstract

Datura stramonium is a widespread growing plant commonly known as Angel’s trumpet and it belongs to the family Solanaceae. The plant comprises bioactive constituents like scopolamine, hyosciamine, tropane alkaloids, tannin, proteins and carbohydrates. It has hallucinogenic effects as well as medicinal properties. Traditionally it is used in cough, fever, asthama and also in skin disorder. The plant has extensive pharmacological effect mainly analgesic in action. A substantial evaluation is contributory in scientific assessment of the medicinal properties of the plant. The ethnomedicinal, phytochemical as well as toxicological works upon Datura stramonium gives a better understanding of the particular plant. The present paper highlights upon the various properties of Datura stramonium respectively.

29

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AMBROXOL, CHLORPHENERAMINE MALEATE AND GUAIPHENESIN IN BULK AND LIQUID DOSAGE FORM BY CHEMOMETRIC ASSISTED SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS.

Bhavana. Nagireddy*, A. Elphine Prabhahar, P.V.Suresh, Rama Rao Nadendla
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur.

Abstract

A simple UV-visible spectroscopic method was developed and Chemometric designs were applied for the simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol (AMB), Chlorpheneramine maleate (CPM) and Guaiphenesin (GPN) in bulk and liquid dosage form. The spectroscopic method was developed by using methanol as solvent for the three drugs and the data generated from the spectra were mined by using Chemometric methods such as trilinear regression analysis, Cramer’s matrix method, Method of least squares, Multivariate calibration methods such as partial least square regression(PLS) and Principle component regression(PCR). The wavelengths selected for all the above methods were 248 nm (wavelength of maximum absorption; λmax of AMB), 261 nm (wavelength of maximum absorption; λmax of CPM) and 274 nm (wavelength of maximum absorption; λmax of GPN). Results: The methods hold good linearity for AMB from 10-30 μg/ml, for CPM from 2-10 μg/ml and GPN from 10-80 μg/ml with regression coefficient values of 0.999, 0.998 and 0.999 respectively. The intraday and inter-day precision was found to be less than 2% RSD. The percentage recovery and percentage assay was in the range of 95-105% for Ambroxol (AMB), Chlorpheneramine maleate (CPM) and Guaiphenesin (GPN) by all the methods. Conclusion: The developed methods neither require any cumbersome separation procedure nor complex derivatization procedures for the analysis of the three drugs and moreover they are effective in minimizing the errors in analysis, simple and economical.

30

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF OSMOTICALLY CONTROLLED ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

S.K Ghate, Dr. D.M.Sakarkar.
1IBSS College of Pharmacy Malkapur.
2Sudhakarrao Naik Institute of Pharmacy Pusad.

Abstract

Conventional drug delivery systems have slight control over their drug release and almost no control over the effective concentration at the target site. This kind of dosing pattern may result in constantly changing, unpredictable plasma concentrations. Drugs can be delivered in a controlled pattern over a long period of time by the controlled or modified release drug delivery systems. They include dosage forms for oral and transdermal administration as well as injectable and implantable systems. For most of drugs, oral route remains as the most acceptable route of administration. Certain molecules may have low oral bioavailability because of solubility or permeability limitations. Development of an extended release dosage form also requires reasonable absorption throughout the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). Among the available techniques to improve the bioavailability of these drugs fabrication of osmotic drug delivery system is the most appropriate one. Osmotic drug delivery systems release the drug with the zero order kinetics which does not depend on the initial concentration and the physiological factors of GIT. This review brings out new technologies, fabrication and recent clinical research in osmotic drug delivery. Osmotically controlled drug delivery systems use osmotic pressure for controlled delivery of active agent(s). Drug delivery from these systems, to a large extent, is independent of the physiological factors of the gastrointestinal tract. Because of their unique advantages over other types of dosage forms, osmotic pumps form a class of their own among the various drug delivery technologies, and a variety of products based on this technology are available on the market.

31

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MEDICATED ANALGESIC STICKS

Nagalakshmi.R*, Surinder Kaur
Department of pharmaceutics, The Oxford College of Pharmacy, Hongasandra, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

The main objective of this research was to formulate an analgesic drug incorporated in topically used sticks, prepared using suitable ointment bases with varied concentrations of waxes, lubricants, surfactants, etc. and incorporation of medicament in the optimized formula by heating and congealing process. Indomethacin was the drug of choice used because; this drug if used orally has a lot of side effects which has to be reduced. The main purpose of this formulation was to dispense medicated derma sticks to the patients, specially suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, as Indomethacin is effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis. Here the patients can apply the medicated derma stick at the site required and as per the need without messing their hands and without tissue toxicity. The medicated sticks were prepared using various other bases but, due to the stability problems the ointment bases were used. The formulation of medicated sticks was carried out which includes preparation of medicated derma sticks Then evaluation of prepared medicated sticks for weight variation, , thickness, length, size and shape, physical appearance, softening point, breaking point, drug content uniformity, in vitro drug diffusion studies by using prehydrated cellophane membrane for 160 minutes in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer and Stability studies were conducted for a period of 3 weeks and FT-IR Spectral analysis was conducted.

32

CURRENT APPROACHES TO TREAT HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE- A REVIEW

Chincholkar Anjali Baburao*, Shende Vikas Suresh, Medhekar Sheetal Kashinath, Dr. Aloorkar Nagesh Hanmantrao, Dr. Kulkarni Ajit Shankarrao
Department of Pharmacology, Satara College of Pharmacy, Degaon, Satara (MH) India.

Abstract

Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal inherited progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by a single mutation in the gene IT15 which codes for the protein huntingtin that result in an expanded polyglutamine stretch in the NH2 terminus of huntingtin protein (HTT). HD results from destruction of the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which constitute 95% of all striatal neurons. MSNs are projection neurons that primarily innervate the substantia nigra and globus pallidus. Oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction, neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, impaired ubiquitin proteosome activity, defective autophagy-lysosomal function, transcriptional dysregulation are considered to be major contributing factors in mediating pathogenesis of HD. BDNF, Glutamate and Nrf2 plays important role in Huntington’s disease. Oxidative stress can be decreased by increasing the concentration of BDNF and Nrf2. The prevalence of HD is much higher in European populations than in East Asia. HD affects approximately 5-10 individuals per 1, 00,000 individuals. There is no cure for Huntington’s disease, but various symptomatic treatments are available for it. Different drugs like SSRI, Lithium, and Memantine are available for symptomatic relief in Huntington’s disease. Terabenazine is only one FDA approved drug for Huntington’s disease. Now a day gene silencing therapies are available for Huntington’s disease. Various drugs like Autophagy enhancer, HDAC inhibitor, and Caspase inhibitor are also under the investigation which may become disease slowing treatment for Huntington’s disease. Stem cells also used in the treatment of Huntington’s disease. Various Animal models and transgenic models are available from which we can evaluate the potential of drugs used in Huntington’s disease. We summarize main papers for pathology, genetic basis for the Huntington’s disease and new approaches for the treatment of Huntington’s disease.

33

WARFARIN DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT IN PATIENTS WITH GENETIC VARIABILITY

RanakishorPelluri*, Panguluri Haripriya, Mantri Satyavathi, V. Lakshmi Prasanna, Shaik SeshmaIfthulla, P.SrinivasaBabu
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, Guntur-522213, Andhra Pradesh-INDIA.

Abstract

Warfarin is a potent drug that when used judiciously and monitored closely, leads to substantial reductions in morbidity and mortality from thromboembolic events. However, even with careful monitoring, initiation of warfarin dosing is associated with highly variable responses between individuals and challenges achieving and maintaining levels within the narrow therapeutic range that can lead to adverse drug events. Genetic factors most correlated with warfarin dose requirements are variations in the genes encoding the enzymes cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). Patients receiving warfarin who possess one or more genetic variations in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 are at increased risk of adverse drug events and require significant dose reductions to achieve a therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR). The results of this study suggests that the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms associates an increased risk for over anticoagulation and bleeding events among patients using warfarin anticoagulant, although small numbers in some cases would suggest the need for caution in interpretation. To reduce the risk of adverse reactions in patients, screening for CYP2C9 variants helps the clinicians to develop the new required dosing protocols and surveillance techniques in patients using warfarin(14). The theme of this review was explaining, of association of CYP2C9*2 & CYP2C9*3 variants are in over anticoagulation & bleeding events in warfarin therapy.

34

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF SARGASSUM LINEARIFOLIUM (TURNER) C.AG. (BROWN SEAWEED) USING UV-VIS, FTIR AND HPLC

Amster Regin Lawrence, R., Iniya Udhaya, C., John Peter Paul, J.*
Centre for Advanced Research in Plant Sciences (CARPS), Department of Botany, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Palayamkottai - 627 002, Tamil Nadu, India.

 

Abstract

The present investigation was carried to determine the phytochemicals of Sargassum linearifolium (Turner) C.Ag using UV-Visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy and HPLC. The UV-Visible spectrum of chloroform extract of Sargassum linearifolium (Turner) C.Ag. showed the peaks at the nm of 325, 412, 537, 610, 668, 882, 962, 1015 and 1059 with the absorption 1.573, 2.783, 0.593, 0.502, 1.150, 0.181, 0.108, 0.099 and 0.030 respectively. The FTIR spectrum was revealed the presence of amides, aliphatic nitro compounds, organo phosphorus compounds, ether, amines, aromatic nitro compounds, benzene ring in aromatic compound, aromatic nitro compound, primary amines, aldehyde, aliphatic compound and primary amides in chloroform extract of Sargassum linearifolium. The qualitative HPLC fingerprint profile displayed thirteen compounds at different retention times. The profile displayed seven prominent peaks at the retention times of 1.637min, 2.360min, 2.670min, 2.803min, 3.017min, 3.267min and 3.433min followed by six moderate peaks at the retention time of 4.003min, 4.293min, 5.970min, 7.210min, 8.673min and 9.773min.

35

AABRESHAM (BOMBYX MORI): A BOON TO MEDICAL SCIENCE FOR THE PREVENTION OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS

Aliya Parveen1, Zarnigar2
1Rajputana Unani Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Jaipur-Rajasthan.
2National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore-India.

Abstract

The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori and being a primary producer of silk is an economically important insect. These days, silk is emerging as a resource for solving a broad range of biological problems. The silk is popularly known as Abresham muqriz (muqriz means cut) in Unani medicine. Its cocoons are extensively used as an ingredient of various Unani formulations like Khameer-e- Abresham Sada, Khameere Abresham Hakeem Arshad Wala, Khameere Abresham Ood Mastagi Wala etc. and are used to treat many cardiac and nervous disorders. The hypolipidemic activity of this drug, along with Nepata Hindostana (Badranjboya) and Terminalia Arjuna (Arjun) has been documented. But the action of Bombyx mori cocoons as a single drug is not been documented yet. This review article will highlight the experimentally proven effects of Aabresham (B.mori) as a single drug along with a new formulation (decoction), for the prevention of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia.