IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
JUNE 2017
1

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV-VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND ZIDOVUDINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM

Lokendra Bhamare*, Sufiyan Ahmad, V. M. Shastry
Department of Quality Assurance, Gangamai College of Pharmacy, Nagaon, Dist. Dhule (M.S.), India.

Abstract

Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and specific UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of Lamivudine (LAMI) and Zidovudine (ZIDO) in bulk drug and tablet dosage form were developed and validated. A simple double beam UV spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated with different parameters such as linearity, precision, repeatability, limit of detection (LOD), Limit of Quantification (LOQ), accuracy as per ICH guidelines. UV-visible spectrophotometric method, measurement of absorption at maximum wavelength in 10 ml acetonitrile and volume make with water solvent system as reference LAMI and ZIDO were found to be at 271 nm and 262 nm respectively. The drug obeyed the Beer’s law and showed good correlation. Beer’s law was obeyed in concentration range 2-10 μg/ml for LAMI and 1- 5μg/ml for LAMI respectively with correlation coefficient was 0.999. The LOD and LOQ of LAMI were found to be 0.3831(μg/mL) and 1.1609 (μg/ml), ZIDO were found to be 0.6276μg/ml) and 1.9018 (μg/ml), respectively. The proposed method is precise, accurate and reproducible and can be used for routine analysis of LAMI and ZIDO in bulk and tablet dosage form.

2

IMPACT OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST MEDIATED CARE IN DIABETES MELLITUS - A NEW COMMUNITY BASED MODEL OF CARE

G. Mounika1*, M. Jyostna Sri1, K. Leelavathi1, P. Sharmila Nirojini1, Nadendla. Rama Rao1, B. Sailaja2.
1Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur.
2Government Medical College, Guntur.

Abstract

AIMS: The main Aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of clinical pharmacist care in improving glycemic control, HRQOL, medication adherence in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients. METHODS: The study is conducted in government general hospital, Guntur, a territory care hospital and it is a prospective comparative observational study including 100 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus out of these 50 were randomly assigned in to test group and 50 in to the control group. RESULTS: By observing the data, glycaemic control in the test population is clearly improved with a mean difference of -57.18 and p value of < 0.0001 i.e.., extremely significant when compared to the control population with a mean difference of -7.68 and p value of 0.8694 i.e.., nil significant. There is better glycaemic control with respect to the HbA1c levels in the test population with a mean difference of 1.8 and p value of < 0.0001 i.e.., extremely significant than the control population with a mean difference of 7.68 and p value of 0.216 i.e.., nil significant. There is a predominant improvement in quality of life of test population with a mean difference in QOL score 32.81±0.9045 and p value <0.0001 i.e.., statistically extremely significant when compared to the control percentage score with a mean difference of 7.647±1.545 and p value < 0.01 i.e.., statistically significant. There is major increase in medication adherence in the test group with a mean difference of 4.3±0.603 and p value < 0.0001 i.e.., extremely significant when compared to the control with a mean difference of 1.2±0.15 and p value < 0.549 which is statistically nil significant. CONCLUSION: The study provide information regarding impact of glycemic control on QOL and medication adherence in type 2 DM patients. We conclude that clinical pharmacist together with physician play a major role in improving the glycaemic control and medication adherence in type 2 DM patients which directly shows impact on health related quality of life.

3

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC-DAD STABILITY INDICATING ASSAY METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF DESMOPRESSIN IN DESMOPRESSIN TABLETS

Rashidul Islam*, Dr. E. M. Khan, Dr. Khursheed Ahmed
Department of Chemistry, Abeda Inamdar Senior College and Research Center, Azam Campus, B.K.B. Hidayatullah Road, Camp, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The aim of this research was to develop and validate a novel, rapid, selective, specific, accurate and efficient stability indicating RP-HPLC-DAD assay method for the quantification of Desmopressin in Desmopressin tablets. Various chromatographic parameters namely change in mobile phase, buffer and solvent composition, column stationary phase and oven temperature were studied. The elution of Desmopressin is achieved with improved peak shape under a set of gradient chromatographic condition: a reverse phase Hypersil BDS C18 (250mm x4.6mm, 5.0μm) column with a mobile phase A consisting of acetonitrile and mobile phase B is phosphate buffer pH 4.5 (25:75), flow rate 1.2 mL/minute, UV detection wavelength 220 nm. The chromatographic run time was 12 minutes with Desmopressin peak eluting at 6.7 minutes. The developed method was found to be specific and linear in the range of 5- 15 μg /mL (r2 = 0.9998). The good precision was achieved because the maximum RSD was 1.25%. Mean recoveries was 100.3%.The percent RSD was less than 2%. The method is robust with respect to changes in flow rate and wavelength. Solution stability evaluation indicated no evidence of degradation product. Standard solution was stable for 88 hours and sample solution was for 48 hours at room temperature. Forced degradation study of Desmopressin shown that peak was pure and there was no coeluting peaks when samples were assayed against reference. The developed method was validated and found precise, robust, accurate, linear, specific and stability indicating ensuring suitability of the method for quantification of Desmopressin in tablets. Method was successfully used for routine analysis of Desmopressin formulations.

4

A PERSPECTIVE REVIEW ON HOMALIUM ZEYLANICUM BENTH

Soja A1, Dr.S.Jayakumari2
1Assistant Professor College of Pharmaceutical Sciences Government T D Medical College Alappuzha.
2Professor and Head Department of Pharmacognosy Vels University Chennai.

Abstract

Plant Homalium zeylanicum Benth belongs to Flacourtiaceae family and is distributed in evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, native to south India and srilanka.It is also found in Bangladesh, Laos. Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam. The various parts of plant including bark and leaf having many traditional medicinal uses, mainly in diabetes, wound healing. It has been traditionally used for treating several ailments including rheumatism, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective and ant diabetic agent in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. In Nigeria, it is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, ulcer, and inflammatory diseases and as an aphrodisiac. Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the medicinal properties of plant. A variety of phytoconstituents are identified and isolated from the H.zeylanicum.A perspective review of the ethanobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of H.Zeylanicum are presented in this review.

5

“APPRAISAL OF ANTIBIOTICS USE IN A SECONDARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA.

Dr. Karthik Muthusamy1, Dr.R.Venkateswara Rao2, N.V.Rama Rao2, Prof.Nadendla.Rama Rao2.
1Independent Consultant, Pharmaceutical Research, Chennai, India.
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract

The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria is major problem throughout the world and rational use of antibiotics is therefore very important. Good infection control practice is a critical component for success of such programme. This six months prospective observational study was designed to evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotic use in a secondary care referral hospital of South India. The data of all in patients (n=100) were collected by obtaining a proper consent. Maximum of 52.78% patients had culture sensitivity test being done, which may taken as a indication for being rational. The results revealed that the purpose of antibiotics prescribed was for prophylaxis (15%), empirically (37%) and therapeutically 48%. In the study population (n=49) (patients had shown a positive culture study reports for urine, sputum, pus and blood samples), totally 110 antibiotics were prescribed, 71.88% on dual therapy and 28.12% were on three antibiotics and the mean number of antibiotics prescribed was 2.28. In the overall population, 61.65% were administrated intravenously and 39.35% of oral antibiotics The major organisms identified were E.coli (28.90%) and amikacin had shown the highest sensitivity in E.coli (86.4%). Totally 31 drugs of antibacterials were listed in National List of Essential Medicine. Out of 31, 15 antibacterials were prescribed instudy population.

6

KETOGENIC DIET IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES

Tony David K, Divyanjali P, Sai Krishna G*
Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore-570015, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

People try different diet plans for diabetes. Among the most popular diet plans, Ketogenic diet is the most popular one for diabetic patients. Ketogenic diet improves health through a metabolic switch in the primary cellular fuel source to which one’s body and brain are adapted. When metabolism switches from relying on carbohydrate-based fuels (glucose from starch and sugar) to fat-based fuels, fat metabolism products are formed which are called ketones which promote positive changes in the cells, and this translates into better overall health. Ketosis is simply a normal metabolic pathway in which body and brain cells utilize ketones to make energy, instead of relying on only sugar (carbohydrates). Ketogenic diet has broader uses apart from Diabetes which can treat medical conditions such as Autism, Epilepsy, Cancer, and Alzheimer's as well. The ketogenic diet has the potential to decrease blood glucose levels and minimizing carbohydrate intake is often recommended for people with type 2 diabetes because carbohydrates turn to sugar and in large quantities, can cause spikes in the blood sugar levels.

7

STUDIES ON Α-AMYLASE INHIBITOR ISOLATED FROM ADIANTUM AETHIOPICUM L.

Abhijit Surendra Limaye*, Shankar L. Laware
Department of Botany, Nowrosjee Wadia College, Pune, S. P. Pune University, M. S. India.
ACS College, Sonai, Ahmednagar, S. P. Pune University, M. S. India.

Abstract

Fresh fronds of Adiantum aethiopicum L were collected from Fergusson College campus at various growth stages like young fronds, mature fronds without sori, mature fronds with immature sori (pale green colour) and mature fronds with mature sori stage (brown to black colour). They were extracted with 0.15 M NaCl. The clear supernatant obtained after centrifugation was subjected to protein fractionation with ammonium sulphate. The protein fractions were dialyzed against 0.15M NaCl and tested for salivary alpha amylase inhibitor assay. Fractions between 31 and 60% saturation (F31-60) proved to have maximum salivary amylase inhibitory activity; hence it was applied to a Sephadex G-100 column and eluted at a flow rate of 3.0 ml / 10 min. Each eluted fraction was measured spectrophotometrically at 280 nm and tested for salivary alpha amylase inhibitor assay. The elution number 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 18, 19 and 20 exhibited maximum salivary AAI activity. Maximum inhibitory activity (68%) was observed in eluted fraction no. 8. The fraction is moderately thermo-stable as it is stable to the temperature ranging from 300C to 600 C. The Maximum activity was recorded at 300 and retained about 60% activity up to 500 C. It was also proved to be stable to different pH ranging from 3 to 9, but at pH 7.0 it showed maximum inhibitory activity. The fraction was tested for its proteolytic actions against proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin. It was found to be more effective amylase inhibitor than the commercial acarbose tablet (Glucobay). Thus, the results of present investigation could suggest the possible use of AAI extracted from Adiantum aethiopicum L. can be used as hypoglycemic agent in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity patients.

8

NOVEL VESCICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS CHARECTARISING THE STATE OF ART TECHNOLOGIES: AN UPDATED REVIEW ON NIOSOMES

Katta Manogna, T.N. Shipla, A. Deevan Paul
SVU College of Pharmaceutical Scieincs, SV Univeristy, Tirupati.

Abstract

A niosome is a non-ionic surfactant-based liposome. Niosomes are formed mostly by cholesterol incorporation as an excipient and having more penetrating characteristic than the previous preparations of emulsions. Niosomes and liposomes are bioequivalent in drug delivery systems, the potentiality to drug efficacy as compared with that of free drug. Niosomes are preferred over liposomes because the former exhibit high chemical stability and these are biodegradable, biocompatible nonimmunogenic and exhibit flexibility in their structural characterization. Niosomes have been widely evaluated for controlled release and targeted delivery for the treatment of immunological diseases. The review representing that encapsulation of drug in vesicular system can be predicted to prolong the existence of drug in the systemic circulation and enhance penetration into target tissue and reduce toxicity in a state of art technologies.

9

SELECTIVE AND SENSITIVE RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF TACROLIMUS IN CAPSULE DOSAGE FORM

Mehta Hiralben Satishchandra*1, Dr.Indrajeet Singhvi2, Dr. Hasumati Raj3

*1Pacific University.
2Pacific University.
3Laxminarayandev College of Pharmacy, Bharuch, Gujarat.

Abstrac

Tacrolimus is used as an immunosuppressant. The method developed is used for assay tacrolimus in pharmaceutical dosage form. A simple, rapid and reproducible high performance reverse phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed for quantitative estimation of Tacrolimus in tablets form using a, Phenomenex 250 mm x 4.9 mm C18 , 5 um, inertsil and UV detection at 220nm. The isocratic elution was used to quantify the analyte and the mobile phase was Acetonitrile: water (50: 50) was pumped at 1.0 ml/min. The method was linear between 50-300 μg/ml, statistically validated for its linearity, precision and accuracy. The intra-and - inter day variation was found to be less than 1% showing high precision of the assay method. The method selective and sensitive which is used for the estimation of tacrolimus in presence of excipients in the commercial capsules did not interfere with the method.

10

FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF DOFETILIDE TABLET

M. Lavanya*, P. C. Jayanth, A. Deevan Paul,
Department of Pharmaceutics, SVU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, SV University.

Abstract

In the present research work floating pulsatile drug delivery system of dofetilide were prepared using various grades of methocel polymers. Initially analytical method development was done for the drug molecule. Absorption maxima was determined based on that calibration curve was developed by using different concentrations. Gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate concentration was optimized. Then the formulation was developed by using different concentrations of polymers of various grades of Methocel. The formulation blend was subjected to various pre-formulation studies, flow properties and all the formulations were found to be good indicating that the powder blend has good flow properties. Among all the formulations the formulations prepared by using Methocel K 4 M were unable to produce desired drug release; they were unable to retard drug release up to 12 hours. Whereas the formulations prepared with Methocel K 15 M retarded the drug release in the concentration of 60 mg (F6) showed required release pattern i.e., retarded the drug release up to 10 hours and showed maximum of 98.97 % in 12 hours with good floating lag time and floating buoyancy time.. The formulations prepared with Methocel K 100 M showed more retardation even after 12 hours they were not shown total drug release. Hence they were not considered. The optimized formulation dissolution data was subjected to release kinetics, from the release kinetics data it was evident that the formulation followed zero order kinetics.

11

ISOLATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND IN-VITRO DRUG RELEASE STUDIES OF A NOVEL NATURAL POLYSACCHARIDE OF ARAUCARIA HETEROPHYLLA GUM

Divvela Hema Naga Durga*, Lohithasu Duppala, K. V. Ramana Murthy
Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, A.U. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Objective: The objective of the present research work for investigation of the physico-chemical, morphological and rheological properties of novel natural polymer, Araucaria heterophylla gum (AHG) and also investigate for its pharmaceutical applications as excipient. Hence, the present study was carried out to study its properties and applicability in the design of controlled release dosage forms. Methods: Diclofenac sodium matrix tablets prepared by wet granulation method. The tablets were compressed by using 10 mm punches. Drug-polymer compatibility studies were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies. In vitro dissolution studies for formulations were carried out in 0.1N HCl (pH 1.2) was for the first 2 h and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer was used for remaining 24 h as dissolution medium. Results: The obtained results confirmed that the absence of interactions between the drug and polymers. AHD 8 showed 99.52% drug release in 24 h. Stability studies showed no significant change of AHG sample. Tablets prepared with AHG matrix tablets showed zero order drug release and follows the erosion mechanism. The weight variation of the tablets was complied with the compendia standards for uniformity of weight. The hardness, drug content and friability values for all the formulations found to be in the range as per IP. Conclusion: The powder characteristics of the AHG showed good flowing properties and other physico-chemical properties were suitable to be used as excipient in the formulation. FTIR, DSC and XRD studies of AHG were carried for characterization of the gum. The bacterial and fungal counts were within limits and pathogenic microorganisms were absent in AHG. Rheological properties of AHG suggested that it could be used as an excipient in controlled release system in particular to hydrophilic matrix tablet formulations. Hence, concluded that AHG is novel polymer for controlled release of dosage form.

12

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF EFFERVESCENT TABLETS OF TRIPHALA CHURNA

Harpreet Singh*1, Prof. (Dr.) Preeti Kothiyal2, Sudhakar Kaushik3, Bhawana Bhatt*3
*1Department of Pharmaceutical sciences, Shri Guru Ram Rai University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.
2Shri Guru Ram Rai University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.
3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shri Guru Ram Rai University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

Abstract

The present research work is based on the formulation of effervescent tablets. In the present investigation various standardization parameters such as physicochemical parameters like weight variation test, hardness test, friability, effervescent time, pH were carried out. The advantages of effervescent tablets forms include an opportunity for formulator to improve taste Triphala churna & also it is easy to carry & pack. It also gives a desired or calculated dose of medicament. It is concluded that the formulation has been prepared and evaluate by intervention of modern quality control measures.

13

CLINICAL PHARMACIST IS KEY ROLE OF THE PATIENT-CENTERED CARE IN TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITALS IN INDIAN SENERIO

Venkata Ramarao Nallani*1, Prof. Rama Rao Nadendla2, Dr. Zahedabano3
1Pacific Academy of Higher Education & Research University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.
2Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guntur.
3Dept of Pharmacology, Guntur Medical College, Guntur.

Abstract

Pharmacist traditionally involving compounding, production and dispensing of drugs from ancient times. As the diseases and sedentary life style leads to complications to use of more medications to manage the disease and life style problems, this is the time to identify the unsafe and irrationalize medicine medical therapy has emerged. This has also contributed to clinical pharmacists being more involved in patient-centered pharmacotherapy. A large literature documents the multiple roles clinical pharmacists can play in a variety of health care settings. The main aim of the study is role of clinical pharmacist in modifying disease outcome by patient centered care in the medical wards.Clinical pharmacist role between physician and patient to provide drug information, economic benefits, patient compliance, drug related problems (DRP), to determine the effect of patient counseling on quality of life of patient. METHODOLOGY- The prospective observational study to conducts for a period of two and half years about 30 months in patient departments in a tertiary care hospital in South India. promoting better medication use, ensuring that patients receive appropriate pharmacotherapy, thus minimizing the risk of unfavorable outcomes of pharmacotherapy adherence scale. RESULTS & DISCUSSION- A total of 1263 patients out of 6548 inpatients of general medicine department were followed out of which having one or more drug related problems. Female (56.7%) [Table-22] predominance was noted over males (43.3%). Drug related problems were more commonly seen in patients aged between 41-60 years, (47.92 %). A total of 240 drug related problems were identified. Most of the DRP observed in the study resulted from the inappropriate drug dosing problems (25.42%) followed by drug selection (24.16%)[Table-23]. Majority of the clinical pharmacist recommendations were on drug discontinuation (29.58%) and drug doses change (22.6%). CONCLUSION- The study concludes that involving clinical pharmacist services in patients care can significantly helps to identify, resolve and prevent the DRPs in the hospital thereby enhancing the patient’s outcomes. Furthermore, the suggestions provided by the clinical pharmacist during the intervention were well accepted by the physician thus the collaborative approach of physician and clinical pharmacist can provide better patients centre care outcomes. The study stresses the importance of clinical pharmacist in health care sector and impeccable role in patients care.

14

FORMULATION OF CO-CRYSTAL FOR SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF CURCUMIN

Zaufeen Sayyed, Abhijit Dhas, Murudula. H. Bele*
M. V. P College of Pharmacy, Shivaji Nagar, Gangapur road, Nashik 422002.

Abstract

Co-crystallization holds a great potential for solving the problem of low aqueous solubility and bioavailability of drug molecules and improve the other physical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of co-crystallization on different physicochemical properties of curcumin. In this study curcumin formed co-crystals with hydroquinone and para-benzoic acid by using spray drying technique. Preliminary evaluation for screening of co-crystals has been done by melting point and IR spectroscopy. From the results of screening it was concluded that curcumin form co-crystal with hydroquinone and para-benzoic acid i.e. CUR: HQ and CUR: PBA co-crystals. CUR: HQ and CUR: PBA co-crystals were characterised in terms of melting point, FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, solubility, drug content, X-ray diffraction study, flow properties and compared with plain curcumin. CUR: HQ and CUR: PBA co-crystals had shown increase in solubility in water over plain curcumin.

15

ISOLATION, SCREENING AND PRODUCTION OF (PRODIGIOSIN) NOVEL DRUG FROM MARINE SEDIMENTS

Soma Prabha, A., Jayachitra, A.
Research Scholar, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-21, Tamilnadu, India.
Assistant Professor, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-21, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

Serratia marcescensis a motile, short rod-shaped, Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium. It is commonly found in the moist regions of coastal areas and grows in room temperature at pH 5-9. S. marcescens is noted for production of secondary metabolites called prodigiosin, a bioactive compound having antibacterial, antifungal, anti-neoplastic, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant and anti-malarial properties.Inthe present investigation, the marine sediment samples were collected from Gulf of Mannar, Mandapam coast. The samples were serially diluted and spread plated on Nutrient agar medium to isolate the efficient prodigiosin producing bacteria. The efficient prodigiosin producing bacteria was identified as Serratia marcescens based on morphological and biochemical characterization methods. Optimization studies production of prodigiosin by S.marcescens is influenced by numerous factors such as inorganic phosphate availability, medium composition, temperature, pH, and natural components. The production of prodigiosin were extract, estimate and partially purified (crude) prodigiosin was used as a antimicrobial, anti-fungal, Anti-inflammatory and dyeing effect was carried out. Specially, it has an inhibiting and destructive effect on the production and stability of prodigiosin. FTIR analysis were studied. The prodigiosin has known define role in the physiology of the strains in which it is produced, it has antifungal, antibacterial and antiprotozoal activities, and thus may have potential clinical utility.

16

PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF DRUGS IN PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT OF A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Athira Raju, Preethy Paul, Tilu Sunny, Chaitanya Kumar T*, Dr. A P Basavarajappa*
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davangere, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Drug treatment during pregnancy presents a special concern. Pharmacoepidemiological studies can measure the extent of prescription and teratogenic drug use in pregnant women. Objective: To understand the prescribing trends &pharmacological class wise drug consumption; to classify the drugs prescribed during antenatal care according to the US-FDA category; to determine the number of drugs prescribed as per National List of Essential Medicine [NLEM]; to analyze the prescription based on WHO core drug prescribing indicators; to find the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. A prospective observational study was conducted at SSIMS & RC, Davangere, Karnataka for a period of six months. Methodology: The data about 200 pregnant women were collected from OBG OPD and documented.The appropriateness of the prescribing pattern was analyzed as per US FDA risk category, WHO prescribing indicators and as per NLEM.Results: Drugs prescribed in generic name was 35%, most prescribed route of administration was oral. All pregnant women were having at least primary education. Most prescription was encountered in 2nd trimester with average number of drugs prescribed with 3.5. The most associated medical condition was anemia in which mild anemia was high in 2nd trimester followed by Nausea & Vomiting. Most commonly prescribed drug was calcium supplement followed by Iron. Category C drugs were prescribed more. No X category drugs were prescribed. Conclusion: Our study revealed a careful prescribing behavior by the physicians to the pregnant women under antenatal care visiting outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital.

17

FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO - IN VIVO EVALUATION OF DARUNAVIR SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SEDDS)

Karunakara Reddy T*, Yajaman Sudhakar1, N Devanna2
*Research and Development department, JNTU, Ananthapur, A.P, India.
1S.V. Govt. Polytechnic College, Tirupathi, A.P, India. 2. Dept. of Chemistry, JNTU, Aanthapur, A.P, India.

Abstract

The main objective of present work was to prepare a solid SEDDS for enhancement of oral bioavailability of Darunavir, a poorly water soluble drug. The solubility of the drug was determined in various vehicles. A pseudo ternary phase diagram was constructed to identify the self-micro emulsification region. Further, the resultant formulations were investigated for clarity, phase separation, globule size, effect of pH and dilutions and freeze-thaw stability. The optimized SMEDDS (F4) formulation of Darunavir contained Capmul MCM (Oil), Kolliphor HS 15 (Surfactant) and PEG 400 (Co-surfactant). Optimized liquid SEDDS having particle size (71.1nm), zeta potential (-40.6mV), in-vitro dissolution study (96.34%).This optimized formulation was converted in to solid SEDDS by adding required quantity of Neusilin US2 as adsorbing agent used for in vitro dissolution and bioavailability assessment. The oral bioavailability of Darunavir from solid SEDDS was 1.6-fold higher compared to that of Darunavir suspension in rats, suggesting a significant increase (p < 0.05) in oral bioavailability of Darunavir from solid SEDDS. The present exploratory work successfully illustrates the potential utility of S-SMEDDS formulation for the delivery of poor water-soluble drug Darunavir, which may result in improved therapeutic performance.

18

STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF IONIC AND NON-IONIC SURFACTANTS AS PERMEATION ENHANCERS ON METFORMIN TABLETS

Uma Maheswari Setti1, Lavanya Kumari P1, Heera Battu2, Srinivasa Rao Y1, Swathi P2, Bhavani B1*
*1 Vignan Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology,Visakhapatnam.
2AU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.

Abstract

Metformin, a BCS class III drug has low bioavailability because of its low permeability through the gastrointestinal tract. The low permeability is due to its less lipophilicity. The objective of present investigation to enhance the intestinal permeability of metformin by using ionic and non-ionic surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), TWEEN 80 & SPAN 40. Ionic surfactant acts as better permeation enhancers than non ionic surfactant. The permeation of drug was measured by everted sac technique using chicken intestine. The drug was absorbed through chicken intestine mainly by passive diffusion mechanism. The order of permeation enhancement activity of surfactants is SLS>SDS> TWEEN 80> SPAN 40. Permeation of drug:SLS, 1:0.3 ratio found to be high than compared to other ratios and surfactants. Selected surfactant ratio with other additives compressed into tablets. The pre and post compression parameters like bulk density, angle of repose, hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content, disintegration time and all the parameters were within the acceptable limits. The effective drug permeability (Peff) values selected formulation (FTA3) higher than commercial tablet by using SLS as a permeation enhancer improved the permeability. Therefore, FTA3 formulation was more permeation through the mucous membrane of the chicken intestine.

19

DIVERSITY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH SOME COMMON MEDICINAL PLANTS OF LAMIACEAE FROM ANAIMALAI HILLS

Mathan CHANDRAN NISHA1, Sevanan RAJESHKUMAR2
1*Emerald Heights College for Women, Udhagamandalam, The Nilgiris- 643006, Tamilnadu, India.
2Government Arts College, Udhagamandalam, The Nilgiris-643002, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

The present study is aimed to list out some common medicinal plants of Lamiaceae and to determine the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi spore population and its colonization in twenty common medicinal plants of Lamiaceae in rainy season (July, August and September) of Anaimalai Hills. The plants were arranged alphabetically with their botanical names, the common name, parts used and its medicinal uses. Majority belong to herbaceous category. In this study, all the twenty plants were found to have AMF association. Present study revealed that AMF colonization and spore population gradually increased in rainy season. Maximum AMF colonization and spore population was noticed in Plectranthus amboinicus in September month. Minimum AMF colonization in Scutellaria colebrookiana and Ocimum tenuiflorum showed minimum spore population in July month. Totally 40 spores were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of common medicinal plants of Lamiaceae. Glomus was recorded as dominant AMF species.

20

STUDY OF DRUG RELATED PROBLEMS IN ORGAN TRANSPLANT PATIENTS

Dr. Bashwanth.P1, Dr. Daphna Jacob1, Dr. Naveen Muthurvapu1, Dr. Ardeshna A Nishita1, Dr. Ram Narayan Teja1, R. Srinivasan2
1PharmD Intern, Dept of Pharmacy Practise, PESCP, Bangalore.
2Head of the Department, Pharmacy Practise, PESCP, Bangalore.

Abstract

Early graft rejection was the issue, due to current use of drugs like immunosuppressant, transplantation is successful and rarely rejection of graft is been seen. It is quite common for the occurrence of drug related problems in Organ transplant patients, hence they need extra care to identify and resolve these. Multiple co-morbidities conditions and drugs can be a reason for DRP. With an increase in the comorbid conditions resulting in an increase number of prescribed drugs for its treatment.Total of 224 Drug Related Problems (DRP) are found in study population which Drug interaction is commonly identified were like Drug interactions(n=214, 95.11%) adverse drug reactions (n=10, 4.44%). With the introduction of services by clinical pharmacist which can help resolving various DRP hence optimising patient care. Reliable data from the population have helped in implementing drug safety programmes were the main focus was on co-prescription errors in the population. It is difficult to manage existing technology without having idea about problem which can occur. Complete discussion is beyond the scope of the current study that physician often ignore potential drug problems.

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ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF CELLULOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI FROM THE SOIL OF PAPER RECYCLING UNIT AT PERIYAR MANIAMMAI UNIVERSITY

Saranya1, Jeyajothi Kalimuthu2, Purushothaman Balakrishnan1,3, Prasanna srinivasan Ramalingam1, Shylaja Parthasarathi1, Bhuvaneshwari Ganesan1, Rajendran Kaliyaperumal1, Balu Ranganathan4, Kumaran Shanmugam1,5*
1Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Department of Chemical engineering, Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.
3TanBio R & D solution, No.213, 1ST floor, Periyar Technology Business Incubator, Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.
4Palms Connect LLC, Showcane Lane, Sandy, UT 84094, USA.
5Periyar Technology Business Incubator, Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Enzymes are mostly used for the production of food and pharmaceutical products and the major source of these enzymes are microorganisms, plants, and animals. The most important group of hydrolytic enzymes is cellulase. Here we use microorganisms to produce cellulase to get high yield at low cost and the microorganisms were isolated from the soil found at the paper recycling unit. The bacteria and fungs were isolated and identified using the standard methods and the bacteria were studied for its glucose concentration and the fungs were studied for the cellulase production. Totally 6 bacteria and 8 fungus were isolated and identified. Among the bacteria only Brucella canis, Enterobacter aerogenes and Eruvinia psidii produced high yield of glucose and the fungus Torula herbarum produce high yield of cellulase. Finally, we concluded that for the production cellulase microorganism should be the good source in addition to that paper recycling unit soil would be the new and effective source for the enzymes.