IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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AUGUST 2013
1

EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF POLY- HERBAL FORMULATION AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED TOXICITY

Vidya.Sabbani*1, Ramesh Alluri2 , Mohan.B1, Mhd.yakub pasha1, M.Rajkumar1.

1Dept of pharmacology, Sitha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhrapradesh, India.

2Dept of pharmacology, Vishnu Institute of Pharmaceutical education &Research,Medak, Andhrapradesh, India.

Abstract

Paracetamol (4'-hydroxyacetanilide, N-acetylp-aminophenol, acetaminophen, PAR) is a widely used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic. But at high dose it leads to undesirable side effects, such as hepatotoxicity.So the present study focuses on evaluation of ethanolic extracts of Poly-Herbal Formulation (PHF) consisting of three plants   Phyllanthus acidus , Moringa oleifera  & Emblica officinalis  for hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Adult male albino wistar rats, weighing150‐200g, were randomized into control and experimental group. Control group received 2 ml of 1% gum acaia susupension  p.o. Experinemtal group divided into five groups  .  First group treated with paracetamol (500mg/kg b.w.), second group treated with Silymarin was used as a standard reference.  Remaining three groups treated with Polyherbal formulation (50,100& 200 mg/kg b.w.) along with paracetamol 500mg/kg for 14 days. Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were subjected to histopathological studies.  Three doses of polyherbal formulation 50, 100 mg/kg& 200mg/kg body substantially decreased elevated serum marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, due to paracetamol treatment.  The histopathological studies also confirmed the hepatoprotective nature of the Polyherbal formulation. The results of this study strongly indicate that the Polyherbal formulation has shown synergistic hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats in a dose dependent manner.

2

FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE TABLET CONTAINING CITRIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE USING DIFFERENT MUCOADHESIVE POLYMERS.

Tekade B. W., Jadhao U. T., Kale V. S., Thakare V. M., Chaudhari K. P., Patil V. R.

Department of Pharmaceutics,

TVES’s Honorable Loksevak  Madhukarrao Chaudhari College of Pharmacy, Faizpur, (India)

Abstract

The present investigation was concerned with formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing citrizine dihydrochloride to circumvent the first pass effect and improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency and dose related side effects. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Formulations were developed with varying concentrations of polymers like Carbopol 940,Sodium CMC, Gaur Gum  and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose. The tablets were tested for post compression parameters, swelling index, bioadhesive strength.  The best in-vitro drug release profile was achieved with the formulation CF9 which contains the drug, Sodium carboxy methylcellulose and Carbopol 940 in the ratio of 1:2:3. The surface pH, bioadhesive strength and swelling index of formulation CF9 was found to be 6-7, 10.5 gm and 89.3%, respectively. The formulation CF9, containing citrizine dihydrochloride 10 mg of exhibited 4 h sustained drug release i.e. 98.18 % with desired therapeutic concentration. The in vitro release kinetics studies reveal that all formulations fits well with zero order kinetics followed by Korsmeyer-Peppas, the mechanism of drug release was Fickian diffusion.

4

FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING PROPERTY OF SOME COMMONLY KNOWN MUSA SPECIES

V.V. Navghare*1, S.C. Dhawale2, M.A. Phanse3, P.G. Ingole1, S.S. Pawale1, P.P. Sonwane1

1SSS, Indira College of Pharmacy, Vishnupuri, Nanded.

2School of Pharmacy, S.R.T.M.University, Nanded

3 Modern College of Pharmacy, Nigdi, Pune

Abstract

Free radicals are toxic byproducts of natural cell metabolism and are responsible for causing a wide number of health problems. The use of drugs and dietary supplements from plants with antioxidant activity are needed now a day. In this study ethanolic peel extract of Musa sapaentum, Musa paradesica and Musa cavendish (Musa species) Linn. (Museaceae) was evaluated in-vitro by experimental parameters such as DPPH scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacity and reducing power assay. In the present study, reduction of the DPPH radicals was found in concentration-dependent manner. The results showed that Musa species displayed potent antioxidant activity that may be attributed due to the phenolics present in ethanolic extract of the peel.

5

EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SEEDS AND LEAVES OF CORDIA OBLIQUA WILD AGAINST SOME ORAL PATHOGENS

Reenu Yadav*1, SK Yadav2

* 1. NIMS University, Jaipur (Rajasthan)

2. Ravishankar College of Pharmacy, Bhopal (M.P.)

Abstract

Development of bacterial resistance to presently available antimicrobial agents and their side effects has necessitated the search for new antimicrobial agent.  Hence, here we searched for alternative and natural phytochemicals from plants used in traditional medicine are considered as good alternatives to synthetic chemicals. We report here the antimicrobial effect of various extracts of Cordia obliqua on oral pathogenic strains by zone of inhibition assay Cordia obliqua seeds and leaves extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against some oral pathogenic strains of Gram-positive (Streptococcus  mutans, S.mitis and  S. Sanguis) and Gram-negative (A. Actinomycetemcomitans, P. Gingivalis and B. Forsythus) bacteria and  fungal stain (Candida albicans) . Methanolic extract  was found to be more active,  and its activity was compared to standard antibiotics gentamycin, ciproflaxacin, chloremphenicol erythromycin and fluconazol . Only methanolic extract of the plant showed significant activity against these strains. The use of methanolic extract of Cordia obliqua seeds and leaves as a potential antimicrobial agent in prevention and treatment of oral infections and diseases has been suggested.

6

A REVIEW: TREMENDOUS PHARMACOLOGICAL WORTH OF AEGLE MARMELOS

Hiral K. Modi*1, Vishnu Patel2

1 Research Scholar, JJT University, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan-333001, India

2 APMC College of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Himmatnagar, Gujarat, India

Abstract

Aegle marmelos (L.) is one of the important herbal plant with several medicinal and nutraceutical properties. From ancient   immorial, plants & their products have been used to treat multiple ailments. Today, fast moving generation wants allopathic drugs for fast response but other darkest side of side effect of this allopathic drug. Hence, natural plants are good alternatives because lack or less side affects with similar efficacy to cure the disease from origin. The present study is based on the pharmacological activity of Aegle marmelos, commonly known as a bael in India. This plant is having great potential to cure the disease like diabetes, cholesterol, peptic ulcer, inflammation, diarrhea, and dysentery, anticancer, cardio protective, anti bacterial, anti fungal, anti pyretic, analgesic, radio protective, constipation, respiratory infection, antioxidant, wound healing and many more. In this review summarizes the scientific background information of various aspects of Aegle marmelos plant used in traditional medical system for cure the variety of diseases.

7

PRESENT CLINICAL APPROACHES TO RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: AN AMPLE REVIEW

Ramesh B. Nidavani*, Mahalakshmi A.M

Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University

S.S. Nagar, Mysore- 570015.

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology marked by a symmetric, peripheral polyarthritis and with a prevalence of approximately 1% that primarily affects diarthrodial joints, in which synovial inflammation leads to cartilage and bone destruction. The goal of treatment is to keep patients in remission while controlling pain, reducing inflammation and preventing progression of joint erosion. The direction of current therapies is to treat RA aggressively with early use of sequential or multiple drug therapies. For the laboratory diagnosis of RA has depend on the detection of rheumatoid factor (RF), which was established by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria many years ago. And recent investigation to detect antibodies in the direction of citrullinated peptides, namely, the anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (Anti-CCP) assay. The both Anti-CCP and RF test shows similar sensitivity but Anti-CCP more elevated specificity. Here an attempt is made to review the existing physical and clinical methods to diagnose RA, therapeutical methods available and their drawbacks. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of different clinical approaches, and highlight some of the important issues surrounding the choice of drugs in treating RA.

8

DESIGN AND EVALUATION FLOATING MICROSPHERES OF RANITIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE FOR GASTRO-RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Ashish A. Karhale.1*, Sunil D. Gavande1, Dheeraj T. Baviskar1, Dinesh K. Jain2

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmaceutical Education, Boradi, Shirpur, Maharashtra, 425428 India.

2Department of pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, IPS Academy, Indore 452012 (M.P.), India.

Abstract

The present study involves preparation and evaluation of floating microspheres of Ranitidine hydrochloride for prolonged gastric residence time and increased drug bioavailability.Floating microsphere of  Ranitidine  were prepared by solvent evaporation method, using ethyl cellulose (EC), Eudragit RS 100 polymer in varying ratios in the mixture dichloromethane and ethanol at ratio of (1:1),with tween80 as the surfactant. The floating microspheres were evaluated for flow properties, particle size, incorporation efficiency, as well as In-vitro buoyancy and In-vitro drug release. The shape and surface morphology of the microspheres were characterised by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The floating microspheres showed particle size, in-vitro buoyancy, drug entrapment efficiency and % yield in the ranges of 242 - 288 μm, 67.30 - 91.15 %, and 61.74 - 87.52 %, and 70.00 - 93.88 %, respectively. Maximum drug release after 8 hrs was 82.26,78.00, 86.48, and 83.00 % for formulations RM1, RM2, RM4 and RM5, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs indicate pores both on the surface and interior of the microspheres.The developed Ranitidine microsphere system is a promising floating drug delivery system for oral sustained administration of Ranitidine.

9

EXTRACTION, ISOLATION AND ESTIMATION OF β-AMYRIN PALMITATE FROM COUROUPITA GUIANENSIS AND LOBELIA INFLATA BY HPTLC

Aruna P. Jadhav1, Shruti B. Sathe1, Archana A. Sonawane1, Sameer H. More1 and Vilasrao J. Kadam1

1Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The objective of the present investigation was to develop a validated HPTLC method for the quantification of β-amyrin palmitate as marker in the hexane extract of leaves of Couroupita guianensis and Lobelia inflata. β-Amyrin palmitate was  isolated from leaves of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. and possess an antidepressant activity. Analysis of β-amyrin palmitate was performed on TLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase. The mobile phase consists of petroleum ether (60-80°C):benzene:glacial acetic acid (7:3:0.2 v/v/v). Linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber. The plate was sprayed with Libermann-Burchard reagent, heated at 105°C and immediately scanned at 390 nm using Camag TLC scanner. The system was found to give compact spots for β-amyrin palmitate (Rf value of 0.51±0.03). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r 2=0.998 in the concentration range 200-1400ng per spot. The mean value (±S.D.) of slope and intercept were 4.378±0.0349 and 289.71±22.812 respectively. According to ICH guidelines the method was validated for precision, recovery, robustness. The limits of detection and quantification were 17.19 ng/spot and 52.10 ng/spot respectively. The content β-amyrin palmitate of hexane extract of C. guianensis and L. inflata was 0.502% w/w and 0.640% w/w respectively. Recovery values showed excellent repeatability and reproducibility of the method. Since the proposed mobile phase effectively resolves β-amyrin palmitate, the developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantification of β-amyrin palmitate in herbal extracts and formulations.

10

ANTI-OBESITY EFFECT OF A POLYHERBAL FORMULATION IN CAFETERIA AND ATHEROGENIC DIET INDUCED OBESITY IN RATS

Srinivasa Rao Avanapu1 and Sudharshan Reddy Dachani*2

1Bhaskar Pharmacy College, Department of Pharmacology, Yenkapally (Vi) Moinabad (Mo), Hyderabad.

2Department of Pharmacology,  Smt. Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Mahabubnagar -509001, AP.

Abstract

Obesity is associated with many diseases, particularly diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis and heart disease. The obesity incidence has increased at an alarming rate in recent years, becoming a worldwide health problem, with incalculable social costs yet it lacks adequate treatment. Most of the drugs have failed either due to ineffectiveness (or) adverse effects. For this reason, a wide variety of natural materials have been explored for their obesity treatment potential. Complementary and alternative system of medicine is being used since ancient times. However, many of them have not been tested for efficacy and safety using modern scientific methods therefore, the anti-obesity effect of Anogeissus Latifolia (Bark), Trichodesma amplexicaule (Whole plant) and Holostemma annularis (Roots) a Polyherbal formulation (PHF), was evaluated in a 6-week trial in Wistar rats were fed cafeteria diet (highly palatable, energy rich animal diet that includes a variety of human snack foods) and atherogenic diet. Animals weighing 100-150 g were divided in to six groups (n=6) i.e. Control diet, Polyherbal Formulation (PHF),  Cafeteria diet, Cafeteria Diet plus PHF, Atherogenic diet and Atherogenic diet plus PHF.  The Polyherbal formulation were administered orally at a dose 300 mg/kg/p.o/day for six weeks. At the end of the study, cafeteria and atherogenic diet significantly increased bodyweight, serum glucose and lipid profile (Cholesterol and Triglycerides), as compared to controlled diet. Six weeks after treatment with PHF significantly prevented the increase in bodyweight, serum glucose and lipid profile (Cholesterol and Triglycerides) as compared to cafeteria and atherogenic diet control group. Polyherbal formulation has no adverse effects on behavioral studies. The Polyherbal formulation helped to reduce body weight by approx 15 – 20 % in animal fed on cafeteria and atherogenic diets.

11

STABILITY STUDIES OF LAMIVUDINE IN VARIOUS PH BUFFER SOLUTIONS BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

Maheswari .G*, Shantha kumari .K, Neeharika .M, Revathi .S

Department of pharmaceutical Analysis, Nirmala College of pharmaceutical sciences, Atmakuru (vill), Mangalagiri (Mdl) 522503, Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract

A new, simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Lamivudine in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations. Stability of Lamivudine was carried out in different PH Buffer solutions (acidic, neutral, basic) at zero, 24, 48 hours. Lamivudine was found to be stable in PH 9.7 Carbonate buffer, used as a solvent and analysed spectrophotometricaly. Lamivudine exhibits absorption maxima at 271.76 nm. Developed method obeyed the Beer’s law in the concentration range of 2 - 20 μg/mL. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.998 (r2═ 0.998). The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.591 and 1.791μg/ ml respectively. The accuracy of the method was determined by recovery studies. The percentage recovery was found to be 99%. The method was validated statistically as per ICH guidelines. The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with % RSD less than 2. So, the proposed method was found to be simple, specific, precise, accurate, linear, and rugged. Hence it can be applied for routine analysis of Lamivudine in bulk drug and the Pharmaceutical formulation.

12

AN EVALUATION OF ANTI-DIABETIC AND ITS BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SIDA CORDATA EXTRACT IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS

K. Srinivasan*, S. Haja Sherief, Khule Shahu, N. Kiruthiga and T.Sivakumar

Natural Products Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Nandha College of Pharmacy, Erode – 638052, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

The ethanolic extracts of Sida cordata (Burm. F.) Borss. belongs to the Family of Malvaceae, was studied for its anti-diabetic activity in Wister albino rats. Diabetes was induced by single dose of intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate, 150 mg/kg. The ethanolic extracts of Sida cordata at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, per day was administered to diabetes-induced rats for a period of 21 days. The effect of extracts of the plant on blood glucose, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum enzymes such as Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein were measured in the diabetic rats. The blood glucose level in ethanolic extract of Sida  cordata at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. on 21st day were 195.00 mg/dl, 145.66 mg/dl respectively exhibited significant antidiabetic property when compared with diabetic control (p<0.01).  There was significantly (p<0.01) decreased the elevated levels of Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Serum enzymes with ethanolic extract in diabetic rats. Furthermore, extracts of Sida cordata significantly increased (p<0.01) the protein level as 6.33g/dl, 6.53g/dl for the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. respectively, in diabetic rats was observed. From the results of the above study, it is concluded that the ethanolic extracts of Sida cordata at the dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. significantly reduces the increased blood glucose level as compared with diabetic control.

13

THERMOREVERSIBLE NASAL GEL OF CARVEDILOL USING METHANOL PRECIPITATED SOLIDS OF ALOE VERA AND YELLOW MUSTARD MUCILAGE

Sujatha Prathi1, Yajaman Sudhakar1*, and Jayaveera KN2

1Government Polytechnic for Women, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh 516002 INDIA

2Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Ananthapur, Andhra Pradesh 515002 INDIA

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to develop mucoadhesive, thermoreversible nasal gel of Carvedilol using Aloe MPS, YMM and Pluronic F127 (PF127). The efficiency of natural polymers was compared with GRAS polymers HPMCK4M and Sodium CMC. Mucoadhesive materials from Aloe vera L leaves and yellow mustard seeds were isolated by the established procedures. pH, swollen volume, swelling capacity, moisture sorption capacity and loss on drying of isolated materials were studied. Tensile strength of 1% w/v solution on excised goat nasal mucosa was determined using modified surface tensiometer. Drug-polymer compatibility was studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Formulations were modulated to ensure gelation at physiological temperature after instillation. Gelation temperature was determined by both visual inspection and rheological measurements. The tensile strength of the optimized formulations was determined using an ultra test equipped with a 5-kg load cell. The ex-vivo drug permeation studies were studied across goat nasal mucosa in a thermostatically controlled Franz diffusion cell. In vivo studies were conducted on New Zealand albinio rabbits and the estimation of carvedilol in plasma was done by reverse phase HPLC method with UV detection using Glimepride as internal standard. The mobile phase consists of 0.02M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer: methanol: ACN (40:20:30 v/v) adjusted to pH 6.0 using KOH and the chromatography was performed at room temperature using a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min isocratically. The optimized nasal gel showed Cmax (ng/L) =87, T max (hr) =1.5, AUC Total (ng/L*hr) =1658.81, t1/2 (hr) =12.9468, MRT (hr) = 18.9562, R2 = 0.99998 exhibited superior in situ gelling and mucoadhesive properties. It will be a promising delivery system with quicker onset of action and better patient compliance for the treatment of mild to moderate congestive heart failure and hypertension.

14

SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BENZOXAZOLE DERIVATIVES

Gurvinder Singh*1, Maninderjit Kaur1, Chander Mohan1, Saurabh Prashar2

1Rayat-Bahra Institute of Pharmacy, Hoshiarpur (Punjab, India)

2Lovely School of Pharmaceutical sciences, LPU, Phagwara (Punjab, India)

Abstract

Benzoxazoles are a large chemical family used as antimicrobial agents against a wide spectrum of microorganisms. The high therapeutic activity of the related drugs has encouraged the medicinal chemists to synthesize a large number of novel chemotherapeutic agents. The reaction of 2-aminophenol and p-amino benzoic acid yielded 2-(4-aminophenyl)benzoxazole in the presence of Polyphosphoric acid, which was further condensed with different aromatic aldehydes offered Schiff bases. The compounds were synthesized in good yield and the chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by their TLC, IR and 1HNMR. Their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans were investigated. The results showed that all of the newly synthesized compounds (G-2- to G-8) have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity.

15

PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF COUROUPITA GUIANENSIS AUBL. LEAF

Shruti B. Sathe1, Aruna P. Jadhav1, Archana A. Sonawane1, Sameer H. More1 and Vilasrao Kadam1

1Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy,C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai - 400 614.

Abstract

Couroupita guianensis Aubl. is a deciduous tree belonging to family Lecythidaceae and has a common name cannonball tree. The present study reveals the detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of Couroupita guianensis leaf. The study includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical screening and physicochemical evaluation. The objective of this investigation is to lay down standards which could be useful in future experimental studies.

16

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG LANSOPRAZOLE USING HYDROTROPIC SOLUBILIZATION TECHNIQUE

V. Ruth Beulah*, A. Shantha Kumari

*Department of pharmaceutical analysis, Nirmala College of pharmacy, Atmakuru (vill), Mangalgiri (Md), Guntur-522503, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Currently, numbers of techniques are in use for the enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Hydrotropic solubilization technique is one of them. The objective of the work is to select suitable hydrotropic agent that can increase the solubility of Lansoprazole and to develop a simple, efficient and new spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Lansoprazole in bulk form by using hydrotropic agent. In the present study, a practically water insoluble drug, Lansoprazole has been solubilized in water using hydrotropic agents of sodium benzoate, urea and sodium lauryl sulphate and scanned between 200-400nm taking respective reagent blanks in a double beam spectrophotometer. Lansoprazole showed increased solubility with the increase in concentration of sodium benzoate without interference. And there is no increase in solubility with increase in concentration of sodium lauryl sulphate and urea.  The λ max of drug with sodium benzoate was found to be 284nm and Lansoprazole was found to be linear in the range of 5-25 μg/ml. Sodium benzoate is cost efficient, safe and non-harmful to environment, hence it can be employed for routine quantitative analysis of Lansoprazole in bulk form as well as to increase solubility and release of Lansoprazole since it did not interfere in spectrophotometric determination.

17

ANIMAL MODELS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: CORRELATION AND USEFULNESS WITH HUMAN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

Tanushree Roy1* and Saikat Ghosh2

1 Department of Pharmacology, Gupta College of Technological Sciences, Asansol- 713301, West Bengal, India.

2 Departments of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, India.

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is autoimmune systemic disorder caused by unknown etiology and characterized by chronic inflammation and synovial infiltration of immune cells. It’s also associated with decreased life expectancy and quality of life. Currently no treatment can effectively afford the complete amelioration of the symptoms while only offering temporary relief. Further the available treatments of DMARD’s (Disease Modifying Anti Rheumatoid Drugs) therapy are often associated with severe side effects. To find out exact cause behind the pathogenesis of this disease and evaluate the potential anti-arthritic drugs for clinical use various animal models were developed. The selection of appropriate animal models depends on two important criteria- morphological similarities with human RA and capacity to predict efficacy of various drugs in human. Various animal models include induced models like rat adjuvant arthritis, rat and mouse type II collagen arthritis, antigen induced arthritis, carrageen, formalin and urate induced arthritis and genetic models like K/BxN, Human TNF Tg, and NZB/NZW. The induced models were developed to predict the efficacy of anti-arthritic drugs while genetic models were developed to evaluate the progression of disease state in animals with an intention to establish a correlation with human RA in both cases. These models further allow predicting the toxicities which occur at higher doses or during prolonged dosing period. Although, various animal models emphasis the proven relevance to human rheumatoid arthritis. This shall help in the development of various therapeutic regimens for the effective treatment and mitigation of the disease conditions associated with RA.

18

FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION STUDIES ON FLOATING MATRIX TABLETS OF NON STEROIDAL ANTI INFLAMMATORY DRUG BY MELT GRANULATION TECHNIQUE

S. Chandra*, Chandra Sai Pavan. Oleti, J. Arun Kumar, CH. Mahesh Reddy, Bandaru L Narayana Rao, Sasi Kanth Kanikanti

*Department of Pharamaceutics, J.K.K.Munirajah College of Pharmacy, Komarapalayam, Namakkal Dt,638183, India

Abstract

The approach of  present research is to formulate floating matrix drug delivery system of NSAID drug, diclofenac potassium. Diclofenac potassium floating matrix tablets were developed to prolong gastric residence time and increase its bio availability.Floating matrix tablets containing 100mg of Diclofenac potassium were developed using different bees wax combinations.The tablets were formulated  by melt granulation technique by using bees wax, cetyl alcohol, HPMCK4M, HPMCK100M, Ethyl cellulose, Microcrystalline cellulose and sodium bicarbonate is used as a gas generating agent.The effects of sodium bicarbonate on floating properties were investigated.The formulation was optimized on the basis of  acceptable tablet properties,floating lag time and total duration of floating and invitro drug release.The resulting formulation produced monolithic tablets with optimum hard ness,weight uniformity and low friability.The results of dissolution studies ,floating lag time indicates that formulation F11 exhibit good and controlled release. Applying linear regression analysis and model fitting, the selected formulation F11showed case II transport with following first order kinetics.According to stability studies there is no significant change in optimized formulation F11.By the in vitro dissolution studies and in vitro buoyancy studies formulation F11 is concluded as best formulation i.e with hydrophilic polmer HPMCK100M than HPMCK4M.

19

ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND STRUCTURAL ELUCIDATION OF DEGRADATION IMPURITY PRESENT IN CINNARIZINE

Priyanka Jaiswal*1, Dr. A.J. Asnani2

 1J.L.Chaturvedi college of pharmacy, RTMNU Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

2J.L.Chaturvedi college of pharmacy, RTMNU Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Abstract

The focus of this study is identification, isolation and characterization of a degradated impurity of Cinnarizine. This impurity is considered as degradated impurity as it is observed in Cinnarizine in force degradation (stress) study. HPLC with thermo C18 ODS column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) was used for analysis of impurity along with %degradation of Cinnarizine. The isolation of impurity was done with the help of thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. A thorough study was undertaken to characterize this impurity and based on their spectral data ( UV,MS,H1NMR) the structure was  characterized as impurity A – (E)-1-(Diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl) piperazinium chloride salt, Impurity B- (E)-1-(Diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-hydroxy, 3-phenylpropyl) piperazine and Impurity C -1-(Diphenylmethyl) piperazine. Where impurity A is acid degraded impurity, impurity B is oxidative degraded impurity and impurity C is photodegraded impurity. Based on HPLC data of the Cinnarizine in acidic, oxidative and photolytic degraded condition we conclude that three impurities, impurity A, impurity B, impurity C, were present in it. These impurities of Cinnarizine were identified and characterized by physicochemical properties and the spectral data obtained from IR, H1NMR and MS.

20

ESTIMATION OF NARINGIN AND HESPERIDIN FROM CITRUS FRUITS BY HPTLC

Sameer H. More, Shruti B. Sathe, Archana A. Sonawane, Aruna P. Jadhav, and Dr. Vilasrao J. Kadam

Department of Quality Assurance,

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy,

C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

A  simple, precise  and  accurate High  Performance Thin  Layer  Chromatographic method  has  been  developed  for  the  estimation  of  Naringin  and  Hesperidin  in  Citrus  fruits. The  separation  was  carried  out  on  Merck  TLC  aluminium  sheets  of  silica  gel  60F254,  using Ethyl  acetate: Chloroform:  Acetonitrile: Glacial  acetic  acid: Triethylamine  (3:4:2:1:2, v/v/v/v/v)  as   mobile  phase  and  densitometric  analysis  of  compound  was  carried  out  in absorbance mode  at 285  nm.  The linear  regression  analysis data  for  the calibration  plots  for Naringin  and  Hesperidin  showed  good  linear  relationship  with  regression  coefficient  (r2) 0.994  and  0.998  in  the  concentration  range  of  150–500  ng/spot  and  200- 550  ng/spot, respectively.  The  method  was  validated  for  linearity,  specificity,  recovery,  precision, robustness,  limit  of  detection  (LOD)  and  limit  of  quantification  (LOQ). The  statistical analysis  of  the  data  showed  that  the  method  is  reproducible  and  selective  for  estimation  of both  flavonoids.  In conclusion,  the  proposed  method  was  successfully  applied  for identification  and  quantitation  of  these  flavonoids  in  Citrus  fruits  and  marketed formulation.

21

PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF GLIMEPIRIDE PELLETS BY NOVEL LIQUID LAYERING TECHNOLOGY

Roopa Rani Y1*.,Vijayalakshmi P2., Venkateswara Rao J1., Murthy T E G K4.

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Sultan–Ul–Uloom College of Pharmacy, India

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Guru Nanak Institute of Pharmacy, India

4 Department of Pharmaceutics, Bapatla College of Pharmacy. India

Abstract

Background and the purpose of the study: The aim of this study was to develop pellet formulations by adopting a multiparticulate layering approach, that could be used to improve the dissolution and bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble model drug, glimepiride. In solution/suspension layering, drug particles are dissolved in the binding liquid and  particularly coated  with the aim of providing a desired drug release profile.

Method: Multiparticulate formulation by liquid  layering technology was prepared by conventional pan coating process. Selection of the suitable carrier , size of sugar spheres and pan speed  were three  critical variables that were found to effect the dissolution of drug.  Carrier loaded pellets were prepared by using mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose and starch  as  carriers, different sizes of the starter seeds like #30/44, #24/30, #16/24 and #10/16 were prepared and pan was rotated at different speed such as 20.30.40.50.60 rpm . The drug loaded pellets  were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics like % yield of pellets, drug loading efficiency, Moisture content, carr’s index, hausner’s ratio, friability, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry(DSC) and Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FT-IR).  In vitro as well as in vivo dissolution studies were carried out to study the   drug release.

Results: Mannitol was found to be the effective carrier of active ingredient. Non-pareil seeds prepared by passing through #30/44 sieve and at pan speed of 40 rpm  showed better solubility of insoluble drug. SEM photograph confirmed that the formulation were spherical in nature. The compatibility between drug and polymers in the drug loaded pellets was confirmed by DSC and FT-IR studies.

Conclusion: The results showed that drug release of glimepiride was found to increase with pellets having mannitol as carrier and at pan speed of 40 rpm and decrease with respect to increase in size of non-pareil seeds. It may be concluded that F9 is an ideal formulation for once a day administration.

22

DOES THE QUALITY OF DRUG INFORMATION AFFECT DRUG INFORMATION SERVICES ? ─ PRACTICAL SCENARIO

Rajesh Venkataraman1, T.M.Manohar2, M.Kumaraswamy1, Rajveer Singh Chopra1, B.P.Satish Kumar1, Priyank Tripathi1, Meenu Pandey1, Sharath V1

1(Department of Pharmacy Practice, Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy/ RGUHS University, India)

2( Medical Superintendent, Adichunchanagiri Hospital and Research Center, Karnataka, India)

Abstract

Drug information service (DIS) is one of the professional responsibilities in healthcare system that includes the activities of a clinical pharmacist to provide accurate, unbiased, factual information which supports to deliver high quality drug use received from healthcare professionals primarily in response to patient-oriented drug problems. The minimal number of  drugs available in the past had a impact of  minimal need for drug information, but now the introduction of new drugs and therapies has complexed the situation thereby creating a need and demand of precise and quality drug information services. The study was done to assess the comparison of drug information services provided by clinical pharmacist from Department of Pharmacy Practice and a well setup Drug Information Centre in hospital where healthcare professionals can directly come and ask their queries, as well as, some other mode of asking queries are also available as by Phone, Email. A total of 196 queries were received in a period of three years, from July 2009 to January 2013, before establishing the Online Drug Information Centre while a total of 118 queries were received in a period of six months, from February 2013 to July 2013. Majority of the enquirers were Post Graduate students. Most of the questions were asked by direct access to centre. Answers to queries were most often needed immediately and in most cases was answered verbally. In conclusion, the services provided by the centre fulfil the need of healthcare professionals towards better patient care.

23

MICROBIAL ENZYMES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS – A REVIEW

Mohammad Badrud Duza*1, Dr. S A Mastan2

1NIMRA College of Pharmacy, Nimranagar, Jupudi, Ibrahimpatnam, Vijayawada – 521456, Krishna Dist., A.P.

2Post-Graduate Department of Biotechnology, PG Courses and Research Centre, DNR College, Bhimavaram – 534202. West Godavari Dist., A.P.

 

Abstract

Enzymes are biocatalysts produced by living cells to bring about specific biochemical reactions generally forming parts of the metabolic processes of the cells. Enzymes are highly specific in their action on substrates and often many different enzymes are required to bring about, by concerted action, the sequence of metabolic reactions performed by the living cell. All enzymes which have been purified are protein in nature, and may or may not possess a non protein prosthetic group. Enzymes occur in every living cell, hence in all microorganisms. Each single strain of organism produces a large number of enzymes. But the absolute and relative amounts of the various individual enzymes produced vary markedly between species and even between strains of the same species. Hence, it is customary to select strains for the commercial production of specific enzymes which have the capacity for producing highest amounts of the particular enzymes desired. Microbial enzymes have well-known applications as biocatalysts in several areas of industry, such as biotechnology, agriculture and pharmaceuticals, etc.

24

PATHOLOGICAL SCREENING OF MICE LUNGS EXPOSED WITH TRADITIONAL BIOMASS FUELS

SHIVANI M. DESAI 1*, KANTILAL B. NARKHEDE1, NEHA A. PALANDE1, ANKIT H. MERAI1, ATUL R. BENDALE2,VAISHALI D. NAFADE2,  SACHIN B. NARKHEDE2, ANIL G. JADHAV2

1JJTU, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan

2Smt. B. N. B. Swaminarayan Pharmacy College, Salvav (Vapi), Gujarat

Abstract

Biomass accounts for more than 80% of domestic energy in India (Holdren et al, 2000), and about  90% biomass using households of the country  use wood or animal dung as their primary cooking fuel. Many experimental trials have demonstrated the harmful effects of smoke from the biomass fuel. This study included four groups of rats; among which one was controlled and three other were placed in the kitchens of three different houses where biomass fuel was used as source of energy for cooking and heating. A considerably higher level of perivascular inflammation, peribronchial inflammation, parenchymal infiltration and fibrosis, nodular aggregation, alveolar destruction, and emphysematous changes was observed in the subjects exposed to biomass smoke (Group II, III, IV) in comparison to the control group. This study concludes that exposure to biomass smoke causes serious damage to the respiratory system. Hence its use should be limited. Certain measures should be taken such as proper ventilation, using improved stoves which carry out complete combustion of fuel, biogas, LPG.

25

IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF DIPEPTIDYLE PEPTIDASE 4 ENZYME

Mamgain S.*1 , Mathur P.*2, Kothiyal P.*1

1Depatment of Pharmacology, Division of Pharma Sciences, SGRRITS, Patel Nagar, Dehradun 248001

2Depatment of Clinical Pharmacy, Division of Pharma Sciences, SGRRITS, Patel Nagar, Dehradun 248001

Abstract

Dipeptidyle peptidase (DPP4) is the enzyme which is known to break down two gut hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) known as incretin effect. Beside this role DPP4 has much diverse function in modulating immune system. Within immune system DPP4 exert mainly stimulating effect on T cells, B cells, natural killer cell, DNA synthesis and release of TGF β. DPP4 causes T cell proliferation by binding with adenosine diaminase (ADA) through co-stimulatory mechanism. DPP4 bind to various substrates like RANATES, IL-2, SDF-1β and 1α results in immune stimulation. Several experimental studies suggested potential role of DPP4 in various inflammatory diseases as well. Prolong inhibition of DPP4 by using DPP4 inhibitors results in immune implication. DPP4 inhibitors are novel treatment for diabetes mellitus type 2. Data from various studies of DPP4 inhibitors suggested increased risk of tumor and increase risk of possible immunological adverse effect. Further research and long term human trials needed to clarify effectors mechanism of DPP4 in immune system. In the meantime DPP4 inhibitors should prescribed with some degree of caution.

26

FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ACETAZOLAMIDE OPHTHALMIC INSERTS

Spandana Vemireddy*1, B. Chandrashekar Reddy2, K. Ravindar Reddy2, Bonthu Satyanarayana1, Nagakanyaka Devi Paladugu3, Shaik Irfan Pasha1 , M. Rajeev Kumar1, Shaik Wajid1

1Department of Pharmaceutics, MAX Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Velugumatla, Khammam Urban,

KHAMMAM – A.P

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Vaagdevi college of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naimnagar, Hanamkonda, WARANGAL

Abstract

Myriad of side effects induced by Acetazolamide (oral use), the introduction of newer topical Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor (CAI) and the advent of other antiglucoma medications has led to the unpopularity of Acetazolamide. Acetazolamide (ACZ) is a Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor (CAI) used in glaucoma to decrease the intra Ocular Pressure (IOP). Hence, an attempt has been made to formulate Acetazolamide ocular inserts. The drug is complexed with HPbCD to improve its solubility. Various polymers like HPMC-K4M, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and gelatin has been used to prepare the inserts by solvent casting method to enhance its contact time and controlled release. The aim was to reduce frequency of administration, improve patient compliance and to improve therapeutic efficacy. The prepared ophthalmic inserts were then evaluated for uniformity of thickness, weight variation, swelling index, tensile strength, drug content and surface pH. In vitro drug release studies of the formulated ocular inserts were performed by studying the diffusion through artificial membrane (prehydrated cellophane). Out of twelve formulations prepared, the formulation F4 showed complete and prolonged release with 98.06% at the end of 7 hr. Kinetics of the release were evaluated by fitting data into zero order and first order equations and it follows zero order kinetics. This Ophthalmic Insert Drug Delivery System (OIDDS is an effective drug delivery with increased corneal residence time and with sustained therapeutic action. So, frequent administration of dosage can be avoided, thus improving the patient compliance.

27

DIVERSITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FLORA OF OLD MYSORE DISTRICT, KARNATAKA, INDIA

Nandini N and Shiddamallayya N*

Survey of Medicinal Plants Unit, National Ayurveda Dietetics Research Institute,

Govt. Central Pharmacy Annexe, Ashoka Pillar, Jayanagar 1st Block, Bangalore-560011, Karnataka, India

Abstract

Plants are the basic resource for Ayurveda and other Indian systems of medicine, and also basic requirement for establishment of herbal pharmaceutical industry.  Old Mysore district forest is having a rich resource of medicinal plants used in traditional methods of treatment to cure various diseases. This paper is an attempt to elucidate 72 important medicinal plants information based on classical preparations with respect to Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda), which includes Botanical name, family, sanskrit name, habit, part used, plants used in number of formulations and therapeutic values. The floristic composition of Ayurvedic medicinal plants is the boon to cure various diseases by local traditional practitioners and it may also provide the raw plant material for the pharmaceutical industry.

28

DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF TASTE MASKED ORODISPERSIBLE TABLET OF CEFADROXIL USING ION EXCHANGE RESIN

Patel Ronak N1, Desale Rohan S1, Mohd Zaki AJ1, Mahajan Kiran V1, Jain Dinesh K2, BaviskarDheeraj T1*.

1KVPS Institute of Pharmaceutical Education, Department of Pharmaceutics, Boradi, Tal- Shirpur. Dist- Dhule. 425428 (M.S.), India

2Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, IPS academy Indore 452012(M.P.), India

Abstract

Cefadroxil orodispersible tablets were established with significant increase in drug release as related to marketed formulations; seven formulations were developed and considered. The modification in drug release values was found to be 100.34 ± 2.87 and 65.57 ± 2.86, correspondingly. To inhibit bitter taste and offensive odour of the drug, the drug was taste masked with weak cation exchange resins like Indion 234, Indion 204 and Indion 414. The drug was characterized according to several compendial methods, on the basis of identification by UV spectroscopy, pH, organoleptic properties and further tests. Among the three resins, one was designated for further studies i.e., Indion 234, due to high drug loading ability. Drug–resin complex was arranged using batch method and influence of several processing parameters viz. drug–resin ratio, pH, temperature and drug concentration was considered to elevate the loading circumstances. Determined loading was obtained at drug–resin ratio 1:2, pH 5, temperature 50˚C and drug concentration 4 mg/ml. A successful taste masking of resinate was definite by time intensity method and also by taking drug release in phosphate buffer pH 5 and in simulated salivary fluid. The values of pre-compression parameters estimated, were in prescribed limits and showed decent free flowing properties. The statistics obtained of post-compression parameters such as weight variation, hardness, friability, wetting time, water absorption ratio, content uniformity, disintegration time and dissolution and was establish greater over predictable formulation. The F5 batch with disintegration time 25.22 ±0.65 and dissolution 100.34% ± 2.87 was selected as optimized formulation. This was matched with conventional marketed formulation and was found greater. Batch F5 was also exposed to stability studies for three months and was tested for its disintegration time, drug contents and dissolution behaviour monthly. It can be concluded that pharmaceuticals complexes using ion exchange resins have shown developed organoleptic performance of pharmaceuticals and well patient compliance.

29

PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF ASYMMETRIC MEMBRANE CAPSULE OF PANTOPRAZOLE SODIUM SESQUIHYDRATE

1 Rita Wadetwar, Rizwan Sheikh*1

1J. L. Chaturvedi college of pharmacy, Nagpur university, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Abstract

Pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate is a proton pump inhibitor and is acid labile and is susceptible to acidic environment and hence has been administered as enteric coated formulation which has shown release only for 6 to 7 hours. Asymmetric membrane capsules work on the principles of osmosis and forms in- situ pores. The release rate can be altered to higher duration by changing the pore former concentration or osmogents concentration. Present study aims at designing and evaluation of asymmetric membrane capsules of pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate, preventing its interaction with gastric fluid and achieving controlled release till 24 hours.

30

RAPID RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF GALANTAMINE HYDROBROMIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

G.Nagamallika1*, Dr. M.Arunadevi2

 1Dept of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, QIS College of Pharmacy, Ongole, Andhrapradesh, India.

2CVM College of Pharmacy, Karimnagar, Andhrapradesh, India.

Abstract

A simple, rapid, accurate and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Galantamine hydrobromide in pure and tablet dosage forms. Separation of the drug was achieved on a reverse phase Inertsil ODS (100 x 4.6 mm, 5m). The method showed a linear response for concentration in the range of 30-180 μg/mL using phosphate buffer pH 6.3: acetonitrile as the mobile phase in the ratio of 60:40, v/v with detection at 285 nm with a flow rate of 1 mL/min and retention time was 4.1 min. The method was statistically validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and selectivity. Quantitative and recovery studies of the dosage form were also carried out and analyzed, the %RSD from recovery studies was found to be less than 1. Due to simplicity, rapidity and accuracy of the method, we believe that the method will be useful for routine quality control analysis of Galantamine hydrobromide in pharmaceutical formulations. 

31

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ULTRA DEFORMABLE VESICLES GEL FOR TREATMENT OF PSORIASIS.

D. G. Umalkar*1, Rajesh K.S1       

1Parul Institute of Pharmacy,Limda,Vadodara , India.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate ultra deformable vesicles gel of Diflurasone diacetate for topical application. Ultra deformable vesicles were prepared by using Soya PC and four different surfactants i.e. Span 80, Tween 80,Sodium cholate, Span 60  by the lipid film hydration method. It was characterized by particle size, entrapment efficiency, and their effect on in vitro drug release. The Batch F6 containing Soya PC with Tween 80 in 85:15 was found to be optimized .The Stability study of optimized formulation was done as per ICH guidelines. The Optimized ultra deformable vesicles were incorporated into Carbopol gel (2%) and were evaluated for ex vivo drug permeation studies. It was observed that Diflurasone diacetate loaded ultra deformable vesicles bearing hydrogel was more efficient in the treatment of Psoriasis.

33

ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF INDIGOFERA HIRSUTA L. LEAF AND FRUIT.

A. Suvarnalatha*, N. Yasodamma, C. Alekhya.

Dept. of Botany, Sri Venkateswara University, Tiurpati.-517501

Abstract

Treatment against helminthes is become very difficult to control because they develop resistance to the synthetic chemical drugs. Hence plant drugs play an important role due to the presence of tannins which acts as antihelmintic. Indigofera hirsuta (Fabaceae) leaf and fruit were used to control stomach ache and also the diarrhoeal activity may be due to the worm infestation. Results proved that fruit methanolic extracts at 5 mg paralysis the worms after 45.2 min, and the death of worms after 98.3 min showed its effective anthelmintic activity than the standard drug Albendazole which takes more time for the paralysis of worms 90.9min and 110.1min for the death of worms.

34

EVALUATION STUDY ON ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE ADHERENCE IN HYPERTENSIVE POPULATION

Deepthi C Denny 1*, G.Andhuvan 2

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, PSG College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, PSG College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.

Abstract

A Cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a 900 bedded multispecialty hospital. The study subjects (N=100) were out-patients visiting counseling unit of the hospital. The main aim of this study was to assess the level of adherence to anti-hypertensive and identify factors contributing to low adherence. Medication adherence behavior of the patients and reason for non-adherence were studied using Morisky self-report scale. The adherent ratings were categorized as: Low, Moderate and High. Low adherence with drug treatment was observed in (60%) of the respondents, Moderate adherence among (24%) and Good adherence among the remaining. Majority of the patient’s (81%) reported multiple reasons for non-adherence, whereas only (19%) reported single factor. Factors mainly contributing to low adherence include: Forgetfulness (77%), Stopped medications on being well (54%), Depend others for purchase of drugs (23%) and busy nature of work (15%).High adherence was observed in Educated patients (27%), Patient’s who are under care-takers (18%), Patient’s hypertensive for >5 years (55%). In conclusion this study revealed the need for patient education for regular medication intake in manner prescribed also the need for pharmacist intervention in improving medication adherence.

35

EFFECT OF POLYMER CHARACTERISTICS ON THE DRUG RELEASE FROM ACECLOFENAC HYDROGELS

Ranjith Karangula*1 Raju P1 Veena P1 Satyanarayana1

Department of Pharmaceutics, *1,1Omega College of Pharmacy, Edulabad, Rangareddy Dist, Andhra Pradesh, 501301 India.

Abstract

The aim of the present work is to formulate and evaluate hydrogels which were prepared using different polymers (Sodium alginate, Sodium CMC, HPMC K100 and Carbopol) by Ionotropic gelation method. The formulated hydrogels were characterized for their physico-chemical parameters like swelling ratio, water uptake, gel fraction, % yield, drug content, drug entrapment efficiency and size analysis. FTIR and SEM studies reveal the drug excipients compatibility. In-vitro drug release studies revealed that the high % drug release for F9 was 98.9% up to 14hrs and low for F7 87.3% up to 10 hrs. Swelling ratio and water uptake by F9 formulation was 12.6± 0.05 and found to be good swelling ratio, high water absorbing ability and high % adherence (77%). Among all formulations, F9 showed controlled drug release up to 14 hrs and considered as ideal formulation.

36

THIRD ORDER DIFFERENTIAL DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPY OF ORLISTAT

*1Priyanka Gaddam, 2Ranjith K 1Pavithra V 3Sharon Elizabeth K 2Sriveni K

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, *1,1KLR Pharmacy College, NewPaloncha, Khammam Dist, Andhra Pradesh, 507115 India.

Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Omega College of  Pharmacy, Edulabad, Rangareddy Dist, Andhra Pradesh, 501301 India.

Department of Pharmaceutics, 3Vageswari College of Pharmacy, Rama Krishna Colony, Karimnagar Dist, Andhra Pradesh, 505481 India.

Abstract

The aim of the present research work was to develop accurate and rapid third order Differential derivative spectrophotometric method. The stock solution was prepared by taking methanol as solvent. Further dilutions were made by using equi molar solutions with 0.1N NaOH and 0.1N HCl separately and the difference in absorptivities was measured at wavelengths of 214 nm. It was proved that spectrum differentiation significantly corrects errors resulting from overlapping background. Difference in absorbance between maxima and minima was calculated to find out the amplitude. The amplitude was plotted against concentration. Beer’s-Lambert’s law is valid in the concentration range of 30-50 μg/ml. The result of analysis was validated as per USP guidelines. The method was linear, accurate, precise, economic. This is the advanced method compared to absorbance maxima method.

37

CANNONBALL TREE - A REVIEW

Shruti B. Sathe1, Archana A. Sonawane1, Sameer H. More1, Aruna P. Jadhav1, and Vilasrao Kadam1

1Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai - 400 614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Medicinal plants have been subject to man’s curiosity since ages. Medicinal components from plants play an important role in conventional as well as western medicine. They were the sole source of active principles capable of curing man’s ailments. Thus natural products have been a major source of drugs for centuries. Couroupita guianensis is a deciduous tree belonging to family Lecythidaceae and has a common name cannonball tree. It is native to the rainforests of Central and South America. It is cultivated in many other places. In India the tree is sacred to Hindus, who believe its hooded flowers look like the naga, and it is grown at Shiva temples. The leaves, flowers and fruits are rich in phytochemicals and are reported to contain quercitin, saponin, tryptanthirn, and many other constituents. The tree has been evaluated for many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antifertility, anxiolytic, cytotoxic, antinociceptive, etc. Taking into consideration the medicinal properties of the tree the present review has been made to explore its phytochemical, pharmacological and other important aspects.

38

ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERNS OF ESTERASES IN BOMBYX MORI. L.

Raju Neerati1, Sampath Akula2, Sujatha Kuntamalla2, Venkaiah Yanamala*1

1Department of Zoology, Kakatiya University, Warangal, A.P., India.

2Sericulture Unit, Department of Zoology, Kakatiya University, Warangal, A.P., India.

Abstract*

Our present investigation reports the qualitative analysis of esterases and their classification from the silk gland of mulberry silk worm (Bombyx mori L). The qualitative analysis of esterases was carried out through 7.5% of native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). The study included the inhibitor sensitivity of the enzymes towards organophosphate compounds (OP) such as paraxon, eserine and pCMB which were also used for the classification of individual zones of esterases in silk worm. The results revealed that the esterase activity of was inhibited by the paraxon and eserine (Physostigmine) and there was no inhibition in the presence of pCMB. Hence, these esterases were classified as Carboxylesterases (CE).

39

NATURAL POLYSACCHARIDE HYDROGEL METOPROLOL SUCCINATE MICROBEADS FOR ORAL SUSTAINED DRUG DELIVERY

V.Vani*, K. Shweta1,  Satyabrata Bhanja1 M.Sudhakar1, Arun kumar das2

*1.Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Maisammaguda, Post Dhulapally, Secunderabad.Andhra Pradesh

2.Malla Reddy  Pharmacy College, Maisammaguda, Post Dhulapally, Secunderabad.Andhra Pradesh

Abstract

The objective of the present study to develop controlled release microbeads of Metoprolol Succinate using Natural polymers, sodium alginate, xanthan gum and Guar gum as rate controlling polymers. Metoprolol succinate, β1- selective adrenergic receptor- blocking agent used in the management of hypertension The half-life of drug is relatively short approximately 3-6hr. The formulations i.e. F1-F15 were made by employing the Emulsion solvent Evaporation method, to achieve controlled release of Metoprolol Succinate over 16hrs by using varying concentrations of polymers. Drug compatibility studies are conducted using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to check for the compatibility between the drug and polymers. All the formulations are subjected to Micrometric properties, Percentage yield, Drug entrapment efficiency, Particle size analysis, Loose surface crystallography, Swelling studies and in-vitro drug release studies. The optimized formulation, F15 containing 3.5%w/w guar gum showed sustained release of drug with 82.7 ±0.23% drug release at the end of 16th hour and was within USP limits. The Percentage yield, Drug entrapment efficiency, Particle size analysis, Loose surface crystallography and Swelling studies of the best formulations,F15 were found to be  96%, 93.7±1.28%, 535±2.28 μm , 10.8±0.10% and 330.5±11% respectively. The values of correlation (r2) were calculated and were found to be more linear for first order release as compared to zero order. The kinetic data was best fitted to Higuchi model and good regression coefficients were observed. The extended release formulation F15 was found similar and comparable to the innovator product. Therefore, one can assume that the Metoprolol succinate microbeads are promising pharmaceutical dosage forms by providing sustained release drug delivery systems and avoiding the dose   related side effects in the entire physiological region.

40

SIGNIFICANCE OF HCV GENOTYPES IN RESPONSE TO COMBINED ANTIVIRAL THERAPY

Anwar Ali Akhund1, Aneela Atta Ur Rahman2, Syed Qaiser Husain Naqvi3, Bikha Ram Devrajani4, Mustafa Kamal5

1Pathology Department, Al-Tibri Medical College Isra University Malir, Karachi

2Community Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro

3Pathology Department, Peoples University of Medical & Health Sciences Nawabshah.

 4Director Medical Research center LUMHS Jamshoro Pakistan.

5Department of Biotechnology, University of Karachi, Pakistan.

Abstract

HCV infection is worldwide health problem. HCV has a high propensity for inducing lifelong persistent infections that can progress to significant liver diseases including chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The sustained response rate among patients with different genotypes is variable and patients with higher initial HCV- RNA level had a lower response rate than those with lower level, independent of genotypes. The study was conducted to observe the treatment response and sustained response with combined antiviral therapy in relation to different genotypes in patients of chronic hepatitis C in interior of Sindh. Subjects and methods: A prospective cross-sectional, observational study carried out from August 2006 to December 2009 at Research Medical Center LUMHS Jamshoro, department of pathology, Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences, Nawabshah and Biotechnology Department University of Karachi. A total of 344 HCV-PCR positive patients with different genotypes and histological evidence of chronic hepatitis with either fibrosis or inflammatory activity by biopsy were evaluated 239 men and 105 women with ages between 18–55 years of age years were included in the study. All the patients went for ELISA test for the presence of HCV antibodies by ELISA kit of Biokit Spain, a 10.0 ml sample of blood was collected in a tube with separating gel, to obtain serum, which was stored at -80oC, the determination of HCV RNA and for HCV genotyping was performed by PCR on Anagen Kit. Than all the patients were given Interferon alpha 3 mu subcutaneously alternate days three times a week with Ribivirin 400mg three times a day as a combination therapy up to 6 to 12 months depending upon genotyping of HCV. In order to see the treatment response, the presence of HCV – RNA was checked after 6 months and 12 months, so that in this way result were tabulated Results: Out of 344 cases of chronic hepatitis-C patients 242 were of genotype 3a and 223 become HCV-PCR negative after completion of treatment and response rate of antiviral treatment was 92.14%, while 19 subjects were of 3b and response rate in these subjects was 84.21%. Out of 10 patients with genotype 1a, the response rate of combined antiviral therapy was 40% while 5 patients were of 1b and response rate in these patients was 20%. Only 4 patients were of genotype 2, and 3 subjects were of genotype 5, and response rate in these cases was 100%. Out of 9 subjects with mixed genotypes, the response rate was 22.22%. There were 52 patients who could not be genotyped and with these untypable genotypes the response rate of antiviral therapy was 46.15%. Out of 4 cases of genotype 1a with positive response to combined therapy only 1 case (25%) showed sustained response, while no case with genotype 1b showed sustained response. All the 4 cases of genotype 2 with positive response showed sustained response with combined antiviral therapy. Out of 223 cases of genotype 3a with positive response to combined therapy, 187(83.86%) cases showed sustained response, while 10(62.5%) out of 16 cases with positive response of genotype 3b showed sustained response. Out of 3 cases of genotype 5 with positive response 3 cases (66.66%) showed sustained response, while only 1 case (50%) from 2 cases with positive response of genotype mixed type showed sustained response. Out of 24 cases of genotype untypable with positive response to combined antiviral therapy, 10 cases (41.66%) showed sustained response. Conclusion: The data in the current study indicates that a person’s HCV genotype is the worldwide key-factor that influences their possible response and sustained response to antiviral therapy in relation to genotype 2,3 and 5 (p-value is statistically significant)

41

LC-MS ANALYSIS FOR METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF COUROUPITA GUIANENSIS AUBL. FLOWERS

Velliangiri Prabhu1and Subban Ravi2*

1Department of Chemistry, Karpagam Insitiute of Technology, TamilNadu, India-6410 021

2Department of Chemistry, Karpaga University, TamilNadu, India-6410 021

Abstract

To separate and characterize the compounds from methanolic extract of C. guianensis flower using Liquid chromatography- Mass spectroscopy. The compound with the retention time 1.285 exhibited a pseudo molecular ionic peak at m/z 285 for the [M+H]+ may be identified as 5, 7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethyl-2-phenyl chroman-4-one (1). The compound with the retention time 2.70 exhibited fragmented ionic peak at m/z 143.0, 243.0, 284.2 and 357.3 may be identified as 2''-O-pentosyl-8-C-hexosyl luteolin (2). The compound with pseudo molecular ionic peak at  m/z 285 for the [M+H]+ may be identified 5, 7-dihydroxy-6, 8-dimethyl-2-phenyl chroman-4-one and fragmented ionic peak at m/z 143.0, 243.0, 284.2 and 357.3may be identified as 2''-O-pentosyl-8-C-hexosyl luteolin by using LC-MS technique. Only two compounds (1) and (2) were identified by LC-MS method. Since we have recorded only LC-MS we could able to identify a limited number of compounds which could have improved if we would have attempted for LC-MS/MS analysis.

42

APPLICATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND FAMOTIDINE IN BULK AND TABLETS.

R. Vijayalakshmi*, P.T.V. Padma1, P. Sandya2, V.S.H. Naveena1 and M.D. Dhanaraju1.

1Research Lab, GIET School of pharmacy, NH-16, Chaitanya Knowledge City, Rajahmundry - 533 296, Andhra Pradesh, India .

2Department of analysis, KGRL college of pharmacy, Tadepalligudem, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

This paper reports a validated RP-HPLC method for the estimation of diclofenac sodium and famotidine in combination formulation. The method is achieved on a phenomenex C18 column (4.6 x 250mm, 5µ i.d), using methanol: pH 6.8 buffer (85:15%, v/v),  as mobile phase mixture, applying a flow rate of 1ml/min and eluents were monitored at 230 nm with an average retention time for diclofenac sodium and famotidine at 3.32 and 4.12 min, respectively and the linear calibration curves between the concentration range of 20-200 µg/ml for diclofenac sodium and 40-120 µg/ml for famotidine.  The correlation coefficient was found nearer to 0.9998. The LOD and LOQ for diclofenac sodium was 0.04; 0.14 µg/ml and famotidine was 0.085; 0.272 µg/ml, respectively. The number of theoretical plates was found to be 21342 for diclofenac sodium and18769 for famotidine.  The developed method was evidenced to be more accurate, simple, precise and rapid by statistical validation and recovery studies.

43

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF FLUVOXAMINE MALEATE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

S Revathi1, S A Rahaman2, V. Prathyusha2, G. Maheswari2, M. Neeharika2

1Department of pharmaceutical Analysis, Nirmala College of pharmacy, India.

2Department of pharmaceutical Analysis, Nirmala College of pharmacy, India.

Abstract

The present research work discusses the development of UV spectrophotometry method for estimation of Fluvoxamine maleate. The simple, accurate and novel method has been developed for estimation of Fluvoxamine maleate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The optimum conditions for the analysis of drug were established. Beer’s law is obeyed in the range of 5-10 µg/ml at λmax of 246 nm using 0.1N Hydrochloric acid as solvent. Calibration curve shows a linear relationship between the absorbance and concentration. The line equation Y = 0.026x + 0.0803 with r2 of 0.9999 was obtained. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines and was found to be accurate and precise. The proposed method can be successfully applied for the estimation of Fluvoxamine maleate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Results of the analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

44

EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SOPHORA INTERRUPTA

K .Hemamalini1*, Anurag Bhargav2

1 Teegala Ram  Reddy College of Pharmacy, Meerpet, Hyderabad, 500097

2Devi Lal College of Pharmacy Bhagwangarh, Buria Road, Jagadhri, Haryana.

Abstract

Traditional medicine has a long history of serving people all over the world. In recent years, the use of traditional medicine information in cancer research received considerable interest. Sophora interrupta has been used in traditional and folklore medicine for the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of the leaves against intraperitoneally injected Dalton’s Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL) cell line in swiss albino mice. DAL cells were injected intraperitoneally (1 ×10 6 cells/ ml/mouse) to the mice. The MESI at a dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 14 consecutive days to the tumor bearing group of animals. Derived parameters, haematological parameters, serum enzyme and lipid parameters were measured and compared to the cancer control group. 5- Flurouracil (20mg/kg) was used as a standard. Both the dose of MESI decreased average increase in body weight, reduced the packed cell volume, viable tumor cell count and increased the life span of DAL treated mice and brought back the haematological parameters, serum enzyme and lipid profile near to normal values. All the values were found to be statistically significant with cancer control group at P<0.01. These observations are suggestive of the protective effect of extracts in Dalton’s Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL). All these findings enable to concluded that MESI at 200mg/kg dose possess a protective effect against DAL.

45

CHALLENGES IN FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF FAST DISSOLVING ORAL FILMS

Yuvraj G. Jadhav, Upendra C. Galgatte*, Pravin D. Chaudhari

*P. E. Society’s Modern College of Pharmacy, Nigdi, Pune – 411 044, Maharashtra, India

Abstract

A number of pharmaceutical dosage forms are available in the market. But, every dosage form has shown some drawbacks like chocking problem of tablets and painful parenteral dosage forms. Fast dissolving oral film has many advantages related to disintegration, dissolution and bioavailability over these existing dosage forms. In addition to this, film avoids first pass metabolism due to pre-gastric absorption and fast onset of action. As these are light in weight, transportation and handling is easy. Patient compliance is high in all age groups patients especially paediatrics and geriatrics. But, this film dosage form has come across some obstacles during its formulation and development. So, there is need to address such challenges which may help in future to explore the particular area in research and that may help in overall formulation and development and large scale manufacturing. These challenges are directly related to patient compliance. These include insolubility of drug, taste masking of bitter and obnoxious drug, reduction in drying time of film, high dose incorporation, co-administration of drugs, stability against temperature and humidity, dose uniformity and need of special packaging. Hence, preference should be given to them in formulation and development. The present review describes challenges as well as possible solutions to overcome them for formulation and development of fast dissolving oral film.

46

MICROBIAL ENDOPHYTES AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVED BIOREMEDIATION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION: A REVIEW

Dandu Anitha1, Tartte Vijaya2, Netala Vasudeva Reddy1, Nagam Venkateswarlu2

Duggina Pragathi1, Kalla Chandra Mouli1

1Department of Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517 502, A.P, India

2Department of Botany, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517 502, A.P, India

Abstract

Endophyte is an endosymbiotic bacterium or fungus that lives within a plant for at least part of its life and exhibit complex interactions with their hosts. Bacteria and fungi growing in natural ecosystem have been widely used in the production of bioactive products and bioremediation, but potential of endophytes, have not been fully exploited. Therefore, great efforts to develop endophyte resources could bring us a variety of benefits, such as novel and effective bioactive compounds that cannot be synthesized by chemical reactions. Endophytes are capable to synthesize biologically active substances similar to the secondary metabolites produced by host plants. This could help in the accumulation of many valuable drug compounds such as paclitaxel and camptothecin. In addition, endophytes are wide spread in plant roots; they can deeply affect soil chemical composition, micro-ecosystems, and physical structure of the host over their life cycle. Besides that, endophytes play an important role in the degradation of plant litter and organic pollutants that leads to the improvement of soil fertility. Endophytes are still a most promising microbial resource, waiting to be exploited.

47

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ALISKIREN IN BULK AND TABLETS USING NINHYDRIN

Mai A. Ramadan1, Mohamed B. Abuiriban1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy/ Al-Azhar University-Gaza,Palestine.

Abstract

A rapid, simple and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the determination of aliskiren (ALS) in bulk and tablets. The method was based on the derivatization of ALS with ninhydrin (NIN). The reaction conditions were studied and optimized. ALS reacted with NIN efficiently in the presence of ascorbic acid (0.1%) as a reducing agent, in slightly acidic media (phosphate buffer 0.2 M, pH 6.0) at 90°C for 20 min. The λmax of the blue-violet derivative was found to be 569 nm. The stoichiometry of the reaction was studied. The molar ratio of ALS:NIN was 1:2. In addition, the reaction mechanism was postulated. ALS was linear in the range of 10-170 µg/ml. The regression equation was y = 0.008 X + 0.161 with a correlation coefficient (r = 0.9982). The developed method was accurate and specific. Recovery values were in the range of 99.63 – 101.2 with standard deviation (SD) not higher than 1.3%. Intra- and inter-assay precisions showed a relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 2%. The method was advantageous regarding sensitivity; the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were found to be 1.27 and 3.85 µg/ml, respectively. The developed method was applied successfully for determination of ALS in tablets and compared statistically with a reference method (direct spectroscopy). Although the developed method has similar accuracy and precision to direct spectroscopy, sensitivity and range were greatly improved. In addition, it is easy to use and depends on inexpensive reagents and instruments which make it highly cost-effective. In addition, toxic and expensive organic solvents were avoided.

48

MICROSCOPICAL, PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CITRUS MAXIMA PEEL

Aruna Jadhav*, Sameer More, Shruti Sathe, Archana Sonawane and Vilasrao Kadam

Department of Quality Assurance,

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy,

C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Citrus maxima, belongs to family Rutaceae, is commonly known as pomelo or shaddock. The peel or skin of fruit is a leathery exocarp, containing numerous oil glands, has antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, larvicidal, hespatoprotective, anticancer, antiplatelet, antidiabetic activities. The present study deals with the microscopical, physicochemical and phytochemical screening of Citrus maxima peel.  This work will provide referential information for the correct identification and standardization of the Citrus maxima peel.

49

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DELAYED RELEASE ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS OF LANSOPRAZOLE

Subrata kumar bala *1 ,Sudhansu Ranjan Swain2 Satyabrata Bhanja 3 , Muvvala Sudhakar3                         

*1Department of PEF Formulation, Dr Reddys laboratories, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.

2Director, Sherwood college of pharmacy, Near safedabad Crossing, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh

3Department of Pharmaceutics, Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy,Maisammaguda Secunderabad. Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract

The objective of the study was an attempt to formulate and evaluate delayed release orally disintegrating tablets for Lansoprazole which is a benzimidazole anti ulcer agent and is one of the most widely used drugs for treating mild and severe ulcers. The stability of lansoprazole a proton pump inhibitor is a function of pH and it rapidly degrades in acidic medium of the stomach, but has acceptable stability in alkaline conditions The present study demonstrates that the lansoprazole enteric coated granules could be successfully intestine targeted by using pH dependent polymers in different concentrations. The drug and exicpient compatibility study was performed by FT-IR and study revealed that there was no interaction between drug & exicpient. The tablets were evaluated for various parameters like hardness, friability, weight variation, percentage drug content and in-vitro disintegration time, in-vitro dissolution study, drug release kinetic study and stability study. By observing the dissolution profile for all the formulations, F5c was better formulation of all the formulations. The drug release for the best formulation, F5c in 0.1NHCL and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer was found to be 0.86% and 98.90% drug released respectively at the end of 60 min. The percentage drug content and in-vitro disintegration time for the formulation,F5c was found to be 98.8% and 30.16±0.75sec respectively. The kinetic treatment showed that all formulations were followed zero order release kinetics with Fickian diffusion mechanism.The optimized formulation, F5c was stable at 25°C/60% RH and 40°C/75% RH as per ICH guidelines, after 2 months. The morphology and surface of the pellets became smoother and sphericity was observed. As a result, delayed release orally disintegrating tablets formulations developed in this study can be suggested as promising formulations, which assist development and manufacturing a generic product of Lansoprazole.

50

PHASE SOLUBILITY STUDY ON MUSCLE RELAXANT METAXALONE DRUG

Vivek R. Bhavsar1, Prabodh V. Sapkale2, Tushar D. Fegade2

1Analytical Solution Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

2SES, Arunamai College of Pharmacy, Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India

Abstract

IUPAC (The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) defines solubility as “the analytical composition of a mixture or solution which is saturated with one of the components of the mixture or solution, expressed in terms of the proportion of the designated component in the designated mixture or solution Solubility can further be defined in a more specific manner, like un-buffered, buffered and intrinsic solubility. Un-buffered solubility means the solubility of a saturated solution of the compound at the final pH of the solution. As a qualitative phenomenon, solubility may be defined as the spontaneous interaction of two or more substances to form a homogenous molecular dispersion. A saturated solution is one in which the solute is in equilibrium with the solvent. The solubility of a drug is expressed in terms of various words such as parts, percentage, molarity, molality, volume fraction, mole fraction. Metaxalone is a drug approved by FDA in 1962 as an adjunct to rest, physical therapy and other measures for the relief of discomforts associated with acute painful musculoskeletal conditions. Its exact mechanism is not known, but it may be due to general central nervous system depression. It is considered to be a moderately strong muscle relaxant.

51

ROLE OF DARK CHOCOLATE IN MINIMISING THE RISK OF CARDIO-METABOLIC SYNDROME

Mir S Adil*1, Amer K1, Nematullah K1, Ihtisham S1, Aamer K1, Maazuddin1, M Omer1, S Amir2

1Pharm.D, Department Of Pharmacy Practice, Deccan School Of Pharmacy. Hyderabad –01, A.P.

2M.Pharm, Department Of Pharmacy Practice, Deccan School Of Pharmacy. Hyderabad –01, A.P.

Abstract

Dark chocolate, a processed form of cacao seeds obtained from Theobroma cacao has been reported to possess progressive effects on cardiovascular system. A combination of factors such as high blood pressure, high level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high triglycerides level, low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), high blood glucose level and central obesity are known to augment the risk of cardiovascular diseases. These factors are together known as ‘metabolic syndrome’. Dark chocolate has a role in preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) owing to metabolic syndrome. The beneficial secret of dark chocolate lies in its composition, which contains a group of polyphenolic compounds known as flavonoids. The possible mechanism of these flavonoids may include - reducing the oxidative stress, increasing the endothelial prostacyclin release, enhancing the endothelial function, increasing the sensitivity of insulin receptors, inhibiting the lipid oxidation and inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Considerable studies have illustrated the potential health benefits of dark chocolate, but the results were obtained from interm studies. However, larger long-term trials are needed before one can truly determine the positive impact of dark chocolate consumption on cardiovascular health. Hence, present review was carried out to evaluate the role of dark chocolate in minimizing the risk of cardio-metabolic syndrome.

52

EVALUATION OF SELECTED COSMETIC PREPARATIONS FOR THE PRESENCE OF FORMALDEHYDE AND METHYL PARABEN BY NOVEL ANALYTICAL METHODS

M. Gandhimathi*,  M. Jagadeeswaran, T.K.Ravi

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, College of Pharmacy,

Sri Ramakrishna Institute of paramedical Sciences,

Coimbatore- 641 044, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract

The preservatives are added to cosmetic preparations in order to prevent or inhibit the growth of micro organism and increase the shelf life of the product. Formaldehyde and methyl paraben are most widely used for this purpose and it is essential to evaluate their limit in newer cosmetic products since they were reported to be toxic while exceeding limits. In the present work formaldehyde was determined from Meswak tooth paste and herbal paste, using a colorimetric method. Methyl paraben was evaluated from Fair & Handsome cream, Dabur Red tooth paste and Ponds fairness cream by a reverse phase HPLC method. The colorimetric method developed for formaldehyde determination is based on aldehyde reaction with acetyl acetone at 40°C and measured at 413nm. An RP-HPLC method employed for methyl paraben was using C18 column with a mobile phase methanol: acetonitrile: water (25:15:60, v/v/v) and detection at 255nm. Preservatives were extracted by respective procedure and evaluated by the analytical methods. The amount of formaldehyde estimated from meswak paste was 0.0066ppm and from herbal paste it was 0.0273ppm. The amount of methyl paraben estimated was 0.036ppm, 0.069ppm and 0.016ppm respectively in Fair & Handsome cream, Dabur Red tooth paste and Ponds fairness cream. The estimated amounts of preservatives in selected cosmetics were found to be within the FDA limit. The two analytical methods developed for the preservatives are precise, accurate and sensitive. They can be employed to evaluate commercially available cosmetics in order to establish their safety for human consumption.

53

ANTIPLASMODIAL EFFECT OF THE METHANOL EXTRACT OF THE STEM BARK OF NAUCLEA LATIFOLIA

Udobre AS1, Etim EI1, Udobang JA2, Udoh AE2, Akpan AE1, Ekpo NA1

1Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Nigeria.

 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Nigeria.

Abstract

The methanol extract of the stem bark of Nauclea latifolia was evaluated for its bioactive constituents and antiplasmodial properties.The extract was investigated against chloroquine sensitive plasmodium berghei berghei infection in 90 albino mice. The antiplasmodial activity during prophylactic, early and established infections were investigated. Films made from tail blood of each mouse were used to access the level of parasitaemia of the mice. The extract dose dependently reduced parasitaemia induced by the plasmodium infection in prophylactic, suppressive and curative models in mice.  Phytochemical analysis revealed that the extract contain alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, terpenes, polyphenols, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, phlobatannins and anthraquinones,  Balsams and resins .  The toxicity study revealed that the extract has an LD50. of 3.7mg/kg.  At a dose of 1110mg/kg the  extract reduced parasitaemia from 17.55±0.14 to 4.33±0.54 compared to control translating to 75.32% chemosuppression.  Artesunate, a standard antimalarial drug (positive control) reduced the parasitaemia to 2.59±0.66 translating to 85.24% chemosuppression. These reductions were statistically significant at P<0.05. The extract also improved the mean survival time from 10 to 23 days compared to control (PNauclea latifolia is active against Plasmodium berghei berghei and by extension can be used in the treatment of malaria.    The bioactive constituents present in the extract could be responsible for the antiplasmodial activity.

54

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF L-HPC BASED FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF BACLOFEN

Radke R. S*., Bhajipale N. S., Tekade N.P.

Department of Pharmaceutics, SGSPS Institute of pharmacy, Akola, Maharashtra.

Abstract

The aim of this investigation was to prepare fast dissolving tablets of baclofen using Low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC) as super disintegrating agents. Four formulations having superdisintegrants at different concentration levels were prepared. Tablets were evaluated for drug content, weight variation, friability, hardness, wetting time and invitro disintegration time. Among the formulations tablets of batch F4 showed shortest in-vitro disintegration time and fast drug release. From the study it was concluded that use of L-HPC ats as good choice as a superdisintegrant for preparation of  fast dissolving tablets.

55

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORAL DISINTEGRATING TABLETS OF ATENOLOL

P. Sandhya1, 2 *, Nadhera Fathima1, R. Sunil3

1*Shadan Womens College of Pharmacy,, Khairatabad, Hyderabad,500004, India.

2University College of  Technology, Osmania University, Hyderabad,500007, India.

Abstract

The objective of the present research was to prepare fast disintegrating Tablets of Atenolol, because of its application in hypertension and other heart related problems, fast onset of action and avoidance of water which is highly desirable in this type of disease conditions. During the work Tablets were prepared by direct compression using crospovidone,sodium starch glycolate and cros-carmellose as superdisintegrants Mannitol,and  aspartame  were used to enhance the organoleptic properties of Tablets. The different powder blends were evaluated for pre compression parameters such as bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr’s index. The Tablets were evaluated for post-compression parameters such as weight variation, mechanical strength, thickness, wetting profile, in vitro disintegration time, and drug release characteristics. All the physical characters of powder blend and fabricated Tablet were within accepTable limits. The results of in vitro disintegration time indicated that the Tablets dispersed rapidly in mouth. It was found that the optimized formulation showed 99.88% release for Atenolol at the end of 8 mins. The IR spectrum studies revealed that there is no disturbance in the principal peaks of pure drug Atenolol.

56

EXPLORING POTENTIAL POLYMERS TO FORMULATE FAST DISSOLVING ORAL FILMS OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM

Mandeep Kaur*, A.C. Rana, Nimrata Seth, Rajni Bala

Rayat Institute of Pharmacy, Railmajra, S.B.S.Nagar-144533(Punjab), India

Abstract

The present study was aimed at developing a novel oral fast dissolving drug delivery system for an antihypertensive drug, Losartan Potassium. The fast dissolving films were prepared by solvent casting technique using different water-soluble polymers (HPMC E5, HPMC E15 and Pullulan) and propylene glycol as plasticizer. The concentration of water soluble polymers and plasticizer was optimized during preliminary studies. The prepared films were evaluated for thickness, uniformity in drug content, folding endurance, disintegration time, moisture loss, in-vitro drug release studies. The films were found to be clear, transparent and having smooth surface. Film containing hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose E15 (2.5%w/w) and plasticizer (0.25%w/w) showed maximum drug release and least disintegration time as compared to all other formulations. So, F12 is the best formulation from all other formulations.

57

FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLET OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL

Panchal Dhavalkumar M.*, Tiwari Ajaykumar.

School of pharmaceutical sciences,

Jaipur national university, Jaipur.

Abstract

In the present research work Orodispersible tablets of an anti-hypertensive drug, Olmesartan Medoxomil were prepared by using skimmed milk powder and poloxamer-188 as carriers and also crospovidone as super disintegrant. Orodispersible tablets should give fast disintegration, dissolution, ease of swallowing, quick on set of action. Olmesartan Medoxomil orodispersible tablets prepared were characterized by various parameters like weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration time, drug content uniformity, drug polymer interaction and in-vitro drug release studies. The hardness of the tablets was in the range of 3.20-4.36kg/cm2. The percentage friability of tablets was less than 1% and in-vitro disintegration time for tablets was in between 24-39 sec. The results of weight variation test showed that the percent deviation in weights of tablets were within the permissible limits. Drug content uniformity study results showed uniform dispersion of the drug throughout the formulation i.e.96.50-100.28%. The results of FTIR, DSC, XRD studies indicated that there was no incompatibility between drug and carriers. In- vitro drug release studies were carried out for a period of 60min, which showed that more than 90% of the drug release from all the formulations in 50 min. The tablets of the formulation F2 and F5 showed a maximum release of drug i.e. 96.31 % and 97.30 % within 40min.

58

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF CETIRIZINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DIETHYL CARBAMAZINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORMS

RAJENDRAN Vijayalakshmi*, PILLI Sandhya1,  PRAGALLAPATI Kalyani2,  and MAGHARLA DASARATHA Dhanaraju3

1Department of analysis, KGRL college of pharmacy, Tadepalligudem, Andhra Pradesh.

2Drug Inspector, Kovvur, Andhra Pradesh.

3Research lab, GIET School of pharmacy,  Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

This paper reports a validated RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of cetrizine hydrochloride and diethyl carbamazine in tablet dosage forms. The method is achieved on a phenomenex C18 (4.6 x 250mm, 5µ i.d) column, aided by a mobile phase mixture of methanol:pH 6 phosphate buffer in a ratio of 80:20 % v/v, at a flow rate 1ml/min and eluents were monitored at 231 nm. The average retention time of cetirizine and diethyl carbamazine were found to be 4.897 min and 3.797 min, respectively with the linear calibration curves between the concentration range of 0.20-0.70 mg/ml for CTZ and 0.5-3.0 mg/ml for DEC.  The correlation coefficient was found nearer to 0.999 with % RSD less than 1%. Number theoretical plates were 11842 and 11769 for CTZ and DEC, respectively. The percentage recovery was about 99.8±0.5% for both drugs. The method was proved to be more accurate, precise and rapid by statistical validation and recovery studies.

59

PREPARATION AND COMPARATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF DRUG RELEASE FROM TWO DIFFERENT CHRONOTHERAPEUTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS OF SALBUTOMOL FOR NOCTURNAL ASTHMA

PREPARATION AND COMPARATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF DRUG RELEASE FROM TWO DIFFERENT CHRONOTHERAPEUTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS OF SALBUTOMOL FOR NOCTURNAL ASTHMA

Papola Vibhooti 1* Rajan G 1Bisht Seema 1 Dr. Kothiyal Preeti1,

1Division of pharmacy, Shri Guru Ram Rai institute of Technology & Sciences, Uttrakhand technical university, India      

Abstract

All the current sustained release formulation have a shortcoming of inability to maintain high blood levels for that long period with high disease intensity. This may lead to leaving the patient unprotected against the worse events of nocturnal asthma. Thus, a smart drug delivery that is administrated before sleep and maintains high blood levels for longer period (from midnight to 8 am in the morning, during which maximum intensity of the disease occurs) could be very much beneficial for proper management of nocturnal asthma. An attempt is undertaken to design and evaluate a chronomodulated drug delivery system of an antiasthmatic drug for the treatment of nocturnal asthma. A drug delivery system which is administered at bedtime, but releasing drug well after the time of administration (during morning hours) i.e., after a period of 6 h. These systems are beneficial for the drugs having chronopharmacological behavior where night time dosing is required and for the drugs having high first-pass effect, having specific site of absorption in gastrointestinal tract

60

NANOCOSMETICS: AN EVOLVING TREND

Pooja Bhat*, Sugandha Mulgund

*(Department of Quality Assurance Techniques, Sinhgad College of Pharmacy, Vadgaon (Bk.), Pune, India)

Abstract

Now-a-days, everyone is concerned with one’s looks and beauty. Nanotechnology is one of the latest methodology used in cosmetics for various therapies like efficient sun protection, anti-ageing, anti-wrinkle effect etc. Nanotechnology has been used since decades but its full potential is being realised during recent times. The nanoscale particles help to increase surface area of atoms leading to change in their intrinsic properties such as solubility, penetrability, absorption and utility. Therefore, nanocosmetics have been developed and marketed worldwide by various cosmetic companies. Nanocosmetics have a number of safety issues concerning their tests, regulatory lacunas and consumer awareness. Yet, the advent of nanotechnology manifestated in terms of cosmetics has paved the way for a beautiful tomorrow in respect to a youthful and stunning personality of an individual.

61

THE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF VOGLIBOSE AND METFORMIN HCL IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM WITH THE PRE-COLUMN DERIVATIZATION OF VOGLIBOSE.

Sadhana B. Todkar*, K. A. Wadkar, S. K. Mohite, Snehal Mali.

Department of Quality Assurance, Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy, Kasegaon, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Simultaneous determination of Voglibose and Metformin HCl has been accomplished using a high performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection on C18 columns. Separation was achieved on a Inertsil ODS (150mm×4.6 mm) and The column was equilibrated with mobile phases consisted of acetonitrile: 0.01M phosphate buffer pH 3 (85:15, v/v) and The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min. and the total elution time was 10min. The selected chromatographic conditions were found to effectively separate Voglibose and Metformin HCl with retension time 2.11 ± 0.015 and 4.62 ± 0.020 min. Voglibose was derivatized by using Taurine and Sodium Periodate. This method was applied to combination of standard bulk drug and marketed formulations. The linearity range was found to be 0.01-0.06µg/ml and 10-60µg/ml for Voglibose and Metformin HCl respectively. The proposed method was found to be accurate, precise, reproducible and specific and it can also be used for routine quality-control analysis of these drugs in combination tablets.