IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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  • PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE
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NOVEMBER 2014
1

EFFECT OF PROCESS AND FORMULATION PARAMETERS ON PREDNISOLONE LOADED PLGA SUSTAINED RELEASE NANOPARTICLES: QUALITY BY DESIGN APPROACH

Rameshwari P. Darade*, Fatima J. Sayyad, anuja patil

Government college of pharmacy, Karad.

Abstract

The aim of current study was to optimize the effect of process and formulation parameters and to develop nanoparticulate drug delivery system to achieve sustained release of Prednisolone (PS) from a biodegradable polymer; PLGA. PS loaded PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated using nanoprecipitation technique with poloxamer 188 as a stabilizer. Quality by design approach was implemented to optimize effect of parameters and generate the design space using selected I-Optimal RSM design for design of experimentation (DoE) based on the risk assessment, an element of QbD approach. The effect of critical material; PLGA: Poloxamer 188 ratio and process parameter; stirring speed were linked to CQAs; particle size and % entrapment efficiency. The prepared PS loaded PLGA nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) (Malvern Zetasizer ZS 90), entrapment efficiency, in-vitro diffusion study, DSC, XRD, SEM. Acceptance criteria for CQAs were considered as particle size in the range of 150-350 nm and entrapment efficiency in the range of 55-78.14 % w/w, which gave the design space with combination of selected critical parameters assuring robust formulation with desired Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP). PS loaded PLGA nanoparticles were spherical in shape, has narrow PDI. In-vitro diffusion study showed initial burst effect due to surface embedded drug and further gives sustained drug release which might be due to PLGA nanoparticles matrix system. Validation of model performed by comparing experimental values with predicted value of representative formulation within design space, confirming validity of generated mathematical model. Optimized formulations of PS loaded PLGA nanoparticles showed 78.14±0.20 % entrapment efficiency, particle size 173.7 nm with 0.103 PDI within design space which demonstrated effective drug delivery providing sustained drug release for a period of more than 4 weeks. Hence it can be concluded that QbD approach can be successfully implemented to optimize the effect of process and formulation parameters resulting the effective targeting of drug for long term therapy with PLGA as biodegradable polymer.

2

GREEN SYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM INDONEESIELLA ECHIOIDES AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL

R. Yuvarajan1, D. Natarajan1* and R. Jayavel2

1Natural Drug Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamil Nadu, India.

2Centre for NanoScience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

The present study was aimed synthesis, characterization and antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles from aqueous leaf extracts of I. echioides. The green synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV visible spectroscopy (200 to700nm), resulted sharp peak was obtained at 422nm. The size distributions (maximum of 96.47 and minimum of 14.67nm size in diameter) of silver nanoparticles were characterized by Particle size analyzer, the silver ion with its cubic structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) of planes and intensity (2θ) peaks. Morphological characteristics of nanoparticles were done by Scanning Electron Microscopy (visual) and Atomic Force Microscopy (height and roughness). The antibacterial potential of plant mediated silver nanoparticles was tested against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi A and Salmonella typhimurium by agar well diffusion method. The outcomes of results are concluding that I. echioides mediated silver nanoparticles have been reported as significant activity against most of the tested organisms.

3

EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF AYURVEDIC EYE DROPS

Rucha S. Dhamankar, Suyog D. Mali, Dr. A. P. Jadhav, Dr.V. J. Kadam and Mr. S.R. Nikam

Department of Quality Assurance, BharatiVidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy,C. B. D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

In the present study, Ayurvedic eye drops were investigated for its in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity using cup plate (well diffusion) method against nine bacterial cultures and one fungal pathogenic culture. It was observed that the eye drops have excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity due to synergistic action of its ingredients such as Tulsipatra (Ocimum sanctum),Haridra (Curcuma longa), Nimba (Azadirachtaindica), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), Vibhitaki (Terminalia belericha), Amalaki (Emblicaofficinalis), Pudina (Menthaaryensis), Rasount (Berberis aristata) Alum (Alum), Kapur (Camphor), Yamani (Trachyspermum ammi), Mamira (Thalictrumfoliolosum), Madhu (Honey), and Gulab Jal (Rose Water). Strongest antibacterial was shown against Bacillus thuringienesis, a gram positive bacteria. However antifungal action was not evident as antibacterial shown by the eye drops.

4

RP-HPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF GEMCITABINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND CAPECITABINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM

N. Srinivasa Rao*, Dr. K. Venkataramana, P. Srinivas, P. Anitha

Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna nagar, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

A new reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Gemcitabine hydrochloride and Capecitabine hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form. An inertsil ODS-3 C-18 column having dimensions of 250 × 4.6 mm and particle size of 5 μm, with mobile phase containing a mixture of 50mM Orthophosphoric acid adjusted to pH5.50 ; Buffer :Acetonitrile ( 40:60 v/v ) was used. The pH of mobile phase was adjusted to 5.50. The flow rate was 1.2 mL/min and the column effluents were monitored at 298 nm. The retention time for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride was found to be 2.94 and 4.97 min respectively. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. The method was found to be linear in the range of 24-56μg/mL and 60-140μg/mL for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride, with regression coefficient r = 0.999 and r = 0.999 with a limit of detection and limit of quantification 4.0μg/ml, 12.2μg/ml and for Gemcitabine 0.6μg/ml, 1.9 μg/ml for capecitabine respectively. The proposed method is simple, rapid and accurate so that the method will be useful for routine quality control analysis.

5

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF TETRAZOLE DERIVATIVES

Konda Ravi Kumar*, Vijay Kumar Nuthakki, Ch. Nagarjuna Reddy

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Amravathi Road, Guntur, India-522002.

Abstract

Tetrazoles are an important class of heterocyclic compounds which possess wide spectrum of biological properties. A series of tetrazoles were synthesized by diazotization of aminoguanidine bicarbonate using nitric acid and sodium nitrate to yield guanylazide. The obtained diazotisation mixture was refluxed using sodium carbonate to obtain 5- aminotetrazole which was acetylated using acetyl chloride and condensed using substituded aromatic aldehydes. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR Spectroscopy. The compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus pimilis and Escherichia coli using streptomycin as reference standard and anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Pencillium notatum using miconazole as reference standard. Compounds TZ2 and TZ8 were found to exhibit highest activity against S.aureus and B.pimilis. The compounds TZ2 and TZ7 showed maximum activity against E. coli. The compounds TZ1 and TZ7 exhibited most potent activity against A. niger and P. notatum respectively.

6

INVITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF A SIDDHA HERBO MINERAL DRUG – KARA SOODA SATHU PARPAM

S.Sudha Revathy*1, Chitra Jeyaram2, M.Murugesan3, Ramasamy2

1Department of Gunapadam, National Institute of Siddha, Tambaram Sanatorium, Chennai 600 04.

2ISM/NP laboratory, AU-KBC Research center, MIT campus of Anna University,Chrompet, Chennai.

3Dept of Nanju Nool, National Institute of Siddha, Tambaram Sanatorium, Chennai 600 047.

Abstract*

An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons or hydrogen from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidative stress develops due to overproduction of ROS and/or a reduction in cellular antioxidant capacity with down regulation of the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Nephrolithiasis is a chronic disease involving imbalance between crystallization of largely calcium salts & inhibition of crystal formation or their dissolution. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) is the most common type of human kidney stone, of which hyperoxaluria is the major risk factor. The interaction between injured renal tubular epithelium and CaOx crystals and/or oxalate ions is likely to play a critical role in the formation of urinary calculi. The Siddha herbo mineral drug, Kara sooda sathu parpam (KSSP) is indicated for urinary disorders like Urinary tract infections, Urolithiasis etc. This study was intended to explore the anti-oxidant activity of the drug by invitro methods. The preliminary phytochemistry and the anti-oxidant capacity of the drug were evaluated with DPPH and Nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. In DPPH method, 100 μg/mL of the drug and ascorbic acid exhibit 83.9 % and 77.7% inhibition respectively and the IC50 value of the drug is 71μg/ml. In Nitric oxide scavenging method, 500 μg/mL of the drug and ascorbic acid exhibit 97 % and 77% inhibition respectively and the IC50 value of the drug is 64μg/ml.

7

REGIOSELECTIVE SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL SPIRO‐INDANE PYRROLIDINES CONTAINING THIOPHENE MOIETY THROUGH 1,3‐DIPOLAR CYCLOADDITION METHODOLOGY

Geethanjali Kanagaraju1, Arumugam Thangamani2
Department of chemistry, Karpagam University, Coimbatore-641021, Tamil nadu. India.

Abstract*

A facile and proficient one-pot synthesis of spiroindane pyrrolidines has been accomplished by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azomethine ylides generated in situ from ninhydrin and sarcosine with substituted dipolarophiles in excellent yield. The reaction progress with high regio and stereoselective mode. The obtained spiroindane pyrrolidines adducts have been characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopic techniques, namely IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for anti-microbial activity and the results are in sensible relationship with of positive control.

8

IN-SITU OPHTHALMIC GEL OF TIMOLOL MALEATE: FORMULATION, RHEOLOGICAL STUDIES, IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVOEVALUATION

Dhirajkumar Champalal Katariya, Poddar S. S

K. M. Kundnani College of Pharmacy, Mumbai.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize a series of gellan gum based in-situ gel forming solution of timolol maleate for its optimized application. The rheological behavior, gelling capacity, in-vitro drug release profile, anti-glaucoma study on rabbits and its mucoadhesive profile of gellan gum were evaluated. Gellan gum in-situ gel forming solution in the concentration range 0.25 to 1% w/v were prepared and evaluated to find out the optimum concentration of polymer to achieve formulation which would be liquid at non-physiological condition and became semi-solid at physiological condition. The rheological phenomenon showed shear thinning pseudoplastic behavior of gellan gum with timolol maleate. The results showed that the gellan gum can be used as an in-situ gelling vehicle to enhance the ocular bioavailability of timolol maleate.Through this work a meaningful platform for in-situ gelling type ophthalmic drops has been recommended. With further logistics, various API would be possible to be fitted in this. The suggestion has ample potential for scale up.

9

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACTS OF CARISSA CARANDAS LINN

Pooja Bhati, Ajay Shukla*, Maya Sharma, Pramod mourya

Guru Ramdas Khalsa Institute of Science and Technology (Pharmacy) Jabalpur M.P.Mohan Lal Sukhadiya University, Udaipur, Rajasthan,NRI Institutes of Pharmacy Bhopal, M.P.

Abstract

The Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Carissa carandas linn against carbon tetra chloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats was determined. The leaves were collected and dried under shade followed by crushing. The extraction of crushed powder involve the Maceration by using methanol and acetone (w/v 1:3) solvent and concentrated to dry mass by using rotary vacuum evaporator. Dark green waxy residues (leaves) were collected separately. The different parameter of evaluation were taken such as histopathological studies, Total Bilirubin, Direct Bilirubin, SGPT and SGOT etc. The Liver section of animal which was treated with methanol and acetone (w/v 1:3) extract clearly shows the normal hepatic cells and compared with Silymarin treated group of animals. The result suggests that the methonolic extract of leaves of Carissa carandas linn possess a significant role as hepatoprotective activity.

10

EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LONICERA JAPONICA Thunb. LEAVES ON NEPHROTOXICITY INDUCED RATS

G.Venkataiah*, Quamarunnisa, D.Sudharshanreddy, Md.Faheemuddin

Department of pharmacology, Smt.SarojiniRamulammacollege of pharmacy,Mahabubnagar,Telangana state, India.

Abstract

The aim of the study is to evaluate the primary phytochemical screening and nephroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Lonicera japonica Thunb. leaves on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity induced rats. The ethanolic extract of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was prepared by maceration. A single dose of 100mg and 200mg of extract was used for nephroprotective activity. The present results reveals that elevated levels of blood parameters like serum creatinine, serum urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen levels and decreased levels of total proteins and also elevated urine creatinine, urine urea, urine uric acid and albumin levels in renal failure/toxic control group. Animal body weights were significantly decreased in toxic control group, increased in normal control group. The ethanolic extract of Lonicera japonica Thunb. leaves was shown significant protective effect against the Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity, and the effect was found to be in a dose dependent manner. In histopathological observations, vessel congestion, tubular cast, marked glomerular change, tubular necrosis, and cell infiltration observed in toxic control group (gentamicin). In standard and extract treated groups observed regenerative proximal tubules, less infiltration no tubular congestion with glomerular regeneration was observed. Hence from the results it can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was shown significant nephroprotective activity in Wistar rats might be due to presence of verity of phytochemicals, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Hence it is necessary to screen and find the phytochemical constituents which is the showing the preventive effect of gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and mechanism of action of individual constituents in different models for better therapy.

11

ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ALPRAZOLAM AND MELATONIN BY USING RP-HPLC IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM

G. Abirami*,Dr.T.Vetrichelvan, S. Uma Maheswary

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Adhiparasakthi College of Pharmacy, Melmaruvathur, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

A simple precise and accurate Reverse – phase High performance Liquid chromatography method was developed for the estimation of Alprazolam and Melatonin for their dosage form. It forms an affordable reliable and novel method than the previous one. This method was carried out on Agilent C18 (100 × 4.6, 5μm) column with a mobile phase consisting of Methanol: Water in the ratio of 70:30 v/v. The retention time of Alprazolam and Melatonin is 4.80 ± 0.1 min and 3.05 ± 0.1 min respectively. The flow rate was 1 ml/min with UV detection at 222 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the linearity plot showed good linear relationship with correlation coefficient value for Alprazolam and Melatonin were r2 = 0.99986 and r2 = 0.99989 in the concentration range of 0.25-1.25 μg/ml, 6-30 μg/ml respectively. The relative standard deviation for intra-day precision has been found to lower than 2.0 %. The method is validated according to the ICH guidelines. The developed method was validated in terms of specificity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification and solution stability. Sensitivity was estimated by determination of LOD and LOQ and values are found to be 0.0000013&0.0000042 for melatonin and 0.00000636 & 0.00000198 for alprazolam. The purposed method can be successfully applied for the determination of these drugs in combined dosage forms.

12

DEVELOPMENT OF VALIDATED RP – HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ABCIXIMAB IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

Shiny Ganji1*, Dr. D. Satyavati2

1St. Ann’s College of Pharmacy,Vetapalem, Chirala.

2Principal, Sri Dutta Institute of Pharmacy, Ibrahimpatnam, R.R. dist.

Abstract

A simple, fast, highly sensitive and precise RP HPLC method was developed for the quantification of Abciximab in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The quantification was carried out using Inertsil ODS – 3V, 250mm×4.6mm,5μ column and mobile phase comprised of 0.1M ammonium acetate in 1000 ml water and Acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:40. The flow rate was maintained at 1.0ml/min and effluent was monitored at 278 nm. The method was validated successfully in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, system suitability, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantitation in accordance with ICH guidelines. Validation revealed that the method is specific, rapid, accurate, precise, reliable and reproducible. It is also suitable for simultaneous determination of Abciximab and its process related impurities. Calibration plots obtained were linear; limit of quantitation and limit of detection for the method were 0.01% and 0.03%. The applicability of method was evaluated in commercial dosage form analysis.

13

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC-PDA METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF EMTRICITABINE, TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL FUMARATE AND RILPIVIRINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK, PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS AND IN DISSOLUTION SAMPLES

A.Prabhakar Reddy, U. Chandra Teja, SK. Ashraf Sultana, M. Vijayalakshmi, Buchi N. Nalluri*

Department of Pharmaceutics, KVSR Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vijayawada-520010, AP, INDIA.

Abstract

The current study was undertaken to develop and validate a simple, efficient, economical and MS compatible HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, and Rilpivirine Hydrochloride in bulk, pharmaceutical dosage forms and in vitro dissolution samples. These three entities were present in variable concentrations and have variable chromatographic behavior making the analysis difficult. A Phenomenex C18 column (250 x 4.6mm, 5μm) and mobile phase consisting of 10mM ammonium acetate: acetonitrile were used in gradient mode and the eluents were monitored at 265nm. The retention times of Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, and Rilpivirine Hydrochloride were 4.0, 10.1, and 11.8 min respectively and showed a good linearity in the concentration range of 20-100μg/mL for Emtricitabine, 30-150μg/mL for, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate and 2.5-12.5μg/mL for Rilpivirine Hydrochloride with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.997-0.999. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, and limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, robustness and stability. Validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. The percent recoveries were in the range of 98 to 102 (RSD < 2%). Overall, a validated RP-HPLC-PDA method was developed and successfully used for the simultaneous estimation of Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, and Rilpivirine Hydrochloride in bulk, pharmaceutical dosage forms and in vitro dissolution sample analysis.

14

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC-PDA METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LEVODOPA, CARBIDOPAAND ENTACAPONE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

S.Madhavi, SK. Ashraf Sultana, U. Chandra Teja and Buchi N. Nalluri*

Department of Pharmaceutics, KVSR Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vijayawada-520010, AP, INDIA.

Abstract

A simple, sensitive, rapid, economical LC/MS compatible analytical method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Levodopa (LD), Carbidopa (CD), and Entacapone (EC) in bulk and dosage forms by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The use of Phenomenex C18 reverse phase column (150 x 4.6mm, 5μm) with gradient mobile phase of 0.05% v/v o-phosphoric acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) enabled the efficient separation of the drugs within 15min. The eluents were monitored at 280nm and the retention times were 2.6, 5.7, 12.0 min for LD, CD, and EC respectively. Linearity was established in the concentration range of 10-50μg/mL, 5-25μg/mL, 20-100μg/mL for LD, CD and EC respectively, with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.997-0.999. Percent recoveries of LD, CD, and EC were in the range of 98-102 (RSD<2). The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, and limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, robustness, and stability. Validation parameters fulfilled the regulatory requirements in all the cases. The method was successfully used for the analysis of LD, CD and EC in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

15

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DRUG IN ADHESIVE TRANSDERMAL PATCHES OF RIVASTIGMINE

Buchi N. Nalluri*, P.L. Prashanth Ram, U. Chandra Teja, SK. Ashraf Sultana

Department of Pharmaceutics, KVSR Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, VIJAYAWADA-520 010, AP, INDIA

Abstract

The objective of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate Drug In Adhesive (DIA) type transdermal patches of Rivastigmine (RVS), a cholinergic agent used in the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer’s type and dementia due to Parkinson’s disease. RVS transdermal patches with four types of DURO-TAKTM pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) were developed and evaluated for the uniformity of thickness, drug content and in vitro release characteristics with and without pig ear skin. In vitro drug release studies indicated that among the four PSAs tested, 87-2510 and 87-4098 showed good drug release rate properties. Increase in loadings of RVS linearly increased the cumulative amounts released at the end of 24 h in both the in vitro release and pig ear skin permeation studies. The results of the in vitro pig ear skin permeation studies indicated that significant amounts of RVS could be delivered from 87-4098 and 97-2510 PSA patches through human skin in vivo and that the development of such DIA type transdermal patches using the 87-2510 PSA may be logical and economical over the existing RVS transdermal delivery systems.

16

EMULGEL – A NOVEL SURROGATE APPRAOCH FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Shaik. Shaheda Sultana*, P. Parveen, M. Sri Rekha, K. Deepthi, Ch. Sowjanya, Dr. A. Seetha Devi

Department of Pharmaceutics, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Amaravathi Road, Guntur-522002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Human skin offer ideal and multiple sites to administer therapeutic agents for both local and systemic action. Emulgel is an emerging topical drug delivery system in which if more effort is done towards its preparations with more number of topically effective drugs it will prove a boon for derma care products and cosmetic products as it has dual release control system i.e. gel and emulsion. A unique aspect of dermatological pharmacology is the direct accessibility of the skin as a target organ for diagnosis and treatment. Within the major group of semisolid preparations, the use of transparent gels has expanded both in cosmetics and in pharmaceutical preparations. In spite of many advantages of gels a major limitation is in the delivery of hydrophobic drugs because solubility act as a barrier and problem arises during the release of the drug. So to overcome this limitation an emulsion based approach is being used so that even a hydrophobic therapeutic moiety can enjoy the unique properties of gels. When gels and emulsions are used in combined form the dosage forms are referred as emulgels. The main objective is to develop jellified emulsion to decrease the systemic side effects and to create pronounced effect with lower doses of the drug. Emulgels for dermatological use have several favorable properties such as being thixotropic, greaseless, easily spreadable, easily removable, emollient, non-staining, water-soluble, longer shelf life, bio-friendly, transparent & pleasing appearance. So, emulgels can be used as better topical drug delivery systems over present conventional systems available in market. The use of emulgels can be extended in analgesics, antifungal, anti viral, anti arthritis drugs and various cosmetic formulations.

17

COMBRETUM (COMBRETACEAE): BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY

Sudipta Roy1, Dilip Gorai2*, Rabinarayan Acharya1, Rajiv Roy2,*

1Department of Dravyaguna, Institute for Postgraduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar - 361 008, Gujarat, India.

2Department of Chemistry, Kulti College, Kulti, Burdwan-713 343, West Bengal, India.

Abstract

Combretum is the largest and most widespread genus of Combretaceae. The genus comprises approximately 200-250 species distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions mainly in Africa and Asia. Combretum has shown its potential as a source of various secondary metabolites. This review focuses on the chemistry of isolated compounds which is about 223 from 20 species as well as biological activity of extracts and phytochemicalsof the genus Combretum.This review also focuses on ethnomedicinal practices of Combretum species. The phytochemicals reported from this genus are belonging to the various structural groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, phenanthrenes and stilbenoids etc.Combretum extracts exhibitedin vitro bioactivities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antihyperglycemic, cytotoxicity against various human tumor cell lines, anti-inflammatory, anti-snake, antimalarial and antioxidant effects. In vivo studies through various animal models have also shown promising results. The aim of this review is to boost up chemists, biologists and pharmacologists to undertake further systematic research work on this important genus and to isolate important ‗lead molecule‘ which will be better for mankind in near future.

18

ONE POT-SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF 2-ACETYL-1-NAPHTHOL, 6-HYDROXYTETRACENE-5-12-DIONE AND 7-ACETYL-6-HYDROXYTETRACENE-5-12-DIONE

B. S. Shivakumar1, G. R. Vijayakumar2, V. P. Vaidya3, M. Ramaiah1*

1Department of Chemistry, NMKRV College for Women, Bangalore-560011 Karnataka, India.

2Department of Chemistry, University College of Science, Tumkur University, Tumkur, India 572103.

3Department of Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Shankaragatta-577451, Shimoga, India.

Abstract

The present work describes one pot synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-naphthol (3a), 6-hydroxy tetracene-5-12-dione (3b) and 7-acetyl-6-hydroxytetracene-5-12-dione(3c) through Friedel-Crafts reaction followed by Fries rearrangementby using starting materials phthalic anhydride and 1-naphthylacetate in presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride. The products thus obtained were characterized using spectroscopic techniques and screened for their antimicrobial and anticancer activities. An attempt is also made to synthesize the flavone derivatives of the obtained products. The products 2-acetyl-1-naphthol and 7-acetyl-6-hydroxytetracene-5-12-dione shows a range of antimicrobial activity against the pathogens Paratyphi-A and Aspergillus niger and prominent anticancer activity against Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) cells, which has been carried out using MTT assay and by trypan blue dye exclusion method. Tested compounds 3a and 3c were found to be active against the pathogens in milligram concentration. Compound 3b was found to be show highest anticancer activity (80 % toxicity) against DLA cells.

19

DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MATRIX-MEMBRANE CONTROLLED TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF AMLODIPINE BESYLATE

*Hemul V. Patel1,Shreyash S. Patel1,Mahendrasinh M. Raj2,Naynika K. Patel3 and Lata M. Raj4

1Ashok & Rita Patel Institute of Integrated Study & Research in Biotechnology and Allied Sciences (ARIBAS), New Vallabh Vidyanagar-388121, Gujarat, India. 

2Institute of Science & Technology for Advanced Studies & Research (ISTAR), Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120, Gujarat, India. 

3Department of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar -388120, Gujarat, 4C.N.P.F Arts and D.N Science College, Dabhoi, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

Matrix transdermal systems of Amlodipine besylate were prepared using different polymers) with polyethylene glycol (400 mol. wt) as a plasticizer. Physico-chemical evaluation was performed such as thickness, weight variation, drug content and folding endurance. In-vitro diffusion studies were performed using cellulose acetate Kesary - Chein diffusion cell. The concentration of diffused drug was measured using UV-visible spectrophotometer at λ max 365 nm. The experimental results shows that the transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) of EC, PCL, PLA and p-HEMA have very good film forming and mechanical properties and the formulated system shows release of drug more than 24 hours.

20

ROLE OF C REACTIVE PROTEIN IN DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS ASSOCIATED COMPLICATIONS

Tapan Behl*1, Heena Goel2 , Ishneet Kaur3, Puneet Sudan3, Monika Sharma3 , Rashi Wanchoo Misri4, Sonika Redhu Sihag5, Pankaj Patyal6, Sunitha Medapati7

1Senior Research Fellow, Department of Pharmacology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi.

2Veterinary Officer, Department of Animal Husbandry, Junga, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh.

3Department of Pharmacy, Chandigarh College of Pharmacy, Mohali, Punjab.

4Department of Pharmacy, Doaba College of Pharmacy, Kharar, Punjab.

5Department of Pharmacy, Shekhawati Collge of Pharmacy, Dundlod, Rajasthan.

6Graduate Student, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, US.

7Junior Doctor, Alluri Seetha Rama Raju Academy of Medical Sciences, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract

Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most prevalent chronic disorders in the modern world. It is a matter of utmost concern in medical science in almost every corner of the globe due to its epidemiology in nearly every population inhabiting any country. It occurs either due to the destruction of beta-cells of pancreas or due to the development of resistance towards insulin and leads to various metabolic dysfunctions in the body which critically affect numerous regions of the body, secondarily. These affects are seen in the form of diabetic complications which are equally health-devastating in nature as the disorder of diabetes itself. CRP is a plasma protein which is not normally present in the body but its advent is marked by its elevated levels in the blood during certain specific condition, especially marked during the inflammatory events occurred as a result of any kind of injury. Due to its involvement in inflammation, which is also seen as one of the mediators of progression of type II diabetes mellitus and its various complications, it was suspected to be engrossed in their pathogenesis. The studies revealed that it is, indeed, confirmatively responsible for some of the events that lead to these disorders. Many researchers have concluded that CRP is responsible for the inflammatory events discernible during diabetes. It was hence concluded that CRP has a definite role to play in mediating progression of its complications More research is currently going on to pierce into the depths of this aspect so that new horizons can be touched at molecular level which could possibly help in understanding these disorders even more and help the researchers find new ways, related to this facet, to prevent and cure the disorders keeping the pathways uncoiled by CRP-mediated progression.

21

THE GENETIC IMPLICATIONS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

Rahul Kumar Mishr 1*, Mohit Thalquotra 2, Rajesh Pandey 1, Kuldip Singh Sodhi 1, Jasbir Singh 1.

1Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (MMIMSR), Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India. 2Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Jammu, J&K, India.

Abstract

It has been recognized that bronchial asthma is of hereditary nature, but that inheritance does not follow the classical Mendelian patterns in this disease. Several family studies have showed evidence of a substantial familial aggregation pattern in asthma. Genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in asthma, and interest in the genetics of asthma has grown over the last 2 decades because of the significant increase in prevalence in many countries. However, the asthma genetics is especially complicated by its polygenic nature besides the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The genetic determination of allergic responses to environmental stimuli and the role of pharmacogenetics in the management of asthma are highly regarded research topics and the current review highlights the same. A proper understanding of the genetic aspects underlying the pathophysiology and expression of bronchial asthma are likely to unveil new, personalized therapeutic strategies in future.

22

A CASE REPORT ON LUDWIG’S ANGINA IN PAEDIATRIC POPULATION: a rare case

Lilli Sailaja Gudimetla Pharm.D1⃰, Kayala Venkata Jagadeesh Pharm.D1, Bondada Neelima Pharm.D1, Debi Prasad patra M.D.2, Sripada Ramam Pharm.D1

1Department of pharmacy practice, GIET School of pharmacy, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2Department of Paediatrics, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Ludwig’s angina is a rare, serious and potentially life threatening disorder characterized by progressive gangrenous cellulitis and edema of the soft tissue of floor of the mouth and neck. Odontogenic source of infection have been reported, most commonly, for Ludwig’s angina which accounts for 50% of cases in children, in contrast with 70-90% incidence in adult population. Mortality rate has been declined to 8-10% in recent years which followed as high as 50% before pre-antibiotic era. Clinical features constitute fever, pain due to induration of neck, malaise, dysphagia, drooling of saliva, fetid breathe, trismus, dyspnea progressing to Stridor, difficulty in sitting posture and cyanosis of impending air way crisis which require prompt artificial air way. Therefore, after assessment, management of Ludwig’s angina requires the prompt intervention. Treatment options include antimicrobial therapy, maintenance of the airway, surgical incision and drainage, elimination of the infectious site. We concluded that antimicrobial therapy is adequate in early stages of infection where airway obstruction is not seen.

23

BECKMANN REARRANGEMENT OF KETOXIMES TO AMIDES USING PHENYL PHOSPHONIC ACID

Sanjeev M. Reddy1, Jitendra S. Pulle2*, Ashok D. Sagar3
1Department of Chemistry, Gramin College, Vasantnagar (K), Mukhed - 431715 Dist. Nanded (M.S.) India.
2Department of Chemistry, S.G.B. College, Purna (Jn.), Dist. Parbhani (M.S.), India.
3School of Chemical Sciences, S.R.T.M. University, Nanded 431 606, India.

Abstract

Beckmann rearrangement with phenyl phosphonic acid as a Bronsted acid catalyst was studied. A wide range of ketoximes in to their corresponding amides under mild conditions with good to excellent yields are key features of the transformation. The addition of ZnCl2 as co-catalyst proceeded the reaction cleanly. Advantages of this method are simple operation and short reaction time. The effect of functional group on the rate of reaction was investigated.

24

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY INDICATING UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF GRANISETRON HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORMS

Mohammad Yunoos*, S.Rajesh, V.Sandeep

*Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla-522101, Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract

A simple, rapid, accurate, sensitive and precise stability indicating UV Spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of Granisetron hydrochloride (GTH) in bulk and tablet dosage forms. Granisetron hydrochloride exhibited maximum wavelength for absorption at 301 nm in 0.1 N HCL as solvent with molar absorptivity of 1.34 × 104 L mole-1 cm-1. Beer's law was found to be obeyed in the concentration range of 5-30μg/ml with correlation coefficient value of 0.9995. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.54μg/ml & 2.02μg/ml respectively. Results of the analysis were validated as per ICH guidelines. Forced degradation studies include the effect of temperature, peroxide oxidation, photolysis and susceptibility to hydrolysis across a wide range of pH values, were carried out according to the ICH requirements. The developed method was validated respect to linearity, precision and accuracy. The proposed stability indicating UV Spectrophotometric method is useful for the routine estimation of Granisetron hydrochloride in bulk and tablet dosage forms.

25

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON EUPHORBIA FUSIFORMISBUCH.- HAM. EX D. DON

Shiva manjunath, M.P and Sreenath, K.P

Department of Botany, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India.

Abstract

Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.- Ham. ex D. Don of Euphorbiaceae is a tuberous plant. During field survey it was found at five places of the Karnataka state in scattered form. It is rare and endangered taxa in the Karnataka state. The people at Anjjiguni, Kebbre, Gollahalli of Kanakapura taluk, Ramanagara District, Karnataka use this plant tuber in fresh and dry form to lactating mother to increase the milk production. The study of this rare plant about its distribution, anatomy, powder microscopy, Physico-chemical analysis and phytochemical details helps to the modern society for scientific and efficient usage and its conservation.

26

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION AND VALIDATION OF METOLAZONE AND SPIRONOLACTONE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC METHOD

B. Siddartha* and A. Atma Jyothi

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Secunderabad.

Abstract

A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination Metolazone and Spironolactone in pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Altima C18 (150mm x 4.6 mm, 5) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (42:58 v/v). The buffer is prepared by adding 1.36gm of potassium dihyrogen ortho phosphate in a 1000ml of volumetric flask add about 900ml of milli-Q water added and degas to sonicate and finally make up the volume with water then pH adjusted to 4.8 with dil. orthophosphoric acid solution. The flow rate was 1.2ml/ min and effluents were monitored at 230 nm. The retention times of Metolazone and Spironolactone were found to be 2.121 min and 4.873 min, respectively. The linearity for Metolazone and Spironolactone were in the range of 12.5-75 μg/ml and 125-750 μg/ml respectively. The recoveries of Metolazone and Spironolactone were found to be 98.45% to 99.68% w/v and 98.85% to 101.14%w/v, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Metolazone and Spironolactone in combined tablet dosage forms.

27

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUG LORATIDINE USING SOLID DISPERSION AND SYNTHETIC SUPERDISINTEGRANTS

R.S.Pentewar, S. Somwanshi, S.S.Thonte, Pawankumar N.B. S. S. Talde.

Channabasweshwar Pharmacy College, Latur, Gurunanak Institute of pharmacy Hyderabad.

Abstract

Fast disintegrating tablets are the solid dosage forms consists of drugs that disintegrate in the oral cavity within less than one minute leaving an easy to swallow residue and becomes convenient especially for elderly &children who have swallowing difficulties. Loratidine is a long acting tricyclic peripherally acting histamine antagonist with selective peripheral H1 antagonist activity. It is usually used alone or in combination with pseudoephedrine sulphate for the symptomatic relief of seasonal allergic rhinitis, pruritis, erythemia & urticaria associated with chronic idiopathic urticaria. The oral bioavailability of Loratidine is around 40% due to its less solubility with biological half life of 8.4 hrs. In the present work FDT of Loratidine were prepared primarily using solid dispersion to enhance solubility & then FDT’s were prepared using synthetic superdisintegrants viz crosspovidone & Mcc. The prepared tablets were evaluated for Pre & post compressional parameter . The FDT’s using solid dispersion & synthetic superdisintegrants passess weight variation in the range of 100 ± 0.65 SD to 103 ± 0.86 SD & hardness was 2.6 to 2.8. % Friability 0.819 to 1.157 disintegration time was 30-53 seconds & in-vitro drug release 73.05 to 94.14% at the end of 30mins & which was fitted to pharmacokinetic model & it shows zero order drug release. From FTIR study reveals that there is no interaction between drug & the excipients used for FDT. The results concluded that FDT of Loratidine showing increased dissolution rate may lead to increased bioavailability by using solid dispersion.

28

FORMULATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX SUPPOSITORIES

Joymalya Bhattacharya

M.Pharm (Pharmaceutics), MBA (HRM), M.Phil (Management).

Abstract

Timed release matrix suppositories as reliable rectal drug delivery by passing hepatic metabolism. Various bases like agar, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC), polyethylene glycol used to formulate this. In addition, these bases if used in the formulation will have flexibility in storage conditions unlike suppositories formulated with conventional bases that necessitate exacting storage conditions in tropical climate. Unconventional, non-melting, non-disintegrating suppositories prepared and examined for physicochemical characteristics and in vitro release kinetics. Timed release matrix suppository adapting unconventional combinations of bases such as agar, polyethylene glycol for better prolonged release and mainly to reduce severe gastric ulceration, bleeding and hepatotoxicity.

29

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF NEBIVOLOL AND VALSARTAN IN FINISHED DOSAGE FORM

YDP.Dharshini, P.Sunil Kumar Chaitanya*, G.Rohini Reddy, Sheena M Raj, Akram Khan, R.Swetha Reddy

St.Pauls College of Pharmacy, Turkhyamzal, Hyderabad.

Abstract

The present work involves development and validation of a simple, sensitive and specific Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the estimation of Nebivolol and Valsartan in Bulk drug and Pharmaceutical dosage form to provide an economical and easy method than the existing methods. The chromatoghraphic run followed an isocratic mode utilizing an INTERSIL C18 column (250*4.6mm and 5 μm) with mobile phase buffer (pH 2.5): methanol: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 30:20:50 at a flow rate of 1.0ml / min. The chromatographic detection was monitored at 210 nm. The retention times for Nebivolol & Valsartan were found to be 2.523 & 4.417 respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines for system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, LOD and LOQ. The method was linear with r2 values 0.998 & 0.999 for nebivolol and valsartan respectively. The accuracy of the method was evaluated at three levels i.e. 80%, 100% & 120% and the recoveries were found to be between 98.6 - 101.3 %. The LOD and LOQ for estimation of Nebivolol& valsartan are found to be 0.0121μg / ml, 0.0365μg / ml, and 3.154μg / ml, 9.557μg / ml respectively. Proposed method can be successfully applied for the quantitative determination of Nebivolol and Valsartan in Bulk drug and Pharmaceutical dosage form.

30

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL ANTI DANDRUFF GEL

M.Santhosh Aruna*, N.Sai Amani, P.Sri Lakshmi, A.Sravani, M.Surya Prabha, N.Ramarao

Chalapthi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur.

Abstract

Dandruff is a common scalp disorder affecting almost half of the population at the post-pubertal age and of any gender and ethnicity which affects 5% of the global population. It often causes itching. The severity of dandruff may fluctuate with season as it often worsens in winter. As skin cells die a small amount of flaking is normal, about 487000 cells/cm2 get released normally after detergent treatment. The most common fungi involve in the dandruff is Pityrodporium Ovale. Herbal medicine, now a day are gaining importance for treating many diseases due to their significant effect and lesser side effects as compared to allopathic medicines, Number of formulations is available in the market for antidandruff therapy except gel with variety of herbs contain active ingredients for the treatment of dandruff. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop herbal Anti-Dandruff hair gel.

31

STUDY OF CALCIUM IN ACTIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS BY FLAME ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER

Zainab Manzoor Memon1*, Afsheen Mushtaque Shah1 and Tasneem Gul Kazi2

1Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

2National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

Abstract

Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) arising by mycobacterium tuberculosis (tubercle bacilli). It leads to morbidity and humanity worldwide comprising Pakistan. The aim of study was to assess the serum calcium level in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and compared with healthy volunteer. Blood sample was assembled from 100 active PTB patients and from 50 normal control subjects. Study was conducted at chest ward of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Jamshoro/Hyderabad, Rajputana Hospital Hyderabad and TB Sanatorium Hospital Kotri, Sindh, Pakistan. All patients and controls were selected from both genders having same age group (20-70 of years). Serum calcium was analyzed by using analytical technique named Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). In our study we found elevated serum calcium concentration in patients with mean ± SD 16.6 ± 6.7 mg/dl that is more than normal range (>10.5 mg/dl). While in normal control the mean ± SD was 8.8 ± 4.3 mg/dl that is under the normal range (8-10 mg/dl). So, it is conclude that hypercalcemia is linked with active pulmonary tuberculosis and also caused other different disorders.

32

ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LYGODIUM FLEXUOSUM (L) EXTRACT ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

D.Sudharshan Reddy, G.Venkataiah, Md.Fahimuddin, Shirisha.S*

Department of pharmacology, Smt.Sarojini Ramulamma Collage of pharmacy, Mahabubnager,Telangana, India.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Lygodium flexuosum (L) on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (100mg/kg b.w/i.p). Ethanolic extract of Lygodium flexuosum (L) (100, 200mg/kg b.w/p.o) was prepared freshly,  administered to alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days. Blood glucose levels monitored at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days, serum lipid profile and Histopathological changes in pancreas were examined after 14 days. OGTT was performed by administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w/p.o of ethanolic extract of Lygodium flexuosum (L) and 10 mg/kg b.w/p.o of Glibenclamide to different groups respectively in normal rats. Results: significant (p<0.001) results were observed in the estimated parameters like reduction in blood glucose, elevated cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL, LDL levels and also increase in the levels of HDL were observed in diabetic rats treatment after 14 days of extract. Improved in regeneration of β-cells of langerhans of pancreas in rats by histopathological studies. Oral glucose tolerance test, blood glucose levels significantly lower at all time points (In extract and standard Wistar rats) that blood was sampled after oral glucose load.  Conclusion: The results were suggested that the whole plant extract of Lygodium flexuosum (L) having potent Antidiabetic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethanomedicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

33

IN SITU GEL: A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

P.R. Patil*, S.S.Shaikh, K.J.Shivsharan, S.R.Shahi

Department of Pharmaceutics, Government College of Pharmacy, Opposite Govt. Polytechnic, Osmanpura, Aurangabad-(431005), Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The environmental factors like change in pH, ionic concentration, temperature, osmolarity or irradiations etc physical state of formulation can change from free flowing solution to viscous gel form. This kind of phase transition from ‘sol to gel’ because of above mentioned reasons is called as in situ gelling. In situ gel is very much useful technique for improving the bioavailability of such formulations which are easily washed away from their site of administration, eg. Eye drops (in solution form) or Nasal drops. As compared to other drug delivery systems like Parenteral, Nasal, Rectal and Vaginal etc use of in-situ gel in Ophthalmic drug delivery is extensive. The intention of this new paper is to enlight the all possible areas where in-situ gel technique can be used to improve bioavailability including ophthalmic drug delivery. Therefore we have discussed here the applications of in-situ gel technique in Nasal, Oral, Rectal and Vaginal drug delivery. The most important thing required in in-situ gel is availability of suitable and compatible biodegradable polymer. Hence we have given the list of polymers (biodegradable and non-biodegradable) that may be helpful for investigators.

34

COMPARATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF LEAF, STEM, FLOWER AND SEED EXTRACTS OF MACROTYLOMA UNIFLORUM L.

Priyanga Suriyamoorthy, Hemmalakshmi Subrhamanian and Devaki Kanagasapabathy*

Department of Biochemistry, Karpagam University, Coimbatore-641 021, India.

Abstract

Phytochemicals are secondary metabolites produced by medicinal plants and reported to have therapeutic values. The major aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical screening of various extracts of Macrotyloma uniflorum L. leaves, stem, flower and seed. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water extracts were prepared and subjected to phytochemical screening in which the secondary metabolites were confirmed based on tests of colouration and precipitation. The leaves and stem have shown the presence of all the bioactive constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins etc. Flowers and seed show limited amount of phytoconstituents when compared to that of leaves and stem. Among the various extracts used, the ethanolic extract of Macrotyloma uniflorum leaves and stem were found to have accountsable number of phytoconstituents.

35

ROLE OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI IN RESTORATION OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

Aishwarya.S, Venkateswarlu.N, Chandra mouli.K, Vijaya.T*.

Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517 502, A.P, India.

Abstract

Heavy metal contaminated soils may pose risk and hazards to humans and the ecosystem. Therefore, in order to maintain good quality of soil and keep them free from contamination, continuous efforts have been made to develop technologies that are easy to use, sustainable and economically feasible. Physiochemical approaches have been widely used for remedying polluted soil. However they experience more difficulties for a large scale of remediation because of high costs and side effects. Phytoremediation has been proposed as a low cost, environmental friendly and effective method to remove toxicants from contaminated soils. However phytoremediation of heavy metal still has to deal with some important shortcomings such as phytotoxicity, slower than mechanical method and a limited mechanical uptake. Neverthless plant-associated endophytes can overcome these constraints, which can assist plants to accumulate higher amount of metals without increasing phytotoxicity. Many endophytic fungi have been found to be resistant to heavy metals and / or capable of degrading organic contaminates and endophyte- assisted phytoremediation has been documented as a promising technology for insitu remediation of contaminated soils. Fungi posses the biochemical and ecological capacity to decrease the risk associated with metals, metalloids and radionuclide’s either by chemical modification or by influencing chemical bioavailability. Furthermore the ability of fungi from extended mycelial networks makes them well suitable for bioremediation processes. The application of filamentous fungi can be a promising method or a valuable complement in situation of bacterial malfunction, in which bacterial cells fail to form the mycelia network to react with contaminants. This paper reviews the heavy metal resistant endophytic fungi and their role in phytoremediation and discuss some issues that have been raised surrounding this area of research

36

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF 5-SUBSTITUTED PHENYL-N-(6-(PROPYLTHIO)-1H-BENZO[D]IMIDAZOL-2-YL)-1, 3, 4-OXADIAZOL-2-AMINES

K. Blessi Priyanka, G.Sammaiah

University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Telangana,India.

Abstract

A series of 5-substituted phenyl-N-(6-(propylthio)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1, 3, 4-oxadiazol-2-amines were prepared by treating substituted 2-benzylidene-N-(6-(propylthio)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) hydrazine carboxamides with Chloramine T. The newly synthesized derivatives were screened against cytotoxic activity using MTT assay method using MCF, HEPG2 and HCT-116. The compounds showed dose dependent activity. Among the compounds showed IVC (4-Cl) was active against MCF, IVB (4-OH) was active against HCT-116,IVA (H) was active against HEPG2 cell lines.

37

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS DERIVED FROM DELONIX ELATA AND CLERODENDRUM PHLOMIDIS

K.Balaji*, D.Kilimozhi

Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, India.

Abstract

The aim of the presentwork is to investigate the active components present in the leaf of Delonix elata and Clerodendrum phlomidis. The plant leaf was collected and extracted with ethanol continuously for 24 hours in soxhlet apparatus,the phytochemical screening tests was conducted in ethanol extract, The crude ethanol extract indicates tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoid and terpenes. Based on preliminary phytochemical screening tests the ethanol extract was subjected column chromatography with different solvent fractions. Hence, one compoundwas isolated from ethanol extract of Delonix elata and another one compound was isolated from ethanol extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis.The compound 1 was eluted with benzene: Chloroform 90:10 v/v and compound 2 were eluted with ethyl acetate: methanol 80:20 v/v. The structures of both isolated compounds were characterized by using FT-IR, NMR and Mass spectrophotometric methods. Thus, the compound 1 was characterized as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy phenyl)chroman-4-one (C16H14O6) from Delonix elataand compound 2 was characterized as 3,5b,8,8,11a-pentamethyl-2-(prop-l-en-2-yl)icosahydro-l-H-cyclopenta[a]chrysene-9-ol(C30H50O2) from Clerodendrum phlomidis Therefore, further biological investigations need to be carried out isolated compounds present in this plants.

38

SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION &VALIDATION OF TWO DIFFERENT WITHANOLIDES IN WITHANIA SOMNIFERA USING VARIOUS CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES

Jay Savai1* Nancy Pandita2 and Meena Chintamaneni1

1Department of Pharmacology, Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel, School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM’s NMIMS, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai-400056, India.

2Department of Phytochemistry, School of Science, SVKM’s NMIMS, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai-400056, India.

Abstract

A rapid, sensitive, precise and robust high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and reverse phase high- performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of withaferin-A and withanolide-A in the methanolic extract of Withania somnifera. The HPTLC method for steroidal lactones was performed on F254TLC plates with toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol: formic acid (60:8:5:1) as mobile phase and densitometric determination was carried out at λ=220 nm in reflectance/absorbance mode. The calibration plots showed a good linear relationship in the concentration range of 400-3200 ng/band with r2= 0.999 for both withaferin-A and withanolide-A. The recovery for withaferin-A and withanolide-A was found to be 98.13% and & 99.16% respectively. Further, a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) gradient method with 0.01M phosphate buffer (pH 2.5 with orthophosphoric acid, A) and acetonitrile (B), was used as mobile phase & λ=220 nm was used as detection wavelength. Calibration curves for both the phytoconstituents were found to be linear in the range from 10-320 μg/ml. The correlation coefficients of linear regression analysis (r2) were found to be 0.989 & 0.9999 for withaferin-A and withanolide-A respectively, with respect to peak area. Further, % w/w recovery were found to be 98.16% and 98% for withaferin-A and withanolide-A respectively. Thus, the proposed HPTLC & RP-HPLC method provides a good resolution of withaferin-A and withanolide-A from other phytoconstituents present in the methanolic extract of roots of Withania somnifera and can be useful for their selective quantification.

39

POSSIBLE INVOLVEMENT OF FREE RADICALS AND ANTI-OXIDANT IN ACUTE STRESS INDUCED INFLAMMATION AND IMMUNITY IN RATS

Giridhari Pal1#,Jyotirmoyee Jena2,TruptiRekha Swain3,Arunabha Ray1

1Department of Pharmacology Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute University of Delhi, Delhi-110007.

2Department of Pharmacology VSS Medical College BurlaSambalpur University, Sambalpur, Odisha.

3Department of Pharmacology SCB Medical College Cuttack Utkal University Odisha.

Abstract

The present study was designed to evaluate the role of free radicals in restraint stress (RS)-induced inflammation and modulation of immune responses in rats.The modulation of immune system and disruption of homeostasis occurs by any external or internal stimulus which is known as stress. The results of the present study revealed that exposure to acute restraint stress (RSx1) significantly suppressed total and differential WBC counts however the changes in eosinophil and macrophages were found to be constant. Exposure to RS(x1) also suppressed cell-mediated immune responses in the delayed type hyper sensitivity (DTH) assay. Further, analysis of oxidative stress parameters revealed the increment of MDA and reduced GSH levels in blood. Pretreatment with the antioxidant L-ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg i.p) attenuated the RS induced modulation in the markers of immunity and oxidative stress. Hence, these results highlighted the participation of reactive oxygen species in stress-induced immunomodulation and inflammation as well as counteracting potential antioxidants in such aversive situations.

40

PSEUDOMONAS AS PLANT GROWTH PROMOTER FROM FIELDS AROUND AURANGABAD

Kalyani Murthy, Ramya Rompicherla and Krishna Deshmukh

Dept of Biotechnology, MGM’s Institute of Biosciences &Technology, Aurangabad, India.

Abstract

Plants acquire phosphorus from soil solution as phosphate anions, which, however, are extremely reactive and may be immobilized throughprecipitation withcations such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+ and Al3+, depending on the particular properties of a soil. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from soil samples of fields in and around Aurangabad, and tested for phosphate solubilization, to solubilize insoluble inorganic phosphate such as tricalcium phosphate.The isolates are also tested for their capability to increase plant growth parameters ( related to the IAA production) in germinating seed bioassay and siderophore production under iron-limiting conditions. From the study, Pseudomonas isolates exhibited the plant growth promoting abilities by showing a substantial increase in length of germinated seedlings through IAA production, solubilized inorganic insoluble phosphates in the soil and as well can be used in iron deficient soils. Thus, we can conclude that Pseudomonas aeruginosa. can be used as plant growth promoter by applying as seed treatment prior to germination and also to increase availability of phosphorus and iron in soils.

41

A STUDY ON THE ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF SCUTELLARIA WIGHTIANA BENTH AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITIES

Sripathi.S and Subban Ravi*

Department of Chemistry, Karpagam University, Coimbatore-21, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

The chemical composition of the essential oil from scutellaria wightiana benth was determined by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil consist of 17 compounds comprising sesquterpenoids(40.83%), oxygenated monoterpenes (16.5%) and monoterpenes(0.69%). Linoleic acid 1 was isolated from the methanolic extract and characterized by IR, NMR and MS spectral methods. Larvicidal activity of the essential oil against the larva Aedes eagypti was studied on different concentration of essential oil solution. The essential oil showed a LC 50 value of 47 ppm. Methanol extract of S.wightiana showed antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 60 μg/ml and 62 μg/ml for DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays respectively.

42

A STUDY ON DISEASE BURDEN ASSOSCIATED WITH ABNORMAL WEIGHT IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

Sangram Vurumadla*, Sagar Koona, Bhanu Chander Lakkarasu, Venkateshwarlu Konuru

Department of Pharmacy Practice, St. Peter’s Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hanamkonda, Warangal, Telangana, India,506001.

Abstract

Objective: The current study was performed with an aim to determine the disease burden associated with underweight overweight, obesity class-1 and obesity class-2 individuals and to determine disease burden of hypertension, type 2-diabetes milletus, coronary heart disease, osteoarthritis, hypothyroidism, and other co-morbidities in abnormal weight individuals. Methodology: It was a comparative study carried for nine months from January 2014 to September 2014. The study was conducted in south India in selected districts of Telangana such as Hyderabad, Karimnagar, Khammam and Medak. The survey protocol included a home interview and a standardized physical examination in the subject’s home and personal interviews. Based on BMI, subjects were distributed into weight status categories according to NHLBI&WHO classification. Patients with various comorbidities were recorded and noted in different status categories. Results: A total 2600 population was enrolled in the study. In total population 1136 (43.69%) were healthy population and 1464 (56.30%) were disease population. In healthy population 84(70.00%), 751(69.52%), 236(33.90%), 226 (27.39%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, obesity respectively. In disease population 36 (30.00%), 369 (38.48%), 460 (66.09%), 599(72.60%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese respectively. Conclusion: Our study concludes that Disease burden has been elevated two folds with overweight and three folds with obesity in disease population as compared to healthy population overweight and obesity weight status categories. Disease burden is directly proportional to weight status i.e. with increasing body weight disease burden was found to be elevated in our study.

43

DETERMINATION OF QUERCETIN IN LOTUS LEAVES EXTRACT AND GLYCYRRHIZIN IN LIQUORICE ROOTS EXTRACT BY SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC METHODS

RESHMA JAIN, SADHANA RAJPUT*

Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance Laboratory, Centre of Relevance and Excellence in Novel Drug Delivery System, Pharmacy Department, G. H. Patel Building, Donor’s Plaza, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Fatehgunj, Vadodara, Gujarat, India – 390 002.

Abstract

A simple, accurate, sensitive and reproducible spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the analysis of quercetin in lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaves extract and glycyrrhizin in liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract. Quercetin and glycyrrhizin show strong fluorescence in methanol having excitation wavelength at 242nm and 272nm respectively. The emission wavelength of quercetin and glycyrrhizin were obtained 515nm and 545nm respectively. The calibration curves for quercetin and glycyrrhizin were linear in the range from 10-70ng/ml and 100-600pg/ml respectively. The proposed methods were statistically validated and successfully applied in extracts. The limit of detection for glycyrrhizin and quercetin were found to be 0.28ng/ml and 4.65ng/ml respectively. The limit of quantification for quercetin and glycyrrhizin were found to be 0.83ng/ml and 14.11pg/ml respectively. The percentage recovery was found to be in the range of 98% and 101%.

44

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF NOVEL PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES

Farhana Begum*1, Osman Ahmed2, Md. Salahuddin3, Nishat Fatima4

1Department of Pharmacology, Anwar-ul-uloom College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana. India.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana. India.

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Farooqia College of Pharmacy, Mysore, Karnataka, India.

4Department of Pharmacology, Shadan Women’s College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana. India.

Abstract

To amalgamate and characterize atypical pyrimidine derivatives and awning them for anti-hyperglycemic activity. A alternation of four 6, 7-dihydro-3-aceto commissioned pentaleno [2, 1-d] pyrimidin-4-one derivatives (PM1-PM4) were actinic from 2-amino-3, 4, 5, 6-tetra hydro pentalene-1-carboxamide. The actinic compound, characterized on the base of satisfactory analytic and ashen (H1NMR, C13Mass and Elemental) data. Studies were agitated out for the actinic compounds which were as well evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic action by Alloxan model method. Pioglitazone is acclimated as accepted anti-hyperglycemic agents. The actinic compounds showed acceptable anti-hyperglycemic activity, compared to accepted drugs. Two of the compounds PM1 and PM3 apparent cogent anti-hyperglycemic activity, as compared to accepted biologic Pioglitazone. We address the acknowledged amalgam of atypical pyrimidine derivative, as able-bodied as their ashen characterization

45

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF MICONAZOLE NITRATE AND BETAMETHASONE VALERATE IN BULK POWDER AND IN TOPICAL CREAM

Afaf Abou-elkheir*, Hanaa M. Saleh , Magda M. El-Henawee  and Basma S. Ghareeb.

Faculty of pharmacy, Zagazig university, Egypt.

Abstract

Three methods are developed for simultaneous determination of Miconazole Nitrate and Betamethasone valerate without previous separation. The first method depends on first derivative of the ratio spectra by measurements of the amplitudes at 230 nm for Miconazole nitrate and at 240 and 256 nm for Betamethasone valerate. The second method depends on measuring the absorbance at the isosbestic point at 231.5 nm for the total concentration of both drugs while the concentration of Betamethasone valerate is determined by direct spectrophotometric method at λ max 250 nm in the presence of Miconazole nitrate, the concentration of Miconazole nitrate is calculated by subtraction. The third method involved application of the bivariate calibration algorithm for spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of the mixture. The zero-order spectra of standard drugs are found to be overlapped making their simultaneous determination difficult but applying the proposed methods to the spectral data of the mixture, both MIC and B-Val concentrations could be determined without any interference.All the proposed methods were validated. They have the advantage of being economic and time saving and can be readily utilized for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations. The results obtained by the proposed methods were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by reference methods.

46

EVALUATION AND BIOPHARMACEUTICAL ASPECTS OF SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A NOVEL REVIEW

Prasad V. Patrekar1, Sachin S. Mali*2, Bhagyashri P. Kumbhar2, Sujata D. Dongare2, Avinash H. Hosmani3

1Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University, Jhunjhunu, Rajastan, India.

2Adarsh Institute of Pharmacy, Vita, Maharashtra, India.

3Govt. College of Pharmacy, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Self- emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) is the unique trend in the recent era in the novel drug delivery system. SEDDS are usually used to improve the bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. Self micro emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) or self micro emulsifying oil formulation (SEOF) is defined as isotropic mixture of oil and surfactants or alternatively one or more hydrophilic solvents and co-solvents. Composition of SEDDS includes oils, surfactants, co solvent/co surfactant and other components. To get a clear picture of all these different systems and due to large number of possible excipients combinations that may be used to assemble SEDDS systems in particular classification system established called lipid formulation classification system (LFCS). According to ‘Reiss’, self emulsification occurs when change in entropy that favors dispersion greater than the energy required to increase the surface area of the dispersion. Pseudo ternary phase diagram is used to map the optimal composition range for three key excipients according to the resulting droplet size following self-emulsification, stability upon dilution and viscosity. SEDDS system is developed from many needs of the society and industry which forms many more advantages over the other drug delivery. Potential limitations to the application of self-emulsifying formulation include poor chemical stability of the drug substance due to excipients catalyzed degradation and precipitation of drug substance in excipients matrix. A greater understanding of chemical and physical mechanism surrounding this incompatibility is needed to resolve this issue and unlock the full potential of self emulsifying formulation.

47

REVIEW ON: SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG

Sachin S. Gaikwad*, Rahul S. Mhalaskar, Yogesh D. Mahale, Nitin P. Jain

SND College of Pharmacy, Babhulgaon, Yeola, Dist-Nashik 423401 Maharashtra (INDIA).

Abstract

Solubility is one of the important parameter to attain desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for pharmacological response to be shown. It is vital to improve the solubility and dissolution rate for poorly soluble drugs since these drugs possess low absorption and bioavailability. About 40% of all new chemical entity has poor bioavailability. Increasing the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs will be one of the biggest challenges for formulation scientists in the future. This review is intended to discuss thoroughly the various traditional novel techniques like sono crystallization, spray freezing in to liquid, pearl milling, solid dispersion, salt formation and pH adjustment etc. for solubility enhancement of hydrophobic drugs for oral pharmaceutical formulation and also tried to focus on the polymers used for to achieve solubility enhancement, process of Solubilization and factor affects on it. In this article we focused on, solubility of the drug is the most significant factor and prime requirement for to achieve good bioavaibility after the absorption of drug so it is most critical factor in the formulation development.

48

A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY ON ADVERSE DRUG REACTION MONITORING IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL – ITS DETECTION AND MANAGEMENT.

*Jiguru prasant, Abhilash mallela ,kavya goli ,Ajay reddy ,Anusha kandulla.

Department of doctor of pharmacy,Krishna institute of medical science’s & Bharat institute of technology (pharmacy)Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Abstract

Adverse drugs reactions (ADRs) are noxious, unintended, and undesirable effects that occur as are sult of drug treatment at doses normally used in man for diagnosis, prophylaxis ,and treatment. During the course of treatment, drugs prescribed to patients produce certain effects other than the desired or expected effects. These cause concern both to the physician and the patient. Unfortunately, inspite of presence of five well- organized centers for drug monitoring in the country, the number of reports sent annually are dismal. The primary objective of this study To detect, confirm and document suspected adverse drug reaction in hospitalized patients and To evaluate the documented adverse drug reactions (ADRs) for causality, severity, and preventability assessment. The result obtained was A total of 137 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were documented from 112 patients during the study period from various departments in hospital. Among 112 patients, 94 patients were adults and geriatrics and 18 were pediatrics. During the study period there was no ADRs related hospital admission. In the end 75 ADRs were documented from 47 Male and 44 ADRs were documented from 47 Female.(ADRs) reported from male patients were 64% which was found to be higher than female patients of 36%. Maximum number of ADRs were reported between age group of 31-45 years. Well trained pharmacist in the area of ADRs detection, reporting and monitoring could prove as an asset providing better patient care.

49

RANOLAZINE: A NEW DRUG INDICATED FOR THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC ANGINA

Haritha Allu*, Prasad Reddy M, Kupili Sai Kiran, P.S.S. Durga Devi, K. R. Vinay Rajan, Penugonda Vineela.
Doctor of Pharmacy, GIET School of Pharmcy, NH-16,Chaitanya Knowledge City, GIET Campus, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Ranolazine is a new drug indicated for the treatment of chronic angina. Ranolazine has a novel mechanism of action of inhibiting the late sodium current during ventricular depolarization. A number of clinical trials have demonstrated the ability of ranolazine to increase exercise tolerance, decrease weekly anginal episodes, and effective in reducing angina symptoms. Ranolazine should be reserved for patients who have not achieved an adequate response with other antianginal drugs as ranolazine is identified to extend the QT interval. The therapeutic dose choice of 500 to 1000 mg twice daily is generally well tolerated, with constipation, nausea, asthenia, and dizziness being the most common adverse events reported. Ranolazine is extensively metabolized predominantly through the CYP3A4 pathway with a small amount excreted in the urine unchanged. Ranolazine is contraindicated in patients with hepatic impairment and have severe renal insufficiency should be more closely monitored for side effects. Ranolazine has been studied in wide range of clinical patient subgroups with chronic angina, is effective, and is usually well tolerated. There are few data in blacks, Hispanics, and Asians. The reduction in HbA1c levels in diabetic subjects that were observed in the CARISA trial requires prospective validation.

50

EVALUATION OF ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI - INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AMIRTHA KANTHI KUKIL VALLATHY-A POLYHERBAL SIDHA DRUG.

Salaikarthikayan1, Mahesh kumar2*, Tamilkuyil3, Kanimozhi4

1 Govt.Primary Health Centre, Kabisthalam, Tanjavur.

2Sri Ramachandra Medical college &Research Institute, Porur, Chennai.

3 Rajas Dental College & Hospital,Thirurajapuram, kavalkinaru.

4 Sivaraj Siddha Medical College, salem.

Abstract

Amirtha Kanthi Kukill Vallathy (AKKV), a Siddha herbal medicine is traditionally used for Osteoarthritis to manage pain and inflammation. So the study was carried out to test the analgesic and anti inflammatory effects of AKKV drug in animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by Tail flick method, acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carragneenan induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies. In the tail flick method, AKKV dosage of 500mg orally increased the tail withdrawal time significantly (P<0.001) when compared to the control group. In carrageenan induced paw oedema model, AKKV drug showed significant (P<0.001) inhibition at 1st hr, 2nd hr, 3rd hr and 4th hr. At the 3rd hr, the test drug showed maximum percentage of (66.2%) inhibition than the standard drug. The results of cotton pellet granuloma method indicated that AKKV drug significantly (P<0.001) reduced the wet (30.57%) and dry weight (48.4%) of the cotton pellet granuloma. From the result it can be concluded that the trial drug AKKV has potent analgesic and anti inflammatory properties which confirmed the traditional use of this drug for clinical conditions.

51

“MICROWAVE ASSISTED IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERISATION, AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF NEWLY SYNTHESIZED 1,2,4 – TRIAZOLYL, N – BENZOTHIAZOLYL, N-BENZIMIDAZOLYL SUBSTITUTED PYRAZOLES”

Shrikant A. Wadhal

Department of chemistry, Shri Shivaji ScienceCollege, Amravati - 444603, M.S. India.

Abstract

The main objective was to synthesize and characterize novel 5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazolyl, benzothiazolyl and benzimidazolyl substituted pyrazoles and screen them for antimicrobial activity. The compounds were synthesized by green chemistry technique. A series of 1-(5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-3yl)-3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles (3a-c), 1-N-benzimidazol—2-yl-3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles (5a-c), 1-N-benzothiazol-2-yl-3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles (7a-c) were prepared from corresponding substituted 1,3-propanediones and 2-hydrazino heterocyclyl compound. Antimicrobial study of these series of compounds was implemented with respect to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia. Structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by the IR, 1HNMR and mass spectral analysis. In Antimicrobial study , the tested compound 1-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-3-(2-hydroxy- phenyl)-5-phenyl pyrazole (7c) showed potent activity against Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and compound 1-benzimidazol-3-yl -3-(2 hydroxy-5-methyl phenyl)-5-phenyl pyrazole (5a) showed potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli. Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia The selected compounds may be used to design more potent biologically active compounds.

52

A Review on Antidiabetic and Cardioprotective activity of Enicostema littorale, Momordica charantia and Gymnema sylvestre

Kaushik B. Kanada1, N. M. Patel2, M. M. Patel1

1Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu Institute of Pharmacy, Vasan, Gandhinagar, Gujarat

2Laxminarayan Dev college of Pharmacy, Bholav, Bharuch, Gujarat

Abstract

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine and used in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45,000 plant species and among them 800 plants have been claimed to possess antidiabetic properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes has shown anti-diabetic property. There is considerable need for safe agents that can reduce risk for diabetes in at-risk subjects. The reviews of various plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. In present, Enicostemma littorale, Gymnema sylvestre and Momordica charantia have been reviewed for their antidiabetic and cardioprotective properties.