IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
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DECEMBER 2018
1

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND METHOD VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DOFETILIDE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE PREPARATIONS BY RP-HPLC

Ramesh Adepu*, Dr. A. Ashok Kumar
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mewar University, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India.

A Specific, Precise, Accurate, Rugged and Robust stability indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Dofetilide in in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form (Tablets) was carried out by HPLC with Phenomenex C18 (150x4.6mm ID) 1.8?m column as stationary phase by using mobile phase consisting of 20mM Potassium di hydrogen phosphate Buffer pH 6.8: Acetonitrile: Methanol(50:30:20 v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min and detection was carried out at 231nm. The Retention time of Dofetilide 2.3 min respectively, The method produced linear response of for Dofetilide with >0.999 correlation coefficient. The % Recoveries for Dofetilidein were obtained in between 98.0 to 102.0.A Specific, Precise, Accurate, Rugged and Robust stability indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Dofetilide in in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form (Tablets) was carried out by HPLC with Phenomenex C18 (150x4.6mm ID) 1.8?m column as stationary phase by using mobile phase consisting of 20mM Potassium di hydrogen phosphate Buffer pH 6.8: Acetonitrile: Methanol(50:30:20 v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min and detection was carried out at 231nm. The Retention time of Dofetilide 2.3 min respectively, The method produced linear response of for Dofetilide with >0.999 correlation coefficient. The % Recoveries for Dofetilidein were obtained in between 98.0 to 102.0. 




2

VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ELETRIPTAN HYDROBROMIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION USING MARQUIS REAGENT

Sailusha Ratnam K, Hemant Kumar T*, Srinivasa Rao Y, Vara Prasada Rao K
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, Vignan Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Duvvada, Visakhapatnam.

A novel, simple, sensitive, precise and accurate visible spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the determination of Eletriptan hydrobromide in pharmaceutical formulation using marquis reagent. The absorption maximum of the drug was found to be 530 nm. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-12 ?g/ml with correlation coefficient 0.998. The results of analysis for the method have been validated statistically and by recovery studies indicate the accuracy and precision of the method. The proposed method was simple, accurate, and precise hence can be applied for the analysis of Eletriptan in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form.A novel, simple, sensitive, precise and accurate visible spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the determination of Eletriptan hydrobromide in pharmaceutical formulation using marquis reagent. The absorption maximum of the drug was found to be 530 nm. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-12 ?g/ml with correlation coefficient 0.998. The results of analysis for the method have been validated statistically and by recovery studies indicate the accuracy and precision of the method. The proposed method was simple, accurate, and precise hence can be applied for the analysis of Eletriptan in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form. 




3

DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSDERMAL ETHOSOMAL GEL OF PAROXETINE BY COLD METHOD

V.Viswanath*, S.Lavanya, A.Tejaswini
Department of Pharmaceutics, P.R.R,M College of Pharmacy, Kadapa – 516 003.

The present investigative work is carried out to formulate and optimize the Paroxetine ethosomal gel using cold method. As a part of the investigation, we used three square design using design expert® 11.0 version software for optimization of individual concentrations of lecithin and ethanol and are considered as the independent variables. Whereas, drug content, entrapment efficacy, and vesicular size are considered as dependent variables which gets altered due to independent variable concentrations. The study was carried out using 14 formulations containing the variable concentrations of lecithin and ethanol. Further, the in-vitro studies of the formulations reveal that F3 having lecithin: ethanol ratio as 100:5 and exhibiting the drug content of 95.285% and entrapment efficacy of 95.354% is considered as optimized. In continuation to the above, F3 exhibits first order release (R2 = 0.951) mechanism with non- Fickian diffusion. The ANOVA studies and polynomial equations in terms of coded equations were generated for the obtained results which reveal the effect of lecithin on the dependent variables and strengthen the statistical data. On the whole, it can be concluded that F3 is optimized and can serve as an effective carrier for transdermal drug delivery of Paroxetine in generating the required therapeutic effect.The present investigative work is carried out to formulate and optimize the Paroxetine ethosomal gel using cold method. As a part of the investigation, we used three square design using design expert® 11.0 version software for optimization of individual concentrations of lecithin and ethanol and are considered as the independent variables. Whereas, drug content, entrapment efficacy, and vesicular size are considered as dependent variables which gets altered due to independent variable concentrations. The study was carried out using 14 formulations containing the variable concentrations of lecithin and ethanol. Further, the in-vitro studies of the formulations reveal that F3 having lecithin: ethanol ratio as 100:5 and exhibiting the drug content of 95.285% and entrapment efficacy of 95.354% is considered as optimized. In continuation to the above, F3 exhibits first order release (R2 = 0.951) mechanism with non- Fickian diffusion. The ANOVA studies and polynomial equations in terms of coded equations were generated for the obtained results which reveal the effect of lecithin on the dependent variables and strengthen the statistical data. On the whole, it can be concluded that F3 is optimized and can serve as an effective carrier for transdermal drug delivery of Paroxetine in generating the required therapeutic effect. 


 


4

EFFECT OF SOLVENTS ON SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF RIZATRIPTAN BENZOATE

Dr.VamseeKrishna. G*, Dr.Y.A. Chowdary, S.N.S. Sriram, P. Lavanya, G. Varsha Sri, Sk.Sujauddin
Dept. Of Pharmaceutical Analysis, NRI College of Pharmacy, Pothavarappadu, Agiripalli, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Rizatriptan Benzoate is a selective 5-Hydroxy Tryptamine 1B/1D receptor agonist, which is used in the treatment of migraine headache. Three simple, sensitive, selective, accurate, precise, economical, robust, rapid and reproducible ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for quantitative estimation of Rizatriptan benzoate in bulk and tablet dosage form. The solutions of Rizatriptan were prepared using water and solvent blends containing acetonitrile: H2O (1:1), water: methanol (1:1) and studied their influence on estimation of Rizatriptan benzoate. The three different solutions of drug were scanned in the UV region of 200nm-400nm. Rizatriptan benzoate showed maximum absorbance at 224nm in all three different solvents, and obeyed Beer-Lambert’s law in the concentration range of 2-12?g/ml. The linear regression equations were calculated to be Y=0.913x+0.0065 for acetonitrile: water (1:1) (R2 =0.9994), Y=0.0896x+0.0101 for methanol: water (1:1) (R2 =0.9994) and Y=0.0858x+0.0134 for water (R2 =0.9992). The analytical parameter such as linearity, A(1%/1cm), limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification(LOQ), intermediate precision, molar absorption coefficient and sandell’s sensitivity were calculated. The validation parameters were treated statistically with one-way analysis of variance(ANOVA) and significant differences were noted. The study clearly revealed that the solvents influence the determination of Rizatriptan benzoate, the method described was rapid and easy. So it can be used for routine quality control analysis of Rizatriptan benzoate in pharmaceutical preparations.Rizatriptan Benzoate is a selective 5-Hydroxy Tryptamine 1B/1D receptor agonist, which is used in the treatment of migraine headache. Three simple, sensitive, selective, accurate, precise, economical, robust, rapid and reproducible ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for quantitative estimation of Rizatriptan benzoate in bulk and tablet dosage form. The solutions of Rizatriptan were prepared using water and solvent blends containing acetonitrile: H2O (1:1), water: methanol (1:1) and studied their influence on estimation of Rizatriptan benzoate. The three different solutions of drug were scanned in the UV region of 200nm-400nm. Rizatriptan benzoate showed maximum absorbance at 224nm in all three different solvents, and obeyed Beer-Lambert’s law in the concentration range of 2-12?g/ml. The linear regression equations were calculated to be Y=0.913x+0.0065 for acetonitrile: water (1:1) (R2 =0.9994), Y=0.0896x+0.0101 for methanol: water (1:1) (R2 =0.9994) and Y=0.0858x+0.0134 for water (R2 =0.9992). The analytical parameter such as linearity, A(1%/1cm), limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification(LOQ), intermediate precision, molar absorption coefficient and sandell’s sensitivity were calculated. The validation parameters were treated statistically with one-way analysis of variance(ANOVA) and significant differences were noted. The study clearly revealed that the solvents influence the determination of Rizatriptan benzoate, the method described was rapid and easy. So it can be used for routine quality control analysis of Rizatriptan benzoate in pharmaceutical preparations. 


 


5

THE NOVEL USE OF PENTABROMOBENZYL COLUMN FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF THREE ANTIVIRAL DRUGS, SOFOSBUVIR WITH DACLATASVIR OR LEDIPASVIR IN THEIR TABLET DOSAGE FORM AND SPIKED HUMAN PLASMA

Maha Abd-Elrahman. Sultan1, Maha Mahmoud Abou El-Alamin1, Sherif F Hammad2, Alastair W. Wark3, Marwa Mohamed Azab*1.
1Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, 11795, Cairo, Egypt
2Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, 11795, Cairo, Egypt
3Center for Molecular Nanometrology, WESTChem, Dept. of Pure & Applied Chemistry, Technology, Innovation Centre, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1RD, UK..

New sensitive, selective and specific reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of two antiviral mixtures, sofosbuvir (SOF) with ledipasvir (LED) or with daclatasvir (DAC) has been developed. The proposed methods were optimized and validated on Pentabromobenzyl (PBr) analytical column (5 ?m; 4.6 mm × 150 mm). The analysis of the studied drug combinations was determined within 8 min for SOF and LED mixture and 5 min for SOF and DAC mixture, using photodiode array detector (PDA). The mobile phase consists of 30 mM phosphate buffer pH (3.0), methanol and acetonitrile (20:20:60, v/v) for SOF and LED mixture and 40 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.6) and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) for SOF and DAC mixture. A linear response was observed for all the studied compounds in the range of the concentration studied with mean percentage recoveries of 100.16% ± 1.48 and 100.07% ± 1.82 for SOF and LED, respectively and 100.05 % ± 1.38 and 100.81% ± 1.36 for SOF and DAC, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of these drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms and in human plasma samples. 


 


6

RELATIVE GROWTH RATE AND SURVIVAL, EFFICIENCY OF FEED UTILIZATION OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS), AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY BY THE ADDITION OF HERBAL EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTS AS DRUGS AND GROWTH PROMOTERS TO JUVENILE FISHES IN THE FED DIET

G.V. Pavan Kumar*, N. Mehar Nikhitha, Md. Mb.Husnara Begum, V. Chandra Sekhar, N.V.V.S.S. Lakshmi, Ch.Deena, B.Bhavani, P.Rajendra Kumar
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Koringa College of Pharmacy, Korangi, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India.

The use of herbs as drugs in disease management is gaining success, because herbal drugs are cost effective, eco-friendly and have minimal side effects. Many studies have proved that herbal additives enhanced the growth of fishes and protect them from diseases. Indeed, the herbs/herbal drugs overcome all these problems and keep the fish healthy by acting as growth promoters and treating the diseases as well. A feeding trial, involving the use of four different starter diets for the feeding of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles, was carried out in the laboratory by intensive cage farming technique. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding herbal extracts in feed and observations were conducted on efficiency of feed utilization (EFU), relative growth rate (RGR), survival rate(SR) of Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish samples in this research with an average weight of 5.34 ± 0.16 g were selected. The formulated diets consist of Fresh Cocus nucifera milk (CNMe), Ficus sycomorus (FSBe), Suaeda maritima (SMPe), Vulva Proliferans (VPAe ), and regular basal diet with all the natural ingredients. The juvenile fishes were distinctly arranged into 6 groups and fed with control, marketed feed also. Every group was fed with formulated basal feed at time intervals of 4hrs thrice a day at 08.00 am, 12.00 pm and 14.00 pm at the ration of around 14.28g/day over a period of 7 days and varied formulated herbal feed for the next 7 days until 84 days study. The results show that the addition of herbal extracts significantly (P<0.05) affected on EFU, RGR on the other hand it insignificantly (P>0.05) affected on SR of Nile tilapia. Based on results, it was concluded that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with the use of Ficus sycomorus berries extract and Suaeda maritima whole plant extract. Ficus sycomorus treatment is highly recommended as live food in the growth promotion of the Oreochromis niloticus fish. The protenaceous food from plants is easily available and most widely cultivable in freshwater fish pond environments, its bio-nutrients are readily available/utilizable by the fish and the procurement is highly economical. This technology uses herbal ingredients in formulation thus contributing towards good quality in fish meal and culturing. 


 


7

EFFECT OF LOW DOSE KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE ON TOURNIQUET INDUCED HYPERTENSION IN LOWER LIMB SURGERIES

Dr. Srishti Meghare, Dr.Kinna Shah, Dr. Bhavana Shah
Anesthesia Department, G C R I, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

Aim:-There is a constant increase in hemodynamic parameters during prolonged tourniquet inflation .We had investigated the effect of low dose 0.5mg/kg bolus ketamine on hemodynamic changes during tourniquet application in lower limb orthopaedic surgeries under general Anesthesia. Method:-100 patients posted for lower limb surgeries under standard general anesthesia using tourniquet were randomly assigned to one of two groups in double blind study. The Group C (control group) received 10 ml saline IV and Group K (study group) received 0.5mg/kg diluted in 10ml 0.9% saline IV given 10 minutes before tourniquet inflation. We had recorded hemodynamic changes, EtCO2 and Et Sevoflurane at 5 minutes interval up to 20 minutes of tourniquet deflation. Inj. Fentanyl 1mcg/kg supplemented if Systolic BP or heart rate raised more than 30% of base line. Results: - Hemodynamic stability was seen statically significant in Group K (p value, < 0.05) at 40, 50 and 60 minutes. Less number of patients needed supplemental fentanyl intra operatively in Group K than in Group C (3 V/s.18 p value <0.05). Conclusion: - Low dose bolus Ketamine 0.5mg/kg prevents tourniquet induced hypertension in lower limb surgery done under general anesthesia.Aim:-There is a constant increase in hemodynamic parameters during prolonged tourniquet inflation .We had investigated the effect of low dose 0.5mg/kg bolus ketamine on hemodynamic changes during tourniquet application in lower limb orthopaedic surgeries under general Anesthesia. Method:-100 patients posted for lower limb surgeries under standard general anesthesia using tourniquet were randomly assigned to one of two groups in double blind study. The Group C (control group) received 10 ml saline IV and Group K (study group) received 0.5mg/kg diluted in 10ml 0.9% saline IV given 10 minutes before tourniquet inflation. We had recorded hemodynamic changes, EtCO2 and Et Sevoflurane at 5 minutes interval up to 20 minutes of tourniquet deflation. Inj. Fentanyl 1mcg/kg supplemented if Systolic BP or heart rate raised more than 30% of base line. Results: - Hemodynamic stability was seen statically significant in Group K (p value, < 0.05) at 40, 50 and 60 minutes. Less number of patients needed supplemental fentanyl intra operatively in Group K than in Group C (3 V/s.18 p value <0.05). Conclusion: - Low dose bolus Ketamine 0.5mg/kg prevents tourniquet induced hypertension in lower limb surgery done under general anesthesia. 


 


8

SWEET WORMWOOD IN THE TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER

Gopichand Bhoi*, Vishal Lad, Vijay Shastry
Gangamai College of Pharmacy, Nagaon, Dhule, Maharashtra-424005.

Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells which tends to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and in some cases to spread. Many anticancer drugs are available in market with a lot of side-effects. So our objective is to introduced a drug “sweet wormwood” (Artemisia annua) that is 1,000 times better than chemotherapy. In chemotherapy, for every 5 cancer cells 1 normal cell may be destroyed but a recent study found that wormwood can kill up to 12,000 cancer cells for every 1 healthy cell it may affect. The active ingredient that makes sweet wormwood such a cancer healer is artemisinin. The special super concentrated compound of wormwood and iron can target cancer cells while leaving healthy cells alone. The compound is specially effective in combating breast cancer. Wormwood and iron together is said to act as a “Trojan horse”, creating a literal “time bomb” for cancer cells. Cancer cells are not as successful as healthy cell in disposing of free floating iron molecules. This weakness causes the presence of iron in general to create stressful environment for cancer cells. This compound works on a general property of cancer cells, their high iron content. Breast cancer cells in particular can sometimes contain up to 15 times more iron receptors than surrounding cells, which is why this iron-artemisinin duo may have an even more profound effect on breast cancer. “Artemisinin reacted with iron to form free radicals which cause cell death”. The artemisinin and its derivatives are toxic to the malarial parasites at nanomolar concentrations, causing specific membrane structural changes in the erythrocyte stage that kills the parasites. The WHO recommends artemisinin- based combination therapies as first line treatment for P. falciparum malaria because it reacts with the high levels of iron in the parasites to produced the free radicals which then destroy the cell walls of malarial- parasite. Act as anti malarial, anti parasitic, anti fungal, anti microbial, anti-inflammatory. 


 


9

EVALUATION OF ANTI-COMPULSIVE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BACOPA MONNIERI L. LEAVES IN MICE

Trupti A. Nimburkar1, Anjali M. Wankhade1?, Manish M. Wanjari2
1Vidyabharati College of Pharmacy,C.K. Naidu road,Camp,Amravati -444602(Maharashtra) India.
2Central Research Institute (Ayurveda), Opposite Jayarog Hospital, Aamkho, Lashkar, Gwalior - 474 009 (Madhya Pradesh), India.

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental health condition where a person has obsessive thoughts and compulsive activity. OCD can impair all areas of brain functioning and produce devastating effects on patients and their families. Marble-burying behavior of mice is a well-accepted paradigm to screen anti-compulsive activity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the anti-compulsive effect of Bacopa monnieri extract in mice. The present investigation revealed a significant decrease in marble-burying behavior of mice after oral administration of EEBM (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg )and exhibit anti OCD like effect and the effect of EEBM was comparable to standard anti OCD drug Fluoxetine which also reduce the marble burying behavior in accordance with the previous findings. The maximum effective dose of EEBM was 200mg/kg, at which there was no change in the motor activity. The dose of 400mg/kg also exhibited inhibitory effect on marble burying behavior, but it also reduced the motor activity, hence it is not clear whether the effect of EEBM at 400mg/kg is perse effect or it is due to inhibition of motor activity.The experimental results of this study shows that ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri possess anticompulsive activities. 


 


10

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AZITHROMYCIN AND DEXAMETHASONE IN EYE DROPS BY RP-HPLC

Chandrakanth.Bandapally*, Y.Vamshi, V.Girija Sastry
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Aurobindo College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gangadevipally (M), Warangal Urban (D), Telangana State, India.

A simple, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Azithromycin and Dexamethasone in their combined formulation from the eye drop. The GRACE ODS C18, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 ?m, L1 packing, column was maintained at an ambient temperature and 230 nm ? max conditions. The mixture of Methanol and 0.0335M Phosphate Buffer (pH 7.5) in the ratio of (80:20 v/v) mobile phase was used in the flow rate of 1.2 ml/min. Azithromycin and Dexamethasone peaks were eluted at 3.832 min and 4.798 min respectively with good resolution. The above method was validated in terms of System suitability, linearity, accuracy, precision, Limit of Detection (LOD), Limit of Quantification (LOQ) in accordance with ICH guidelines. The results obtained from the method validation were within the acceptable limit. In conclusion a method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Azithromycin and Dexamethasone in combined dosage form. The linearity range of Azithromycin and Dexamethasone were found to be from 0.1-12?g/ml for Azithromycin, 0.1-8?g/ml for Dexamethasone. Linear regression coefficients were found to be 0.9931 and 0.9949 for Azithromycin and Dexamethasone respectively 


 


11

THE STUDY ON ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Tagetes erectus, Bougainvillea glabra & Caesalpinia pulcherrima - As pH Herbal Indicator

Gayatri Gautam Varma1, Mrs. Shubhangi Kshirsagar1, Sofiya R. Moris2, Mrs. Suchita Gokhale1, Rani Dagadu Shinde1, Vedanti Kashiram Sawant1
1Ideal College of Pharmacy & Research Institute (Affiliated to UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI).
2Shri D. D Vispute College of Pharmacy and Research Center, Panvel.

 A pH indicator is weak acid and halo chromic chemical compound that is added in small quantity to a solution so that the pH (acidity or basicity) of the solution can be determined visually during experiment. Almost all indicators used for acid-base titrations are synthetic compounds, slightly expensive and are unavailable so attempt is made to prepare natural indicator by using different flower extracts. These flowers are very common and easily available; hence indicator obtained from them will be cheap & economical. Every indicator are exhibits a different range of colors at different pH values. This study has been done to investigate the indicator properties of alcoholic extract of flower- Tagetes erectus, Bougainvillea glabra & Caesalpinia pulcherrima. All sample’s Pigments were extracted & evaluated by preparing different pH strips by socking method. Their acid-base titration readings were compared with that of already existing synthetic indicators phenolphthalein and the work proved to be acceptable in introducing flower pigments as a substitute to the synthetic indicator in the acid-based indicators.A pH indicator is weak acid and halo chromic chemical compound that is added in small quantity to a solution so that the pH (acidity or basicity) of the solution can be determined visually during experiment. Almost all indicators used for acid-base titrations are synthetic compounds, slightly expensive and are unavailable so attempt is made to prepare natural indicator by using different flower extracts. These flowers are very common and easily available; hence indicator obtained from them will be cheap & economical. Every indicator are exhibits a different range of colors at different pH values. This study has been done to investigate the indicator properties of alcoholic extract of flower- Tagetes erectus, Bougainvillea glabra & Caesalpinia pulcherrima. All sample’s Pigments were extracted & evaluated by preparing different pH strips by socking method. Their acid-base titration readings were compared with that of already existing synthetic indicators phenolphthalein and the work proved to be acceptable in introducing flower pigments as a substitute to the synthetic indicator in the acid-based indicators. 




 


12

FAST DISSOLVING SYSTEMS – AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH FOR ENHANCED THERAPEUTIC ACTION

R. Santosh Kumar*, T. Naga Satya Yagnesh
GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam, A.P 530045, INDIA.

From the past years the advancement of pharmaceutical technology has presented the change of dosage forms for patients who may have difficulty in swallowing of conventional tablets. The systems which disintegrate and release the active ingredient quickly and that do not require water to aid swallowing are fast dissolving drug delivery systems (FDDDSs). Amid the FDDDS, the fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) are the attendant defensible form of drug delivery system because of its convenience of self-administration and compactness. The traditional capsules and tablets administration has shown difficulty in swallowing for pediatric, geriatric, and uncooperative patients. The basic creep up on used in blooming of FDT is the use of superdisintegrants which bestow immediate disintegration and thereby releasing the drug in saliva. Oral administration of bitter drugs with an acceptable degree of palatability can be attained by taste masking. These promulgation reviews the applications and technologies intricate in the formulation of FDDDS especially focused on FDTs. 


 


13

NOVEL COMPOUNDS OF THIO-PYRIMIDINE ANTHRANILATE AND SULFONAMIDE ANTHRANILATE DERIVATIVES WITH ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND IT’S SYNTHESIS

Nitin A. Shimpi*, Rajesh B. Dhake
D.D.N. Bhole College, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, India.

Sulfonamide and Thio-pyrimidines derivatives are known for antibacterial activity and hence, in our research study, series of compounds were designed for the Thio-pyrimidine anthranilate and Sulphonamide anthranilate derivatives. Based on the N-terminal signal peptidase and C-terminal sorting signal of surface protein binding, Compound-1.4 (S-Allyl-Methyl ester), Compound 2.2 (S-Allyl-Amino-Acid), Compound-3.1 (Methyl-ester-Methyl-sulfonamide) & Compound-4.1 (Methyl-ester-Toluene-sulfonamide) were selected for our research as these compounds shown advantage in the binding. These four compounds were synthesized by chemical synthesis and characterized using structure elucidating techniques like NMR and Mass spectroscopy. These compounds were screened for the biological activity using Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Pneumoniae). In vitro Antibacterial Assay (Table-1) indicates that all the synthesized compounds (1.4, 2.2, 3.1 & 4.1) shows moderate to excellent activity data against all the tested Gram positive as well as Gram negative bacterial pathogens determined at concentration 10, 50, 100 and 200 ?g/mL. From the activity data, it is concluded that the compound 2.2 & 4.1 are most active among all the tested compounds for the tested bacterial species, while compound 3.1 shows comparable activity compared to Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin. 


 


14

A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON THE MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN PATIENTS WITH END STAGE RENAL DISEASE IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, BANGALORE.

Remya Bhaskaran S, G. Saranya, P.Vaishnavi Reddy, Dr. Ritty Sara Cherian, Dr. B.A Vishwanath
Aditya Bangalore Institute for Pharmacy Education & Research (ABIPER).

Elevated blood pressure is the major cause of increase in death rate in patients with end stage renal disease. The management of hypertension in end stage renal disease is a major challenge, inorder to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality. Antihypertensive agents plays an important role in ESRD patients by reducing the risk factors. In India the incidence rate of CKD is increasing from 2006, where as the age adjusted incidence rate of ESRD is 229/million population. A recent study from Western India demonstrated that the occurrence of hypertension is 85%-95% in ESRD patients. This study aims to evaluate the most appropriate non pharmacological and pharmacological treatments in the control of elevated blood pressure in patients with end stage renal disease. Our study shows that Clonidine and Nifedipine was the antihypertensive drug preferred in majority of the ESRD patients.The result of our study suggest that the control of blood pressure is essential, which can be achieved through strict medication adherence and lifestyle modification in the end stage renal disease patients.