IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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NOVEMBER 2013
1

A Study on Insulin Usage among Diabetic Patients in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Sankaralingam Ramalakshmi1*, Siddharapu Madhuri 2, Kaliamurthy Kousalya 1, Punniyakotti Saranya 1

1Lecturers, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai,India

2M.Pharm, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, India

 

Abstract

The achievement and maintenance of optimal glycemic control are critical steps among diabetics to prevent complication. The discovery of insulin has been a cornerstone for diabetes care. The continued prevalence of the disorder and the changing prescribing patterns with the fluctuating blood sugar level indicate to evaluate the clinical management of this disorder. Hence this Cross-sectional observational study was carried out in the Department of General Medicine, Sri Ramachandra University, India for a period of 6 months. The demographic and treatment details of patients were collected in a structured data collection form and analyzed. Data of 350 patients were collected and analyzed, of which 47.4 % were male and 52.2% were female. The mean age was 58.6 ±9.26 years. Insulin as monotherapy was observed for 39.71% patients and 60.28% patients were prescribed with combination therapy.  The most commonly prescribed insulin was Human Mixtard 30/70 and combination of Insulin ® with Insulin (Neutral) which had a better glycemic control among our study population. The preferred oral hypoglycemic agent was metformin which was well tolerated in patients who were willing to continue with oral therapy. From the study findings it can be concluded that the prescribing trend of insulin was away from monotherapy and individualized according to patients need.

2

ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ACANTHUS ILICIFOLIUS ROOT EXTRACT IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

G. Venkataiah*, Mohammed Ishtiaq Ahmed, D. Sudharshan Reddy, Mary Rejeena

Department of pharmacology, Smt.Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Seshadrinagar, Mahabubnagar, A.P, India.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the preliminary phytochemical screening and anti-diabetic activity of the ethanolic extract of Acanthus ilicifolius roots in albino wistar rat models. The ethanolic extract of Acanthus ilicifolius root was prepared using 97% ethanol 72 hrs by maceration. The extract was distilled and concentrated.  A single oral dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract was evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose level was determined at different time intervals i.e. acute and sub-acute and the histopathological studies were done for determination of the regeneration of β cells. Dosage of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract significantly decreased blood glucose levels in diabetic rats after 5 h, 3 hr respectively in acute study and 1st day in sub-acute study. The histopathological study has shown better regeneration of β cells at both doses of extract. The obtained results have shown that the Acanthus ilicifolius root ethanolic extract shown the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins and steroids and also has a potent anti-diabetic activity in wistar rats further investigation is required by using the purified compound to evaluate and isolation of the phytochemicals responsible for the anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Acanthus ilicifolius root.

3

AN OVERVIEW ON QUALIFICATION OF EQUIPMENT – AN IDEAL APPROACH FOR EQUIPMENT VALIDATION

N.Sharanya*, P.Ramasubramaniyan, P.Jeyashree, T.Srinag, Palanichamy.S, Solairaj.P

Department of Pharmaceutics, Sankaralingam Bhuvaneswari College of Pharmacy, Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Qualification as a part of validation is the task performed to identify or check that utilities, equipment and ancillary systems are capable of operating within limits for their intended use. Risk based qualification is the approach through which the products quality is improved & effort for carrying out validation is reduced. ICH Q9, Quality Risk Management (QRM) can be applied for the study of qualification. The scope and extent of qualification studies can be determined by applying the risk management principles. ICH Q7a assures data as well as product integrity.  The main aim is to qualify and optimize the equipment. Plan of the work is to carry out this qualification which involves verification and documentation procedures, preparation of protocols, approval of protocols, performance of qualification process, preparation of reports and approval of reports. The review article provides information on Design Qualification which is done to identify whether the proposed design of facilities, system and equipment is suitable for intended purpose, Installation Qualification which is done to check whether the equipment is built and installed in compliance with design specification, Operational Qualification in which the process parameters shall be challenged to assure that product meets all requirements and finally Performance Qualification to demonstrate that the process will produce acceptable product consistently under normal operating conditions. Finally we concluded that the equipment is successfully qualified and the risks such as variation in compression parameters are minimized.

4

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GLIBENCLAMIDE AS EXTENDED RELEASE DOSAGE FORM SYSTEM

Amit KumarI*, Peeyush SharmaI, Rajesh Verma2, Imran Khan Pathan2 and Anil Bhandari2

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur.

Abstract

The main objective of this research work was to formulate and optimize Extended release solid dispersions (SDs) of a poorly water soluble drug glibenclamide (GLB) using water insoluble ethyl cellulose (EC) and water soluble Polyvinyl pyrrolidone  (PVP) by solvent evaporation, suspending and dissolving method in different weight ratios of polymers. Hydrophobic interactions between GLB and intact EC explained the delay of GLB release in acid pH region. The physical state of the drug in the polymer matrices were studied by classical techniques such as DSC, PXRD, SEM and FT-IR. The results indicated that homogeneous or heterogeneous conditions during the preparation methods employed governed the internal structures of the polymer matrices while retaining the drug in an amorphous form. F8 formulation prepared with GLB: EC: PVP (1:1:3) by dissolving method was subjected to tablet preparation by direct compression and complied with pharmacopoeial and pharmacotechnical standards. The tablets displayed extended drug release followed by Higuchi matrix model (r2=0.9929) indicating diffusion release of GLB from polymer matrices.  In conclusion,this study demonstrates the high potential of dissolving techniques for obtaining SDs of poorly water soluble drugs using with desired release profile.

5

STANDARDIZATION OF ETHANOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS

Pritesh Shah*, Dr. Yadunath Joshi, Ms. Swati Dhande, Dr. Vilasrao Kadam.

Department of Pharmacology, Bharati’s Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy, Sector -8, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614.

Abstract

Liver is among the organs most susceptible to the toxic effects of ethanol. Ethanol induced liver injury is one of the widely used animal model to induce hepatotoxicity in rats. The dose and concentration of ethanol required to induce liver injury varies to a great extent. The aim of the study was to standardize the dose of ethanol to induce liver injury, for selection in future model to assess hepatoprotection of the extract. Varying doses of 40% ethanol i.e 4 gms/kg of body weight/day, 7.9 gms/kg of body weight/day and 15.78 gms/kg of body weight/day were given orally for 21 days to induce liver injury in female Sprague Dawley rats. Blood was collected terminally and serum parameters of the liver enzymes like alkaline phosphate (ALP), Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), Serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and Total Bilirubin (TB) were estimated to determine the level of liver injury. A histopathological analysis of the liver tissue was also done to assess the extent of liver injury. Elevated serum parameters indicated that different doses of 40% ethanol had resulted in liver injury, but histhopathological studies revealed there was only hepatocellular degeneration which is less ideal for chronic model of heppatotoxicity. Thus there is need to increase dose of ethanol and/or duration of treatment with ethanol to induce sufficient liver damage.

6

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND QSAR STUDIES OF SOME 1, 3, 4-OXADIAZOLE BASED SCHIFFS BASES

PP. Naik*1, RR. Somani2, PY. Shirodkar1, SO. Waghulde1, PV Juvatkar1, MK Kale1, A Jadhav1

1Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Konkan Gyanpeeth Rahul Dharkar College of Pharmacy, Dahivali, Karjat, Dist. Raigad, India. 410201. Email: pravin.aazcom@gmail.com

2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, V.E.S. College of Pharmacy, Chembur, Mumbai, India.

 

Abstract

Oxadiazoles have occupied a unique place in the field of medicinal chemistry due to its wide range of activities. The oxdiazole derivatives have been reported to have various biological activities. With this background and our continuous interest in 1,3,4- Oxadiazole chemistry, in the present study a series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole based Schiff’s bases (4a-4i) were synthesized and characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their preliminary in-vitro anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-tubercular activities. For anti-bacterial study E. coli and S. aureus are used as test cultures and streptomycin used as standard compound. For anti-fungal study C. albicans and A. niger are used as test cultures and griseofulvin used as standard compound. Compound 4h showed better anti-fungal activity. For anti-tubercular study, M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain used as test culture and Pyrazinamide and streptomycin are used as controls. In anti-tubercular study compounds 4e, 4f, 4h, 4i and 4c exhibited activity at concentration of 50µg/mL, while the compounds 4d and 4g were found active at 100µg/mL. The QSAR study suggested that polarity, lipophilicity and thermodynamic stability were the major contributing parameters for exhibiting anti-fungal activity. Based on the above details, ten new molecules of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives with anticancer activity have been studied. The QSAR results can offer a theoretical reference for the pharmaceutical synthesis.

7

Utilization of Antenatal Care Services among Pregnant Women in the Rural and Urban Areas of Uttarakhand

Aparna Sharma*1, Prashant Mathur1, and Preeti Kothiyal2

Department of 1Clinical Pharmacy & 2Pharmacology, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology & Science, Patel Nagar, Dehradun-248001

Abstract

Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy for reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rate because adequate utilization of ANC services is associated with improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Out of 550 pregnant women who participated in the study, 103(18.7%) said they always attended ANC. Whereas 121(22%) women said they attended ANC sometimes. 326(59.3%) women said they never attended ANC earlier. 321(58.4%) women had heard of ANC earlier out of which 187(58.3%) knew the services rendered at ANC clinic. The most common source of ANC information for rural women was ASHA and for urban women was hospital. The major factors responsible for influencing the utilization of ANC services by the pregnant women included the lack of knowledge about the existing ANC services in 245(44.5%) women, followed by attitude of the health care professional (HCP) in 80(14.6%) women, availability of facilities at the clinic in 79(14.4%) women, and husband’s acceptance of the services rendered in 30(5.5%) women. Other factors listed by the pregnant women were accessibility and affordability of ANC services, schedule of ANC, religious and cultural acceptance of services and language barrier.This study shows the poor utilization of ANC services in the urban and rural areas of Uttarakhand and enables the HCP to determine the factors causing irregular utilization of ANC services in this region. It will also help the government to develop and implement new policies towards encouraging proper utilization of ANC services, which will help to reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates.
8

EXTRACTIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE 4 INHIBITORS IN BULK AND THEIR PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

Arpit Patwari 1*, Bhanubhai Suhagia 2, Raj Solanki 1

1 Department of Quality Assurance, L.M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

2Faculty of Pharmacy, Dharamsinh Desai University, Nadiad, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

A new economic, industrially acceptable and readily adaptable method has been developed following a complexation (acid-dye method) between Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor drugs and dyes like Bromocresol green (BCG) and Bromothymol blue (BTB) and validated for determination of these drugs in bulk and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. Drugs used during analysis i.e. Sitagliptin phosphate (SGP) and Vildagliptin (VIL) were reacted with BCG and BTB in presence of acetate buffer pH 4.1. The colored complex formed was extracted with chloroform and the absorbance of the solutions were noted which followed a beer’s law in concentration range of 5-50μg/mL for Drug-BTB complex and 10-50μg/mL for Drug-BCG complex with correlation coefficient close to 0.998. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines for accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The developed spectrophotometric method has the advantages of speed, simplicity, sensitivity and more affordable instrumentation and could find application as a rapid and sensitive analytical method for Sitagliptin phosphate and vildagliptin.

9

REVIEW ON OXYGEN HETEROCYCLES

Parminderjit Kaur1, Rashmi Arora2, N.S Gill2

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Rayat Institute of Pharmacy, Ropar, Punjab, India

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Rayat Institute of Pharmacy, Ropar, Punjab, India

Abstract

‘Oxygen heterocycles’ is the second major class of organic heterocyclic compounds. Many naturally occurring oxygen heterocycles such as sugars, vitamins, hormones, antibiotics and pigments are biologically active compounds. Oxirane is saturated three-membered oxygen heterocycle constituting the nucleus of antibacterial drug fosfomycin. (−)-Ovalicin, a fungal product containing two oxirane rings inhibits the growth of solid tumors by preventing the growth of new capillary blood vessels. Therapeutically important four membered oxygen heterocycle is oxetane which constitutes the nucleus of anti cancer drug, paclitaxel. Saturated five-membered oxygen heterocycles occur widely in nature, especially in simple sugars. The anti – arrhythmic drug, amiodarone contains Benz-fused furan nucleus. Six-membered fused tetrahydropyran nuclei are found in essential natural products, such as Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol). Doxepin is an anti depressant drug constituting the seven membered oxepin nucleus. The present review attempts to survey the literature of oxygen containing heterocyclic compounds and highlights their applications in medicine.

10

APPLICATION OF THERMAL AND ISOTHERMAL METHODS FOR COMPATIBILITY STUDIES OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE WITH CARBOPOL POLYMERS

Preeti Karwa*1, P V Kasture2, Ritu Kimbahune1

1Al Ameen College of Pharmacy, Hosur Road, Near Lalbagh Main Gate, Bangalore

2Padm. Dr. D Y Patil College of Pharmacy, Akurdi, Pune.

Abstract

Assessment of compatibility of drug with excipients helps not only in systemic selection of excipients for formulation development but also in developing strategies to mitigate stability related problems in the dosage forms. In the present investigation drug-excipients compatibility study was conducted for Metoprolol Succinate with Carbopol as polymers for development of controlled drug delivery system using non-thermal, thermal and isothermal methods.While the results of Infrared studies (non-thermal) indicated compatibility, the differential scanning calorimeter (thermal) thermograms showed physical incompatibility among drug and polymers. The literature review about physical behaviour of Carbopol at high temperature prompted to undertake isothermal stress testing by HPLC.  The results of isothermal stress testing were studied, interpreted carefully and can be concluded that Metoprolol Succinate and Carbopol polymers were found to be compatible.

11

FORCED DEGRADATION STUDY OF ALVERINE CITRATE IN ACID BY UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRY METHOD

M.Kumar1, A.Jerad Suresh2, G.Maheshkumar3 And V.Niraimathi*

1Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Tamil Nadu Dr.M.G.R Medical University, India.

Email id: kumarkpg123@gmail.com.

2Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Tamil Nadu Dr.M.G.R Medical University, India.

3Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Tamil Nadu Dr.M.G.R Medical University, India. 

Abstract

Alverine citrate has been studied under acid hydrolytic stress condition. The study can give the results, whether the Alverine citrate shows the stability or shows the degradation under the acidic condition. The degradation behavior of Alverine citrate was carried out as per the standard procedures and guidelines. The primary aim is to evaluate the stability of drug substance and formulation. Various stress conditions have been used to detect the stability of Alverine citrate. Forced acid hydrolytic degradation of Alverine citrate was performed in bulk and solid oral formulation using 0.1N Hydrochloric acid at room temperature in different time intervals such as 30mins, 60mins and 90mins. The resulting solutions were analyzed for content by UV spectrophotometry at the maximum absorption of 257nm. The assay value of Alverine citrate bulk and formulation was calculated at different time intervals for intraday and interday experiments. The assay values of Alverine citrate at the end of the 90mins study for standard and sample were 48.8% and 74.4% respectively. The assay values of Alverine citrate was found to be at the end of the 5th day study for the standard and sample were 15.2% and 56.0% respectively. Alverine citrate was found to degrade extensively under acidic conditions. Alverine citrate has to be stored under such condition where the possibility of acid hydrolysis does not arise.

12

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE GASTRO RETENTIVE FLOATING MICROBEADS

Babji Movva*, Dhavaleswarapu Lakshman Kumar, CH Deepthi, Sweta agarwal

Vignan Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Beside VSEZ, Duvvada, Visakhapatnam-530 046.

 

Pioglitazone hydrochloride is a thiazolidinedione class antidiabetic drug that acts primarily by decreasing insulin resistance. It has limited absorption window and more solubility in upper GIT. The present investigation for the formulation of pioglitazone hydrochloride micro beads as floating drug delivery was to prolong gastric residence time, to increase drug bioavailability and reducing the dosing frequency. Various batches of drug loaded micro beads are prepared by ionic gelation method with varying concentrations of sodium alginate carboxy methyl cellulose, HPMC, pectin and NaHCO3 as gas generating agent. All the batches showed good floating time and negligible floating lag time. Formulations with HPMC and alginate showed good floating characteristics and better delayed release than other formulations. The results showing that drug release from all formulations more relevantly followed by higuchi plots, indicating that drug release is mainly by diffusion principle.

13

Phytochemical Screening of Bioactive Compounds Present in the Seed of Celastrus paniculatus: Role in Traditional Medicine

Ch. Venkataramaiah and Wudayagiri Rajendra

Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plants are being used in modern medicine for the treatment of different human ailments.  Bioactive factors derived from the plants remain the basis of a large proportion of the commercial medication. Celastrus paniculatus (cp) is one of the important medicinal plants which being used to treat many human ailments. Extraction of bioactive constituents from the whole plant or from the different parts of the plant has always been a challenging task.  The seed extract has been extensively investigated in several laboratories for their neuropharmacological effects and a number of reports are available confirming their nootropic action. In addition, earlier investigations have reported the anti-psychiatric, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant and other pharmacological effects of CP seed extracts. Keeping in the view of relative importance of medicinal plant the primary focus of the present investigation is aimed at extraction and detection or screening of bioactive compounds from the different extracts of CP seed. Phytochemical screening of different extracts revealed the presence of reducing sugars, anthraquinones, phenols, flavanoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, phlobotannins, aldehydes /ketones, glycosides, saponins and tannins, which could account  for its varied medicinal properties like neuroprotective, antipsychiatric and diuretic effects. Among different kind of extracts, Methanol extract contains the majorities of bioactive compounds such as saponins, flavanoids, steroids, tannins, alkaloids, aldehydes and ketones, phenols and glycosides. Aqueous extract also posseses all constituents except phenols, aldehydes and ketones, Followed by Ethyl acetate, N-Butanol, Chloroform and N-Hexane extracts.

14

FORMULATION OF TIME DEPENDENT SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLET OF NIMODIPINE AND ITS EVALUATION USING LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS

Dr. Manish Jaimini, Bhawna Khurana*

 1Jaipur College of Pharmacy, affiliated to Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, Jaipur, India.

2Jaipur College of Pharmacy, affiliated to Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, Jaipur, India.

Abstract

The objective of the present study is to identify a release profile and propose of mechanism of dissolution of a sustained release tablet of Nimodipine. In order to overcome the drawbacks of conventional drug delivery systems, several technical advancements have led to the development of controlled drug delivery system that could revolutionize method of medication and provide a number of therapeutic benefits. Nimodipine is one such anti-hypertensive drug, where these problems are incurred. The objective of the proposed work was to design and develop Sustained release tablets of the given drug and to ensure time-dependent, sustained release formulation with optimizing the process variables. To understand the drug release mechanism, the data were fitted to Peppas equation. In the present study also it was observed that n value was obtained between (0.645 to 0.896) for all formulation. These values suggesting that more than one mechanism may be involved in release kinetic. The present research article defines the best release mechanism out of the optimized variables and the protocol for formulating with above said media. After bio-statistical analysis formulation NMP1 with Xanthan gum and sodium alginate shows Super Case II transport mechanism with n value as (0.896) therefore erosion mechanism play role release from natural gum.

15

FORCED DEGRADATION STUDY OF CEFUROXIME AXETIL IN ALKALI BY UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRY METHOD

G.MAHESH KUMAR1, A.JERAD SURESH2, KUMAR.M3, V.NIRAIMATHI*

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Madras Medical College, Chennai-600003, India.

Email id: gmahevasu@yahoo.com

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Madras Medical College, Chennai-600003, India.

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Madras Medical College, Chennai-600003, India.

Abstract

Forced degradation is a process whereby the natural degradation rate of a product is increased by the application of additional stress. A forced degradation study Cefuroxime axetil of has been performed under alkali condition. The study includes both Cefuroxime axetil in bulk and tablet formulation. The study has been conducted based on available guidelines and main reference.  Cefuroxime axetil has a cepham ring in its structure. It is easily hydrolyzed by alkali. Extensive degradation was observed in alkali hydrolysis method, and the degraded products were analyzed by using UV spectrophotometry. The assay values of degraded products in different time intervals such as 30mins, 60mins, 90mins and 1st day, 3rd day, 5th day were analyzed by using UV spectrophotometry. Forced degradation was performed in bulk and tablet form using 0.1N NaOH. Cefuroxime axetil was subjected to alkali hydrolysis at different time intervals based on reference. The assay values of Cefuroxime axetil bulk and standard were found to be 64.3% and 81.9% respectively after intraday 90mins degradation. The assay value of Cefuroxime axetil bulk and standard at the end of the 1st day degradation were found to be 18.0% and 24.4% respectively.  Complete degradation of Cefuroxime axetil has been observed at the end of 3rd day degradation.  It was concluded that Cefuroxime axetil was found to be unstable under alkali condition.

16

EVALUATION OF DIURETIC AND LAXATIVE ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOL EXTRACT FROM IXORA PAVETTA LEAF

Sumanta Mondal*, Marouthu.I.P.Pushyami and S. Ganapaty

Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Ixora pavetta Andrews, (var.: I. Parviflora Vahl.) is a small tree or evergreen shrub belongs to the family Rubiaceae and is used for many ailments, especially for the treatment of chronic wounds, urinary diseases, skin infection, pulmonary troubles, liver disorder, hair tonic, sedative, diuretic, laxative, leucorrhoea and veneral diseases. Preliminary phytochemical screening of ethanol exract of Ixora pavetta leaf (EEIPL) showed the presence of flavonoides, tannins, saponins, gums, mucilages, carbohydrates, and proteins respectively. The diuretic and laxative activities of EEIPL were studied in albino rats. EEIPL significantly increased the urinary out put as well as urinary electrolyte concentration at a dose of 400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o., but the effect was found to be the less potent when compared with the reference standard (Furosemide-20 mg/kg, p.o.). Further, the ethanol extract increase in the ratio of concentration of excreted sodium and potassium ions indicates that the extract increase sodium ion excretion to a greater extent than potassium, which is a very essential requirement of an ideal diuretic with lesser hyperkalaemic side effect. Similarly the extract of I. pavetta leaf (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.), produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependent manner and 600 mg/kg, p.o., of the ethanol extract of I. pavetta leaf superior to that of the standard drug agar-agar (300mg/kg, p.o.) and sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o.). The results of this studies justify the use of Ixora pavetta leaf in traditional medicine as diuretics and sigficantly accelerated stool frequency and suitable for constipation.

17

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF DORIPENEM AND ERTAPENEM IN BULK AND INJECTION FORMULATIONS BY MBTH REAGENT

Dr. K. Raghu Babu1 , N. Aruna kumari2, R. Vijaya Lakshmi3 , Dr. A. Vasundhara4

1 Department of Engg.Chem, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India.

2Department of HBS, GIET, Rajahmundry, India.

3Department of Analysis, GIET School of Pharmacy, Rajahmundry, India.

4Department of Chemistry, SKR College for Women, Rajahmundry, India.

Abstract

Two simple and cost effective spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of Doripenem and Ertapenem in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the formation of green colored chromogen when the drug reacts with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) in presence of an oxidizing agent FeCl3.  The colored species has an absorption maximum at 397 nm for Doripenem (Method A) / Ertapenem (Method B) and obeys beer’s law in the concentration range of 0.04-0.16 µg/mL for both Doripenem and Ertapenem.  The apparent molar absorptivities were 0.0145, 0.0108 and sandell’s sensitivity was 1x10-3 for both Doripenem and Ertapenem. The slopes were 0.3371±0.01885, 0.2611 ± 0.004327, and intercept of the equation of the regression line are 0.2266 ± 0.0070, 0.1997 ± 0.0026 for Doripenem and Ertapenem respectively. The optimum experimental parameters for the reaction have been studied and the validity of the described procedure was assessed. Statistical analysis of the results has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Doripenem and Ertapenem in pharmaceutical formulations. 

18

QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF SOME PHYSICO CHEMICAL PARAMETERS FOR THE MEDICINALLY USEFUL NATURAL PRODUCTS

W. Prathyusha, V. Sai Thanuja, K. Srujana Reddy, G. Rohith, Koyel Kar, Aditya Sethi, D. Archana, S. Vasavi, P. Maheswari, P. Niranjini. L. Vimalacharitha, A. G. Damodar and B. R. Prashantha Kumar*

Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, Mysore 570015 and Ootacamund 643001, India.

Abstract

 

Lipinski’s rule of five is widely used as a primary filter for screening compounds for their drug ability. In light of some literatures claiming the rules will not be fit to the natural products due to their complex structures, we have made an attempt to calculate some of the physicochemical properties such as LogP, percentage of human absorption, cLogP, hydrogen bond donors, hydrogen bond acceptors, number of aromatic rings, number of carbon atoms, volume, dipole, MR were calculated for the biologically active natural products. The results obtained reveal that they do fall under Lipinski’s rule of five. The results obtained are reported here along with the illustration using statistical plots.

 
19

ROLE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

Santhosh Kumar N, *Kalaivanam. K                             

Dept. of Biochemistry, Shridevi Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Hospital, Tumkur, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus has been major problem in developed and developing countries. The progression of disorder cause prolonged exposure of vascular tissues to hyperglycaemia resulting in long-term microvascular/ macrovascular complications in the health; and nephropathy is one of them. The present study was designed to evaluate the Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid on microalbuminurea and HbA1c level in patients with diabetic nephropathy.  A randomized, open controlled clinical trial which includes 58 diabetic nephropathy patients (50men and 8 women) aged between 35–60 years who had diabetes for at least 5 years. The patients divided in to two groups such as positive control and Omega-3 Fatty Acid group. Each group contains 29 patients for evaluation of the parameters for four months follow-up for both control as well as Omega-3 Fatty Acid group, after 4 months of supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acid, it was found that, there is a significant decrease in values of microalbuminurea and HbA1c (Glycosylated haemoglobin) when compare to the positive control group. The result of study concludes that, the Omega-3 Fatty Acid significantly lowers urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and HbA1c in patients with diabetic nephropathy. So therefore supplementation of Omega -3 fatty acid may prevent the diabetic nephropathy

20

SYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NOVEL BENZOYL ARYLAMINO 6, 7 – DIHYDRO-5H-BENZO[C]THIOPHEN-4-ONE

Pramod L. Ingale*1 and Veena S. Kasture2

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Marathwada Mitra Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Sr. No. 4/17,sector No.34,Off Kalewadi Phata, Pimpri Road, PCNTDA, Thergaon(Kalewadi)Pune 411 033, 411033, Maharashtra.

2Sanjivani College of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Kopargaon, 423006, Maharashtra.

Abstract

A series of Benzoyl arylamino 6, 7 – dihydro-5H-benzo[c]thiophen-4-one synthesized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity. The target molecule were synthesized with the help of, 3-cyclohexadione, substituted aryl isothiocynates and phenacyl bromides. Synthesized compounds were further evaluated for their in-vitro anti-inflammatory action by Human Red Blood cell membrane stabilizing activity and protein denaturation, as well as for their anti-inflammatory activity in in-vivo model of acute inflammation the compounds were also evaluated for the antioxidant activity. Electron donating substituent on the 4 position of 3 phenylamino of 6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[c]thiophen-4-one  proved to be crucial for good activity. The compounds 4a-4d, 4h, 4i, and 4k-4l showed good activity in all the models. The benzo[c] thiophen-4-ones have proved to be a potential scaffold for anti-inflammatory activity. Results suggest the suitability of the designed molecular framework as a potential anti-inflammatory lead.

21

Formulation and Evaluation of Diclofenac Sodium Tablet using Isolated starch from Unripe Papaya Fruits as Disintegrant.

Puri A. V*., Puranik V.K., Kamble M. D., Tauro S. J.

Department of Pharmacognosy, St John Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Vevoor, Manor Road, Palghar (E), Dist-Thane-401404 M. S.

Abstract

The main objective of this research was to introduce and evaluate the disintegrant property of natural excipient like starch from unripe fruits of Papaya when used in tablet formulation. Pharmaceutical excipients developed from natural sources are economic. The unripe fruit of Papaya has high level of starch content and hence can be used as a raw material for starch isolation. Starch was isolated from green unripe papaya fruits using 0.5 N NaOH as Lye solution. Isolated starch was evaluated and used as a disintegrant in formulation of tablet using diclofenac sodium as model drug by wet granulation method. Studies indicate that starch so obtained is qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to Corn starch. The disintegration time of formulated tablet was evaluated as per Indian Pharmacopoeia and was compared with marketed tablets. These tablets also conformed to the disintegration and dissolution specifications of Indian Pharmacopoeia. Results from various evaluations suggested that Carica papaya starch showed adequate disintegrating characteristics and could be used as disintegrant in tablet formulation.

22

Thermoreversible niosomal gel as a potential ophthalmic drug delivery system for Ganciclovir

S. S. Mutha*1, S. S. Patil2 ,A. V. Bhosale3

1Pharmaceutics, S.G.R.S College of Pharmacy, Saswad/ University of Pune, India

2Pharmaceutics, S.G.R.S College of Pharmacy, Saswad/ University of Pune, India

3Pharmaceutics, S.G.R.S College of Pharmacy, Saswad/ University of Pune, India

Abstract

The topicaland localized application are acceptable and preferred way to achieve therapeutic level of drugs to treat oculardisorders but the primitive ophthalmic solution, suspension, and ointment dosage form are no longer sufficient to combat variousocular diseases.Niosomes will offer a promising avenue to fulfill the need for an ophthalmic drug delivery system and acts as penetration enhancer that not only has the convenience of a drop but minimizing frequency of drug administration with patient compliance. In this present work thermoreversible niosomal gel formulation of Ganciclovir with factorial design 22 was prepared by ether injection method and evaluated for the entrapment efficiency, vesicle size, TEM, pH, viscosity, drug content&drug release study. The concentrations (12mg, 36mg) and type of surfactants (span 40, span 60) were selected as independent variables. It was found that span 60 with higher concentration had increased encapsulation efficiency and drug release 92.80±1.32 % up to 8 hrthan span 40 and pure drug gel. The present study explores the importance of niosomes as potential ocular drug delivery system, its formulation aspects and its characterization.Niosomal gel will serve as a better option for Ganciclovir ocular drug deliverysystem.

23

PHARMACEUTICAL NANOEMULSIONS AN ARDENT CARRIER FOR DRUG DELIVERY

Shailendra Kumar Kela1, Chanchal Deep Kaur2

1Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Raipur, India

2Shri Rawatpura Sarkar Institute of Pharmacy, Kumhari, India

Abstract

Nanoemulsions have attracted great attention in pharmaceutical research and dosage form design. This is as a result of the various features peculiar to nanoemulsion such as ease of preparation, optical clarity, thermodynamic stability and increased surface area. Nanoemulsion having average droplet size in between 100-500 nm serves as a vehicle for the delivery of active pharmaceutical agents as well as other bioactives. They are designed to overcome the problems associated with conventional drug delivery system such as low bioavailability and noncompliance. The significance of designing and developing emulsion as a nanocarrier system aimed to control and/or improves required bioavailability levels of therapeutic agents. Nanoemulsions have been used as a carrier for various drug delivery system viz. topical, transdermal, gene delivery, intranasal, parenteral, pulmonary etc. Nanoemulsions as a carrier offer various advantages in drug delivery system. Aim of this article is to shed light on the use of the nanoemulsion in various types of drug delivery system and future prospective of nanoemulsion as a carrier.

24

Day to day analysis of lipids and lipase activity in the haemolymph of silkworm Bombyx mori L. infected with fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill.

K.Rajitha1* and G.Savithri2

Department of Sericulture, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA

Abstract

Day to day changes in lipids and lipase activity were examined in the haemolymph of 5th instar silkworm Bombyx mori L during the progress of fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana. The increased trend of lipid content was observed in haemolymph of control (31.44 mg/ml to 34.8 mg/ml), in contrast decreased trend of lipid content was noticed in experimental larvae (31.06 mg/ml to 27.39 mg/ml). In case of lipase activity, increased trend of lipase activity was observed in haemolymph of both inoculated (0.137 to 0.186 µ moles/ml) and control (0.137 to 0.178 µ moles/ml) up to the 5th day, then the enzyme activity was decreased on the 6th day of the 5th instar in treated (0.179 µ moles/ml) and control (0.169 µ moles/ml). Compared to control in inoculated lipase activity was increased. Depleted lipid content associated with an enhanced lipase activity during the progress of fungal pathogen infection. The patho-physiological studies of economically important insects such as silkworm during the progress of fungal pathogen will help to design diagnostic tools to control the disease in turn to enhance the quality parameters of cocoon crops. 

25

EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM LINN LEAVES ON GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS

G.Venkataiah*,   C. Praveen Kumar, D. Sudharshan Reddy, Marry Rejeena.

Smt.Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Seshadrinagar, Mahabubnagar, AP, 509001, India

Abstract

In Indian traditional medicine, different parts of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. (Oleaceae family) are valued highly for the treatment of Skin diseases, Ulcers, wounds, corns, ulcerative stomatitis, fixing loose teeth. In the present study, oral dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of JGLE were studied for their protective effects in Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in wistar rats for 14days. The adult wistar rats were divided evenly into five groups. Groups I, II & III served as untreated, toxic controls  (Gentamicin 40mg/kg ) & Standard group (Vitamin E 250mg/kg) respectively while groups III&V were treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of JGLE hr before each dose of the nephrotoxicant (Gentamicin 40mg/kg) for 14days. On the 15th day, blood samples were collected by retro orbital puncture and estimated renal biochemical parameters. In toxic control (Gentamicin 40mg/kg) group, attenuated elevations in the serum creatinine, blood urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, reduced levels of total proteins and Increased levels of urine parameters (urine creatinine, urine urea, urine uric acid and albumin) in dose related fashion. In group IV & V groups (pretreated with JGLE) attenuated significantly decreased levels of blood parameters (serum creatinine, blood urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen) and increased levels of total proteins and also decreased levels of urine parameters (urine creatinine, urine urea, urine uric acid and albumin) when compared to toxic control group. In Conclusion the results suggest that the JGLE shown the significant nephroprotective activity could be due to inherent antioxidant property and free radical scavenging principle contained in the extract. In near the future, JGLE could constitute a lead to discovery of a novel compound for the treatment of drug induced nephrotoxicity.

26

MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF EFFLUENTS FROM TEXTILE DYEING UNITS OF KANCHIPURAM, TAMILNADU, SOUTH INDIA.

R.Kowsalya1, C.M.Karrunakaran1, M.Deecaraman1, *A.Uma2, S.Sankaranarayanan3 and Swaranjit singh Cameotra4

1Department of IBT, Dr.M.G.R Educational and Research Institute, University, Maduravoyal, Chennai -600 095.

2Shrimp disease diagnosis laboratory,Fisheries Research and Extension Centre, Tamilnadu Fisheries University, Madhavaram milk colony, Chennai -600 051

 3Gloris biomed research centre,No.171, First Street, Vijayaragavapuram, Saligramam, Chennai - 600 093.

4Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh -160 036.

Abstract

Pollution caused due to textile effluents affect the quality of the water there by rendering it unavailable for use. Unlike chemical methods, microbial degradation of textile effluents improve their quality without negatively affecting the environment. Isolation and identification of bacterial species with dye–degrading potential from textile effluent will be of great importance as these isolates will be efficient degraders of dye effluents. Against this background, this work was carried out with an objective to identify the bacterial and fungal species with dye degrading ability from the textile effluents collected from Kanchipuram, Tamilnadu, South India. Bacterial and fungal species were isolated following standard methods and identified by PCR amplification of 16srDNA and ITS genes respectively followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. Bacteria isolated from the textile effluents include Halomonas sp (KB1), Bacillus sp.(KB2), Bacillus subtilus(KB3), Bacillus cereus (KB4), and Staphylococcus sp (KB5).The predominant fungal species isolated was Sagenomella sp (KF1).

27

Antihepatotoxic Potential of Cucumis sativus and Pogostemon patchouli against Carbon tetrachloride induced Hepatotoxicity

S. R. Dhande*, P. P. Dongare, P. R. Shah, Dr Y. M. Joshi, V.J. Kadam

Department of Pharmacology, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, sector-8, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614, India.

Abstract

Cucumis sativus (Cucumber), a very commonly used plant in India and Pogostemon patchouli (Patchouli), a herb from traditional Chinese medicine have been screened earlier for antioxidant activity which is considered to be basic action required for an organ protective action. The present study was aimed to evaluate hepatoprotective potential of Cucumis sativus and Pogostemon patchouli against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. A single i.p injection of 1ml of CCl4 /kg body weight in olive oil (1:1) induced liver marker enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), bilirubin (TBIL) and distorted the hepatic tissue architecture along with increased levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) and reduction of total protein (TPROT), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver tissue. Treatment groups receiving higher doses of both plant extracts significantly (p<0.01) restored the levels of all biochemical parameters and antioxidant system of the body towards standard control. Extent of lipid peroxidation was also found to be less (p<0.05), restoring the structural integrity of hepatocytes as compared to disease group. Silymarin was used as standard drug. Result interpretation supported hepatoprotective role biochemically and histologically. Thus above plants can be further studied for isolation of responsible active components, deducing possible way of mechanism of action of these plants in liver protection.

28

A NEW STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METFORMIN AND ALOGLIPTIN IN BULK AS WELL AS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION BY USING PDA DETECTOR

G. Satya Sri*1, S. Ashutosh Kumar1, J. Saravanan2, Manidipa Debnath3, V. Greeshma2, N. Sai Krishna2

 

1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality Assurance, A.K.R.G College of Pharmacy, Nallajerla, West Godavari, 534112, A.P

2Department of Pharmacology, A.K.R.G College of Pharmacy, Nallajerla, West Godavari, 534112, A.P

3Department of Pharmaceutics, A.K.R.G College of Pharmacy, Nallajerla, West Godavari, 534112, A.P

Abstract

APPROACH: Metformin is a biguanide antihyperglycemic agent used for treating non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It improves glycemic control by decreasing hepatic glucose production, decreasing glucose absorption and increasing insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Metformin is the only oral antihyperglycemic agent that is not associated with weight gain. Alogliptin is a selective, orally-bioavailable inhibitor of enzymatic activity of dipeptidyl peptidase-4. A new reversed-phase High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of Metformin & Alogliptin (ALG) based on isocratic elution using a mobile phase consisting of potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer [pH 4.0] and Acetonitrile [HPLC Grade] (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min−1with UV detection at 235nm.

SUMMARY: The chromatographic separation was achieved on a XTerra column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm). The run time was maintained for 8mins. The Inter day and intraday precision was found to be within the limits. The Accuracy values were within specified limits (98-102%) The calibration curve for Metformin was linear from (300-700 μg mL) and for Alogliptin from (7.5-17.5 µg /ml).The Limit of Detection for Metformin and Alogliptin was found to be 0.175 and 0.050 µg/ml respectively. The Limit of Quantification for Metformin and Alogliptin was found to be 0.57and 0.20 µg/ml respectively.

 

CONCLUSION: The proposed method was adequate sensitive, reproducible, and specific for the determination of Metformin and Alogliptin bulk as well as in its tablet dosage forms. The validation of method was carried out utilizing ICH-guidelines. The described HPLC method was successfully employed for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing combined dosage form. The drug was exposed to Thermal, Hydrolytic and oxidative stress conditions and the stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. The peak homogeneity data for the drugs Metformin & Alogliptin were obtained by using Photodiode Array detector in the stressed sample chromatograms which demonstrated the specificity of the method for the estimation in the presence of degradants. The present work was undertaken with the aim to develop and validate a rapid and consistent stability indicating RP-HPLC in which the peaks will be appear with short period of time as per ICH Guidelines. The proposed method was simple, fast, Accurate and precise method for the Quantification of drug in the dosage form, bulk drug as well as for routine analysis in Quality control. Overall the proposed method was found to be suitable and Accurate for the Quantitative determination and stability study of the drug in Pharmaceutical dosage form. . The method was effectively separated the drug from its degradation product and it was employed as a stability- indicating one.

 

29

SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF ISATIN DERIVATIVES FOR THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

Basavaraj M1*, Sathyanarayana Y.D.2, Subhash K2

1* Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vivekananda College of Pharmacy, Dr.Rajkumar Road, Bangalore-5600055, India.

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, KLE University’s College of Pharmacy, Rajajinagar II stage, Bangalore- 560010, India

Abstract

Isatin are known for their various biological activities. By suitable control of a substituent different novel Indole 2,3-diones were synthesized. In this present study various Schiff and Mannich bases were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. The compounds were prepared by reacting indole 2,3-dione with 4-substituted benzyl chloride to give intermediate, and also Isatin reacted with morpholine to give mannich base which was then it is fused with 3-amino-2phenylquionazolin4 (H)-one,to give final product. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by various methods like TLC, MP, FTIR, 1HNMR and Mass spectroscopy. The compounds have been evaluated for their antimicrobial activity.

 

30

SOME SPECIES OF LAMIACEAE- COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDIES

S.M. Venkateshappa   and  K.P. Sreenath

Department of Botany, Bangalore University, JB Campus, Bangalore-560056, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Phytotomy (anatomy) is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants. In this study, anatomical structures of the stem and leaf of taxa viz., Orthosiphon rubicundus Benth., Ocimum basilicum Linn., Leucas cephalotes Spreng., and Coleus forskohlii Briq., belonging to the Lamiaceae  were examined and compared. The studied taxa show some differences and similarities in the stem and leaf shape and structure. Arrangement of epidermis, trichomes, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, vascular bundles types and the presence of collenchyma, palisade and spongy parenchyma layer in the leaf blade. A Macromorphological and micromorphological detail of different parts of the plant body provides information of taxonomical significance.

31

NEW DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OFAZACITIDINE (A CHEMICAL ANALOGUE OF CYTOSINE NUCLEOSIDE)

*M. Mathrusri Annapurna, K. Pramadvara

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality Assurance,

GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, India-530045.

Abstract

Three simple and sensitive first order derivative spectrophotometric methods (D1) were developed for the determination of Azacitidine in pharmaceutical formulations using water (Method A), phosphate buffer pH 4.0 (Method B) and phosphate buffer pH 5.0 (Method C). Beer’s law was obeyed over concentration range 1-30 μg/mL for both Method A, B and C respectively. The linear regression equations were found to be y = 0.0063x - 0.0025, y = 0.0057x - 0.003 and y = 0.0073x - 0.0033 for Method A, B and C respectively. The three methods were validated and no interference of the excipients was observed.

32

STABILITY-INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CABAZITAXEL

*M. Mathrusri Annapurna, K. Pramadvara, B. Venkatesh and G. Sowjanya

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality Assurance,

GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, India-530045.

Abstract

A simple stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of Cabazitaxel in infusion forms. Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on Shimadzu Model CBM-20A/20 Alite, using a mixture of Phosphate buffer and Acetonitrile (30:70, v/v) as mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min.  Detection was carried at 230 nm.  Linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.1–150 μg/mL (R2 = 0.9999) with regression equation y = 28290 x + 7032.3. Cabazitaxel was subjected to stress conditions (acidic, alkaline, oxidation, UV and thermal degradation) and validated as per ICH guidelines

33

NEW DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ERLOTINIB HYDROCHLORIDE (A TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITOR)

*M. Mathrusri Annapurna, B. Venkatesh and R. Krishna Chaitanya

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality Assurance,

GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, India-530045.

Abstract

Three simple and sensitive first order derivative spectrophotometric methods (D1) were developed for the determination of Erlotinib hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations using 0.1 N HCl (Method A), acetate buffer (Method B) and phosphate buffer (Method C). Beer’s law was obeyed over concentration range 0.5-30 μg/mL for both Method A and B respectively and 1-30 μg/mL for Method C. The linear regression equations were found to be y = 0.0052x+0.0003, y = 0.0051x+0.0008 and y = 0.0038x+0.0016 for Method A, B and C respectively. The three methods were validated and no interference of the excipients was observed.

34

STABILITY-INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF FELODIPINE (A CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKER) IN TABLETS

*M. Mathrusri Annapurna, B. Sai Pavan Kumar and S.V.S. Goutam

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality Assurance, GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam-530045, India

Abstract

A simple stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of Felodipine in tablet dosage forms. Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on Shimadzu Model CBM-20A/20 Alite, using a mixture of tetra butyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate and acetonitrile (18:82, v/v) as mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min.  Detection was carried at 237 nm.  Linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.1–350 μg/mL (R2 = 0.9997) with regression equation y = 62606 x + 9590.9. Felodipine was subjected to stress conditions (acidic, alkaline, oxidation and thermal degradation) and validated as per ICH guidelines.

35

DETECTION METHODOLOGIES - ADVERSE DRUG REACTION REPORTING SYSTEM

Megha Gupta1, Narendra Prajapati2

JSS College Of Pharmacy, Udhagamandalam, Tamil Nadu

Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Pharmacy, Dehradun, Uttarakhand

Abstract

Adverse drug reaction is a recognized hazard of the drug therapy. The practice in clinical pharmacy also ensures that ADRs are minimized by avoiding drugs with potential side effects in susceptible patients. This paper reviews the different methodologies for detection of adverse events and discusses their relative advantages and limitations. While manual chart review has been considered the ‘‘gold-standard’’ for identifying adverse events in many patient safety studies. Investigators are currently evaluating, several electronic methods that can detect adverse events using coded data, free-text clinical narratives, or a combination of techniques. Physicians being frontline caregivers, a study was conducted to determine the level of awareness of physicians about ADR reporting and the extent of their involvement in pharmacovigilance activities. Current quantitative methods are not applicable to Electronic Health Record (EHR)data so, new alogrithm was proposed a novel quantitative postmarketing surveillance algorithm, the Comparison of Laboratory Extreme Abnormality Ratio (CLEAR ), for detecting adverse drug reaction (ADR) signals from EHR data. In present the implementation of a prospective pharmacovigilance program based on automatic laboratory signals (ALSs) at a hospital. The use of the “trigger tool”, a relatively low cost and “low tech” modification of the automated technique. The adapted technique appears to increase the rate of ADE detection approximately 50-fold over traditional reporting methodologies. ADRs can be detected in the Nursing Home setting with a high degree of accuracy using a clinical event monitor that employs a set of signals derived by expert consensus.Frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) identified through the use of automatic signals generated from laboratory data (ALS) in hospitalised patient.

36

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION AND VALIDATION OF MIGLITOL AND METFORMIN BY RP-HPLC METHOD IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM.

Saritha*, Shyamala, P. Vishnu Priya, N. Anjali Devi, JVC.Sharma

Joginpally B R Pharmacy college, Moinabad, Hyderabad, A.P

Abstract

A new, precise, rapid, accurate RP-HPLC method was developed for the Simultaneous Estimation of Miglitol and Metformin in tablet dosage form. After optimization the good chromatographic separation was achieved by Isocratic mode with a mixture of  Phosphate Buffer (pH 6.5):methanol:acetonitrilein the ratio of 50:30:20 v/v/v as the mobile phase with , column as stationary phase at flow rate of 1 mL/min and detection wavelength of 210 nm. The retention times Metformin and  Miglitol found to be 2.420min and 3.580 min respectively. The linearity of this method was found in the concentration range of 60 μg/mL to 140 μg/mL for Metforminand 3μg/mL to 7μg/mL for Miglitol. The correlation coefficient R2 value is found to be 0.997for metformin and 0.9973 for Miglitol. The LOD and LOQ for Metformin  were found to be 2.79ppm and 8.45ppmrespectively. The LOD and LOQ for Miglitol were found to be 5.23 ppm and 15.83 ppm respectively. This method was found to be good percentage recovery Metformin and Miglitol were found to be 100.67 and 99.54 respectively indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate.

37

THREE NEWER METHODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF TIROFIBAN HYDROCHLORIDE FROM PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

M. Gandhimathi* , Sai Theja Athoti and T.K. Ravi

Department of pharmaceutical analysis, college of Pharmacy, Sri Ramakrishna Institute of paramedical Sciences, Coimbatore-641044, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

Tirofiban hydrochloride is an anti-platelet agent. Three methods a UV-spectroscopic method, HPTLC method and RP-HPLC methods were developed for the estimation of tirofiban hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation. In UV method the sample was dissolved in methanol and measurements were made at 226nm. HPTLC separation was carried out with solvent system hexane: methanol: acetic acid (5:3.5:0.5% v/v) on a silica gel G60F254 plate. The Rf value of tirofiban was found to be 0.46. In RP-HPLC the separation was carried out by C18 column using mobile phase buffer   (sodium dihydrogen phosphate at pH-5): acetonitrile in the ratio of (70:30% v/v). Linearity for the methods was found to be 10-30µg/ml, 3-18ng/spot and 600-1400ng/ml, respectively for UV, HPTLC and RP-HPLC methods. All the three methods were validated according to ICH guidelines and successfully employed for estimation of tirofiban hydrochloride from formulation. The estimated amount was well in conformation with the label claim. All The three methods reported here are simple, accurate, sensitive and cost effective in estimation of tirofiban from pharmaceutical formulation.

38

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF EPROSARTAN AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC.

T. Anusha*, P.Vishnu Priya, N. Anjali Devi, Shyamala, JVC. Sharma

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Joginpally B.R. Pharmacy College, Yenkapally (V), Moinabad (M), R.R Dist, Hyd-75 A.P

Abstract

The present study deals with simultaneous estimation of Eprosartan and Hydrochlorothiazide by RP-HPLC in tablet dosage form. The two drugs have anti-hypertensive activity. The present research work describes a rapid and accurate RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Eprosartan and Hydrochlorothiazide from the combination tablet dosage form. The separation of two drugs was achieved by on X-terra (4.6 mm X 150 mm i.d) 5μ column. The mobile phase consists of 0.1% OPA (3.5 pH): Methanol: Acetonitrile (60:20:20). The detection was carried out at a wavelength 230 nm. The method was validated for system suitability, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and stability of sample solution as per ICH guidelines. The linear ranges for Eprosartan and Hydrochlorothiazide were 50-300μg/ mL, 2.5-12.5μg /mL respectively with good recovery i.e., 100.3% to 99.8%.

39

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BILAYER TABLETS OF QUINAPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE

K. Himabindu*, N. Anjali Devi, Shyamala, P.Vishnu Priya, JVC. Sharma.

Joginpally B.R Pharmacy College, Yenkapally (V), Moinabad (M), R.R Dist, Hyd-75 A.P

Abstract

Quinapril hydrochloride is an ACE inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure  and to help treat heart failure. The objective of the present investigation is to formulate bilayer tablets of Quinapril hydrochloride. It has biological half-life of 2 hours. An attempt was made in the direction of preparation and optimization of a combination of sustained release layer and immediate release layer in a single tablet. In sustained release layer polymers were used as retarding materials and in immediate release layer super disintegrant was used . The tablets were formulated using direct compression technology by employing polymers like Sodium alginate, Cekol 30000 and Kollidon SR in sustained release layer and  crospovidone  was used as super disintegrant along with other excipients. The drug-excipient compatible studies were performed by FTIR. The study revealed that there is no drug-excipient interaction. The prepared bilayered tablets were evaluated for various physicochemical parameters including in-vitro drug release studies of all formulations.  Out of all formulations the one prepared with combination of sodium alginate and Kollidon SR has the release of drug over 12 hrs. The in-vitro release data was fitted to different kinetic models which showed highest regression for zero order kinetics with higuchi mechanism.

40

Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds from Peel of Citrus medica L. by Headspace Trap (HS-Trap)Sampling TechniqueCoupled with GCMS.

Umesh Talekar* 1, Dr.D.N.Vora1, Dr. E.R. Agharia1, Dr.Shridhar Gawade2, Dr. Anil Gopala2, Dr. Yogesh Satpute

1Department of Chemistry, Mithibai College (Vile Parle), Mumbai,

2PerkinElmer (India) Pvt. Ltd., Thane

Abstract

The volatile organic components obtained from fruit peel of Citrus medica L. using Headspace Trap (HS-Trap)sampling techniquewere characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The results shows that peak responses of44 components were obtained by using HS-Trap sampling technique coupled with GC-MS, predominantly containsmonoterpene group accounting for 98.46%,of which, d-limonene was the most abundant (85.93%), followed by sabinene (6.85%), myrcene (3.46%) while out of them 24 possesses specific aroma. The Headspace Trap (HS-Trap) sampling technique used in present study is advantageous over the conventional extraction technique. Technique is useful to avoid analyte losses, contamination. The other advantage of this technique is minimum sample requirement, capable to detect trace level component and minimum time require for extraction/sampling. The HS-Trap technique can be used as quick screening tool for authenticity determination and routine quality check of various citrus essential oil. The present study may found helpful for further work and may add as a valuable source of essential oil in flavor and fragrance industry.

41

ENHANCING THE SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION RATE OF ITRACONAZOLE BY SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUE

P.Manikandan*1, K.P. Sampath Kumar2.

1Department of pharmaceutics, Devaki Amma Memorial College of  Pharmacy, Chelembra, Kerala-673634.

2Department of Pharmacy, Coimbatore medical college, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu-641014

Abstract

Itraconazole is potent anti fungal drug of the triazole group with activity against histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and onychomycosis.One of the major problems with itraconazole is that, it is practically insoluble in water, which results in poor bioavailability after oral administration. In this present study, Solid dispersion of itraconazole in Eudragit E 100, PVP K30, HPMC and PEG 6000 with different drug to carrier ratios were prepared by solvent evaporation method with aim of increasing dissolution rate and bioavailability of the drug. The new formulations were characterized in the solid state by FT-IR spectroscopy,SEM,X-ray powder diffraction in corresponding physical mixture revealed the changes in solid state during the formation of dispersion and justified the formation of high energy amorphous phase .Dissolution studies of itraconazole and its physical mixture in 0.1N Hcl containg 0.5% SLS showed negligible release.

42

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF LACTUCA RUNCINATA DC

Lakshmi kanta Kanthal*1, Akalanka Dey2, K. Satyavathi1, P. Bhojaraju1

1 Koringa College of Pharmacy, Korangi-533 461, Tallarevu (M), Andhra Pradesh, India.

2 Annamalai University, Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

The antimicrobial activity has been reported from the species of the genus Lactuca. However, there has been no report available on antibacterial activity in the aerial parts of Lactuca runcinata DC. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata DC. The Lactuca runcinata DC showed satisfactory results against almost all the organisms, among them against Staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas mirebelis showed highest zone of inhibition 17.8 mm and 16.5 mm (0.4g/ml) with the MIC values of 0.04 mg/ml and MBC values of 0.16mg/ml. Other pathogens like Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi showed good zone of inhibition 13.6 mm and 13.9 mm (0.4g/ml) with less minimum inhibitatory concentration of 0.08 mg/ml and MBC values of 0.32 mg/ml for the above mention bacteria. But Salmonella typhi was found to be resistant with more MIC, more MBC value and with a very less zone of inhibition of 8.4 mm (0.4g/ml) when compared with the standards. The present studies revealed that Lactuca runcinata have significant antibacterial activity. So, the potent antibacterial phytochemical are present in the methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata DC.

 

43

BIODIVERSITY OF RARE THERMOPHILIC ACTINOMYCETES IN THE GREAT INDIAN THAR DESERT: AN OVERVIEW

Dharmesh Harwani

Dept of Microbiology, Maharaja Ganga Singh University, NH-15, Bikaner-334001, Rajasthan, India

Abstract

Microbial pathogens are developing resistance against existing antibiotics, stressing the need for discovery of new anti-microbial compounds. Actinomycetes produce ~80% of the available anti-microbials. The likelihood of  bio prospecting un-discovered species from the terrestrial habitats have almost diminished so that the search for novel products has switched to rare genera of actinomycetes from normal habitats to discovery of species found in un-usual habitats like deserts. In Rajasthan most of the land area is covered with the great Indian desert Thar where most of times high temperature prevails. A very few reports are available in literature pertaining to the selective isolation and screening of yet unknown, anti-microbial compounds of therapeutic use from rare actinomycetes from desert eco-system. The present review discusses the need of future research to be done on actinomycetes diversity in desert ecosystem and highlights the recent research and development.

44

MICROBIAL ENZYMES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS – A REVIEW

Mohammad Badrud Duza*1, Dr. S A Mastan2

1NIMRA College of Pharmacy, Nimranagar, Jupudi, Ibrahimpatnam, Vijayawada – 521456, Krishna Dist., A.P.

2Post-Graduate Department of Biotechnology, PG Courses and Research Centre, DNR College, Bhimavaram – 534202. West Godavari Dist., A.P.

 

Abstract

Enzymes are biocatalysts produced by living cells to bring about specific biochemical reactions generally forming parts of the metabolic processes of the cells. Enzymes are highly specific in their action on substrates and often many different enzymes are required to bring about, by concerted action, the sequence of metabolic reactions performed by the living cell. All enzymes which have been purified are protein in nature, and may or may not possess a non protein prosthetic group. Enzymes occur in every living cell, hence in all microorganisms. Each single strain of organism produces a large number of enzymes. But the absolute and relative amounts of the various individual enzymes produced vary markedly between species and even between strains of the same species. Hence, it is customary to select strains for the commercial production of specific enzymes which have the capacity for producing highest amounts of the particular enzymes desired. Microbial enzymes have well-known applications as biocatalysts in several areas of industry, such as biotechnology, agriculture and pharmaceuticals, etc.