IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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MAY 2016
1

MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS OF INDIAN TRADITIONAL VARIETY “RED KAVUNI” IN COMPARISON WITH HIGH YIELDING POPULAR VARIETY OF TAMIL NADU ADT 43 UNDER RAW AND HYDROTHERMALLY PROCESSED CONDITION

S. Sulochana*1, R M. Meyyappan2, K. Singaravadivel1

1Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India. 

2College of Engineering and Technology, Annamalai University.

Abstract

The pigmented rice varieties possess major potential health benefits like prevention of lifestyle disorders such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. ‘Red Kavuni’, one of the traditional brownish black rice varieties is known for its anti-diabetic properties. The current study was conducted to profile the phytochemical components of raw brown rice and hydro thermally processed brown rice of Red Kavuni rice in comparison with popularly consumed white variety ADT 43 of Tamil Nadu. The Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (436-GC Bruker with TQ Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer) analysis of both the varieties reveals the presence of major active components, like Cholestan-3-ol, 2 methylene-, (3β, 5 α) and Levodopa. Comparing to white variety ADT 43, the Red Kavuni contains some additional significant biologically active compounds namely 3-cyclohexene-1-methanol α,α,4-trimethyl-, acetate, 3-Hydroxy-4-Methoxy benzoic acid and 2,6,10-Cycloundecatrien-1-one, 2,6,9,9-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E)-. The effect of hydrothermal processing on the retention of active compounds was also discussed and presented. No scientific studies have been reported so far, on the traditional varieties, regarding the phyto-chemical compositional changes before and after hydrothermal processing and in comparison with ruling variety ADT 43.

 

2

EFFECTIVENESS OF GLUCOSAMINE AS SUPPLEMENT TO ACECLOFENAC IN THE REDUCTION OF PAIN AMONG KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIC PATIENTS

Dr.Ajay Babladikar, Dr.Abhinaya Koppula, Dr.Aravind Swami P, Dr.N srinivasan
Malla Reddy Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India-500055.

Abstract

Osteo arthritis represents a heterogeneous group of conditions resulting in common histo pathologic and radiologic changes. Glucosamine sulfate stimulates the production of cartilage, which leads to joint repair, the EULAR guidelines assign to glucosamine sulfate a ranking of “highest level of evidence and strength of recommendation” based on randomized clinical trials, for its use as a symptom modifying drug in knee OA.The main aim of this study is to study the effectiveness of glucosamine as supplement to Aceclofenac in the reduction of knee pain. This study is a prospective, interventional study in which out of 88 patients, Group A received Aceclofenac alone and Group B received Aceclofenac and glucosamine sulphate.Index of severity for osteoarthritis of the knee by Lequesne (ISK) was used to assess the severity of OA. Western Ontario McMaster Universities Arthritis index of osteoarthritis Questionnaire (WOMAC) was used to assess the pain, stiffness and physical function of the patient. As per the study, females are more prone to OA than males. The results of the study show the effectiveness of Aceclofenac and glucosamine sulphate (Group B) over Aceclofenac group (Group A) treatment regimen.

3

ASSOCIATION OF SERUM PHOSPHORUS LEVEL AND THE USE OF PHOSPHATE BINDING PRODUCTS IN INDIVIDUALS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE UNDERGOING HEMODIALYSIS IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL

Dr. Hozefa Hussain, Dr. Mir Azmath Ali, Dr. Mohammed Adil Shareef, Dr. Moazam Ali, Dr. Azhar Uddin Sultan, Dr. Mir Asad Ali Hashmi, Dr. Sana Fatima
Doctor of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad-500001, Telangana State, India.

Abstract

Significant increase of the serum phosphorus level due to decrease excretion via kidneys is a common manifestation for End Stage Renal Disease Patiens. Increased serum phosphorus levels directly stimulate Parathyroid Glands causing Secondary Hyperparathyroidism which is the leading cause for Renal-Bone diseases and Vascular bed calcification with Increased mortality rate in End Stage Renal Disease patients. Management of Hyperphosphetemia is based on the approach to optimize the level of serum phosphorus by initiation of Phosphate Binders (Calcium Carbonate) and Dietary Restriction of phospahte. The Study aimed at comparision of serum phosphorus levels and the Use of Phosphate Binders by Dialysis patients, major outcome noted was the Decreased use of phosphate binders and the Increased levels of serum phosphate .Hence, further research should be done by administration of phosphate binders and Dietary restriction of phosphate in relationship with Serum phosphate levels.

4

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR DESMOPRESSIN FROM POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES

Dipti Desai1*, Dr. Dushyant Shah2, Dr. Dhara Patel1
1Pioneer Pharmacy Degree College, Gujarat Technological University, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
2APMC College of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Himatnagar, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

The objective of this work was to develop and validate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of desmopressin (DDAVP) in polymeric nanoparticles. Chromatographic analysis was performed on an RP C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (15:85 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.8 mL/min at a wavelength of 220 nm. The method was shown to be specific and linear in the range of 500-10000 ng/mL (r2 = 0.9987). The good precision (intra- and inter-day) was demonstrated because the maximum relative standard deviation was 0.731%. The method is robust relative to changes in flow rate, column and temperature. The limits of detection and quantitation were 41 and 136.8 ng/mL, respectively. The method fulfilled the requirements for reliability and feasibility for application to the quantitative analysis of DDAVP in polymeric nanoparticles. Developed method proposed short run time and less use of organic solvent. Developed method was successively employed for analysis of samples of in vitro drug release from nanoparticles.

5

REVIEW ON CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES IN CANCER RESEARCH AND CANCER THERAPY

Sourav De1*, Subhasis Banerjee2, M. Niranjan Babu1, B. Mohana Lakhmi1, T. M. Suneel Babu1
1Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Tirupati.
2Gupta College of Technological Sciences, Asansol, West Bengal.

Abstract

Cardiac glycosides have a long history in the treatment of cardiac disease. The mode of action of cardiac glycosides is inhibition of the ubiquitous plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase that leads to increased intracellular Ca2+ ion concentrations, inhibition of IL-8 production, inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II and activation of the Src kinase pathway. Ca2+ ions play pivotal role in many signaling pathways including those regulating apoptosis. Cardiac glycosides can also regulate one of the most potent angiogenesis promoting substances, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and may inhibit activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. FGF-2 and NF-κB are relevant targets for anticancer drugs. To date three cardiac glycosides have been developed for treatment of cancer and were tested in a phase I clinical trial to determine dose-limiting toxicities and maximum tolerated dose. An extensive information pertaining to the biochemical mechanism of cardiac glycosides may give a new hope in the development of semisynthetic derivative of this traditional molecular skeleton.

6

MOSQUITO LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF BIOGENICALLY SYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING APONOGETON NATANS LEAF EXTRACT

Amiya Kumar Prusty*, S J Kajol, R. Sukanya Datta, P Prasad Mishra
Institute of Pharmacy and Technology, Salipur, Cuttack, Odisha.

Abstract

Mosquitoes include the major vector population for the transmission of many diseases for global mortality with increased resistance to common insecticides. A study intend to investigate the efficacy of silver nanoparticles synthesized using leaf extract of Aponogeton natans against the third instar larvae of Culex bitaeniorhynchus was evaluated. The produced nanoparticles were subjected to different analysis like UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation (FTIR) spectroscopy. The observation reported from UV-Vis spectroscopy and FTIR Spectroscopy data confirms biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNps were tested against the 3rd instar larvae of Culex bitaeniorhynchus and the recorded 50% and 90% lethal concentration (LC50) and (LC90) were found to be 565.65 ppm and 1052.86 ppm respectively. From the results it may be concluded that the silver nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract of Aponogeton natans has the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach in reducing growth of mosquitoes.

7

“COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE GRANULATION TECHNIQUES: MOISTURE ASSISTED GRANULATION TECHNIQUE, ROLLER COMPACTION AND HOT MELT EXTRUSION TECHNIQUE WITH MALTODEXTRIN DE16, PVP K 12 AND HPC AS POLYMERIC BINDERS”

Kailas K Moravkar *1, Tarique M Ali2, Jaywant N Pawar1, Purnima D Amin1
1Institute of Chemical Technology, UGC-CAS (Elite Status), N. P. Marg, Matunga (E), Mumbai, India- 400019.
2Formulation R & D, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Hyderabad, India.

Abstract

Three granulation processing methods; Hot melt extrusion (HME), Roller compaction Dry granulation (RCDG) and Moisture assisted dry granulation (MADG) are assessed to evaluate different polymeric binders for preparation of a high dose immediate release tablet of acetaminophen drug. Different characterization techniques were used to enumerate poor physical property characteristic for drug (paracetamol) including hygroscopicity, low solubility and bulk density, and poor powder flowability. In case of maltodextrin all techniques produce uniform granules while, HPC produce more fine particles. A massive enhancement in drug loading of 8.5:1.5 was achieved via hot melt extrusion process using low molecular weight polymeric-binders as PVP K12, HPC SSL and Maltodextrin. Granules produced by melt processing contained less fines as compared to MADG and RCDG. A formulation and process for dry granulation by roller compaction was also developed. Particle size distributions of milled ribbons were analysed by sieve analysis. Higher density granules produced with roll force of 15 kN/cm and improved flow properties and less fines content (<75 μm) was observed. Drug loading (API:excipient ratio) in roller compaction was 8:2. IR formulation of acetaminophen was developed using MADG process and characterised for granular and tableting properties. Acceptable content uniformity, dissolution results were obtained using MADG and HME. While RCDG gives poor content uniformity tesults. Differential Scanning Calorimetry analysis suggested the amorphisation of the drug in the HME granules containing the three excipients. This result was then confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis, hence higher dissolution rate for HME granules than RC and MADG granules. Both HME and MADG are viable granulation process choices for scale up to overcome the physical property limitations of Acetaminophen drug.

8

ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF THE STEM BARKS OF CALOPHYLLUM LAXIFLORUM

Jiten Mishra1, Sanjay Ku. Nayak1, Sudhir Ku.Sahoo2
1College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Puri, Odisha, India.
2Royal college of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, Berhampur, Odisha, India.

Abstract

In the present study the methanol and chloroform extracts of the dried stem barks of “Calophyllum laxiflorum” were prepared and evaluated for the anti-bacterial and analgesic activities. The anti-bacterial activity was evaluated against different bacterial strain by detecting minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration value ware compared with control and zone of inhibition were compared with standard ciprofloxacin. The analgesic activity was studied by acetic acid induced writhing test.

9

STUDY OF THE MINERAL ELEMENTS OF LEAVES, PULP AND PIPS OF THE DWARF PALM (CHAMAEROPS HUMILIS L.) OF MOROCCO (REGION OF BENSLIMANE)

Khoudali Said*, Essaqui Abdehak, Dari Abdelmjid
Laboratoire de Chimie organique : Synthèse, extraction et étude physico-chimique des molécules organique, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca Rue Tarik Bnou Ziad, Mers Sultan BP: 9167, Maroc.

Abstract

The study of the mineral composition by the ICP-OES method, of the leaves, seeds and pulp of Chamaerops Humilis L. collected in the region of Benslimane indicated that there was richness at the level of detected minerals. The contents of mineral elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V, Zn, Na, K, Mg and Ca) in the three studied parts of this plant showed remarkable results with a predominance of potassium in all parts followed by calcium for the leaves, and magnesium for the pulp and pips.

10

A CASE REPORT ON HYPOGLYCAEMIA INDUCED SEIZURES

Mohsina Hassan*, Syeda Rafiya Anjum, Ateeq Ahmed, Saba Nishath, MD.Faheemuddin
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Smt. Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Mahabubnagar, Telangana.

Abstract

Seizures may arise through the direct or indirect effects of disease on the Central nervous system (CNS). Hypoglycaemia is a common cause of both coma and seizures. It is also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when blood glucose drops below normal levels. In this case, mainly due to poor diet, chronic alcohol intake, chronic hyponatremia may be probable causes of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemic condition had induced seizures of GTCS (generalised tonic clonic seizures) type lasting for 4 mins. The patient has coexisting illness such as type 2 diabetes, tuberculosis (pulmonary Koch), reflux gastritis and chronic hyponatremia (SIADH). Appropriate treatment was given to the patient.

11

SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF NEW TRIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

Ms. Palak Landge*, Mr. Viral Patel
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Parul Institute of Pharmacy, Limda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

Tuberculosis is a respiratory transmitted disease, in which some species of mycobacteria are pathogenic for several animal species and are responsible for two important human chronic diseases, such as Tuberculosis and Leprosy. Development of new chemical entity, as a drug, is a risky, time and money consuming preposition, so here the main objectives is to design and synthesize the molecules having therapeutic importance. From literature survey it was found that Pyridinofusedtriazole is an important heterocyclic pharmacophore in drug discovery, and the compounds carrying different substituent’s in the triazolopyridine structure are associated with a wide range of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial and anti-tubercular activities. Further thiazolidin-4-one moiety has also shown to exhibit potent anti-tubercular, antifungal and antibacterial activities. Therefore pyridinofusedtriazole associated with thiazolidin-4-one derivatives were synthesized and confirmed by physiochemical and spectral data. Subsequent Biological screening was done for their anti-tubercular, antibacterial, antifungal activity using Rifampicin, Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole for anti-tubercular, antibacterial and antifungal screening. Compound PPL-206 C was found most active in the tuberculosis as well as antibacterial, antifungal activity which suggest that substituted phenyl ring shows more activity against Mycobacteria, bacteria and fungi, the research discuss here tends to focus on discovery of such new molecules, which can be used for the treatment of Tuberculosis along with microbial infections, and to minimize the problem of drug resistance.

12

SENSETIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD AND VALIDATION FOR ESTIMATION OF FENPIVERINIUM BROMIDE IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

Surya Teja .G, Gurupadayya B. M*, Syada Noor Madni, Venkata Sairam K
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore – 570 015, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

A novel, simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for assay of Fenpiverinium bromide in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations has been developed. The method is based on the reaction between Fenpiverinium bromide with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH, Brady's reagent). The reaction is based on a condensation reaction between the carbonyl group of fenpiverium bromide with NH2 group of 2,4 DNP to form an instant yellow color product. The drug shows maximum absorption at 463 nm with a linearity range concentration of 20-100 ng/mL. All the parameters of the analysis were chosen and validated according to ICH [Q2 (R1)] guidelines. The method is also validated for precision, LOD, LOQ, robustness where all the results were within the limits. No interference is observed from excipients and the proposed method was statistically validated.

13

REVIEW ON – MULTI-PARTICULATE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

JadhavAmol A.*, Nagare Digamber A., More Rameshwar A., Darwade Amol A., Sonawane Jyoti K.
S.N.D. College of Pharmacy, At. Babhulgaon, Tal- Yeola, Dist. Nashik.

Abstract

Multiparticulate drug delivery systems are mostly used for oral route, which consist of multiplicity of small discrete units and each exhibit different characteristics. It based on subunits such as granules, beads, micro spheres, pellets, spheroids and Minitab lets which shows various advantages over monolithic devices. In these systems, the dosage of the drug substances is divided on a plurality of subunit, typically consisting of thousands of spherical particles with diameter of 0.05-2.00mm. There are many reasons for formulating drug as a multiparticulate system for example, to facilitate disintegration in the stomach, or to provide a convenient, fast disintegrating tablet that dissolves in water before swallowing which can aid compliance in older patients and children. Today’s drug delivery technologies enable the incorporation of drusg molecules into a new delivery system, thus providing numerous therapeutic and commercial advantages. Multiparticulate drug delivery systems provide several all the advantages including greater flexibility and adaptability of microparticulate dosage forms which gives clinicians and those engaged in product development powerful new tools to optimize therapy.

14

NOVEL METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS BY USING LOW COST ABSORBENTS

V. Mrudula, T. Vijaya, Dr. K. Chandra Mouli, U. Naga Jyothi, S. Aishwarya, Vasu Deva Reddy
UGC-MRP Project Fellow, Department of Botany, Sri Venkateswara Univeristy, Tirupathi-517501.

Abstract

Heavy metals released into the environment have been increasing continuously as a result of industrial activities and technological development and possess a significant threat to human beings, plants, animals and environment. Heavy metals causes liver and lungs damage, bone generation and blood damage. The metals can be removed by various technological methods but they are costly and possess less accurate results. To overcome from these a research study was carried out to biologically approach the accumulation of heavy metals by endophytic fungi. Biosorption of heavy metals by metabolically inactive non-living biomass of microbial or plant origin is an innovative and novel technology for the removal of these pollutants. Various conventional methods for heavy metal removal such as precipitation, evaporation, electroplating and also ion-exchange, these methods have several disadvantages such as only limited to certain concentrations of metal ions generation of large amounts of toxic sludge and the capital costs are much too high to be economical. Hence, biosorbents are found to be alternative process and environmentally friendly, for heavy metal removal due to the wide number of natural material or agricultural wastes gathering in abundance from our environment. In this present review various conventional methods for heavy metal removal , biosorption advantages, production of biosorbents and uptake mechanism of heavy metals were studied.

15

“MOSQUITO REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF TOPICAL HERBAL GEL PREPARATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL EXTRACTS OF PAPAYA SPECIES WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON ZIKA VIRUS”

Kurmi Mukesh*, Bahuguna Abhishek, Kumar Virendra
Shree Dev Bhoomi Intitute of Education, Science and Technology.Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

Abstract

Mosquitoes are the arthopodic species which deals according to WHO says global warming is also expanding the range of mosquitoes act as carriers of many harmful mosquitoes born diseases like West Nile Virus disease; Malaria, Dengue Fever, Chikungunya, Lyme disease etc. Zika virus is also called as zika fever and this disease is caused by an RNA virus transmitted to humans especially by the Aedes aegypti species. Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae, is widely cultivated and it is a rich source of threes powerful antioxidant vitamin C, vitamin A and vitamin E; the minerals, magnesium and potassium; the B vitamin pantothenic acid and folate and fiber. The choloroform leaf extract of carica species in gels formulation and preparation has been given in table no.2, having high mosquito repellent activities against Aedes species by observing the repellence test in 15 human volunteers of A,B & C group. Herbal gel formulation in F1 & F2 showed good appearance, homogeneity, slightly green in nature, and easily spreadable and the pH of gel formulation was in the range of 6.20 – 6.55, which lies in pH of skin and with time no skin irritation was observed. There was no change in pH values with time (0 to 15 days after formulation). The results obtained show that carica papaya leaf extract provided significant protection from mosquito (Aedes agypti sps.). It is Hoped that mixing carica papaya leaf extract with other herbal Oils like neem, eucalyptus, etc. In order to achieve Good protection against mosquito bites.

16

CHIRAL SEPARATION OF LAMIVUDINE ENANTIOMER BY HPLC USING CELLULOSE TRIS (3, 5 - DICHLOROPHENYLCARBAMATE) AS A CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASE

M. Subbarao*, M. Ramakrishna, D. Mogilireddy
Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India-522510.

Abstract

A new simple isocratic chiral liquid chromatographic method was developed for the enantiomeric purity of Lamivudine drugsubstance. The chromatographic separation was achieved on ChiralpakIC which is an immobilized (Cellulose tris-(3,5 dichlorophenylcarbamate), 250 mm Х 4.6 mm, 5 μm column usinga mobile phase system consisting of n-hexane, ethyl alcohol and diethylaminein the ratio of 700:300:1(v/v/v). The mobile phase was pumped through column at the flow rate of 1.0 mL min. Addition of diethylaminein the mobile phase enhanced chromatographic efficiency and resolution between the Lamivudine enantiomer (Impurity-D) and Lamivudine. The resolutionbetween the Lamivudine enantiomer (Impurity-D) and Lamivudine was found to be more than three. The developed method was subsequently validated for selectivity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, linearity and accuracy.

17

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA (FLOWERS)

D. Prabhakaran1,2*, A. Rajeshkanna1, M. M. Senthamilselvi3
1Periyar E.V.R. College (Autonomous), Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Chettinad Cement Corporation Ltd., Ariyalur, Tamil Nadu, India.
3Government Arts College, Ariyalur, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of the sample isolated from the ethylacetate fraction of flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa. This compound was shown to possess antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi, viz. Six bacterial strains were Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus substilis, Lacto bacillus and two fungal strains Curvularia lunata and Candida albicans by using disc diffusion method. The anti bacterial activity of the compound isolated from ethyl acetate fraction is almost comparable with standard solvent control Chloramphenicol. The anti fungal activity is almost comparable with standard solvent control Fluconazole. From this study, it can be concluded that Hibiscus sabdariffa (flowers) reveal antimicrobial activity against various human pathogenic bacteria.

18

BIO ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF LOPINAVIR IN RAT PLASMA USING RP HPLC METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION IN PHARMACOKINETICS

Neha Ojha*, Bala Prabhakar
Department of Pharmaceutics, Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel- School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, NMIMS, Vile-Parle (w), Mumbai-56.

Abstract

A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of lopinavir in rat plasma using nevirapine as internal standard. The separation was achieved on Agilent C8, 150mm* 4.6, 5μ column with isocratic flow. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5ml consisted of 0.05M Potassium Dihydrogen Orthophosphate buffer and Acetonitrile:MeOH in the ratio of (80:20).The ratio of buffer:organic was (45:55).The UV detection was carried out at 210nm. The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines. This method was then used to study the pharmacokinetics of the drug when administered orally. The study thus provides a simple precise robust bio-analytical method with its further implications in pharmacokinetics.

19

SYNTHESIS AND ANTI-MITOTIC ACTIVITY STUDY OF NEW TETRALONE ESTER INTERMIDIATES OF ANTI - CANCER AGENT BETA-APOPICROPODOPHYLLIN

Hemakumar K H1*, Sathisha A D2, Y B Basavaraju3
1Cambridge Institute of Technology, K R Puram, Bangalore-560 036, Karnataka, India.
2Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences-Ayder Referral Hospital, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
3Manasagangotri, University of Mysore, Mysore-570 006 Karnataka, India.

Abstract

The new tetralone esters 3-ethylcarboxy-4-chloro phenyl-6, 7-dimethoxy-1-tetarlone 9a, 3-ethyl carboxy-4-fluoro phenyl-6, 7-dimethoxy-1-tetarlone 9b and 3-ethyl carboxy-4-nitro phenyl-6, 7-dimethoxy-1-tetarlone 9c intermediates were synthesized in good yields by chalcone route for -apopicropodophyllin 2 analogues. The new molecules were characterized by spectral and elemental analysis data. The synthesized analogues were evaluated for anti-mitotic activity by onion root tip model showed strong to moderate activities compared with control. The molecules 9b and 9c showed good inhibition while the molecule 9a exhibited moderate activity.

20

EVALUATION OF MEMORY ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DEMENTIA (ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE) IN RODENTS

Vijayalaxmi Hiremath*, Mukund Handral
PES College of Pharmacy, 50 ft Road, Hanumanthanagar, Bengaluru-560050. India.

Abstract

The Cuscuta reflexa contains flavonoids and tannins which may responsible for its CNS actions. The recent findings on Cuscuta reflexa have demonstrated its antioxidant, antiepileptic, anxiolytic and hepatoprotective. The present study involves the effect of ethanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa (EECR) was investigated for memory enhancing activity by elevated plus maze (EPM) using Scopolamine induced amnesic rats. EECR was administered orally with a dose of 200mg/kg, once a daily, for 14 consecutive days, where Piracetam (200mg/kg p.o), Nootropic was administered to the rats as a standard drug. Scopolamine (1mg/kg i.p) was administered on 14th day to rats to induce dementia and biochemical estimations were performed such as Acetylcholinesterase(AChE), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Reduced glutathione (GSH), Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and Histopathological study. The transfer latency (TL) was observed in scopolamine induced rats using EPM, which showed significant increase in TL (p<0.001) in acquisition and retrieval phases as compared to normal control group. The Scopolamine induced rats showed significant increase in p<0.0001 AChE and LPO as compared to normal control, where as in EECR treated rats showed p<0.0001 decrease in AChE and LPO and increase in p<0.0001 SOD and GSH.

21

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ROSUVASTATIN CALCIUM AND FENOFIBRATE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Swapnil Gaikwad*, Dr.L.A.Kawale, Kaveri Ahire, Sujata Yadav, Shubhangi Bodile
Student at M. Pharm (Quality Assurance Techniques) M.V.P Samaj’s College of Pharmacy, Nashik-2.

Abstract

A simple, rapid, economic, sensitive and precise RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Rosuvastatin calcium and Fenofibrate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was carried out using Greece C18 (4.6ID × 250mm; 5μm) column and mobile phase comprised of methanol and water in proportion of ratio 90:10 v/v and degassed under ultrasonication. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and detection was carried out at 254 nm. The retention time of ROS and FEN were found to be 3.316 min and 4.413 min respectively. The described method shows excellent Linearity of ROS and FEN were in the range of 10 to 50 μg/mL and 67 to 335 μg/mL respectively. The % recoveries of ROS and FEN were found to be in between 97.94% to 99.81% for ROS and 97.18% to 98.49% for FEN respectively. The method was also applied for the determination of ROS & FEN in the presence of their degradation products formed under variety of stress conditions. Degradation products produced as a result of stress studies did not interfere with the detection of ROS and FEN. The correlation coefficient for both drug was 0.999 and 0.9981 respectively. The limit of detection for ROS and FEN were 0.0621 and 0.980 μg/mL respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.188 and 2.970 μg/mL respectively. The robustness study and percentage of assay of the formulation were found within limit as per ICH guidelines.

22

STATIN DRUG USED IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND DYSLIPIDEMIA

Sah Shilpa*, Kumar Ashok, Papola Vibhooti, Nautiyal Himani
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shree Dev Bhoomi Institute of Education Science & Technology,Paundha,Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248001.

Abstract

Aim & Objective: The beneficial role of statins in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease as well as in dyslipidemia has resulted in their frequent use in clinical practice. Statins have proven to be the most efficacious drug therapy for attaining significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, and their benefits could extend beyond their plasma LDL–lowering effect. Statins may also have a role to play in the regression of atheroma and may also reduce the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. They also have an increasing role in managing cardiovascular risk in patients with relatively normal levels of plasma cholesterol. Result: Although all statins share a common mechanism of action, they differ in terms of their chemical structures, pharmacokinetic profiles, and lipid-modifying efficacy. Statin shows some adverse drug effects like mylagia and rabdomylosis, when taken for a long period. By using statin, cardiovascular disease and dyslipidemia can be improved .Conclusion: In future, study can be done on the basis of molecular and biochemical mechanisms of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis by statins as well as on Atherogenic Dyslipidemia.

23

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE ORAL FLOATING INSITU GEL OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE

Archana D. Kajale*, Dr. A. V. Chandewar
Department of Pharmaceutics P. Wadhwani College of Pharmacy Yavatmal. 445001.

Abstract

Gastro-retentive in situ gel forming system have provided a suitable way of providing the controlled drug delivery within stomach where an environment specific gel forming solution, on conversion to gel, floats on the surface of the gastric fluids (due to less density than gastric contents). In this technique, a solution of low viscosity is used which on coming in contact with the gastric fluids, undergo change in polymeric conformation viscous gel of density lower than the gastric fluids is produced. In the present research work Oral floating Insitu gel of Metoprolol Succinate was formulated using Sodium alginate, Chitosan, Gellan Gum, Carbapol 940 in different ratio. The optimized batch (sodium alginate 2% : Gellan Gum 1%) in the ratio 2:1 gave release release of the drug for 12 hours. Invivo study was performed by providing the formulation to rabbit and then X-ray were taken for the confirmation of formation of gel in stomach and floating of dosage form for 12 hrs. And it was found to be floating for 12 hrs. The optimized formulation was found to be stable for 6 Months in accelerated stability studies.

24

DEMENTIA - A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW AND UPDATE

Panchumarthy Ravisankar*, N. Sreenivasulu, P. Srinivasa Babu, Hundia Anusha, Yadam Sai Tejaswi, V. Varija Lakshmi, G. Bhandavi
Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, Guntur (Dist.) - 522213, Andhra Pradesh State, India.

Abstract

Though dementia is not really a particular disease, to a definite level it’s a compilation of symptoms that can be triggered by various diseases accompanied by certain symptoms like impairments in thinking, memory, and problems pertaining to communication and the most accepted important ground of dementia is Alzheimer’s. People who get Alzheimer's disease are habitually elders, but the dementia disease isn’t a common component of aging but mental deterioration, losing memory function followed by badly affected emotions and inhibitions. These symptoms occurred from two most important types of damage of nerve cells get tangles, called neurofibrillary tangles and protein deposits called beta-amyloid plaques developed in the brain causing declining ability unable to cope with everyday life as brain cells die, and also caused by brain damage incurred from an injury or stroke, and from other diseases like Huntington’s or Lewy body dementia followed by Alzheimer’s disease. There is no permanent cure for dementia but cholinesterase inhibitors may be helpful in mild to moderate disturbances with slight benefits apart from practicing exercise programs.

25

ANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS OF F.C AND CAT-GC REAGENTS IN VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ELETRIPTAN HYDROBROMIDE IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

P. V. S. R. Mohana Rao*, Raghu Babu.K1, Ch. V. R. Murthy1, M. L. N. Acharyulu2, V. Jagannadha Rao3
1A.U.College of Engineering(A),Andhra university,Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh- 530003, India.
2VITAM College of Engineering , Mindivanipalem, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh- 530017, India.
3Anil Neerukonda Institute of Technology and Sciences, Sangivalasa, Andhra Pradesh- 531162, India.

Abstract

Two simple visible spectrophotometric methods (A and B) for the assay of Eletriptan hydrobromide, in pure and pharmaceutical formulations based on functional moieties (one or more) vulnerable to oxidation selectively with excess oxidizing agent CAT in Method-B, and the colour development of un reacted oxidant with the appropriate reagent or the reduced form of the reagent FC in Method-A under experimental conditions. The coloured products exhibit absorption λmax at 735nm,527nm;regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges (4-24) μg/ml for(5-30) μg/ml; correlation co-efficients are 0.9989, 0.9946; Sandell’s sensitivities are 0.5706 x 10-3, 6.6371 x 10-4 ( mole cm-1); molar absorptivity values are 3.3840 x 105, 6.9823 x 105 (μg cm-2) for methods A and B respectively. The results are found satisfactory and reproducible. These methods can be applied successfully for the estimation of Eletriptan hydrobromide in the presence of other ingredients that are usually present in formulations. These methods offer the advantages of rapidity, simplicity and sensitivity and low cost without the need for expensive instrumentation and reagents.

26

MANDIBULAR FRACTURES: DETERMINING THE SITES OF FRACTURE AND DIFFERENT TREATMENT MODALITIES OF THE SAME

Bikash Desar

Oral and Maxllofacal Surgeon, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to locate the fracture sites and treatment modalities of the different fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients treated at the Oral and Maxillofacial Department of Kantipur dental college teaching hospital and research center during a one-year period between 2014 and 2015 were retrospectively evaluated with respect to age groups, gender, etiology, localization and type of fractures, treatment methods and complications. RESULTS: 174 patients were included in the study, 142 (81.6%) males and 32 (18.4%) females, with a total of 244 mandibular fractures sites with a male/female ratio of 4.4: male/female ratio of 4.4:1. The most common causes of injury were falls (χ2=17.1607, P=0.0087) accounted for 139 (79.9%) of the fractures. The most common fracture sites, symphysis of the mandible being significantly (χ2=21, P=0.0008) affected than other sites. However, 96 (39.3%) and 132 (54.1%) of the fractures occurred on the right and left sides of the mandible respectively. Most patients had single (44.3%) and double (31.6%) fractures and this finding was significant (χ2=60.9314, P=0.0000). The fractures were successfully treated by arch bar and intermaxillary fixation, and open reduction and internal fixation. CONCLUSION: This study shows falls were the common cause of fracture and others being secondary.Symphysis was the common sites of fracture. Arch bar placement internal fixation and open reduction and internal fixation were the treatment modalities we used n our instution.

27

RP-HPLC ANALYSIS OF HYPEROSIDE IN A CREAM FORMULATION

Derya Algul*, Yasemin Uzuner
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Yeditepe University, Kayisdagi, Istanbul, 34755, Turkey.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to validate a Reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the quantitative determination of hyperoside contained in a cream preparation. The samples were extracted by using ethanol based ultrasound-assisted extraction. The chromatography column used was 5 μm Zorbax Extend RP-18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm). Mobile phase was 2 % v/v acetic acid and acetonitrile and a gradient system was used. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the detective wavelength was 340 nm. Injection value for each time was 20 μl and separations were carried out isothermally at 30 °C in a heated chamber. The calibration curve was linear (r= 0.999) at the range of 2-10 mg/100 ml. The relative standard deviation of the intraday and interday test results were between 1.55-2.35 % and 0.25-1.72 % respectively. The limit of detection and quantification were 0.06 mg/mL and 0.18 mg/mL. The mean recovery rate was 91.85-103.23 %. The average content of hyperoside in its preparation of three batches was 0.27±0.01 mg in 12 g of the cream. These results clearly showed that the method was rapid, simple, specific, precise and accurate.

28

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF QUINAZOLINONE-HYDRAZIDE ANALOGUES: STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP (SAR) STUDIES OF ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY

K. P. Rakesh1*, C. S. Shantharam2, H. K. Kumara1, H. M. Manukumar1, D. Channe Gowda1
1University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru-570 006, Karnataka, India.
2Pooja Bhagavath Memorial Mahajana Education Centre, Mysuru 570016, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

A two series of quinazolinone derived Schiff base derivatives 7-28 were synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectoscopical methods. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of these compounds were evaluated and compared with antibacterial and antifungal standards chloroamphinicol and bavistin respectively. The most of the analogues shows good antimicrobial agents. Preliminary structure-activity relationship revealed that the compounds containing electron donating moiety (OH, OCH3) were found to be good antimicrobial activity where as compounds containing electron withdrawing moiety (Cl, NO2) were found to be least activity. Conclusion: Compounds containing electron donating moiety (OH, OCH3) were found to be good antimicrobial activity where as compounds containing electron withdrawing moiety (Cl, NO2) were found to be least activity.

29

VACCINE AND IMMUNOTHERAPY AS A PROMISING PREVENTIVE TREATMENT MODALITY AGAINST CANCER

Mehraj Unnisa*, Faiq Unnisa, Shazia Yousuf, Arjumand Kauser Fariha
19-2-26/A/73, Phool Bagh, Jahanuma, Hyderabad, Telangana-500053, India.

Abstract

Cancer vaccines are designed to promote tumor specific immune responses, particularly cytotoxic CD8 positive T cells that are specific to tumor antigens. Technological developments in the past few years have enabled the investigation of vaccines that target mutated antigens that are patient specific. Several platforms for cancer vaccination are being tested, including peptides, proteins, antigen presenting cells, tumor cells, and viral vectors. Standard of care treatments, such as surgery and ablation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, can also induce antitumor immunity, thereby having cancer vaccine effects. The monitoring of patients' immune responses at baseline and after standard of care treatment is shedding light on immune biomarkers. Combination therapies are being tested in clinical trials and are likely to be the best approach to improving patient outcomes.

30

STABILITY-INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF NIMESULIDE AND CHLORZOXAZONE IN PHARMACEUTICAL TABLET DOSAGE FORM

Dr. Bhavsar Ankita*, Shah Dhwani
Department of Quality assurance, Sat Kaival College of Pharmacy. Gujarat, Anand (Sarsa) India.

Abstract

A stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of Nimesulide and Chlorzoxazone in tablet dosage form. Isocratic high performance liquid chromatographic method, using a ECO C8 - (150mm*4.6mm*5μ) (particle size) as stationary phase with mobile phase Methanol: Acetonitrile: 1% Ammonium acetate (25:25:50%v/v/v) with flow rate of 1 ml/min retention time for Nimesulide and Chlorzoxazone were found to be 11.646min and 6.223min respectively. Nimesulide and Chlorzoxazone were exposed to acid/base hydrolytic, oxidative, thermal and photolytic stress conditions, and stressed sample were analysed by proposed method. There were no other co-eluting, interfering peaks from excipients, impurities or degradation products due to variable stress conditions. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 100-300 μg/ml for Nimesulide and 250-750 μg/ml for Chlorzoxazone. Limit of detection was found to be 4.71 μg/ml and 29.870 μg/ml and data for limit of quantification were found to be 14.273 μg/ml and 90.517 μg/ml for Nimesulide and Chlorzoxazone respectively. The mean recoveries were 102.36% and 102.07% for Nimesulide and Chlorzoxazone, respectively. The accuracy of the method was in compliance with the proposed limits and the precision of the method was satisfactory. The system suitability of the method showed that the performance of the chromatographic system is not significantly influenced by variations of the operational parameters inside an accepted domain. The excellent separation was demonstrated in the chromatograms and no interfering peaks were observed. Hence, the present method was found to be sensitive, rapid, specific, accurate and robust.

31

DRUGS CONTAINING TANNINS-AN OVERVIEW

R. Ramasubramania Raja, M. Sreenivasulu
Narayana Pharmacy College, Nellore, A.P.

Abstract

Tannins are one of the most widely occurring groups of natural substances in different families of higher plants. These secondary metabolites are present in solution form in the cell sap and also in distinct vacuoles. They have been known since long time as the astringent substances, having the capacity to combine with tissue proteins and precipitate them. They are, therefore, used in medicines for allied purposes or as mild antiseptics, in treatment of diarrhea, and to check small haemorrhage. Commercially, they find extensive application in leather industry, when the skins of animals are treated with tannins to prevent the putrefaction. The present review is explained the detailed of tannins and tannin containing pharmacognostical drugs. Total this review explored the tannins structure, identified the drugs presenting the tannins and their uses (Pharmacological activity). Every crude drug having particular tannin constituents also identified here.

32

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-UPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ESCITALOPRAM OXALATE AND ETIZOLAM IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM

Abhijit Chanda1*, N. Ramalakshmi2, C. N. Nalini2, S. Arunkumar3, S. Mahabubi1

1Baxter (India) Pvt. Ltd, Kanchipuram (India) – 603110.

2C. L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Chennai (India)-600097.

3Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE.

Abstract

The present work describes a simple, selective, rapid, accurate and economic method which has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Escitalopram oxalate (ESC) and Etizolam (ETZ) in tablet dosage form by reverse phase Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-UPLC) with PDA detector. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a column Symmetry C18 (4.6×50mm, 5m) by using mobile phase mixture of buffer (pH was adjusted at3 by using ortho phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile at ratio of 85:15 v/v at a flow rate 0.5 ml/min. The PDA detection made at 230 nm. The retention time is for Escitalopram oxalate and Etizolam was found 0.752 ±0.002 min & 2.612 ±0.003 min respectively with a run time of 4 minute and resolution of 22.41. Calibration plots were linear over the concentration ranges 80-120 μg/ml and 8-12 μg/ml for ESC and ETZ respectively. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness as per ICH guidelines given for analytical method validation and the method was also found to be simple, sensitive, accurate and precise.

33

A COMPARITIVE RESEARCH STUDY ON OPEN APPENDICECTOMY VERSUS LAPROSCOPIC APPENDICECTOMY

Dr. P Vinay1, Dr. P Gowtham2, Dr. M Bhargavi2, M Venkata Subbaiah2
1Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa - 516003.
2P Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa - 516003.

Abstract

Acute appendicitis is commonly an emergency abdominal surgery. Laparoscopic appendectomies are ideal for simple appendicitis. Complication rates were equivalent in both open appendectomy and laproscopic appendectomy. Mortality rates for laparoscopic appendectomy were 1/5 of open appendectomy rates among patients older than 65. The main objective of the present retrospective study was to compare length of hospital stay, in-hospital complications, operation time, and usage of antibiotics between laparoscopic (LA) and open appendectomy (OA). Clinical and laboratory information was obtained by reviewing patients’ medical records, including age, gender, white blood count (WBC), random blood sugar (RBS), operating time, duration of hospital stay, complications as well as usage of antibiotics. Standard muscle-splitting approach in the right iliac fossa procedure for OA was followed by the surgeons in that the appendix was removed and stump was ligated. LA was performed by three-trocar technique (Karl Storz, Germany), the mesoappendix was controlled with laparoscopic bipolar cautery (Karl Storz, Germany), and the appendix base was tied with a singe endoloop (Covidien, USA). The appendix was removed through the left iliac fossa port or the umbilical port. High incidence of appendicitis were observed in the age group of 30 - 40 years in both OA and LA groups, duration of hospitalization between OA and LA groups (5.66 + 1.78 vs 7.98 + 2.55), incidence of complications in the LA group was lower than that in the OA group. This retrospective patient chart review showed that laparoscopic appendectomy is a safe and effective procedure as compared to open appendectomy.

34

A REVIEW ARTICLE: IN VITRO RELEASE TECHNIQUES FOR TOPICAL FORMULATIONS

Prakashkumar B. Modi1*, Nehal J. Shah1,2
1School of Pharmacy, RK University, Kasturbadham, Rajkot-360020, Gujarat, India.
2Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Indubhai Patel College of Pharmacy and Research Centre, Dharmaj-388430, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

An in vitro release testing (IVRT) plays an important role in several area during the topical product development. This review article represents different IVRT techniques such as Franz diffusion cells method, Enhancer cells method, Flow through cell method and Parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and their application in topical formulation development. It can be used as an in vitro surrogate for in vivo performance that can guide formulation development, sameness study for bio-waiver and ascertain the need for bioequivalence tests in generic topical formulations. PAMPA can be utilized for evaluation of drug retention factor, permeability parameters and permeability coefficients during product development.

35

REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY STUDY OF TALISADYA CHURNA: AN ANCIENT POLYHERBAL FORMULATION

Parag Jain1*, Ravindra Pandey2, Shiv Shankar Shukla2
1Department of Pharmacology, SLT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Koni, Bilaspur (C.G.) India- 495009.
2Department of Phytochemistry and Natural Products, Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Raipur (C.G.)- 493111.

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of the present study is to investigate possible toxic reproductive effect of TC in Wistar rats. To evaluate the toxicity profile of TC, either before mating or during pre and post embryo implantation periods upto one generation. Method and Materials: All the individual herbs were mixed and the extract was standardized through HPLC to confirm the desired constituent. The reproductive toxicity of TC extract was evaluated on Wistar rats on both sexes. Animals were divided into four groups, one control group as group-1 which was untreated and three test groups as group-2 (250 mg/kg extract), group-3 (500 mg/kg extract) and group-4 (1000 mg/kg extract). All the animals were treated orally. Twenty rats per sex per dose group were selected for the study. Toxicity of TC extract was evaluated on parent generation (F0) and their progeny (F1) based on different parameters as implantation, estrous cycle, hematology, biochemical analysis, organ necropsy, urine analysis etc. Results: The results showed that exposure of the F1 progeny during the pre and post-mating periods did not significantly alter the reproductive capacity. However, in higher doses reduction of fetal weight was observed. All the treated groups were devoid of any sign of toxicity. Conclusion: At the end of the reproductive toxicity study in rats it can be concluded that no signs of abnormalities observed in any of the vital organs in both parent and F1 generations. Hence, TC is safe for long term use.

36

MICROENCAPSULATION OF VASICINE ALKALOIDS THROUGH SPRAY DRYING TECHNIQUE

K. Srinivasan*, S. Shanmughasundaram
Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology, Thanjavur – 613005.

Abstract

The micronutrients such as alkaloids, vitamins, and flavanoids do not remain in the food for a significant amount of time and may react with the other food components. Microencapsulation is a science that improves the retention time of the nutrients in the food and allows controlled release during food consumption. The current study was to optimize the process conditions and to evaluate the recovery of vasicine alkaloids of microencapsulated AV leaf extract by spray drying with gum acacia and maltodextrin. The effects of the wall material combination (20 - 100%), inlet air temperature (80 -160 °C), and feed flow rate (0.18- 0.30 L.h–1) on the moisture content, bulk density, encapsulation efficiency, mass recovery and redispersion time were evaluated. The scanning electron microscope image of the encapsulated powder shows that the compounds are intruded inside the wall materials. Moisture content and encapsulation efficiency were significantly affected and the redispersion time was positively influenced by the wall material concentration. In addition, the vasicine alkaloid concentration was evaluated using High Performance Liquid Chromatography technique. The results indicated that the gum acacia with wall material ratio (1:1), low inlet air temperature (80°C), and moderate feed flow rate (0.18 L.h–1) are the best spray drying conditions for encapsulating the Adhatoda leaf extract with maximum retention of vasicine alkaloids (73.18%). From the results, it can be concluded that the gum acacia is a suitable wall material for maximum retention of vasicine alkaloids.

37

BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF BIOSYNTHESISED SILVER NANOBIOCONJUGATES DERIVED FROM METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PIPER BETLE LEAVES

R. Preethi, P. R. Padma
Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, India – 641043.

Abstract

The Piper betle is an important medicinal and recreational plant used widely in Indian traditional system. The leaves have also been proved to possess strong anticancer and antimicrobial properties due to the presence several bioactive components, predominantly the phenolic compounds. In our study, the silver nanobioconjugates were synthesised from betel leaves and its major component eugenol under sunlight exposure. The synthesized nanobioconjugates were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Polydispersity index, Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The reduction of silver ions was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy with peaks at 420nm. The nanobioconjugates showed the spherical in shape with 16-28nm in size and crystalline in nature. The conjugates were well dispersed with stable in nature. The FTRI data proved that the components in betel leaves act as good reductants and stabilizers for the silver nanobioconjugate synthesis. The synthesized nanobioconjugates were absolutely biocompatible in nature and are safe for human use. The results clearly suggest, that the synthesized silver nanobioconjugates from Piper betle leaves and eugenol can be used in the biomedical applications or as nanomedicine.

38

A REVIEW ON GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA LINN. - A TRADITIONAL VERSATILE PLANT DRUG

Reshma Jain*, Sadhana Rajput
Faculty of Pharmacy, Kalabhavan Campus, The M.S.University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

Glycyrrhiza glabra is commonly known as Yashtimadhu. It has been used worldwide in various systems of medicine viz, Ayurvedic, Allopathic and other traditional systems of medicine. Herbal medicines are the synthesis of therapeutic experiences of generations of practising physicians of indigenous systems of medicine for over hundreds of years. It is mainly used for the treatment of peptic ulcer, hepatitis C and pulmonary and skin diseases. Clinical and experimental studies also suggest that it has several other useful pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anticancer, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardio protective activities. So many active constituents of liquorice were isolated including triterpene saponins, flavonoids, isoflavonoids and chalcones with glycyrrhizic acid normally being considered to be the main biologically active component. This review focus to highlight the available literature on Glycyrrhiza glabra with respect to its Ayurvedic aspects, pharmacognostical characteristics, phytochemical constituents, pharmacokinetics, pharmacological aspects with the clinical and adverse effects, toxicology and precautions of liquorice and its bioactive components are also included. This will be helpful to create interest towards liquorice and may be useful in developing new herbal formulations with more therapeutic and economical value.

39

A REVIEW ON NOVEL MOLECULAR MARKER TECHNIQUES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN PLANT ORIGIN

Reshma Jain*, Sadhana Rajput
Faculty of Pharmacy, Kalabhavan Campus, The M.S.University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

Detection and analysis of genetic variation can help us to understand the molecular basis of various biological phenomena in plant origin. DNA based marker techniques such as RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA), SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats) and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) are routinely being used in ecological, evolutionary, taxonomical, phylogenic and genetic studies of plant sciences. Now a day, a new class of advanced combined techniques has emerged, which is derived from earlier basic techniques. The newer methods also include modifications in the methodology of basic techniques. So it increases the sensitivity and resolution to detect genetic discontinuity and uniqueness. The novel marker techniques also make use of newer class of DNA elements like retrotransposons, mitochondrial and chloroplast based microsatellites, thus revealing genetic variation through increased genome coverage. Some techniques such as RAPD and AFLP are also being applied to cDNA based templates to study patterns of gene expression and uncover the genetic basis of biological responses. Genetic or DNA based markers have their applications in fingerprinting genotypes, determining the seed purity and in phylogenetic analysis by which the conservation of the plant can be made easy. A review details about techniques used in identification of markers and their applicability in plant origin.