IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
  • INDEXING
  • PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE
  • Impact Factor Journal
FEBRUARY 2017
1

THE COMPARATIVE FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING EFFECT OF FICUS RELIGIOSA, AEGLE MARMELOS AND BUTEA MONOSPERMA

Sourabh Jain1, Prof. D. Kishore1, Prof. Sanjay B. Kasture2
1Department of Pharmacy, Banasthali University, Banasthali Rajasthan.
2Pinnacle Biomedical Research Institute (PBRI), Bhopal M.P.

Abstract

Natural products have played crucial role in drug discovery and development. They are capable ofcombating free radicals mediated diseases. The most important of these bioactive constituents of natural products or plants are phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, glycoside and saponins. Phenols, flavonoids are known to possess wide range of biological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity of Ficus religiosa, Aegle marmelos and Butea monosperma against free radical damage using different standard methods such as DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and reducing power assay. Results of present study showed that F.religiosa extract had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50: 36.48 μg/ml) followed with A. marmelos (IC50: 40.41 μg/ml) and B. monosperma (IC50: 55.45 μg/ml) respectively. Similarly, in case of H2O2 radical scavenging assay, highest antioxidant activity was found in F. religiosa. . The total phenolic content of extract was found to be higher in Ficus religiosa (213.0±0.721 mg/gm GAE) then Aegle marmelos and Butea monosperma (191.6±1.058 and 174.7±1.007).The results support local claims of their therapeutic uses in folklore medicine. In conclusion, all three i.e. F. religiosa, A. marmelos and B.monosperma plant extracts could serve as free radical scavengers, can be considered as potent antioxidants. Their activity may be attributed to high phenolic and flavonoid contents.

2

KINETICS OF OXIDATION OF FAST GREEN FCF DYE WITH 1-CHLOROBENZOTRIAZOLE IN ALKALINE MEDIUM: MECHANISTIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC STUDY

Prema Kadappa Reddy, Fathyah Omar, Asha Iyengar*
Yuvaraja’s College, University of Mysore, Mysuru 570005, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Fast Green FCF (FGF) is a synthetic food dye. The kinetics of oxidation of Fast Green FCF with 1-chlorobenzotriazole in NaOH medium has been spectrophotometrically investigated at ƛmax 625 nm at the temperature 301 K. The reaction exhibited a pseudo -first order dependence of the rate on [FGF], first order dependence on the rate of [CBT]0, fractional order dependence on [OH-]. And inverse fractional order on addition of reduced product [BTA]. It fails to induce polymerization of acrylonitrile under the experimental conditions employed. Thermodynamic parameters for the reaction have been evaluated. Effects of dielectric constant and ionic strength of the medium on the reaction rate have also been studied. Oxidation products are identified and characterized by LC-MS. A probable reaction scheme is proposed and an appropriate rate law is deduced to account for the observed kinetic data.

3

A REVIEW ON AMENTOFLAVONE

Aroosa Siddique*, Madiha Jabeen, Osman Ahmed
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Deccan School of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, T.S.

Abstract

Amentoflavone, is a bioflavonoid constituent of some of flora which includes ginkgo biloba, hypericum perforatum. It can have interaction with many medicinal drugs by using being a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 which are enzymes chargeable for the metabolism of some drugs in the body. Flavonoids exhibit a extensive variety of activities including antioxidant, antiviral, Antibacterial and anticancer pastime. As formerly we showed that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPARγ. Human PPARγ (hPPARγ) regulates the proliferation, apoptosis, and various human most cancers cells. Activated hPPARγ has both tumor suppressor and tumor promoter. To affirm the mechanism of motion of amentoflavone in most cancers cells, we analyzed whether or not amentoflavone remedy affects the appearance of hPPARy the use of opposite transcription polymerase chain response and actual time quantitive PCR. Amentoflavone is synthesized with the aid of way of three techniques i.e natural, semi synthetic and synthetic methods. Among this synthetic method is widely used industrially. Application of the Suzuki-Miyaura response within the synthesis of flavonoids, is of vital magnificence of natural merchandise, is studied. Amentoflavone and three different flavonoids were separated from the ethanol extract of Selaginella sinensis. Amentoflavone show strong antiviral pastime in opposition to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The cytotoxic interest of amentoflavone is examined against 5 human most cancers cell strains (MCF-7, A549, HeLa, MDA-MB231, and PC3) treating with tetrazolium-primarily based colorimetric MTT assay. There is not such decided fixed dosage of amentoflavone.

4

COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROFILE OF ROOT OF IXORA COCCINEA LINN AND IXORA ARBOREA ROXB.

Riddhi D Kanakhara*, Dr. Harisha C. R., Dr. Shukla V. J.
Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurved, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

Ixora arborea Roxb. and Ixora coccinea Linn are belonging to the same family Rubiaceae. Both the plants are medium sized perennial shrub from 6 to 8 feet in height; Large bunches terminal tricotomously cymes. I. coccinea with red colored flower whereas I. arborea white colored flowers. Root of both the plant used as astringent and antiseptic against scabies and other skin diseases. So, in the present study efforts are made in talking its pharmacognostical and physico-chemical aspects of both the species of Ixora and by using the above features, the plant can be easily identified and differentiated from each other. In I.coccinea cork with 5-6 layers, cortex 5-7 layers, where as I.arborea showed 2-3 layers of cork and 15-20 layers of cortex. Root powder showed similar characters i.e. Oil globules, Lignified fibers, tannin content, simple starch grains, pitted and border pitted vessels. Result obtained from physico-chemical study represented the similar pH value nearby 6.0 showed weak acidic in nature. Both the extractive value emphasized the presence of similar kind of hydrophilic and lipophilic chemical moiety in Ixora coccinea and Ixora arborea respectively. HPTLC shows similar Rf values of both the sample.

5

SURVELLIANCE OF BOVINE MILK SAMPLES AND DETERMINED ITS IMMUNOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF LACTOFERRIN

Vijaya S Patil1, Amit Gupta1,2*, Sanjay Kamble1, Bharat Shinde1,2
1Vidya Pratishthan’s, Arts, Science and Commerce College, Baramati, Maharashtra, India.
2Vidya Pratishthan’s School of Biotechnology (VSBT, Research Centre affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University), Baramati, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Milk is a very complex product and reported more than hundred separate chemical compounds. The major components of milk are water, casein, whey proteins, fat, lactose and minerals. These components should be varied according to the species of various animals. Milk also contains trace amounts of other substances such as pigments, enzymes, vitamins, phospholipids including gases. Once the residue is left only when water and gases are removed is called the dry matter (DM) or total solids content of the milk. In this study, we observed lactoferrin content in milk samples of different bovine animals and also studied about its proliferation and estimation of Th1 (IFN-gamma and TNF alpha) cytokines against non-specific protein antigen (Concanavalin, Con A) in human whole blood samples and also studied about its antibacterial properties using Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of these studies showed that lactoferrin at higher doses inhibit proliferation rate and Th1 cytokines against non-specific protein antigen. In addition, lactoferrin also showed antibacterial properties as well. Overall conclusion of these studies which represents its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial property of lactoferrin.

6

KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF OXIDATION OF AZO DYE ACID YELLOW 36 BY CHLORAMINE-T IN HYDROCHLORIC ACID MEDIUM

Fathyah Omar, Mohammed Al-Ghorbani, T. AshaIyengar*
Department of Chemistry, Yuvaraja’sCollege, Autonomous, University of Mysore, Mysuru, 570005, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Kinetics of oxidative decolorization of Acid yellow36 (AY36) by chloromine-T,(CAT) in hydrochloric acid (HCl) medium at 301 K has been investigated spectrophotometrically at λmax439nm. The reaction showed first order dependence on [CAT] and[AY36]o and inverse fractional order dependence on [HCl]. Stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:3 with respect to the substrate and oxidant respectively. The oxidation products were identified by spectral analysis. Variation of ionic strength had no effect on the rate. Addition of p-toluene solfanamide (PTS)retarded the rate of reaction. Activation parameters have been computed. Probable mechanism and the relevant rate law have been deliberated for the observed kinetic results.

7

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN.

Rentapathri Lavanya
Lecturer, Department of Pharmacy, Government Polytechnic for women, Nizamabad, Telangana, India.

Abstract

The Plants are known for their diverse pharmacological activities including antimicrobial activity. In the present work an attempt has been made to find out the antibacterial activity of various solvent extracts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae). The Diethyl ether, Ethyl acetate and Acetone solvent extracts of leaves of the plant were screened for anti bacterial activity. The screening was done by agar well diffusion method against Bacillus Subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae. The present study revealed that Diethyl ether extracts showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae. Among the all bacteria screened Enterobacter cloacae was found to be more susceptible and Bacillus subtilis more resistant. This study concludes that the plant extracts were active against some gram negative bacteria.

8

RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PARACETAMOL AND N-ACETYLCYSTINE IN ITS BULK AND EFFERVESCENT TABLET DOSAGE FORM

D. Derle, S. Amrutkar*, S. Kulkarni, N. Derle
Department of Quality Assurance, MVP Samaj’s College of Pharmacy, Gangapur Road, Nashik, University of Pune, Maharastra, India.

Abstract

The present study describes a simple, accurate, precise and cost effective Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for simultaneous estimation of Paracetamol and N-Acetylcysteine in its bulk and effervescent tablet dosage formulation. The approach of research was to develop an effective RP-HPLC method since there were only few voltammetric methods which were voltammetric in nature. The developed method involved mobile phase containing Water: Acetonitrile in the proportion of 97:3 %V/V, at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and oven temperature of 30° C. The analyte were resolved by using isocratic programme on HPLC system containing UV- visible detector with Shimadzu class VP Software and Inertsile C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) 5 μm column. The detection of N-Acetylcysteine and Paracetamol were carried out at 220 nm and the method was validated High linearity of the developed method was confirmed over concentration range of 40-80 μg/ml for Paracetamol and 40-80 μg/ml for N-Acetylcysteine with correlation coefficient of 0.999 and 0.999 respectively at selected wavelength. The percentage RSD for Precision and Accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2%. Peaks were obtained at Retention times of 14.6 & 5.3 min for Paracetamol & N-Acetylcysteine respectively. The major outcomes of the result were that the method showed good reproducibility and it is accurate, precise, specific and sensitive. It can be concluded that the proposed method can be successfully used for the estimation of Paracetamol and N-Acetylcysteine in combination dosage formulations.

9

EFFECT OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE SYNTHESIS ENZYME INHIBITION BY ESTIMATION OF MUCIN IN PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS-INDUCED ULCERS IN MICE

Namrata Gupta1*, Dr. Pankaj V. Dixit2, Dr. Virendra Sharma1, Dr. Ashish Dixit1
1Shri Ramnath Singh Institute of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Gwalior.
2College of Pharmacy IPS Academy, Indore.

Abstract

Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Hydrogen Sulfide synthesis blocker induced enzyme inhibition by estimation of mucin in Psychological Stress-Induced Ulcers in Mice. Material and methods: Acute ulcers were induced in Swiss albino mice by using stress. The experimental groups consist of the following 2 groups: sender, responder groups. Sender animals received a foot shock of 10 sec duration at intervals of 50 sec for 3 hour. The electrical current for the shock 1.6 mA to 2.0 mA per hour for 3 day sender animals are changed daily. On day-3, after completing the foot-shock period, the responders were sacrificed, and their stomachs were removed. Drug (O- carboxy methyl hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride) was administered intraperitoneally with low (2mg/kg), medium (5 mg/kg), high (10 mg/kg) dose daily for 3 days respectively, 30 min before the shock period. Result: The proper development of ulcer with an average ulcer index of 5 mg/kg was found to be 33.42 which are significant with respect to control group. CBS at a dose of 5 mg/kg significantly increased the ulcer formation, which was corroborated by histopathology studies. Conclusion: The present study that observed inhibition of H2S synthesis blocker exacerbated the psychological stress induced ulcer implicacy an important role of H2S in regulator of stress.

10

A PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW ON ARID REGION MEDICINAL PLANT- AERVA PSEUDOTOMENTOSA

Abhishek Pandey1, 2*, Atul Kaushik2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IFTM University, Moradabad, (U.P.) India.
2IPS College of Pharmacy, Gwalior, (M.P.) India.

Abstract

Aerva pseudotomentosa Blatt. & Hallb. (Amaranthaceae) is arid region plant of Amaranthaceae family. It is commonly known as Bui. It is used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as pain and inflammatory hyperalgesic disorders, rheumatic pain, fever, treatment of wounds and urinary disorders. Aerva pseudotomentosa is a valuable ethnovetrinary medicine to treat health ailments of live stock. Aim of current review to search literature for ethnomedicinal use, pharmacological property, safety/toxicity study, pharmacognostic and physicochemical standardization, preliminary phytochemical investigation of Aerva pseudotomentosa. This compiled data will enable the researchers to identify and differentiate the plant Aerva pseudotomentosa from other similar aerva species and to explore the medicinal properties of different parts of this desert vegetation which are yet to be discovered.

11

PHYSIOCHEMICAL STANDARDIZATION AND HPTLC OF ARTEMISIA ABSINTHUM, LINN COLLECTED FROM KHARI BAOLI, DELHI

Shabnam Ansari*, Mohammad Akhtar Siddiqui, Mohd Maaz, Qamar Alam Khan, Iftekhar Ahmad
Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) has been used for various medical ailments with an age old tradition. Apart from therapeutic usage it has also been used as an ingredient in the liquor absinthe. Wormwood is a native to temperate regions of Europe, Asia and northern Africa. Artemisia absinthium of Asteraceae family is a perennial shrubby plant and extensively used in Indian system of medicine such as Unani, Ayurveda, Sidha etc. since the time of Greek. In Unani system of medicine, infusion or decoction of the herb has been used since centuries as hepatoprotective, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, diuretic, purgative of bile, insecticidal, appetizer etc. Therefore in this study, we have provided chromatographic fingerprinting of decoction of Artemisia to evaluate concentration of pharmacologically active constituents. Physiochemical characterization of drug material procured from Khari Baoli Old Delhi has been done. In addition, difference in extractive value of Artemisia absinthium through decoction based classical method versus through reflux distillation has also been reported in this paper.

12

GENE THERAPY IN CANCER

Manik Islam 1*, Humaiara Shahrin2
1Department of pharmacology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, India.
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Asia Pacific University (APU).

Abstract

Gene therapy is a kind of experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. In the future, these methods may allow doctors to treat a disorder by inserting a gene into a patient’s as a alternative way of surgery. Although gene therapy is a promising treatment option for a number of diseases (including inherited disorders, some types of cancer, and certain viral infections), the technique remains risky and is still under study to make sure that it will be safe and effective. Gene therapy is currently only being tested for the treatment of diseases that have no other cures. At first gene treatment was imagined for treating genetic problems, but is presently being researched in an array of disorders, such as cancer, peripheral vascular illness, arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders along with other procured conditions. In spite of the slow clinical progress, efforts to develop specific nontoxic cancer therapies are increasing exponentially with the result that over 500 gene therapy trials have been listed with the FDA to date .A number of strategies are currently being pursued in cancer treatment, aiming to either. In this article it has demonstrated that the rule of gene therapy for the treatment of cancer and different vectors are used to fascinate this therapy.

13

CLINICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS ATTENDING A PSYCHIATRY OPD CLINIC AT A TERTIARY CARE SETTING OVER A PERIOD OF 6 MONTHS

Mohanraj Rathinavelu1,2, Ishrar Shaik Mohammad Ghouse1,2, Nissar Ahmad Kosigi1*, Ooha Sriramula1, Pramod Sunny Murahari1, Vidyasagar Chinnakotla1, Prabhakar Yendluri3
1Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research–RIPER, Anantapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India – 515721.
2Poison and Drug Information Centre, Department of Pharmacy Practice, RDT Hospital, Bathalapalli, Anantapuramu, Andhra Pradesh., India.
3Government Medical College and Hospital, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh., India.

Abstract

Background: Psychiatric disorder is one of the major public health problems. According to World Health Organization study group at least 450 million people in the world suffer from severe forms of mental disorder such as schizophrenia and depression. Objective: To assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a tertiary teaching hospital of India. Methodology: The cross sectional study of six months duration was performed in population suffering psychiatric illness, to assess the prevalence rate. Results: A total of 90 patients participated in the study; demographic particulars were assessed in relation to age and gender. 40% of study participants are under age group of 18-28 years, that too prevalence was higher in male gender (64.44%). The overall prevalence of psychiatric illness was found to be 0.9% and 92.22% were outpatients, the most common prevalence was found in psychosis (0.6), schizophrenia (0.2) and depression (0.1) respectively. Conclusion: The study observed a fewer prevalence of psychiatric disorder in the psychiatry department of tertiary healthcare settings and the lower rate of prevalence merits further study.

14

QUALITY AND TREATMENT OUTCOMES OF DIRECTLY OBSERVED TREATMENT OF SHORT-COARSE OF TUBERCULOSIS (DOTS) IN SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIAN: A COHORT STUDY

Sileshi Dubale, Tsegaye Barkesa, Dereje Oljira
Mettu University, Mettu -Ethiopia.

Abstract

Background: TB is one of the world’s leading causes of death and of the global burden of disease. It is estimated that at 36 million will die of TB if proper control measures are not instituted. Assessing the quality of Directly Observe Short-Course Treatment of Tuberculosis can have significant importance in evaluating Tb control activities and in identifying area of improvements for better and effective Tb control strategies. Objective: To assess the quality and treatment outcome of directly observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) of Tuberculosis in south West Ethiopian in Public Health facilities. Methods: Prospective cohort study was employed using both semi-structured and structured questionnaires and phase to phase observation and interview. The study populations were all Tb patients who enrolled during study period until they finished their treatment, drop out and or death. Treatment outcome was obtained from patients’ charts and direct clinical examination. Results: From 324 patients enrolled and followed for treatment outcomes, 279(87.45%) of the patients were completed their treatment, 45(13.8%) were transferred out to other health facilities by referral system and none of the patients were defaulted from the treatment or discontinued the treatment. From the total patients who completed the treatment 221(68.8%) were totally cured, 45 (13.8%) were failed to cure and the death rate were 4% (13) Conclusion and Recommendation: The overall quality of TB care indicated that 26.1% of the patients received poor quality of care. The finding of this study indicated that there was a weak supervision pattern and the supervision pattern was also unplanned, inconsistent and lack feedback. Finally the outcomes of DOTS cure rate is only 68.8%.

15

DEVELOPMENT OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM MATRIX TABLETS EMPLOYING KOLLIDON SR AND PEG 6000 FOR COLON TARGETTED DRUG DELIVERY

Ch. Taraka Ramarao*1, B. Srinivasa Rao2, Prof. J. Vijaya ratna2
1Sri Venkateswara College of Pharmacy, Etcherla, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA-532410
2AU. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakha Patnam.

Abstract

The Matrix Tablets each containing 50 mg of diclofenac sodium are prepared employing kollidonSR by direct compression method. The hardness of the tablets was in the range of 6-7kg/sq.cm. Weight loss in friability test was less than 0.3% in all the cases. All the matrix tablets prepared contained 100 ± 2.3% of the labelled claim. All the tablets were found to be non-disintegrating in acidic (pH1.2) and alkaline (pH 7.4)
fluids. As such, the prepared tablets were of good quality with respect to drug content, hardness and friability. As the tablets formulated were non- disintegrating in acidic and alkaline fluids, they are considered suitable for colon targeting. From the drug release study it may be concluded that the (DK2) P2 formula of diclofenac sodium matrix tablets have given the desired release profile by showing a minimal release during the lag period of 5 hrs and complete release at the end of 12 hrs. The tablets having the optimised formula (DK2) P2, having 25% kollidonSR with 5% of
channelling agent (PEG 6000) showed minimal release of 46% in the lag period of 5 hours and 99.6 % of the drug was released y the end of 12hours. The diclofenac sodium matrix tablets formulated by employing kollidonSR and channelling agent showed non-fickian diffusion mechanism and following zero order kinetics. The optimized formula (DK2) P2 follows Supercase II transport as mechanism for drug release and it follows zero order kinetics. Matrix tablets (DK2) P2 formulated employing 25% kollidonSR and 5% PEG 6000 are best suited to be used for colon
targeting of diclofenac sodium.

16

ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM VIGNA RADIATA IN STREPTOZOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC MICE. Kassahun Dires Ayenewu College of medicine, Debre Berhan University, Debre berhan, Ethiopia, P.O.Box. 445.

Kassahun Dires Ayenewu
College of Mmedicine, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia, P.O.Box. 445.

Abstract

Vigna radiata is an important medicinl plant that belongs to family of Fabaceae which is widely used in the traditional medicine all over the word. Behind its nutritional acceptance, the grain of this plant is cocked traditionally and consumed for the purpose of lowering the blood glucose level in diabetic patients especially in rural areas. This study was designed to scientifically validate its anti-hyper glycemic activity in diabetic mice. Mice obtained from Ethiopia public health institute were allowed to adapt the experimental room for 3 days before the actual experiment. Mice consumed the standard food (pellet) throughout the experiment. After dissolving streptozocin with 0.9% normal saline, the fresh solution was injected to all mice through intraperitoneal route at a dose of 35 mg/kg. The diabetic mice were divided in two four groups. The first group was treated with glibenclamide (5mg/kg), the second group was treated with normal saline (10 ml/kg) and the last two groups were treated with aqueous extract of Vigna radiata at 200 and 300 mg/kg. Finally, blood glucose levels were measured 1hr, 2hr, 3hr and 4hr after administration of each treatment. The aqueous crude extract at 200 and 300 mg/kg decreased the blood glucose level as compared to the control group (p<0.05).The antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Vigna radiata at 200mg/kg was lower than that of the aqueous extract at 300mg/kg. In conclusion, the aqueous crude extract of Vigna radiata possesses significant anti-diabetic activity.

17

ESTIMATION OF OSIMERTINIB FROM HUMAN PLASMA BY ESI- LC-MS/MS

I.Srikanth*, A.Prameela Rani
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur-522510.

Abstract

In the present work, a rapid, sensitive, specific, precise and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of Osimertinib in human plasma was developed and validated with a large calibration curve range (10-4000 pg/mL) which can be used for routine drug analysis and bioequivalence studies. Liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the analyte from the human plasma. The separation was achieved using Xbridge Zorbax Eclipse XDB - C18 (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 μ) column with Acetonitrile: 20mM Ammonium formate (pH-3.0) (50: 50, v/v) as a mobile phase. A flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, no splitting and run time 10.0 min was used for the chromatographic analysis of Osimertinib. Sensitivity of this method was found to be 10 pg/mL. The analyte was analyzed by mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. A Turbo-Ion spray source was interfaced between the HPLC and triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MDS Sciex API 4000). Where the acquired masses for osimertinib were 499.6  72.0 m/z and osimertinib -D3 was 503.63  72.0 m/z were used for quantification of an analyte and its IS. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, selectivity, recovery, freeze-thaw stability, bench-top stability, stock solution stability and re-injection reproducibility. The within and between-batch precision was obtained within the range 0.31 to 8.55 and 0.26 to 6.16. The mean recovery for drug was obtained 87.79%, where as the mean recovery of IS was 84.97%. The %RSD value at higher concentration and lower concentration in all stability experiments was within 15%. This method is free from ion suppression, ion enhancement and any type of abnormal ionization.

18

ASSESSMENT OF PMTCT SERVICE QUALITY AT BEDDELLE AND METTU KARL HOSPITALS, IN ILU ABABORA ZONE OROMIYA REGION, SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIA.2015

Alebachew Birhan1, Bikila Tesfa2
Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Public Health and Medical Science, Mettu University. Ethiopia.

Abstract

Background: - Globally, there are an estimated 34 million people living with HIV (PLHIV), the vast majority of who live in sub-Saharan Africa and every day over 5700 persons die from AIDS. Mother-to-Child Transmission is by far the largest source of Human immunodeficiency virus infection in children under the age of 15 years and the virus can be transmitted during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or after child’s birth during breast feeding. PMTCT service consumption at Antenatal care was not assessed in the hospitals. So the objective was to assess the quality of PMTCT service. Methods: - The study was conducted at Bedelle and Mettu Karl hospitals with a hospital based cross sectional study design. The study conducted from March – April 30/2015. About 195 pregnant women were participated in exit interview and 6 direct observations were done. Data on client satisfaction, counselors’ communicative skills, duration and content of pre- and post-test counseling was collected using a structured questionnaire adapted from UNAIDS tools. Result: - One hundred sixty-six 166 (85.1%) of the clients said that the counseling room’s door was closed, and 131(67.2%) of the clients were need to have different counselors. The mean duration of pretest counseling sessions was 20.8 minutes. Both the hospitals were observed offering individual pre- and post-test counseling by trained health personnel. Conclusion: - Overall, counselor’s communicative skill (introductory/interpersonal relationship, gathering information from the clients, and giving information to the clients) was generally “satisfactory”. The majority of pre-test sessions included the basic information on HIV transmission and prevention and PMTCT. However, this study revealed that the discussions were rudimentary and lacking in depth and coverage in many of the counseling sessions. The administrative health bureau should facilitate ongoing (refreshment) training for the counselors to equip them with recent information. As well additional health workers should be trained to share the burden of the work.

19

SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF NIFEDIPINE BY USING LIQUISOLID COMPACT TECHNIQUE

Derle Deeliprao*, Ingle Vaibhav, Patel Poonam*, Derle Nikita*
MVP’s College of Pharmacy, Gangapur Road, Nasik (02), Pune University, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

This study evaluated the feasibility of liquisolid compact as an innovative drug delivery system to improve the solubility of the poorly soluble drug Nifedipine. There are several techniques to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs. Among them, the technique of liquisolid compact is most promising technique towards novel aim. Several formulations of liquisolid compact having different drug concentration (20-40% w/w) and with varying ratios of carrier and coating material (i.e. different R value, from15-20) were prepared. In this study Polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) as a solvent, Avicel PH 102 as a carrier and Aerosil-200 as a coating material were used. The interaction between excipients was examined by Attenuated Total Reflectance infrared spectroscopy. DSC suggested loss of nifedipine crystallinity upon liquisolid formulation, it indicates that drug is held within the power substrate in a solubilised, almost molecularly dispersed state, which lead to enhanced drug solubility. The results showed that liquisolid compacts demonstrate significantly higher drug release rates than those of marketed ones (% drug release of marketed product-19.5% and LS3-28.5% after 10 minutes). This was due to an increase in wetting properties and surface of drug available for dissolution. Increased wetting properties and dissolution rates lead to enhance solubility. The liquisolid technique appears to be a promising approach for improving the solubility of poorly soluble drugs.

20

CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF METALLIC NANOPARTICLES AND ITS APPLICATION

N. Krithiga, A. Rajalakshmi, A. Jayachitra
Dept of Plant Bbiotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University Madurai 21.

Abstract

In the developing world the metallic nanoparticles have been investigated because they exhibit unusual chemical properties, depending on their size and shape, larger surface area and thus opening many possibilities with respect to technological applications. The gold, silver and iron oxide nanoparticle are implicated for usagae of potential antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Nanotechnology has elevated the standards of treatment for various disease especially for cancer. In the present work metallic nanoparticles were fabricated via the chemical synthesis route via chemical reduction and co precipitation technique. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterized using UV, FTIR, XRD, EDAX, SEM and TEM. The MIC and MBC values were determined further confirmed by resazurin assay and well diffusion method. The in vitro cytotoxicity were analyzed using Hep 2 and AGS cell line.

21

GC-MS ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND SCREENING FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF AMARANTHUS VIRIDIS LINN. AGAINST HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

Suneetha Devi.D*1, Hindumathi Amballa2,Pranathi.S3, Ravindar Gundeti2, Chandra shekar.S4

1Sarojini Naidu Vanita Maha Vidyalaya, Exihibition grounds, Hyderabad. 500 001. Telangana, India.
2Osmania University, Hyderabad. 500 007. Telangana, India.
3Malla reddy Medical College for Women Suraram main Road Jeedimetla, Hyderabad, 500055, Telangana, India. 4Rajiv institute of Medical Sciences, Adilabad, Telangana, India.

Abstract

The present study was aimed at determining phytochemical constituents with the aid of GC-MS technique and in vitro screening of pure methanol extracts of leaves from locally grown Amaranthus viridis plants for their antibacterial activity against human bacterial pathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The bioactive compounds present in the methanol extract fraction of A. viridis leaf were identified by GC-MS analysis which showed 50 peaks indicating the presence of fifty compounds. The results of the antibacterial activity proved the ability of the leaf extract of A. viridis to prevent the growth and survival of the test pathogens. Different bacterial species exhibited different sensitivities with variable extent towards the leaf extract. The order of activity against selected bacteria was Escherichia coli > Staphylococcus aureus > Bacillus cereus > Pseudomonas aeruginosa > Klebsiella pneumoniae. The methanol extract of A. viridis exerted maximum antibacterial activity against E. coli. The least activity was exhibited by P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae indicating their poor antibacterial activity. Medicinal plants are the backbone of traditional medicine and the antibacterial activity of plant extract is due to different bioactive substances in the extract with potential antimicrobial compounds.

22

NANOSPONGES: A BOON TO FIELD OF PHARMACY

Shobhana. N*, Suma. R
Department of Pharmaceutics, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy.

Abstract

Effective targeted drug delivery systems have been a dream for long time. The invention of nanosponges has become a significant step towards overcoming these problems. These small sponges can circulate around the body until they encounter the target site and stick on the surface and began to release the drug in a controlled and predictable manner which is more effective for a particular given dosage. Owing to their small size and porous nature they can bind poorly-soluble drugs within their matrix and improve their bioavailability. They can be crafted for targeting drugs to specific site, prevent drug and protein degradation and prolong the drug release in a controlled manner. This review attempts to elaborate the interesting features of nanosponges, preparation, Characterization, applications and recent updates of nanosponges in drug delivery.

23

NANO-ENCAPSULATION OF POLYPHENOL COMPOUNDS: A REVIEW

Varsha K.P*, K Krishnakumar, Dineshkumar B*
Dept. of Pharmaceutics, St James College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chalakudy, Kerala.
St James Hospital Trust Pharmaceutical Research Centre (DSIR Recognized), Chalakudy, Kerala.

Abstract

Natural polyphenolic compounds have several health benefits and no side effects compared to synthetic compounds. But these compounds having low water solubility, poor bioavailability, lack in long-term stability and are very sensitive to light. These compounds via nano-sized colloidal carriers such as polymeric nanoparticles offers a novel strategy to overcome these limitations. Nano-encapsulation remains to be the one of the most promising technologies having the ability to entrap polyphenolic compounds. These nano-encapsulated compounds has versatile advantages for targeted site-specific delivery and efficient absorption through cells. This review presents about main classes of polyphenolic compounds, their advantages, polymers used in the preparation of nanoparticles and the various techniques to create nanoparticles encapsulating polyphenols that will increase their solubility and bioavailability.