IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
JANUARY 2017
1

ANTICANCER, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT BIOACTIVE FACTORS DERIVED FROM MARINE FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES; A REVIEW

T. Vijaya*
Department of Botany, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The marine-derived fungi has proven to be a very rich source of extremely potent compounds that have demonstrated a number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti proliferative and anti microbial properties. These compounds are of interest as new lead structures for medicine as well as for plant and animal self defense. This review is an attempt to consolidate the latest studies in this field, and to showcase the immense competence of marine microbial flora and fauna as bioactive metabolite producers.

2

SCREENING OF RIBOFLAVIN BINDING PROTEIN (RFBP) FROM AVIAN EGGS TO SCREEN THEIR ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY

P. Koteshwar Rao*, G. Rajender
Dept of Zoology, Kakatiya University. Warangal-506009 (T.S), India.

Abstract

Riboflavin binding protein (Rfbp) was purified from different avian eggs including Pea cock (Pavo cristatus) Egg- white and Hen (Gallus gallus) egg- white Riboflavin binding protein (RfBP) was isolated. The Rfbp was purified in two steps; DEAE-SephadexA-50 ion exchange chromatography. The final purification of proteins (Rfbp) was achieved on SephadexG100.The protein content was estimated with Lowry method. The purity of the proteins was judged by two methods like cylindrical and slab-gels, SDS- PAGE techniques. These proteins showed a single band on SDS gels and the molecular weight was 29 Kilo Daltons. Antiserum was raised against these Rfbp is in rabbit. These proteins are emulsified in Freund is complete adjuvant and injected subcutaneously at weekly intervals for 4 weeks in to the rabbit at multi places. The rabbit anti serum was collected through the ear vein, 7 days after the booster injection. This serum was analyzed in- vitro method with HeLacervical cancer cell- lines. MTT [(3- (4, 5- dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] measures the metabolic activity of the viable cells. The viable cell counting with trypan blue dye exclusion method. There was more than 85 percent of cell death was observed. The anti cancer activity of Riboflavin binding proteins (Rfbp) purified from egg-white of Pea cock (Pavo cristatus) 87.7% and Hen (Gallusgallus) egg-white 87.5, egg-yolk 86.2% and Emu egg white (Struthio camelus) 85.0 contains anti cancer activity on HeLacelllines.

3

NOVEL PYRIMIDINE SCHIFF BASES: SYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING

C. Mallikarjunaswamy*1, V. Lakshmi Ranganatha2, L. Mallesha1, D.G. Bhadregowda3
1JSS College of Arts, Commerce and Science, Ooty Road, Mysore-25, India.
2The National Institute of Engineering, Manandavadi Road, Mysuru – 08.
3Yuvaraja’s College, University of Mysore, Mysore-5, India.

Abstract

Schiff bases are aldehydelike compounds in which an imine group replaces the carbonyl group. They are widely used for industrial purposes and also exhibit a broad range of biological activities. This study represents the synthesis of a new series of (E) -N-benzylidene-5-bromo-2-chloropyrimidin-4-amine derivatives (6a-l). The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by different spectral studies. All these new compounds screened for their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and in vitro antioxidant activities. Structure–activity relationship analysis demonstrates that hydroxyl groups on the aromatic ring contribute critically to the antioxidant activity. Compounds 6k, 6j, 6dand 6e showed significant radical scavenging and compounds 6d, 6e and 6f showed good antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.

4

2D -QSAR STUDY ON SOME NOVEL 6 – ACETYL –3 - [3– CHLORO –2 -(SUBSTITUTED)– 4-OXOAZETIDIN-1-YL]-2, 5-DIPHENYL-2, 3-DIHYDROPYRIDINE-4-CARBONITRILE ANALOGUES AS AN ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY

RiddhiMadhu*1, Sandip Patel2
N.R.Vekaria Institute of Pharmacy and Research Center, Junagadh.

Abstract

A series of 6-Acetyl-3-[3-Chloro-2-(Substituted)-4-Oxoazetidin-1-yl]-2, 5-Diphenyl-2, 3-Dihydropyridine-4-Carbonitrile were screened for their antifungal activity against fungi Candida albicans. These compounds have showed moderate and very good antifungal activity. The Quantitative Structure Activity-Relationships (QSAR) study on the pyridine series was made using lipophilic, electronic and steric parameters. Several statistical expressions were developed and best models were validated. The studies confirm that the antifungal activity is dependent on selected lipophilic and electronic parameters. The study suggests that substitution on R1 group with increasing lipophilic nature and decreasing electronic factor favorable for antifungal activity. The QSAR study provides important structural insights in designing of potent antimicrobial agents.

5

NOVEL PYRAZOLINES DERIVED FROM PIPERAZINE CHALCONES SYNTHESIS ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES

Rajashree Markandewar1, Hanfi Mohd. Ziauddin2, M.A.Baseer2
1Rashtrapita Mahatma Gandhi Mahavidlaya,Saoli,Dist.Chandrapur (India).
2Yeshwant College Nanded (India).

Abstract

In pursuit to synthesize the molecules of biological interest we reported here the synthesis of some novel pyrazolines from piperazine chalcones under basic condition using hydrazine hydrate. Ethanol is used as a solvent medium for the reaction. These newly synthesized pyrazolines are screened for antimicrobial studies and showed moderate to good activity.

6

A REVIEW: AN APPROACH TOWARDS THE ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR DETERMINATION OF NEWER DRUGS

Kirtimaya Mishra*, Dr. K. Balamurugan1, Dr. R. Suresh1
*Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamilnadu-608002, India.
1Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamilnadu-608002, India.

Abstract

In this present scenario for treating various diseases several new drugs were invented. Before launching to the market these drugs must undergo analytical validation process. In this review some of analytical techniques such as ultraviolet/ visible spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, capillary electrophoresis, and chromatographic methods (gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography), LC-MS, GC-MS, SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION, NMR, MASS Spectrophotometry LC/MS/MS LC/UV X-ray crystallography were discussed.

7

NOVEL SELF-NANOEMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS (SNEDDS) FOR ORAL DELIVERY OF LIPOPHILIC DRUGS

Dash Tapaswi Rani*, Sharma Pankaj, Sharma Sawati, Sood Parul
School of Pharmacy & Emerging Sciences, Baddi University of Emerging Sciences & Technology, Baddi, Makhnumajra, Dist Solan, Himachal Pradesh-173205, India.

Abstract

The self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS), is a promising Drug Delivery System which is well known for its prospective to improve the aqueous solubility and oral absorption of poorly water soluble drugs (Pouton, 2000). SNEDDS is an isotropic mixture comprising oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and drug that form oil in water emulsion in aqueous environment under placid agitation. It can readily disperse in the aqueous environment of the gastrointestinal tract to form a fine oil-in-water emulsion with a droplet size not exceeding 100 nm under mild agitation for improving the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs (Shah et al., 1994; Constantinides, 1995). Compared to conventional metastable emulsions, SNEDDS is a thermodynamically stable formulation with high solubilization capacity for lipophilic drugs, and also can be filled directly into soft or hard gelatin capsules for convenient oral administration. The Self nano-emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) is applicable on BCS Class II and Class IV Drugs for improving water Solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. It is important to prevent the interfacial tension and improving the dissolution as well as absorption rate of drug molecule. It is the novel drug delivery system which is applicable for parenteral, ophthalmic, intranasal and cosmetic delivery of drugs. The review presents an overview of design of formulation, preparation of components, mechanism of self nano emulsification, biopharmaceutical aspects, characterization methods and applications of self nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for enhancement of oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs.

8

IN-PROCESS QUALITY CONTROL: A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO CONTROL CRITICAL STEPS IN FINISHED PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

Varsha Kshirsagar
Parenteral Drugs (India) Limited, Indore (M.P.) INDIA.

Abstract

The main objective of pharmaceutical industry is to manufacture the quality products. Quality cannot be tested in the product it should be built- in by design and verified during the process with careful attention to the extent possible rather than depend alone on the end product testing. Many factors are responsible to give assurance of the quality of product. One of them is In-Process Quality Control Checks (IPQC). Critical points of all stages of the manufacturing process being checked by In-Process Quality Control according to standard operation procedures (SOPs). These applied SOPs vary from one finished dosage form to another. The acceptance criteria for the critical steps are also varying from product to product; it is close to the final release specification. The aim of In-Process Quality Control checks is to monitor and improve effectively the whole applied operations at the every stage of the finished pharmaceutical products. The In-Process Quality Control check ensures that the finished dosage form fulfills all quality requirements.

9

PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS OF SKIN DISEASES AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN ILLUABABORZONE, OROMIA REGIONAL STATE, SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIA

Yohannes Lulu, Geremew Tolesa , John Cris
Public Health and Medical Science Faculty, Mettu, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Skin diseases represent an important public health burden, particularly in developing countries, where high prevalence figures (21%–87%) have been reported and usually are not well managed. School survey is a useful yardstick as it is easy to conduct, less time consuming and large number of children of particular age group can be screened for presence of diseases.To assess the prevalence and associated factor of common skin disease among primary school children in Illu Aba Bora Zone, Oromia Regional state, Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was carried out from October, 2015 to May, 2015 G.C.A pre-tested structured questionnaire for participant interview and structured checklist for physical examination was used. A total of 828 participants available during data collection period were systematically included in the study unit. Data were collected by interviewing, physical examination and laboratory investigation to confirm some case. Data was cleaned, coded, and entered to SPSS version20 for analysis [Analysis and interpretation of data was carried out by considering Chi-square, OR, bivariate and logistic regression and P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant]. Physical examination was carried out with absolute privacy, and informed verbal consent was obtained before administering the interview and conducting physical examination.The overall prevalence of skin disorder was 58.3%.Of them 31.7% had two or more skin disorder. Pediculosis capitis was the commonest transmissible skin disorder with an overall prevalence of 63.5%. The prevalence of skin disorders was high among the primary school children in the study area. This might be a reflection of the prevalence in the overall population of the area but skin diseases, especially infestations and infection are not given the emphasis they deserve. Hence appropriate health education program and preventive measures should be implemented.

10

DIVERSITY, RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF FISHES IN GEBA AND SOR RIVERS, BARO-AKOBO BASIN, SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA

Simagegnew Melaku1, Abebe Getahun2, Mulugeta Wakjira3
1Natural and Computational Sciences, Mettu University.
2College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University.
3College of Natural Sciences, Jimma University.

Abstract

Diversity, relative abundance and some biological aspects of fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers were studied using gill nets (6, 8, 10 and 12cm stretched mesh sizes) and hooks. Samples of fish were collected in wet (October to November 2012) and dry (February to March 2013) seasons. A total of 348 fish specimens were collected from both rivers at both seasons. Nine fish species were identified which were included in six genera and four families. The represented families include Mormyridae, Cyprinidae, Bagridae and Cichlidae. The family Cyprinidae was the most dominant with respect to number of species consisting of six species (66.7%). The diversity of fish species in Geba River (H’=1.50) was higher than that of Sor River (H’ =1.10). The fish diversity of Geba and Sor Rivers is less compared to most studied Ethiopian rivers. Labeobarbus intermedius (60.72%IRI), Labeobarbus nedgia (16.83%IRI) and Labeo cylindricus (14.66%IRI) were the most abundant fish species. The abundance of fish specimens in dry season was higher than in wet season. The length-weight relationships for these species were found to be curvilinear. The mean FCF for Labeobarbus intermedius, Labeobarbus nedgia and Labeo cylindricus were 1.21, 1.02 and 1.21 in Geba and Sor Rivers, respectively. There was significant variation (ANOVA, P<0.05) in FCF of Labeo cylindricus in the two seasons. However, variations were insignificant (ANOVA, P > 0.05) for the Labeobarbus intermedius and Labeobarbus nedgia in wet and dry seasons. In both rivers females were more numerous than males and statistically significant (Chi-square, P < 0.05). Further investigation on the fish diversity especially on the tributaries of these rivers and socio-economic aspects of the two rivers is recommended.

11

SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF ANALOGS OF ARYL TETRALONE

Chaitramallu M1, Devaraju Kesagodu1, Dakshayini Chandrashekarachar2
1Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Yuvaraja’s College, Mysuru.
2Department of Chemistry, Government College for Women, Mandya.

Abstract

The aryl tetralone as potential antimitotic agents were synthesized in four step reactions using Grignard reagent. The first step is the synthesis of trimethoxy phenyl naphthol (2a-f) by the reaction of substituted tetralone with 3, 4, 5-trimethoxy 1-bromobenzene in magnesium metal using tetrahydrofuran as a solvent. The resulted phenyl naphthol was hydrogenated to give phenyl tetralin 3(a-f). The substituted phenyl tetralone were prepared by the oxidation of trimethoxy phenyl tetralin 4(a-f). The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral and elemental analysis data. The synthesized compounds were also screened for their antidiabetic activity. It is noteworthy that compounds 4d possessed excellent antidiabetic activity, 4b and 4c showed considerable activity, and remaining 4a possessed least activity. Compound 4d was immense to show high antibacterial and antifungal activity against all bacterial and fungal strains compared with standard chloramphenicol and nystatin, respectively.

12

A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON MICRONEEDLES - AN ARCHETYPE SWING IN TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

G. Ravi*, N. Vishal Gupta, M. P. Gowrav
Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Shri Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Transdermal drug delivery is the non-invasive delivery of medications through the skin surface into the systemic circulation. The advantage of transdermal drug delivery system is that it is painless technique of administration of drugs. The advantage of transdermal drug delivery system is that it is painless technique of administration of drugs. Transdermal drug delivery system can improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the drugs because drug delivered through the skin at a predetermined and controlled rate. Due to the various biomedical benefits, it has attracted many researches. The barrier nature of stratumcorneum poses a danger to the drug delivery. By using microneedles, a pathway into the human body can be recognized which allow transportation of macromolecular drugs such as insulin or vaccine. These microneedles only penetrate outer layers of the skin, exterior sufficient not to reach the nerve receptors of the deeper skin. Thus the microneedles supplement is supposed painless and reduces the infection and injuries. Researches from the past few years showed that microneedles have emerged as a novel carrier and considered to be effective for safe and improved delivery of the different drugs. Microneedles development is created a new pathway in the drug delivery field. This review focus on new advances in transdermal drug delivery system using various carriers emphasizing mostly on the potential role of microneedles as transdermal system.

13

NANOTECHNOLOGY IN MANAGEMENT OF PSORIASIS: A FOCUS ON HERBAL THERAPY

Padmini Iriventi*, N.Vishal Gupta
Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Shivarathrishwara Nagara, Mysuru-570015, INDIA.

Abstract

Psoriasis is a hyper proliferative, autoimmune skin disorder. Despite the fact that many therapies are there in treating psoriasis, no single treatment gives complete and satisfactory cure. There are several therapeutic agents used topically and systemically but they have adverse effects. As an alternative for these drugs, herbal medicine have been widely used. These have better therapeutic value and have less side effects. Nano herbal drug delivery systems have a great future for increasing the activity and succeeding in dealing with the problems related with medicinal plants. Various marketed herbal formulations are available.

14

ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF CHONEMORPHA FRAGRANS AND ERYTHROXYLUM MONOGYNUM COMBINED ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

Kausar Fatima*, Konde Abbulu
Department of Pharmacology, CMR College of Pharmacy, Medchal, Hyderabad, Telangana.

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of herbal formulation containing Chonemorpha fragrans and Erythroxylum monogynum in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus is a group of syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia, altered metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and an increased risk of complications from vascular diseases. Hyperlipidemia constitutes a major etiopathological factor for atherosclerosis. The preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, sterols, phenols and proteins. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of combined herbal formulation was studied in alloxan (150mg/kg b.w., i.p.) induced diabetes in wistar rats for doses 200 mg/kg b.w. and 400 mg/kg b.w. (p.o.) daily for 21 days, and the effect was compared with oral dose of 5mg/kg, b.w. glibenclamide. The effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of Chonemorpha fragrans and Erythroxylum monogynum on blood glucose, serum lipid profile total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were measured in the diabetic rats. Diabetes caused by alloxan treatment increases the level of glucose and biochemical parameters in blood sample but treatment with combined herbal formulation, protects from diabetes and significantly decreases the elevated blood glucose, LDL, VLDL levels, total cholesterol levels and total triglycerides levels & increases the HDL levels. In conclusion the present study indicates that the combined ethanolic leaf extracts of plants Chonemorpha fragrans and Erythroxylum monogynum possesses significant antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

15

ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND FORMULATION OF CASSIA FISTULA .Linn (Caesalpiniaceae)

B. Lavanya*, N. Narayanan
Jaya College of Paramedical Science, College Of Pharmacy, Thiruninravur, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

Aim: To perform the isolation, identify the isolated compound and spectral study by using a plant cassia fistula Linn. Objective: The cassia fistula was collected, authentified and performed the phytochemical evaluations. Then ethyl acetate fraction isolated by using column chromatography. The isolated compound was found using characterisation. The formulation of micro-emulsion was prepared and evaluated by FT-IR study. Conclusion: Isolated and characterization of the compound which has to be performed for the exploration of the drug. Evaluation of the micro-emulsion form by using FT-IR study for its structural elucidation. The formulation used to Cross the BBB (Blood Brain Barrier) in the treatment CNS disorder.

16

REVIEW ON: FLASH COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY

Ramesh Dattatraya Bhusal*, Deepali Mahir Nahar, Prashant Bhimrao Dalvi
Aldel Education Trust's, St. John Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Palghar (E), 401404.

Abstract

In previous days, Column chromatography was used for qualitative as well as quantitative analysis but Column chromatography is an extremely time consuming process. This leads to the development of novel preparative liquid chromatography in which mobile phase flows down by positive air pressure called as Flash chromatography. Flash Chromatography is a rapid form of preparative column chromatography. Flash chromatography, also known as medium pressure chromatography, was popularized several years ago by Clark Still of Columbia University, as an alternative to slow and often inefficient gravity-fed chromatography. It is a simple, fast and economical approach to preparative Liquid chromatography.

17

INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH DIURETIC ACTIVITY

Chandrasekar. R1*, Sivagami. B1
MNR College of Pharmacy, Fasalwadi, Sangareddy, Medak District-502294, Hyderabad, Telangana.

Abstract

Every human being in the world has the right to afford medicines. While 80% of the world population is completely relying on herbal medicine. Since the population and cost of living is increasing day by day there is a demand in the existing population for herbal medicine. Researchers are contributing their work by finding new entities for new diseases emerging in the world. Scientist and Researchers are searching for natural resources for treating these diseases. But when side effects are concerned, they cannot be reduced but they can be controlled with traditional herbal medicine, complementary alternative medicine. Diuretics are agents which promote the formation of urine. Although diuretics are first line drugs which provide relief from cardiac failure, edema and hypertension with severe side effects. These plants can be used with efficacy and safety without producing any serious side effects. The plants reviewed in this article include an overview of the plant part used, type of extract and their activity that are essential for understanding diuretic action. In this article we have reviewed on plants used in the treatment of diuretics, the plants reviewed in this article are reported with diuretic activity. These plants can be explored and reviewed further in future which may have different activities for different diseases. This review gives the importance of herbal medicine used as diuretics these herbs can be used safely on humans.

18

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PHENYLEPHRINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE USING UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND HPLC METHODS

Anjali Tandel, Priya Shah, Sadhana Rajput*
Quality Assurance Laboratory, Centre of Relevance and Excellence in Novel Drug Delivery System, Pharmacy Department, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Fatehgunj, Vadodara – 390 002, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

This study involve development of a simple, sensitive, precise, accurate and economic HPLC method and two UV methods for simultaneous estimation of phenylephrine HCl (Phe) and ketorolac tromethamine (Ket). The UV methods are based upon absorption correction and multicomponent analysis approach. Wavelength maxima (λmax) selected for Phe and Ket were 273 nm and 323 nm respectively. Selected linearity ranges for Phe and Ket were 12-42 ppm and 4-14 ppm respectively for UV methods. HPLC method was developed using Waters HILIC (Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) column having dimension of 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm. Mobile phase used was acetate buffer (pH 3.2; 10mM): MeOH: ACN:: 32:23:45 with flow rate of 1mL/min at detection wavelength of 275nm. Retention time for Phe and Ket were 2.96 and 1.96 min. Linearity ranges for Phe and Ket chosen were 30-60 and 10-20 μg/mL respectively for HPLC method. Thus, selective and robust spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods were developed successfully and also validated for various parameters like accuracy, precision (intra-day and inter-day), linearity and range, limit of detection and limit of quantitation (LOD and LOQ) as per ICH guidelines. %Assay was also determined and found to be in accordance with the label claim. Both the developed methods are quite sensitive for simultaneous identification and analysis of Phe and Ket in bulk.

19

ROLE OF NATURAL POLYMER IN SUSTAINED AND CONTROLLED RELEASE

Vaishali S. Kadam, G. R. Shendarkar
CRPS, Nanded college of Pharmacy, Nanded, Maharashtra India.

Abstract

Now a day there has been an important development in different dosage forms for existing and newly designed drugs and natural products, and synthetic as well as semi-synthetic excipients always need to be used for a variety of purposes. Gums and mucilages are widely used as natural materials for conventional and novel dosage forms. With the increasing interest in polymers of natural origin, the pharmaceutical world has compliance to use most of them in their formulations. Moreover, the tremendous orientation of Pharmaceutical world towards these naturally derived polymers has become a subject of increasing interest to discover, extract and purify such compounds from the reported origin. These polymers such as natural gums and mucilage are bio-compatible, cheap and easily available and are preferred to synthetic and semi synthetic excipients because of their lack of toxicity, low cost, availability, soothing action and non irritant nature. In the present review gums and mucilage’s, used as a excipients as well as carrier for sustained or controlled release.

20

A SIMPLE AND RAPID VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF DROSPIRENONE IN A PHARMCEUTICAL PRODUCT

Sirajunisa Talath*, Sunil Dhaneshwar
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, RAK College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, RAK Medical and Health Sciences University, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE.

Abstract

The main objective of the present research work was to develop and validate a simple reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) stability-indicating method for the determination of synthetic progestin drosperinone. The chromatographic separation was performed by using the instrument Shimadzo Prominance model L20 HPLC system equipped with SPD 20A prominence UV-Vis detector, RESTEX allure C18 (250mm × 4.6mm i.d., 3 μm particle size) column. Isocratic elution was performed using methanol: water (65:35 v/v) as solvent and UV detection at 247 nm. The RP-HPLC method developed for analysis of drosperinone was validated with respect to specificity, selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness as per the ICH guidelines. The linearity for developed method was perceived in the concentration range of 3-18 μg/mL with the correlation coefficient of 1.0. The percentage accuracy of drosperinone ranged from 99.06 to 100.62%. The relative standard deviation for inter-day precision was lower than 2.0%. The assay of drosperinone was determined in tablet dosage form was found to be within limits. Drosperinone was subjected to stress conditions such as neutral, acidic, alkaline, oxidation and photolysis degradations as per ICH guidelines. The peaks of degradation products were found to be resolved effectively from the standard drug peak and hence this method can be used for quality control assay of drosperininone. The degradation studies revealed that the drug was found to degrade maximum (74.27%) in alkaline degradation conditions followed by oxidative degradation conditions (36.41). The drug was highly resistant towards neutral, acidic and photolytic degradation conditions.

21

VARIATION OF SERUM CYSTATIN C VALUE WITH AGE

Pallavi Mahajan1, K S Sodhi2, Jasbir Singh2
1Government Medical College, Jammu, J&K, India.
2Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, Ambala.

Abstract

Cystatin C is a cationic cysteine protease inhibitor. Older age, male gender, greater weight, greater height, current cigarette smoking, and higher serum C-reactive protein levels were independently related with increased serum cystatin C levels after adjusting for creatinine clearance. Renal function has been shown to decline with increasing age, with kidney size and volume decreasing after the fourth decade. Keeping these points in mind, the present study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, MMIMSR, Mullana, Ambala, with the aim to estimate and compare the levels of serum cystatin C in healthy individuals of either sex in the age range of 17 years and above. On comparing serum cystatin C levels in different age groups, it was observed that the serum cystatin C levels increases with age. This change in serum cystatin C value can be due to the age related decrease in the renal function. Hence, it is concluded that while estimating the serum cystatin C levels age should be taken into consideration.

22

3-BENZAZEPINONE DERIVATIVES: ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND ITS STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP (SAR) STUDIES

T. Shubhavathi1, Raghu Ram Achar2, B.S. Priya1*
1DOS in Chemistry, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru-570 006, Karnataka, India.
2Department of Biotechnology, JSS Science and Technology University, JSS Technical Institutions Campus, Mysuru, 570 006, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

A series of 3-benzazepinone (3-BZ) derivatives were tested for their in vitro antioxidant efficacy by DPPH and LPO assays and compared with standard Butylated Hydroxyl Anisole (BHA). The derivatives containing electron donating groups viz., OH, OCH3 were found to be good antioxidants compared to BHA. While, the compounds containing electron withdrawing moiety viz., NO2, Cl, Br, and F were found to be less active compared to standard BHA. The structure activity relationship studies suggest that the electron donating moieties majorly contribute to the anti-oxidant property of the potent compounds. Furthermore, analogs and more variants of the potent molecules can be synthesized to test for better antioxidants with lesser IC50 values.

23

ESTIMATION OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORMS BY AREA UNDER CURVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD

Mangal B Gahandule*, Shanker M Dhobale
VJSM’s Vishal Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ale, Tal – Junnar, Pune- 412411, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

A simple, accurate and precise area under curve method was developed for spectrophotometric estimation of hydrochlorothiazide in pure and tablet dosage forms. “The area under two points on the mixture spectra is directly proportional to the concentration of the component of interest” is the AUC curve. The area selected for estimation of hydrochlorothiazide was between 260 to 280 nm. The method represented regression coefficient (R2 = 0.999) at concentration rang 5-25 μg/ml. Estimation of the drugs was found up to 100 % representing the accuracy of the method. The recovery of the hydrochlorothiazide was found up to 100 %. Validation of the proposed method was carried out for its accuracy, precision and specificity according to ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines. The developed methods can be successfully applied in routine work for the estimation of hydrochlorothiazide in its pharmaceutical dosage form.

24

FACTORS REFRACTORY TO CONVENTIONAL INTERFERON BASED THERAPY IN CHRONIC HEPATITIS C

Sunil dat Maheshwari1, Hafiz Wajid Ali Buriro2, Samiullah Shaikh1, Bikharam Devrajani1
1Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS) Hospital, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
2Isra University Hospital Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors in patients suffering from chronic HCV, refractory to conventional interferon therapy. MATERIAL & METHODS: This descriptive case series study was conducted at Out Patient’s Department of Hepatitis Control Program at Medical Unit IV, LUMHS Hospital Jamshoro from June2013 to December 2013. On the basis of Inclusion and Exclusion criteria, a total of Eighty (80) patients with the established diagnosis of chronic Hepatitis ‘C’ were recruited by Non-probability consecutive sampling technique after obtaining a well informed and written consent. Socio-demographic data and history of alcohol addiction (>50gm/day), examination of weight and height to calculate BMI and Investigations including: HCV RNA by PCR and Liver Biopsy were recorded on a semi-structured proforma specifically designed for the study. RESULTS: A total of eighty (80) patients were included in the study who are refractory to conventional interferon therapy from which 49(61.20%) were male and 39(38.80%) were female. The mean age andSD were 40.70+6.37 years. On the basis of refractory category 57(71.2%) were non responders, 06(7.5%)were break through responders and 17(21.2%) were relapsers. On the BMI distribution moslty patients 55(68.80%) were with >30 and 25(31.20%) cases were between 25-30. Grade II (Moderate steatosis) was found in the mostly the cases 31(38.8%), Grade I (Mild steatosis) was also commonest n in 30(37.5%) of the cases, while 15(18.8%) patients were found with Grade O(No steatosis) and only 4(5%)cases were documented with GardeIII (severe steatosis). From total number only 25(31.25%) had history of alcohol addiction and from 25, 15(80.0%) patients were consuming >50 gm/day of alcohol and 05(20.0%) <50 gram/day. 56(70%) patients were noted with VL >8, 00000 IU/ml while 24(30%) patients were with viral load of <8, 00000 IU/ml. F2 (Fibrous bridging fibrosis) was found commonest n in the patients 43(53.8%), while F1 (Fibrous portal expansion), F3 (BF with lobular distortion), F0(No fibrosis) and F4(Cirrhosis) were noted with frequency/ percentage of 21(26.2%), 08(10.0%), 06(7.5%), 02(2.5%) respectively. CONCLUSION: This study had concluded that there were a number of factors responsible for refractory treatment with conventional interferon based therapy in the cases of chronic HCV infection. Gender (male), age (>40 years), (BMI>30kg/m2), elevation of grade of steatosis, stage of fibrosis and high viral load are highly responsible factors. Therefore, it is recommended that all these common factors should be kept in mind during interferon therapy and future advance multidisciplinary studies will be conducted at various health care centers to compile the data and observe the other factors responsible for refractory treatment as far as HCV treatment is concerned.

25

FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF ESOMEPRAZOLE CONTROLLED RELEASE TABLETS BY USING VARIOUS GRADES OF EUDRAGIT POLYMERS

Y. Naveen Kumar*1, Dr. J. Sreekanth2, Dr. P. Vijay Chander Reddy3
1Drugs Control Administration, Hyderabad. Telangana, India.
2Progenerics Pharma Pvt. Ltd, Hyderabad. Telangana, India.
3Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd, Vizag, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The aim of the contemporary research work was to develop the controlled release tablets of esomeprazole. Esomeprazole having a shorter biological half life (1-1.5 hours) hence we are selected as a controlled release tablet, So it should be minimize the dose dumping problems and avoid fluctuations in plasma drug concentrations. To maintain constant therapeutic levels of the drug over 24 hours. Compatibility studies was execution during FTIR and DSC shown that there was absence of probable chemical interaction between pure drug and excipients. Controlled release tablets were prepared by direct compression method using altered concentrations of Eudragit-S 100, Eudragit-L 100 and Eudragit-RSPO. Esomeprazole dose was fixed as 20 mg. Total weight of the tablet was considered as 100 mg. Polymers were used in the concentration of 20 and 40 mg. Prepared compositions were evaluating the various physicochemical parameters such as weight variation, hardness, friability, thickness and drug content. All the compositions were resulted in adequate Pharmacopoeial limits. Whereas from the dissolution studies it was evident that the formulation (F-6) showed better desired drug release pattern i.e., 97.47% in 24 hours. It followed Zero Order release kinetics mechanism. As the consequence of this amendment it could conclude that the compositions rally the needed theoretical drug release profile as well as has the controlled action i.e., retarded the drug release, Hence so the release is for a long time and thus more Bioavailability. The optimised formula shall be utilized for the formulation development and other studies like bioequivalence study, for triumphant initiation of the product.

26

ETHANOLIC VESICLES: A NOVEL APPROACH TO ENHANCE TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

Kaveri Ankush Bhangare Sushil S. Gaikwad, Ayushi P. Somwanshi
NDMVP Samaj’s College of Pharmacy, Shivaji Nagar, Gangapur Road, Nashik-422002, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Transdermal drug delivery is the approach in which the drug is embedded into the reservoir within the patch and it pass through the skin into the blood stream. The various techniques has developed to disrupts the skin barrier and deliver drug into the body through the intact skin. Liposomes in the Transdermal drug delivery system limits their use at clinical and industrial level due to its unstable nature. Ethosomes have the ability to reach into the deep into skin. It contains the ethanol in high concentration . ethosomes act by the ethanol effect and ethosomes effect. Ethosomes are flexible and also pass through the narrow constrictions. This article covers the basic information regarding the advantages of ethosomes, mechanism of penetration , method of preparation, evaluation parameter, it also covers the information like formulation aspect of ethosomes, challenges and opportunities and marketed formulation. The applicability of ethosomes in various fields like cosmetics, analgesics, anesthetics, corticosteroids, anticancer agents, insulin.

27

A REVIEW ON NEW GENERATION ORODISPERSIBLE FILMS AND ITS NOVEL APPROACHES

Loveleen Arora*, Tanushree Chakraborty
Department of Pharmaceutics, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Hosur Road, Bangalore-560027, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

The oral route is the safest and marketable route for the administration of human as well as the veterinary. Pharmaceutical scientists throughout the world are inspecting Orodispersible films (ODFs) as an innovative drug delivery tool. Orodispersible films are now a days are recognized as an alternative approach to conventional dosage form. These thin oral films containing API have ability to releases the drug quickly for both systemic and local action via oral or, sublingual routes. The design of an effective orodispersible film requires an encyclopedic knowledge of pharmaceutical properties of drugs and polymers along with best fit selection of manufacturing process. Hence the motive of this review is to provide an overview of the condemnatory factors that affect the formulation of orodispersible films which includes the physicochemical properties of polymers and drugs, as well as the characterization methods to outwit the difficulties associated with formulation design. It also underlines the latest approaches and trends of the pharmaceutical companies in developing thin film products.

28

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE BRANDS OF METFORMIN HCL TABLETS MARKETED IN SUDAN

Zuheir Osman, Alaa Elmardi Osman, Aminah M. Abedelghayoum
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

Abstract

The pharmaceutical equivalence of five different brands of metformin hydrochloride 500 mg tablets available in the Sudanese market was evaluated using a number of official and non-official pharmacopoeial tests; which included determination of assay of content, evaluation of uniformity of weight, friability, hardness, thickness, disintegration time and dissolution tests. The dissolution profiles of the generic brands and innovator were studies and compared using similarity factor f2 and difference factor f1. The results showed that all the five tested brands complied with the requirements of weight variation test, thickness test, friability, disintegration time test and dissolution test. However, the assay test showed that all brands complied with pharmacopeias specifications except for brand (B) which failed to pass the test. Also regarding the crushing stress (Hardness) test, four brands complied except brand (D) which failed to pass the non-official test. All brands showed good release profile with f2 values greater than 50 and difference factor f1 lower than 15 when compared with the innovator drug (A). It concluded that from all the tested brands of metformin hydrochloride tablets, only brands A, C, D and E could be considered biopharmaceutically and chemically equivalent and therefore can be used interchangeably in the clinical practice.

29

A REVIEW ON PHARMACO KINETIC DRUG INTERACTIONS OF STATINS

A Satishchandra*, P Sureshkumar, V Radhika, T Anitha Chowdary. V. Jagannath Patro
Department of Pharmacology, Browns College of Pharmacy, Khammam, India.

Abstract

The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are generally well tolerated as monotherapy. Statins are associated with two important adverse effects, asymptomatic elevation in liver enzymes and myopathy. Myopathy is most likely to occur when statins are administered with other drugs. Statins are substrates of multiple drug transporters (including OAT- -P1B1, BCRP and MDR1) and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (including CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9). Possible adverse effects of statins can occur due to interactions in concomitant use of drugs that substantially inhibit or induce their methabolic pathway. This review aim is to summarize the most important interactions of statins.

30

EVALUATION OF C. ALBICANS INDUCED WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA

Pattiyappan Sagadevan1*, Suresh Natarajan2, Ranjithkumar Rajamani1, Chandar Shekar Bellan1, Rathishkumar Sivaraman1
1Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
2Sree Narayana Guru College, K.G.Chavadi, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

To establish the wound healing activity of methanolic extract of A. paniculata two model were performed to evaluate the wound healing i.e., incision and excision model. In incision model the parameter which was carried out was breaking strength of wound skin. In excision model percentage wound concentration and period of epithelization was established for the extract. Reference stand drug was Framycetin sulphate cream ointment for comparison with other group. From the observation in both the model. Methanolic extract was found to have greater wound healing activity it terms of breaking strength in incision model and percentage wound concentration, period of epithelization was highest in excision model compared with group. In conclusion methanolic extract of A. paniculata better healing ablity.

31

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL EVALUATION OF PIPPALI SHODHANA IN THE DIFFERENT MEDIA

Aarti Bhagoriya*, MeenaDeogade1, Harisha CR2
1Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital & Research Center, Salod, Wardha.
2Pharmacognosy Lab I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat.

Abstract

According to ayurveda science Pippali (Piper longum.linn.) was originated during the time of Samudra Manthan (churning of the ocean in Hindu mythology). When a great seer Vasistamuni son was ceased, by which he was depressed so he wished to have more progeny and he consumed fruit Pippali by which he was wised with more progeny. So the name Pippali came to that fruit. Pippali belongs to the family Piparaceae. Shodhan concept was in existence since the time of charak samhitha (600-1000 B.C) as while enumerating the fundamentals of ayurvedic pharmaceutics purification (Shuddhi-Karan) is found enumerated as one of the fundamentals necessary for “Gunanterdhana” (alteration and or addition of properties in the drug). Till date shodhana on different media is not well established for the first time present paper Evaluated phormacognostically and phytochemical including its HPTLC study. The results of Pharmacognostical work showed that more clear characters and more secondary metabolites released in to the powder. HPTLC results showed that 9 spots are observed in both 255 and 366nm among one spot is common may be piperine. Where as in Gogrith Bharjith choorna (ghee-roasted powder) showed that 10 spots at both 255 and 366nm where 2 spots are common on spectrum. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical parameters study findings confirm that all characters were found in different samples Choorna of Pippali The discussed here may be used as identifying tools for the quality assessment and obtained results are may be helpful for the further research works on pippali shodhana on different media.

32

VISCOELASTIC, SWELLING KINETIC AND DRUG RELEASE CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY (ACRYLIC ACID)-GRAFTED-GELLAN

Gouranga Nandi*, Subhankar Mukhopadhyay, Nityananda Mondal
BCDA College of Pharmacy and Technology, 78, Jessore Road (S), Hridaypur, Barasat, Kolkata-700127.

Abstract

Lyophilic, viscoelastic, swelling kinetic and drug release characterizations of poly (acrylic acid) –grafted-gellan (PAAc-g-GG) were the main objective of this study. At first, a suitable solvent for PAA-g-GG was found out by lyophilicity study followed by viscoelastic study on PAAc-g-GG with different degree of grafting. The study showed that the degree of grafting greatly influences the viscoelastic nature of copolymer, which further governs the drug release pattern from the polymer matrix. The copolymer with highest grafting showed much higher starting % strain (17.73%), stress (53.3 Pa) for structural breakdown at Gꞌ = Gꞌꞌ (213.5 Pa), higher storage modulus (G’), much higher values of complex viscosity (11.46 Pa.s) and cross-over point (Gꞌ = Gꞌꞌ =271.86 Pa) compared to that of low-grafted copolymer. In 0.1N HCl, swelling index (%WE) is found to be directly proportional to percentage grafting (%G) and batches with higher grafting exhibited lowest initial swelling rate demonstrating its inversely proportional relation to %G. Equilibrium swelling and hydration are also found to be proportional to %G. The same effect has been observed in PBS with exception that the magnitude of the parameters obtained in PBS is very much higher compared to that in 0.1N HCl. The copolymer showed sustained drug release over 10 hours period and the study revealed Case-1 Fickian diffusion or square root of time kinetic based release mechanism. The study reveales that viscoelastic and swelling study might be useful to understand how the degree of grafting governs the drug release.

33

THE PRIMITIVE IN-VITRO PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EXTRACTS FROM WITHANIA SOMNIFERA

S. Amirtham, A. Settu*
Medicinal Plants Research Unit, P.G. Research Department of Botany, Govt. Arts and Science College, Ariyalur, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

From ancient times, Medicinal plants were used for the treatment of various deadly diseases. Especially Asian countries like India, china etc., were used medicinal plants as a potential curing agent for various diseases and used in their different medicinal system named ayurvedic, siddha etc.,. Withania somnifera is an indigenous herb belonging to family Solanacae, commercially known as Ashwagandha. It is extensively used in most of the Indian herbal pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, It was spread all over the India and in some other Asian countries. It has phytochemicals named alkaloid, steroidal lactones, flavonoids, saponins and tannins; it has various pharmacological activities whereas in the present study we clearly investigate their antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities in their leaves and root extracts. Among the various solvent used our research reveals that the Aqueous, chloroform and methanol extracts shows maximum inhibitory effect against the tested bacteria and fungi. In addition to that we proved that these extracts also have antioxidant activity. Furthermore we concluded that the aqueous leaf extract and methanolic root extract has virulent activities when compared to other.

34

THE TRADITIONAL USES AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF MUCUNA PRURIENS (L)DC: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

B. J. Divya., B.Suman., M. Venkataswamy, K. ThyagaRaju*
Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Medicinal plants have served as a constant source of medicaments, which have a great efficacy and demand for the treatment of various diseases. One of the plants, that deserve attention is Mucuna pruriens. The present review was designed to evaluate the preliminary phytochemical screening and secondary metabolites. Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC belongs to the family Fabaceae and is commonly known as Velvet bean, Cow witch, Cow hage due to morphology, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, medicinal values and some pharmacological activities. Different parts of the plant are used in Ayurvedic research since ancient period due to their excellent medicinal values and cure many diseases such as bone fractures, cough, dog-bite, madness, pain, pleuritis, ring worm, scorpion sting, snake-bite, sores and syphilis, and is anticholestrolemic, antiparkinson, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial, it is also used for the treatment of menstruation disorders, constipation, edema, fever, tuberculosis, etc. The seeds of Mucuna pruriens contain alkaloids, glycosides, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, calcium, phosphorus and potassium, polyphenolic substances, protease inhibitor, phytic acid, and L-dopa is a major constituent present in whole herb. M.pruriens alkaloid P, Q, R, S, X (Alkaloid-misc), Myristic acid, Niacin (Inorganic), N,N1 Dimethyltryptamine, N,N1-Dimethyltryptamine-n-oxide, Nicotine, Oleic acid, Palmitic acid, Palmitoleic acid (Lipid), Phenylalanine, Phosphorus (Inorganic), Polysaccharide, Proline, Protein , Prurienidine, Prurieninine (Alkaloid-misc), etc are available. The most important of these bioactive compounds of plants are secondary metabolites. The present review is an attempt to provide reported details of information on this herb and its phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities. It is an attempt to provide a direction for further research.

35

SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 1-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-2-(3-SULPHOXYPHENYL-4-(4-SUBSTITUTED BENZYLIDENE)-5-IMIDAZOLONES

R. M. Kedar, S. A. Deshmukh
P.G. Department of Chemistry, Shri Shivaji Science College Amravati.

Abstract

Imidazolones are believed to be associated with several pharmacological activities. Their significance lies in the fact that they show diverse biological activities. Which include anticancer, anticonvulsant, antiparkinsonian, CNS depressant, antimicrobial, antihelmintic, anti HIV, anti-inflammatory etc.However no work is reported on imidazolone from substituted benzoyl glycine.Therefore it was thought interesting to attempt synthesis of imidazolones containing new substituent and study there antimicrobial activity In the proposed work, we have reported eight newly synthesized sulphoxy substituted imidazolones from oxazolones and 4-chloroaniline in presence of zeolite as a catalyst. The oxazolones were obtained from 3-sulphoxy benzoyl glycine and variedly substituted aromatic aldehydes in presence of anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride. The characterisation of these compounds was made by chemical properties, elemental analysis and spectral data like IR, 1H-NMR.In order to know antimicrobial property these compounds were assayed for their antimicrobial activity against the test organisms E.coli, K.pheumoniae, S.aureus. S.epidermis. Out of eight samples tested, sample 2g and 2c each. The compound containing –OH group showed antimicrobial activity against maximum number of organisms followed by sample 2h containing -OCH3 along with -OH group. Thus it may be concluded that -OH group present on benzylidene moiety irrespective of its position shows antimicrobial property.

36

QUANTIFICATION OF ANTIOXIDANT POLYPHENOLS FROM BOENNINGHAUSENIA ALBIFLORA

Siddhartha Pragyadeep, Shikhar Verma, Sharad Srivastava*, AKS Rawat
Pharmacognosy & Ethnopharmacology Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, India.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to screen various extracts prepared from aerial part and root of Boenninghausenia albiflora for their metabolite profiling and in-vitro antioxidant activity. Arial part and root were subjected to quantitative screening test for various constituents which revealed the presence of sugar (6.5 and 8.4%), starch (7.0 and 10%), and tannins (37.5 and 36.96 μg tannic acid equivalent /mg dry extract), respectively. The order of total phenolic content was descended in following order: hydro-alcoholic extract of aerial part (HEA) methanolic extract of aerial part (MEA) hydro-alcoholic extract of root (HER)methanolic extract of root (MER). HEA showed an effective scavenging of DPPH radical (IC50, 195.9μg/mL) followed by MEA (IC50 243.8 μg/mL). While IC50 values for HER and MER were recorded by 370μg/mL and 600μg/mL, respectively. Based on IC50 values, the order of antioxidant activity based on β-carotene bleaching of different extracts was found to be MER MEA  HEA HER. Data revealed that act as an antioxidant agent due to its free radical scavenging activity. For achieving good separation of phenolic compounds using HPTLC, a mobile phase of toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid (5:5:1) was used and data revealed the presence of caffeic, ferulic, gallic, and vanillic acids in roots and aerial part extracts of B. albiflora. The quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in B. albiflora have not yet been reported, thus this information can be useful for proper standardization of herbal drug containing B. albiflora.

37

IMPORTANCE OF FURAN BASED COMPOUNDS AND THEIR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS: AN OVERVIEW

Dakshayini Chandrashekarachar1, Devaraju Kesagudu*2
1Governmnet College for Women Mandya and Research Scholar at Yuvaraja’s College Mysuru-05.
2JLB Road, Yuvaraja’s College, Mysuru-5, India.

Abstract

Furan based substituted compounds showed very promising biomaterials such as antimicrobial, anti cancer, antihyperglucemic and analgesic. The poly substituted compounds are employed as building blocks of synthesis of naturally occurring biomaterials which are important in medicinal chemistry. Some of the Benzo furan substituted compounds placed role in asthma, rheumatism and ulcers, Immune nanoparticle of furan based polymeric nanoparticle of biodegradable graft co-polymer to provide a reactive functional group for coupling chemistry of antibodies through Diels-Alder chemistry. Here we enlighten the importance of furan compounds in biomedical application through provoke new findings in this area of research.

38

AN OVERVIEW ON GRACILARIA FOLLIFERA

Suvetha Karupanan*1, Mazher Sultana2
1Department of Marine Biotechnology, AMET University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Unit of Human Health and Environmental Biotechnology, Department of Advance Zoology and Biotechnology, Presidency College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

The marine environment provides a broad range of diverse habitats from which novel sources of natural products can be derived. Seaweed is a term applied to multi cellular, marine algae which are large enough to be seen by the eye unaided. Some can grow to up to 60 meters in length. Seaweeds are a food source for marine animals such as sea urchins and fishes, and are the base of some marine food webs. They also provide shelter and a home for numerous fishes, invertebrates, birds and mammals. Seaweeds or marine macro algae are potential renewable resource in the marine environment. It has been used as antioxidant, cardiovascular agent, antimutagen, anticoagulant, antimicrobial, antitumoragent. Majority of their antioxidant activity is due to flavones, isoflavones, flavonoids, anthocyanin, Coumarin, ligans, catechins and isocatechin. Seaweeds are rich in antioxidants such as carotenoids, pigments, polyphenols, enzymes and diverse functional polysaccharides.

39

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM CONTAINING MICROSPHERES FOR MODEL ANTI INFLAMMATORY DRUG

Atefeh Shabani*, Narmada G.Y

Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bangalore -560070, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to formulate a sustained release topical dosage form containing microspheres for Ketorolac Tromethamine (KT). Oral consumption of KT has significant gastric irritation, hence tried to prepare topical formulation to prevent possible side effects of oral consumption. The drug-excipients compatibility studies were carried out by FT-IR and DSC studies. Based on the results, excipients used were found to be compatible with KT. The formulations were prepared by using different concentration of polymer and plasticizer along with other excipients, and using 0.008% benzalkonium chloride as a preservative. The concentration of polymers was in the concentration range of 1.0%-2.5%, where plasticizer concentration range was 15-25%. The formulation F8 resulted in drug content 99%±0.36, spreadability 9±0.50gm-cm/sec, viscosity of 13420cps and maximum in-vitro diffusion of 47.37±0.39% over a period of 5 hrs which was selected as a best batch. The microspheres prepared by solvent evaporation method were evaluated and M3 batch was selected. M3 formulation of microspheres was incorporated into gel formulations F5 to F8. F11 selected as an optimized gel formulation containing KT microspheres which diffused 43.97±0.23% after 5 hrs. The selected optimized formulation F11 was subjected to stability studies as ICH guidelines and were found to be stable. Hence the formulation F11 will eliminate the GIT side effect, enhance the percutaneous absorption and exhibit sustained release anti-inflammatory activity.

40

ASSOCIATION B/W TRANSFUSION OF BLOOD AND SURGICAL SITE INFECTION ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Dr Waseem Memon, Dr Gulfareen Haider, Dr Irfan Kadri, Dr Imran Idrees Memon
Isra University, Altibri Medical College, Hyd.
Liaquat University Hospital.

Abstract

Objective of this study is to evaluate the surgical site infection (SSI) after blood transfusion. This observational study was performed at Isra University Hospital, Al Tibri medical college, over a time of 0ne year from January 2014 to February 2015. Total 195 cases were incorporated in the study who had elective surgeries and no co morbidities. Written informed consent has been taken from cases. Patients below 16 years and above 50 years, who presented with infection, sepsis, pneumonia, dirty wound, co morbidities (smoking, diabetes, immunosuppressive therapy, age), emergency surgeries and UTI before surgery were excluded from the study. Cases were distributed into 2 groups. Group 1, who received blood transfusion and group 2, who had not received. Mean age in this study was 35.35+10.11 years, and female were found in the majority as compare to males with percentage of 32.3% and 67.7% respectively. No significant difference was found between both genders P-value 0.54. Transfusion of blood was done in the 72 cases, and out of them infection was found in 14.9% cases; while 123 cases were without transfusion of blood and out of them infection was found in 7.19% of the cases with significant difference P value 0.03. There was strong relation of transfusion of blood with infection because in this series, infection was most commonly seen in those patients who received multiple transfusions before and during surgery. P value 0.001. Our findings show that Wound Infection is highly associated with transfusion of blood.

41

FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF FEMORAL NECK FRACTURE TREATED BY BIPOLAR HEMIARTHOPLASTY

Dr. Shakeel Ahmed, Dr. Abbas Memon, DR. MEHTAB AHMED PIRWANI
Department of Orthopaedics surgery of LUMHS.

Abstract

To evaluate outcome of neck fracture of the femur grade III and IV when treated by Bipolar hemiarthoplasty in elderly. Total 42 elderly cases were incorporated in study having neck fracture of femur with grade III and IV, and every one of the cases were chosen from the emergency department and OPD of LUH Hyderabad. All the pregnant women and cases not fit for anesthesia, or having any other severe disease like diabetes, hepatitis, arthritis or cardiovascular were not selected for this study. Totally selected cases were underwent a surgical technique (Bipolar Hemiarthoplasty). Data regarding cases of fracture, gender and post operative complications were noted functional outcome had evaluated according to Harris Hip Score. Mean age was 67.44+5.22 years. Females were in majority. According to Garden’s classification grade IV was most common with 55%of the cases. Out of total cases 50% were slipped, and 19.1% cases fall from height, while 30.9% were injured due to road traffic accident. With respect to the complications severe pain in 10/(23.90%) cases. Deep infection was in 2/(4.76%) cases. Bed sore were in 4/(9.52%) cases during hospital stay, UTI developed in 3/(8.0%), while dislocation was the main complication and found in 1/(2.38%) cases. Mortality was 11.9%. 32.44% cases showed excellent results, 40.55% cases shows good and 13.50% cases shows satisfactory results, while 13.50% shows poor results. Bipolar hemiarthoplasty is very good treatment option for fracture of femur neck in old age cases.

42

EINTRAMEDULLARY INTERLOCKING NAILS: A TREATMENT OPTION FOR CLOSED DIAPHYSEAL HUMERAL FRACTUR

Dr. Imran Khan Maher, Dr. Muhammad Khan Pahore, Dr. Fahim Ahmed Memon
Department of orthopedic surgery and Traumatology, Liaquat university Hospital Hyderabad/ Jamshoro.

Abstract

Objective: Outcome of intramedullary interlocking nails in the treatment of closed diaphyseal humeral fracture at Liaquat university hospital Hyderabad/Jamshoro. Materials and methods: Study was performed in Orthopaedic surgery department & traumatology Unit-II, LU HMS Jamshoro/ Hyderabad from February 2011 to July 2013. It is an observational and cross sectional study. All the cases who were admitted for type A-I-2, A-II-2 and A-III-2 closed diaphyseal fracture of humerus assessed by X-rays and clinical examination, cases with minor head injuries, 20-40 years of age and fracture duration less than 2 weeks were selected. Complete routine laboratory investigations were carried out and all the selected cases were underwent intramedullary interlocking nails treatment. After treatment cases were discharged within 7 days and were followed weekly 4 times and then monthly follow-up visits were advised up-to 6 months, all the data regarding outcome in the term of postoperative pain, complications and hospital stay was recorded in the Performa. Results: The 38 patients of closed diaphyseal fracture of humerus were underwent intramedullary nails. Majority 26/(68.5%) were male. Mean age was 35.4+7.5Years. The commonest source of humerus fracture in this study was RTA. Postoperative moderate pain was seen in 10(26.3%) patients, severe pain was noted in 4(10.5%) patients. Postoperative complications seen as Infection in 1/(2.6%) patients, nonunion was in 1/(2.6%), severe impingement in 3/(7.9%)cases, Adhesive capsulitis was noted in 2/(5.2%) individuals and in 01(2.6%) cases implant was failed, while no Iatrogenic palsy of radial nerve was noted in any cases. Hospital stay period ranged from 1 to7 days, and majority of cases were discharged between 1-4 days, while only one cases was found more than 7 days of the hospital stay. Conclusion: The intramedullary nail is the best treatment option for the fracture of humerus, with very low rate of complication and can be learnt easily.

43

THE ROLE OF BACTERIOCINS IN THE CONTROLLING OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENS

Abdulhakim Abamecha
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Mettu University, Mettu, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides or proteins produced by strains of diverse bacterial species. The antimicrobial activity of this group of natural substances against food borne pathogenic, as well as spoilage bacteria has raised considerable interest for their application in food preservation. Depending on the raw materials, processing conditions, distribution, and consumption, the different types of foods offer a great variety of scenarios where food poisoning, pathogenic, or spoilage bacteria may proliferate. Application of bacteriocins may help reduce the use of chemical preservatives and/or the intensity of heat and other physical treatments, satisfying the demands of consumers for foods that are fresh tasting, ready to eat, and lightly preserved. In recent years, considerable effort has been made to develop food applications for many different bacteriocins and bacteriocinogenic strains. Antibacterial metabolites of lactic acid bacteria have potential as natural preservatives to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in food. Among them, bacteriocin is used as a preservative in food due to its heat stability, wider pH tolerance and its proteolytic activity. Due to thermo stability and pH tolerance. it can withstand heat and acidity/alkanity of food during storage condition. Bacteriocin are ribosomally synthesized peptides originally defined as proteinaceous compound affecting growth or viability of closely related organisms. Hence, issues an overview of bacteriocins and their applications in food preservations are addressed in this review.