Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
APRIL 2024


Purvesh H. Patil*, Pratham G. Patil, Shubham P. Patil, Azam Z. Shaikh, Sunil P. Pawar.

Departement of Pharmaceutics P.S.G.V.P.M’s College of Pharmacy, Shahada, Maharashtra-425409.

Tulsi and Nutmeg undergoes hepatic first pass, hence it shows very poor bioavailability. By creating a pH-induced in-situ gel, the formulation for this study aims to increase bioavailability. Mucoadhesive polymer in the gel reduces mucociliary clearance, increasing the gel's contact with the nasal mucosa and, ultimately, improving drug absorption. Carbopol 940, which has the ability to produce gelation due to pH, was utilized to accomplish in situ gelation, while HPMC E15 and HPMC 15cps were employed as the Mucoadhesive agents. Gels were made by Gelation research, Gel strength, Permeation studies,pH, Drug Content, drug polymer interaction, and Stability study are characteristics of the previously described cold technique.In an in-vitro drug release investigation, the drug content ranged from 91.30 to 97.13%, and the gel's pH ranged from 5 to 5.9.A rheological analysis of the gel formulation revealed that the viscosity increases with an increase in polymer concentration and that the gel strength ranged from 25 to 41.seconds. The results of the stability research show that the Tulsi and Nutmeg did not alter significantly. When administered via the nasal route, Tulsi and Nutmeg in a pH-induced, bioadhesive solution may be able to prevent the first pass impact that comes with taking it orally, improving the drug’s bioavailability and providing a safe, long-lasting release nasal delivery method for depression management.From the above results it can be concluded that Tulsi and Nutmeg was successfully formulated as a pH induced in situ nasal gelling system using Carbapol 940, HPMC E15 and HPMC 15cps. The optimized formulation F1 provided sustain in vitro release of drug over an extended period of 8hrs. 




Babbu Lal Patel1, P. K Singh2, Pramila Singh3

1Department of Chemistry, Govt. PG College, Ramapur Naikin Sidhi (M.P.).

2Department of Chemistry, Govt. SGS PG College, Sidhi (M.P.)

3Department of Environmental Biology, A.P.S. University, Rewa (M.P.)

Due to environmental contamination in recent years, contamination of food chain by heavy metals is not far-fetched. The purpose of this study is to determine heavy metals in soybeans cultivated in Iran to monitor the food chemical contaminants. Metal concentration of samples was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES). The concentrations of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in soybean samples were ranged from 0.008 to 0.21, 0.008 to 0.16, 9.51 to 87.71, 4.08 to 22.37, 0.015 to 1.18, and 35.53 to 65.02 mg/kg, respectively. Taken together, findings of this study showed that heavy metal content of all taken samples. So, there is no need to concern about the presence of heavy metal contents in soybeans cultivated in Singrauli region. Since soybeans are used in production of other soy-based products (such as soy milk, soy cheese, soy sauce), regular monitoring of soybean in terms of heavy metals is necessary.



Praveen Sahu1, N. Manikpuri2, Sunita Gupta1, Pramila Singh3

1Department of Chemistry, Govt. Science College, Rewa (M.P.)

2Department of Chemistry, Govt. College, Budhar (M.P.)

3 Department of Environmental Biology, A.P.S. University, Rewa (M.P.)

Microorganisms can survive in a toxic environment by utilising carbon, phosphorous, sulfur, and nitrogen from the available sources thanks to their ability to detoxify xenobiotic substances. The most practical and efficient metabolic method for breaking down xenobiotic substances is biotransformation. Because of specific genes, enzymes, and degradative systems, microorganisms possess extraordinary abilities. Due to their special characteristics, microorganisms like bacteria and fungus can either fully or partially metabolize xenobiotic compounds in a variety of habitats. The molecular mechanisms of degradative processes and the routes to decontaminate or alter the fundamental structure of xenobiotics in nature can be understood using a variety of state-of-the-art techniques. These techniques look at new proteins, catabolic genes, and microbes along with their metabolic apparatus. In order to identify the catabolic genes, enzymes, and strategies involved in employing an environmentally friendly strategy to counter the threat posed by xenobiotic chemicals, this article discusses recent developments and current trends.



Avinash Bichave*, Rahul Vishwakarma1, Sidrah F. Hajatay2, Shrutika Patil3

TMV’s LokmanyaTilak Institute of Pharmacy, Kharghar.

Shikonin is a natural compound derived from certain medicinal plants, known for its potential therapeutic effects in cancer treatment. This review examines the therapeutic potential of shikonin, highlighting its origins, chemical structure, and pharmacological properties. We discuss its mechanisms of action, including induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of angiogenesis, and suppression of metastasis. Studies reviewed indicate that shikonin not only effectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells but also enhances the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutics. Moreover, the review explores the potential of shikonin derivatives in optimizing cancer therapy. These findings suggest that shikonin and its derivatives hold considerable promise as effective anticancer agents, warranting further clinical investigation. 




Shraddha Wadiwala, Hiral Bakriwala, Sadiya Pathan, Siddhrajsinh Vashi, Dr. Zeel Naik, Dr. Anand Modi.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad.

Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim, Surat, Gujarat. – 394110.

BAPS Pramukh Swami Hospital, Surat.

Background: Drug utilization studies in CKD patients help to understand and build evidence for the drug use. CKD patients have coexistence of both concordant and discordant comorbidities attributed to persisting polypharmacy, which makes it very important to study the prescribing trend on a regular basis. Objectives:The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of prescription patterns, evaluate treatment compliance with standard guidelines as outlined by KDIGO, and determine evidence-based practices. We plan to develop symptom-specific questionnaires with scoring systems to track the progression and severity of the disease. Our analysis will help determine the prevalence, risk factors, comorbidities, and overall drug usage associated with chronic kidney disease as prevalence of chronic kidney disease is high, and due to lack of prescribing guidelines specific to this disease, there is significant risk of adverse reaction. Materials and Methods: An observational prospective drug utilization study was carried out in- patients of BAPS Pramukh Swami Hospital, Surat for a duration of 6 months. CKD patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for the study and data were recorded in the CRF and formed questionnaires using patients case sheet files. Result:The study encompasses the total no of 120 patients having chronic kidney disease, of which men are found to be more prevalent than women accounting for (n=72) 60 % of the population. With regard to all age groups, those between 45 and 65 years old were the most impacted(n=66) 55%. Hypertension has been determined to be the most prevalent comorbidity, contributing to (n=113) 94.16% of all patients, contributing to the risk factors of chronic renal failure. based on formulated questionary for sign and symptoms out from different signs and symptoms such as fatigue, edema,anorexia, decreased urine output was found to be the most common and relevant sign among the all ckd stages (n=110) 91.66 %. stage G5 & G4 were higher compared to other stages due to associated risk factors such as advanced age & comorbidities with (n=84)70 % and (n=21)17.5 % respectively, contributing to highest no. of patients (n=89)74.16 % undergoing dialysis.Out of the total 998 drugs used, Antihypertensive Drugs are the most commonly used, followed by Haematinics and Drugs used for CKD such as (diuretics, drugs for acid base disorders,phosphate binders, drugs for electrolyte imbalance, and cholinergic agonist), with respective percentages of use of 21.41%, 19.42%, and 16.55%. CCBs with both reno and cardioprotective properties were the highest used antihypertensive drugs with 39.36 %. As there were many patients with end-stage renal disease, the prevalence of class diuretics was greatest overall, at 52.02% in drugs used for CKD. Conclusion: According to the results of our study, Chronic Renal Disease is primarily correlated with polypharmacy and comorbidities. The study site follows evidence-based practice along with Guidelines KDIGO.This study focused on to identifying the sign symptoms of disease based on various stages, risk factors, associated comorbiditiesand utilized drugs and it was found that males (60%) are found to be more prevalent, hypertension (94.16 %) is the most commonly found comorbid condition reflecting the highest utilization of antihypertensive drugs(21.41%)The burden of ESRD was higher due to existing comorbidities leading to increased risk of mortality and compromised renal outcome. 




Shaishvi. R. Patel, Neha. M. Vadiya, Afreen. A. Saiyad, Rashmi. A. Rajeghorpade, Dhananjay. B. Meshram

Pioneer Pharmacy College, Vadodara-390019

A bath bomb is a formulation made for a fragrant and relaxing bath. A bath bomb is generally used for refreshing, soothing and aromatic baths. Although the name is ominous, the formulation is quite intriguing. Typically, ingredients used to make bath bombs include citric acid (C6H8O7), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), tapioca starch, tartaric acid, and a variety of essential oils. The citric acid (C6H8O7) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) react in the presence of water to generate CO2 gas, which also causes the scent in the mixture to change. Introducing therapeutic action like antibacterial and antimicrobial action in bath bombs is a novel idea. Adding green tea powder to the formulation gives it antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. The preliminary phytochemical screening was done to find out the active chemical constituents of the plants. A total 4 batches were formulated. The evaluation of bath bombs was carried out based on the parameters like: - physical appearance, determination of pH, determination of effervescent time and water temperature. And on basis of the results of these evaluation parameters the Batch-F3 was selected as the best batch out of the four. And the formulated bath bombs seemed to be effective. 




T. Srinivas*, P. Gowtham, V. Navya Chandana, Nilanjana Das, K.Vyshnavi, A. Jeevan Kumar.

SIMS College of Pharmacy, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India-522001.

The two primary constituents in any pharmaceutical formulation are the active ingredient and the excipients. Excipient is made up of numerous ingredients that are essential to the production of dosage forms. Polymers are used as an excipient in any dosage form. Drug release can be influenced by polymers, which should also be suitable, stable, non-toxic, and cost-effective. Three major categories can be used to classify them: natural, semi-synthetic, and synthetic polymers. In oral drug administration systems, polymers are commonly employed as excipients for rate-controlling, taste-masking, protecting, and stabilizing purposes. These days, producers are more likely to use natural polymers because of the numerous issues with drug release and the negative consequences of synthetic polymers. Polysaccharides, which are natural polymers, are biocompatible and asymptomatic. This review discusses various natural polymers, their advantages over synthetic polymer & novel applications in pharmacy. 




U. T. Jadhao., D. A. Rathod., G. N. Dhembre., S. T. Thoke., V. K. Pawar.

Department of Pharmaceutics SVP College of Pharmacy Hatta Tq. Basmath Dist-Hingoli 431705.

In present investigation formulation of Efavirenz dispersion using Polymer like PEG 6000 and HPMC can be used to prepare inclusion complexes of Efavirenz with improved solubility of the drug. Phase solubility studied of drug with PEG 6000 illustrates the solubility enhancement. The phase solubility of pure drug, physical mixture and solid dispersion was found to be 66.12 and 57.21?g/nm. respectively. FT-IR studied indicated the formation of true complex of Efavirenz and PEG6000 in 1:2 molar ratio prepared by solvent evaporation method. The dissolution of Efavirenz from inclusion complex prepared by fusion, solvent evaporation method was found to be higher than the pure drug and other prepared complexes. Enhancement of the solubility of Efavirenz PEG600 solvent evaporation complex was 96.76% in 90 min with 3 fold in its dissolution rate. 




Vankodoth Sireesha, Sumaya Sumaya, Kompalli Varun, Y. Pravarsha, Faiqua Fatima, T. Rama Rao

CMR College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana.

Dengue and Japanese encephalitis are vector borne disorders, caused by Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are two important pathogenic viruses that can cause severe encephalitis. This Arboviruses spread by mosquitoes are important Causes of mortality and morbidity in India. Very few cases of their co-infection have been reported in endemic countries. This study addresses the complexity of diagnosing and managing coinfections of dengue (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in endemic regions like India. The research emphasizes the importance of a multidisciplinary approach involving comprehensive laboratory investigations, neuroimaging and close clinical monitoring due to overlapping clinical manifestations and serological cross-reactivity between the two viruses. The case of a 30-year-old man presenting with fever, hematuria, and a history of dengue and Chikungunya was reported. After investigations it was confirmed coinfection with DENV and JEV. Major outcomes include insights into the challenges of diagnosing and managing these coinfections and the urgent need for further research to elucidate pathogenesis, optimize therapeutic strategies and enhance preventive measures. Management involved a combination of antiviral medications, antibiotics, and supportive care to address the complex clinical presentation. Further research is essential to bridge gaps in understanding and combating these neglected tropical diseases.