IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
AUGUST 2017
1

IN-VITRO DISSOLUTION AND SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO GENERICS OF LEVAMISOLE BLOUS FORMULATIONS FOR LARGE ANIMALS

Gberindyer A Fidelis*1, Omotosho O Oladipo2, Olaogun C Sunday2
1Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.
2University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Abstract

Physical and dissolution properties of solid oral dosage formulations significantly affect therapeutic outcomes following their use in veterinary medicine. Therapeutic failure of most levamisole boluses for the prevention and treatment of helminth infections have been a recurrent complaint from animal health workers and veterinarians in Nigeria. However, there is dearth of information on the quality of oral bolus formulations of levamisole for veterinary use in Nigeria. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to evaluate physical and dissolution properties of two generic products of levamisole boluses commonly used in large animal practice in Nigeria. Two frequently used generics of levamisole oral boluses for large animal practice (A & B) were evaluated for bolus weight uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution as specified in the United States Pharmacopoeia. The results demonstrated that generic B failed weight uniformity and friability tests, whereas generic A failed friability and disintegration tests. All the products passed dissolution profile test as specified. Consequently, the two products can be used interchangeably, however, generic B is recommended for treating acute enteric helminthosis because of its fast disintegration and dissolution rates as compared to generic A.

2

IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANTIOXIDANT EVALUATION AND ESTIMATION OF TOTAL PHENOLIC, FLAVONOID CONTENT OF SYZYGIUM ALTERNIFOLIUM LEAVES.

Priyadarshini D., Sahoo Saroj Kumar*, Soundarya G., Kishore Kumar Ch., Usharani K., Swathi V.

Sri Sivani College of Pharmacy, Chilakapalem, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract

Syzygium alternifolium walp. (Myrtaceae) has been traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as stomach ache, ulcers, rheumatism and diabetes. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols and flavonoids. Thus the total phenolic, flavonoids contents, in vivo and in vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from the ethanolic extract of Syzygium alternifolium leaves. The antioxidant activity was determined by in vivo methods such as LPO, GSH and catalase levels and in vitro methods such as DPPH scavenging assay, Nitric oxide assay. The extract exhibited potential antioxidant activity in both in vivo and in vitro studies, associated with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The percentage inhibition of the extract followed dose-dependency and found significant (P < 0.001) as compared to standard (ascorbic acid) for DPPH and NO. The extract showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in GSH levels and serum catalase activity and decrease in LPO levels when compared with the control group. Hence Syzygium alternifolium can be considered as a potent antioxidant in comparision with satandard Ranitidine in a dose dependent manner.

3

ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SOFOSBUVIR AND VELPATASVIR DRUG PRODUCT BY RP-HPLC METHOD

Uppalapati.Jyothi*1, Dr.Parimi.Umadevi2
1Anil Neerukonda Institute of Technology and Sciences, Sangivalasa, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 531162.
2GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530045.

Abstract

A novel reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the estimation of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir drug product by liquid chromatography. The chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 column (XTerra RP18 150*4.6, 5um) at ambient temperature .The separation achieved employing a mobile phase consists of 0.1%v/v Trifluoro acetic acid in water: Methanol (42:58). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/ minute and ultra violet detector at 269nm. The average retention time for Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir found to be 3.44 and 4.68 min. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The assay methods were found to be linear from 80-240 μg/ml for Sofosbuvir and 20-60μg/ml for Velpatasvir.

4

BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND CHARACTERIZATION

K.C. Mounika1, Katta. Manogna2
1Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College Tirupati-517 102, A.P, India.
2SVU College of Pharmaceutical Scieincs, Sv Univeristy, Tirupati.

Abstract

In current science, nanotechnology has been thriving at a tremendous rate in all aspect of Science and Technology. It deals with between 1 to100 nm sizes of nanoparticles in at least one dimension and involves in developing different devices. Currently, nanobiotechnology is a commercial alternate process for chemical and physical methods for synthesis of various nanoparticles with specific functions. It is new branch of nanotechnology and combines the biological principles with physical and chemical methods. Silver nanoparticles were biosynthesized using plant extract and the biosynthesized nanoparticles was observed within 30 min. The characterization of silver nanoparticles detected by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, FTIR Spectroscopy, DLS and Zeta potential for support of the biosynthesis, average particles size. This article represented about preparation methods of silver nanoparticles and its characterization and also applications of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles.

5

EXPLORATION OF VARIOUS CLASSICAL AND CHEMOMETRIC ASSISTED UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF CHLORHEXIDINE GLUCONATE AND CETRIMIDE IN BULK AND ITS FORMULATION

Mansi A. Sathe, Dr. Sadhana J. Rajput*
Quality Assurance Laboratory, Centre of Relevance and Excellence in Novel Drug Delivery Systems, Pharmacy department, Shri G.H. Patel Building, Donor’s plaza, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Fatehgunj, Vadodara-390002, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

The present work inculcates with the approach for development of various classical and chemometrics assisted UV spectrophotometric methods for estimation of Chlorhexidine gluconate (CH) and Cetrimide (CET) in bulk and its formulation. The methods developed herein include simple Simultaneous equation method (Vieordt’s method), First Derivative spectroscopy method, Multicomponent analysis method, Classical least squares, Inverse least square, Partial least squares, Absorption ratio spectra method and Mean centering of ratio spectra method. The developed methods were successfully validated according to ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines. All methods showed a good linear response. The mean percentage assay values for all UV methods were found to be in the range of 98-102%. Statistical analysis was also applied for assay results of the developed methods which included One-way ANOVA and post hoc analysis like Tukey Honest significant test and Scheffe multiple comparison test. The major outcome of research imbibes to be developed analytical methods were found to be specific, selective, and robust and can be applied for routine analysis of marketed formulation in laboratory premises. Thus, various novel and simple UV analytical methods were explored and available for analysis of the selected drugs.

6

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OMEPRAZOLE MICROSPHERES BY DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES

Priyanka S. Pagar*, A. D. Savkare
MVP Samaj’s College of Pharmacy, Gangapur Road, Nashik - 422002, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The intention behind the present work was to develop a microsphere based novel dosage form for sustained delivery of Omeprazole. Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+-ATPase in the gastric parietal cell. By acting specifically on the proton pump, omeprazole blocks the final step in acid production, thus reducing gastric acidity. The microsphere system is based upon the fact that their structure can entrap the drug within them. Comparative study of the Emulsion solvent evaporation method and spray drying technique was done for the preparation of Microspheres using Eudragit RS 100 and Ethyl cellulose with various drug-polymer ratios. For optimization purpose, several factors which affect microsphere’s physical properties were investigated. A 32 full factorial design was employed to systematically optimize the drug release profile, encapsulation efficiency & drug content. Characterization techniques followed for the formed microspheres were FTIR, SEM, XRD and Particle size analysis along with the drug content, production yield, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. The in vitro dissolution studies were done to assess the release pattern of the drug from the Microspheres over a twelve hour period. Microspheres were able to sustain the release of omeprazole upto 12 hrs. All the formulations followed Hixon Crowell & Korsemayer Peppas model kinetics. From the FTIR study it is found that by both the methods Process parameters does not make any structural changes in Omeprazole. XRD study showed that sharp peaks for the pure drug & formulation by both the methods were obtained at the same diffraction angle. Hence, known to possess same internal structure. The mean particle size of Microspheres prepared by both the methods was found in the range of 1-1000 nm. The SEM study was done to evaluate Morphology and surface topography of prepared microspheres. The stability study conducted for optimized formulations of both the methods revealed that formulation is stable having no impact on physical appearance & drug release. In this Study sustained release Microspheres of Omeprazole were prepared successfully by Spray Drying method and Emulsion Solvent Evaporation Method and comparison between the two has been done.

7

EVALUATION OF THE ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMIN AGAINST LEAD INDUCED ANXIETY IN RATS

Amit Gupta*, Kamal Kishore Maheshwari
Department of Pharmacy, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243006, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Present research work was performed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of curcumin against lead induced anxiety in rat. Anti-anxiety potentials of the curcumin were compared with diazepam. Lead poisoning induced severe behavioral abnormalities in experimental animals. Rats of either sex were divided into 12 groups of 6 animals in each group. Group were DMSO, Distilled Water, Saline water, Lead acetate 25mg/kg, Diazepam 2mg/kg, Curcumin 25mg/kg, Curcumin 50mg/kg, Diazepam 2mg/kg + lead acetate, Curcumin 25mg + lead acetate, Curcumin 50mg + lead acetate, Diazepam 2mg/kg + Curcumin 50mg and Diazepam 2mg/kg + Curcumin 50mg + lead acetate. All the test solutions were freshly prepared daily and administered to animals for 5 days by interaperitonial (i.p.) route. On first day, third day and fifth day, each animal was checked to anxiety by using elevated zero maze. Our result showed that Lead acetate induced more anxiety and fear-related behavior in rat. Curcumin 50mg/kg reduced and prevent the anxiety behavior, which induced by lead. Curcumin 50mg/kg is sufficient dose to give anxiolytic and neuroprotective activity against lead induced anxiety in rats. Curcumin is less potent than diazepam and Curcumin 50mg/kg with diazepam give synergetic anxiolytic activity against lead induced anxiety in rat.

8

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF EMULGEL FOR WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY

Shilpa Chaudhari, Devendra S Shirode, Pooja Narevkar
Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Pharmacy, Akurdi, Pune-44.

Abstract

The study was designed with the aim to evaluate metformin and atorvastatin for its wound Healing activity.Two different formulations of Metformin emulgel and atorvastatin emulgel were formulated using Design expert 9.0 .The drugs were first screened for its solubility in various surfactant, co-surfactants and oils. The solvents having maximum solubility was selected for the microemulsion formulation. LAS (Linear Alkyl benzene Sulfonate), Span 80 and Almond oil were selected as Surfactant, co-surfactant and oil respectively. Micro-emulsion formulation was optimized using ternary phase diagram, globule size and percent transmittance. F1 and F43 formulations were optimized for Metformin and atorvastatin respectively. This optimized micro-emulsion was than utilize to form Emulgel. Lecithin and Sepineo P 600 was used as gelling agent for the formation of Emulgel. Emulgel was then evaluated for spreadability, viscosity and drug release.The optimized formula contained 3% sepineo P600 and 1% penetration enhancer i.e., Oleic acid. This optimized gel with good spreadability was further assessed for in-vivo wound healing activity using excision model. The results showed better wound healing for metformin gel compared to standard Betadine Ointment and Atorvastatin emulgel. Hence study concludes Metformin gel can be a promising therapy to treat Diabetic foot ulcer.

9

HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF ANTIVIRAL DRUGS, GRAZOPREVIR AND ELBASVIR, SIMULTANEOUSLY IN BULK AND IN TABLETS

Pallapati Suman1,2*, Tirukkovalluri Siva Rao1, Kallam Venkata Siva Rama Krishna Reddy2
1Department of Inorganic & Analytical Chemistry, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India - 530003.
2Laurus Labs Limited, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India - 531021.

Abstract

The current investigation described a sensitive, selective, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method with photodiode array detector for the simultaneous estimation of antiviral drugs, grazoprevir and elbasvir. The separation and analysis were done on Sunsil C18 analytical column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μ particle size). 0.1M NaH2PO4: methanol [60:40 v/v] in isocratic elution mode was used as mobile phase. The pH of the mobile was adjusted to 4.0 with orthophosphoric acid. The elution of grazoprevir and elbasvir was accomplished with a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min. Detection was performed with photodiode array detector set at a wavelength of 260 nm. The detector response was linear in the concentration of 25-75 μg/ml for elbasvir and 50-150 μg/ml for grazoprevir. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were found to be 0.137 μg/ml and 0. 574 μg/ml for elbasvir and 0.290 μg/ml and 0.968 μg/ml for grazoprevir, respectively. The method was validated following international conference on harmonization guidelines. The percentage recovery for grazoprevir and elbasvir were found to be in the range of 100.08%-100.45% and 99.60%-100.06%, respectively. The %RSD values are 0.130% and 0.161% for grazoprevir and elbasvir, respectively. The results of validation parameters were found in the acceptance range. The present investigation concluded that the RP-HPLC method with photodiode array detector method was selective for simultaneous estimation of elbasvir and grazoprevir in combined dosage form.

10

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLET OF LEVONORGESTREL

Balasaheb B. Karad*, Dr. Ajay D. Shinde
Department of Pharmaceutics, Shivnagar Vidya Prasarak Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Malegaon(Bk), Baramati, Dist. Pune Maharashtra, India 413115.

Abstract

The study was undertaken with an aim to develop and optimized formulation of Hormonal contraceptive, Levonorgestrel by oral drug delivery. Pre-formulation studies were conducted to know the drug excipient compatibilities. The superdisintegrants crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate were used for immediate release of drug from tablet. The prepared tablets were evaluated for all pre-compression parameters and post-compression parameters. The drug excipient interaction was investigated by FTIR. All formulation showed compliances with the pharmacopoeial standard. The study reveals that formulations prepared by direct compression F9 exhibits highest dissolution using both crospovidone and SSG showed faster drug release 93.13 % over the period of 60 min while disintegration time of the tablet was showed 45 sec comparison to other formulations of Levonorgestrel. The objective of the present project was successfully achieved by developing the product, giving the same release profile to that of innovators product. From this study we are conclude that the immediate release tablet of Levonorgestrel can be formulate and it shows better drug release response.

11

ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SOFOSBUVIR AND DACLATASVIR DRUG PRODUCT BY RP-HPLC METHOD

Benzil Dudekula1*, Dr.C.Ramachandraiah2, Dr.N.Devanna3
1S.V.Engineering college for women, Tirupati-517507, Chittor (Dt).
2SKIT, Srikalahasthi-517640.
3Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur, College of Engineering, Anantapur-515002, Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract

Analytical method was developed for the estimation of Sofosbuvir and Daclatasvir drug substance by liquid chromatography. The chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 column (XTerra RP18 150*4.6, 5um) at ambient temperature .The separation achieved employing a mobile phase consists of 0.1%v/v Trifluoro acetic acid in water: Acetonitrile (60:40). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/ minute and ultra violet detector at 275nm. The average retention time for Sofosbuvir and Daclatasvir found to be 2.09 and 3.50 min. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The assay methods were found to be linear from 80-240 μg/ml for Sofosbuvir and 12-36μg/ml for Daclatasvir.

12

PREVALENCE OF CO-MEDICATION AND POTENTIAL DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS IN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTED PATIENTS ON HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTI-RETROVIRAL THERAPY

Behailu Terefe Tesfaye*, Teshale Ayele Mega, Tsegaye Melaku Kebede
Institute of health science, School of Pharmacy, Clinical pharmacy unit, Jimma University, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Background:-Drug interaction is an important therapeutic challenge among Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected patients. They are often observed in these patients because they frequently receive multiple medications. Though this may have clinical and economic impact, its prevalence is unknown in Ethiopia. So this study was aimed at addressing this issue by determining the prevalence of Co-medication and potential drug-drug interaction (PDDIs) in HIV infected patients. Method:- initially, checklist containing the relevant variables for the study was developed; ethical approval for patient medical history card (PMHC) access was requested and obtained from the hospital. Then, before the actual data collection process takes place, pre-test was done on 18 PMHCs. After assessing the check list, data of 350 HIV infected patients was reviewed retrospectively and recorded from cards using simple random sampling method. Subsequently, PDDI was assessed using Meds cape online drug interaction checker database and Drug.com (as supportive DDI checker). Then, the data was checked for completeness, entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 and Microsoft excel and presented using tables and figures. Result:-out of 350 HIV infected patients on HAART; only 53(15.1%) patients were not co-medicated along with Anti-Retroviral drugs. Then, a total of 2431 PDDIs were identified, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions were found to occur almost in comparable frequency and almost all of the interactions were found to be moderate or minor in their severity. Conclusion:-in this study more than half of the HIV infected patients were found co-medicated and high numbers of PDDIs were identified. Accordingly, the authors of this study concluded that co-medication and PDDIs are common and, though unavoidable, since almost all of the identified PDDIs were moderate or minor in their severity, the authors’ recommend close monitoring of patients for therapeutic or toxic response.

13

PRESCRIBERS� ADHERENCE TO THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PRESCRIPTION ORDER WRITING IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL, ETHIOPIA

Teshale Ayele1, Tessema Tsehay2, Haymanot Bedada2
1Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Health Sciences, School of pharmacy, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.
2Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Background: Prescription, a therapeutic transaction between physicians and patient, must be error free, legible and contains all the information to facilitate the dispensing process. However, most of the prescriptions written and arrived at dispensing units are incomplete making the dispensing activity more complicated. Objective: To assess prescribers’ adherence to the basic principles of standard prescription order writing in the different pharmacy units of Mizan Tepi University Teaching Hospital (MTUTH), Ethiopia. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in MTUTH from 5-24, March 2016. Data was extracted from prescription papers using structured data collection format. Three hundred ninety six prescription papers were selected using systematic random sampling method from prescription papers collected over one year period. The data was filled in well-structured checklist and analyzed using SPSS windows version 20 for frequency distribution. Results: Of 396 prescription papers analyzed, only 11(2.7%) prescription papers contained complete patient information. On the other hand, 345(87.1%), 142(35.9%), 357(90.2%), and 272(68.7%) prescription papers contained strength, dose, frequency of administration of drugs and duration of treatment, respectively. Only 17(4.3%) prescription papers contained complete dosage regimen recommendations. Complete prescribers information was found in 268(69.8%) prescription papers. Generally, none of the prescriptions papers complete; i.e., at least one variable was missing. Conclusions: The study revealed a good adherence of prescribers on the basic principles of prescription order writing for some variables and poor adherence for other variables. In order to minimize the therapeutic errors, prescribers should adhere to these principles and hence write all the necessary information required to make prescription papers valid for dispensing. Dispensers on their behalf should not dispense prescription papers with incomplete information. Large scale future studies are important on the area.

14

FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF STABLE DOSAGE FORM OF AMLODIPINE BESYALTE AND BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE TO OVERCOME PHYSICAL INCOMPATIBILITY

Rekha K. Wakhare*, Anand D. Savkare, Priyanka R. Nighute, Priyanka S. Pagar
Department of Pharmaceutics, MVP Samaj’s College of Pharmacy Nashik, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with a slow onset and long duration of action. Benazepril hydrochloride is an angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor. But the Amlodipine besylate and Benazepril are physically incompatible drugs so there is need to keep them physically separated in dosage form. There are various approaches to overcome incompatibility. Among which the bilayer tablet is one of the novel, suitable approach and increasing attention from a variety of industries for various reasons viz. The purpose of this research is to study the physical incompatibility between Amlodipine and Benazepril, to formulate and develop the dosage form that overcome the incompatibility .the incompatibility study was carried by mixing two drugs in 1:1 and 1:2 ratio and then stored at 40 0C±0.20C and relative humidity 75%±0.5%. The samples were examined for physical changes, pH, and IR studies at particular time of intervals. Photographs of samples are taken at particular interval. From incompatibility study it was concluded that the bilayer tablet is the suitable approach to overcome the incompatibility. In the bilayer tablets physical separation is achieved by coating the Benazepril hydrochloride granules with the gelatin and then formulating bilayer tablets to minimize contact between Amlodipine besylate and Benazepril hydrochloride leads to overcome physical incompatibility. Tablets were prepared by direct compression. A 32 Full factorial design was employed to systematically optimize the drug release profile, hardness and disintegration time. The stability study conducted for optimized formulation is stable having no impact on physical incompatibility.

15

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF IVERMECTIN AND CLORSULON IN IVERCAM INJECTION

Vegad Kunjal L*, Paranjape Dipty B., Shah Dhwani A., Patel Ekta D., Patel Yogesh K., Patel Kaushik R.
Sharda School of Pharmacy, Gandhinagar, Pethapur.

Abstract

A precise, simple, accurate and selective method was developed and validate for estimation of Ivermectin and Clorsulon in Ivercam injection, Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed for routine quantification of Ivermectin and Clorsulon in laboratory prepared mixtures as well as in combined dosage form. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a BDS hypersil C18 (5μ, 250 x 4.6 mm) utilizing mobile phase of filtered and degassed mixture of 60 phosphate buffer (pH 5.5 adjusted with 1% O-phosphoric acid) and Methanol (60:40 v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 234 nm. The method has been validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. In RP-HPLC method, the calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range of 2.5-7.5 μg/ml for Ivermectin and 25-75 μg/ml for Clorsulon with percentage recoveries of 100.34 % and 99.76% for Ivermectin and Clorsulon respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained by RP-HPLC methods are rapid, accurate and precise. Therefore proposed method can be used for routine analysis of Clorsulon and Ivermectin in injection.

16

PHARMACOPHORE MODELLING FOR THE DISCOVERY OF SYSTEM XC- ANTIPORTER INHIBITORS

Dhaval V. Patel, Mukesh Nandave, Prashant S. Kharkar
SPP School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS, Mumbai, India.

Abstract

Cancer is one of the major disorders with increasing rates of morbidity and mortality. Recent drug discovery of anti cancer drug has identified several molecular targets and tried to achieve a goal of therapeutic effecative and safe molecule. Amongst these, system xc- antiporter is a novel promising target to control cancer progression. This antiporter is found to be over expressed in majority of cancer cells and functions by transporting amino acids, cystine and glutamate, in opposite directions. System xc- antiporter uptakes one molecule of cystine with the release of one molecule of glutamate in extracellular space. As already known cystine is precursor for the synthesis of glutathione, an in vivo antioxidant which is utilized by cancer cells to combat oxidative stress. At the other side the released glutamate (an excitatory neurotransmitter), when released in higher concentration, may over excite neurones (specifically and brain tumour) causing cell death to metastasise cancer cells. Therefore, through inhibition of system xc- antiporter, it is possible to kill cancer cells by disturbing their redox status along with through prevention of excitotoxcity by glutamate. In context to this, several researches have reported diverse molecules having system xc- antiporter inhibition potential. Amongst these molecules, erastin and its analogues are most potent system xc- antiporter inhibitors but it lacks preclinical data. Moreover, sulfasalazine, a FDA approved drug also showed good inhibition potential against this antiporter and therefore in our study we have attempted to construct pharmacophore model using this series to aid in the discovery of potent inhibitors with desirable safety. Results of this study exhibited successful development of pharmacophore model with phase survival score. Additionally, fit scores of sulfasalazine analogues were also in acceptable range. Hence, the developed pharmacophore model may be used for design of potent System xc- antiporter inhibitors.

17

ENHANCEMENT OF AQUEOUS SOLUBILITY OF CARVEDILOL BY LIQUISOLID TECHNIQUE.

Malavi R. Bhavsar*, Anand D.Savkare
MVP Samaj’s College of Pharmacy, Nashik, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to improve the solubility of the poorly soluble drug Carvedilol by delivering the drug as a liquisolid Pellets. There are several techniques to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs. Among them, the technique of liquisolid compact is most promising technique towards novel aim. Polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) used as solvent, Avicel pH 102 as carrier, and Kollidon VA 64 as the coating material. The liquisolid compact were prepared by Spheronization and extrusion to form liquisolid pellets. Further Pellets were evaluated for flow properties, disintegration time, drug content, and dissolution, DSC, SEM and XRD. The results for dissolution studies showed that liquisolid Pellets demonstrate significantly higher drug release rates than those of marketed ones. This was due to an increase in wetting properties and surface of drug available for dissolution. Increased wetting properties and dissolution rates leads to enhance solubility. The liquisolid technique appears to be a promising approach for improving the solubility of poorly soluble drugs.

18

REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN IN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

T.Sudha*, G.Divya, J.Sujaritha, P. Duraimurugan
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Adhiparasakthi College of Pharmacy, Melmaruvathur-603 319.

Abstract

The ability of a chromatographic method to successfully separate, identify and quantitative species is determined by many factors, many of which are in the control of the experimenter. When attempting to discover the important factors and then optimize a response by turning these factors by using multivariate statistical techniques for the optimization of chromatographic system. The surface response methodologies and experimental design give a powerful suite of statistical methodology. Advantage includes modeling by empherical function, a defined number of experiments to be performed and available software to accomplish the task of two uses of experimental design in chromatography for showing lack of significant factors and then optimizing a response within their method development. Plackett - Burman design (Screening) widely used in validation studies and fraction factorial designs and their extensions such as (response surface) central composite designs are most popular optimizers. Box-Behnken and Doehlert designs are becoming more used as efficient alternatives. The use of mixture designs for optimization of mobile phase is also related. A discussion about model validation is presented. Then simultaneously the multiple responses are optimized, the desirability function is used and discussed the criteria for judging the quality of a chromatogram by using multi criteria decision making studies. Some applications of multivariate techniques for optimization of chromatographic methods are also summarized.

19

EXTRACTION, PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BROMELAIN ENZYME FROM PINEAPPLE (ANANAS COMOSUS)

Indumathy .S1, Kiruthiga .K1, Saraswathi .K2, Arumugam .P3
1Arunai Engineering College, Velu Nagar, SH 9, Tamil Nadu – 606 603.
2Karpaga Vinayaga College of Engineering and Technology, Madhuranthagam, Kancheepuram – 603 308.
3Armats Biotek Training and Research Institute, Maduvinkarai, Guindy, Chennai – 600 032.

Abstract

Pineapples as a fruit have effective juice and a vibrant tropical flavour that balances the tastes of sweet and tart. Bromelain is a multiple mixture of substances that can be extracted from the stem and core fruit of the pineapple. Acetone fractional precipitation of bromelain from pineapple peel its characterization after the recovery process was studied completely. The natural source Pineapples have been initially screened and used to produce Bromelain, a protease enzyme. Extract of bromelain was homogenized by processing pineapple’s peel and pulp using pre-cooled buffer at specific pH for screening process. Acetone fractional precipitation studies were performed under refrigerating condition. Bromelain was characterized before and after precipitation to determine its optimal pH, temperature and buffer. Results showed that bromelain was precipitated successfully in the 65% acetone fraction and yielded over than 85-90 % of enzyme recovery. Bromelain enzyme was finally characterized with molecular weight of 66kilodaltons. These results showed that bromelain recovery with acetone fractional precipitation is a viable and easier process, in which results in a good quality enzyme for industrial applications.

20

FIRST REPORT OF BIOCONTROL OF PHYTOPATHOGEN CURVULARIA IN EMBLICA OFFICINALIS BY PLANT EXTRACTS IN RAJASTHAN

Shruti Ojha, Dr. Mamta Goyal
Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Samrat Prithvi Raj Chauhan Government College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India.

Abstract

Emblica officinalis is a member of Euphorbiaceae family, a valuable medicinal plant with enormous source of Vitamin C. It is used for curing diseases like cancer, diabetes, hypertension and high cholesterol. In agriculture, synthetic fungicides are used to control the fungal pathogens and diseases but causes harm to the environment, soil, water and plant quality. Research has been focused on the bio-control of fungal pathogens by plant extracts. Till date, bio-control of any disease from plant extract has not been done on Emblica officinalis from Rajasthan state. The objective of the research work focuses on the evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against Curvularia spp. on leaves of Emblica officinalis. The study investigated the antifungal properties of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Nerium indicum and Calotropis procera respectively by disc diffusion method. The results obtained were fully disease resistant when treated with the disc of plant extracts. Botanical aqueous extracts of Nerium indicum and ethanol extracts of Calotropis procera showed fully resistant properties against fungal growth of Curvularia species. The results concluded from the study that medicinal plant extracts have broad range of antifungal activity and could be useful in control on fungal diseases of plants.

21

EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITIES OF KYLLINGA TRICEPS ROTTB. RHIZOMES IN CARBON TETRA CHLORIDE-INTOXICATED RATS

Amit Upadhyay*, Dr. Suman Jain
School of Studies Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (M.P.)

Abstract

The anti oxidant and hepato protective activities of the extract of kyllinga triceps rottb. Rhizome were investigated against ccl4-induced hapatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with eathanol and pet. Ether extracts of rhizome of kyllinga triceps with two dose levels 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, ALP and ACP as well as total Bilirubin (mg/100 ml) of blood, was also estimated. All the biochemical Investigations were confirmed by the histopatholoigical observations and compared with the standard drug sillymarin. Antioxidant activity is evaluated by estimations of SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase TBRARS, result suggest significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of the plant rhizomes which might be due to the presence of terpenes and terpenoides. As diterpene is isolated from the ethanolic extract of kyllinga triceps rhizomes.

22

IMPACT OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST CARE ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN CERVICAL CANCER PATIENTS ON CHEMORADIATION

N.Tejaswi1*, Y.Triveni1, M.Indira Priyadarshini1, Dr.A.Satish Kumar2, P.Sharmila Nirojini1, M.Maneesh Kumar1, Prof.Rama Rao Nadendla1
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur.
2Department of Radiotherapy, Government General Hospital, Guntur.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of clinical pharmacist care on Quality of life in cervical cancer patients treated with either Radiotherapy alone or in combination with Chemotherapy. An observational prospective study was conducted over a period of 6 months i.e., from January to July 2016 in the Department of Radiotherapy, GGH, Guntur. The EORTC QLQ-C30 3.0 version, EORTC QLQ CX24 was used to assess the patients quality of life at three different stages i.e., before, after treatment & during follow up. Patients were counseled about disease, therapy & its side effects management. The results were evaluated using one way ANOVA, unpaired t test in graph pad prism version (5.04).A total of 66 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean score of global health of cervical cancer patients during follow up was 85.66±12.26, which was significantly higher than the before treatment score 45.88±12.24 (P value <0.0001).There was also significant improvement in functional domain scales like physical function, role function, emotional function, social function and cognitive function. Mean symptoms score at follow up was 6.90 ±23.03 was declined compared to before treatment scores 31.93±23.5 (P value <0.0001). Patients complain of substantial decline in sexual activity post radiotherapy. There was a significant improvement in quality of life in cervical carcinoma patients after treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy along with clinical pharmacist counseling.

23

PHASE SOLUBILITY STUDIES OF GLIMEPIRIDE WITH β-CYCLODEXTRIN AND HYDROXY PROPYL-β-CYCLODEXTRIN IN DIFFERENT pH

Chopade Tanaji Abhiman, Joshi Hrushikesh Anantrao
Department of Pharmaceutics, Shivnagar Vidya Prasarak Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Malegaon(Bk), Baramati, Dist. Pune, Maharashtra, India 413115.

Abstract

An oral route of drug administration is most preferred rout of delivery, as it is convenient and ease of ingestion. One of the disadvantages of this rout is low bioavailability, as most of the drugs have poor solubility in water. In the case of poorly water-soluble drugs (BCS Class II and IV), dissolution is the rate-limiting step in the process of drug absorption. Cyclodextrins are widely used for to improve the physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties such as solubility, stability, and bioavailability of poorly soluble drug molecules. Glimepiride, is an antidiabetic drug, has poor solubility in water (BCS class II).The phase solubility studies were carried out to study the effect of cyclodextrins according to the method described by Higuchi and Connors. The phase solubility studies indicated formation of Glimepiride-β-CD inclusion complexes at 1:1 M ratio in phosphate buffer pH 6.8, pH 7.2 and pH 7.4,with stability constant of 319.79 M-1, 518.23 M-1and 272.82 M-1respectively. Similarly, the phase solubility studies indicated the formation of Glimepiride-HP-β-CD inclusion complexes at 1:1 M ratio in phosphate buffer pH 6.8, pH 7.2 and pH 7.4 with stability constant of 342.41 M-1, 985.42 M-1 and 226.21 M-1respectively. The statistical analysis indicated that, solubility of Glimepiride was markedly enhanced by complexation with β-CD and HP-β-CD in different pH. An inclusion complex of glimepiride with HP- β-CD was found to be more stable than β-CD at pH 7.4.

24

DETERMINATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PACLITAXEL IN HUMAN PLASMA BY LC-MS/MS: APPLIED METHOD TO THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING

Pallavi H. Tank, Dr. Sachin K. Parmar
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot.

Abstract

A high throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination and quantification of anti-cancer drug Paclitaxel in human plasma is described for the application to therapeutic drug monitoring. It is rapid and sensitive binary phase reversed phase LC-MS/MS method equipped with electro spray ionization (ESI) source and C18 column (100 mm x 4.6mm, 5μm), operating in the positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The extraction of Paclitaxel and Carbamazepine (Internal standard) from the human plasma was carried out by two phase liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method using methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE) as an extractive solvent giving extracts free from endogenous interferences. The retention time of Paclitaxel is 1.44 minutes with the flow rate of 0.5 mL/minutes. Sample preparation by this method yielded very good and consistent mean recoveries of Paclitaxel and IS. The method was linear over the dynamic range 5.00 to 3000.00 ng/mL (r2 0.997). The lower limit of detection and quantification for Paclitaxel on mass was found to be 5 ng/mL. This method was fully validated as per USFDA and EMEA guidelines. Conclusion: The proposed LCMS/MS method has better performance in terms of simplicity, sensitivity, stability and specificity than the previously reported methods. Moreover, there is rapid sample preparation, adequate retention and better extraction efficiency with less matrix interferences. Therefore, it can be considered as a suited bio-analytical tool for therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic analysis during chemotherapy.

25

CURRENT TRETMENT OF EPILEPSY: STATE OF ART

Katta Manogna1, A. Ravikumar2
1SVU College of Pharmaceutical Scieincs, Sv Univeristy, Tirupati.
2Analytical Reviewer, Dicel Chiral Technology, Turakapalli, Shameerpet.

Abstract

Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders. Epilepsy is one of the neurological disorders of the brain in which an individual experiences chronic abnormal bursts of electrical discharge in the brain. They are various types of epilepsy that are Simple partial seizure, Complex partial seizures, generalized seizure tonic clonic seizure, Absence seizures, atonic seizures, myoclonic seizures and infantile spas. The cause of convulsions must be clearly understood through some precise observation. Epileptic attack can be caused by biochemical insults to the brain, such as hypoglycemia, anoxia, hypocalcaemia, hyperventilation, water intoxication and sudden withdrawal of certain drugs such as barbiturates or alcohol. Antiepileptic drugs or anticonvulsant drugs or antiseizure are diverse group of pharmaceuticals aid in the treatment of epileptic seizures. Antiepileptic drugs or anticonvulsant drugs or antiseizure are diverse group of pharmaceuticals aid in the treatment of epileptic seizures. Phenytoin is one of the older genemiceion AEDs. AEDs suppress the rapid and excessive firing of neurons during seizures. This articles explains that types of epilepsy, mechanism of action of AEDs, and treatment of epilepsy.

26

A REVIEW ON ADULTERATION OF MILK

M.N.L. Aishwarya*, Dr. Mohammad Badrud Duza
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Tirupati.

Abstract

Milk is a complex mixture and a liquid food, which can easily be adulterated. According to Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) definition, “Milk is the normal mammary secreation derived from complete milking of healthy milch animal without either addition there to or extraction there from. Adulteration of food cheats the consumer and can pose serious risk to health in some cases. Adulteration in milk has been a cause of concern for both the Government and the Dairy Industry. The Indian Council of Medical Research has reported that “milk adulterants have hazardous health effects. Although many known methods for detection of adulteration in milk, exists, the methods compiled below in this review are not only simple and rapid but also very sensitive to detect milk adulteration. These tests can be carried out easily by consumers for identifying the most common adulterants in milk, using simple laboratory apparatus, common chemicals and the milk adulteration test reagent kit developed.

27

STUDIES ON A HYDROPHILIC CELLULOSE MATRIX DERIVED FROM IPOMOEA BATATAS TUBERS I: PROCESSING AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Kenneth Chinedu Ugoeze, Nkemakolam Nwachukwu*, Favour Chiamaka Anumaka, Goodness Nwovuhoma Ezioka
Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Abstract

This work was designed to develop a hydrophilic cellulose matrix from the fibre contained in the tubers of Ipomoea batatas and to evaluate its excipient functionality. Starch was filtered from the slurry of milled tubers to obtain the fibre which was dried at 60 o C and pulverised. A 500 g of fibre was submerged in 3.50 % w/v of sodium hypochlorite and blended for 10 min. This was washed with distilled water to a neutral pH, then slurried in 96 % ethanol for 5 min, dried at 60o C and reduced to 250 μm. The product was coded as I-hydrocel. Its organoleptic, pH, densities, flows, elemental content, moisture studies, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ash properties were evaluated. I-hydrocel was a tasteless, off-white, smooth, odourless powder, mean particle size, 10.65 ± 4.27 μm and insoluble in organic solvents but disperses and swells in water yielding a pH of 6.45± 0.12. Swelling, hydration and moisture adsorption capacities were high. Heavy metals like mercury, lead or vanadium was not detectable. The ash contents and extractives were within standard limits. Powder flow was fair and DSC thermogram shows a melting range of 80-85 o C. The SEM micrograph suggests a cellulosic morphology. Its ability to swell and hydrate fast in water indicates that it is a hydrophilic cellulose matrix that could serve as an alternative filler-disintegrant in solid dosage drug delivery.

28

UTILIZATION OF ANTIBIOTICS IN PATIENTS WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS � A STUDY

Anamika Chalise1, Bidhan Kafle1, Saman Sharifi1, Vrinda S. Kumar1, Mahesh N.M.2, Rajiv Kumar Saxena3, Shashidhar G.4
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, affiliated with Rajiv Gandhi University of Health and Sciences, Bangalore-560035, India.
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bangalore- 560035, India.
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology MVJ Medical College & Research Hospital, Bangalore, India.
4Department of General Medicine, MVJ Medical College & Research Hospital, Bangalore, India.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess and analyze the prescribing pattern, rationality of antibacterial, to study medication related problems and resistance/sensitivity patterns of antibiotics in patients with urinary tract infections. The observational prospective study was conducted in 100 patients with UTI at MVJ medical college and research hospital, Bangalore, India for six months. All required patient data were collected in specially designed case report form. Prescribing patterns, medication related problems and rationality were assessed. The average number of drug per encounter was 7.02. More than 63% of prescription had more than five drugs. Brand names of drug were prescribed more than the generic names. Fluroquinolones (norfloxacin) was mostly prescribed. Female population was more. Age group of >58 years old was most prevalent. Monotherapy of antibiotic was more than combination therapy. Most of the possible drug interactions were moderate type. Norfloxacin was most frequently interacting antibiotic. No significant medication errors were identified. Rationality was assessed to be rational. The most common type of pathogen was E.coli. Antibacterial prescribing patterns and rationality of the medications were appropriate but, using drug brand names can increase the chance of medication related problems. Higher number of comorbidities was leading to polypharmacy which can increase possibility of drug-drug interactions therefore there is an increased requirement for close monitoring and management of these possible interactions. E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were more sensitive to nitrofurantoin, amikacin and norfloxacin therefore these may be the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of community-acquired UTIs.

29

AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF IPOMOEA CARNEA LEAVES EXTRACT AS ANTI-FURUNCLE MODALITY: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

Nem Kumar Jain*1, Vibhu Jha2, Nikhil Shrivastava1, Vipul Sihare1, Aditya Jain1
1Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, ITM University Gwalior, M. P., India.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, ITM University Gwalior, M. P., India.

Abstract

Furuncle, also known as boil represents the commonest example of an abscess, and pyogenic microorganism Staphyloccocus aureus, has been implicated as causal agents. The shrub Ipomoea carnea has been used traditionally for thousands of years. However, there are few scientific studies on this medicinal plant, and most of the information are scattered. In Gwalior forest division, the Ipomoea leave poultice is popularly used by the Sahariya tribe and traditional healers to treat furuncles. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of leaves of this plant on the growth of causal organisms of furuncles and the subsequent inflammatory responses. The aqueous leaves extract [obtained by hot water maceration of the leaves powder] was studied for effects on the growth of clinically isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using acute paw edema induced by carrageenan in rats. The extract moderately inhibited the growth of the test organisms and significantly [P < 0.05] suppressed the development of acute edema of the rat paw. Our study provides evidence for potential applicability of Ipomoea carnea leaves aqueous extract as anti-furuncle modality.

30

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF EZETIMIBE LOADED SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES

Mayuri Desai, Divya Shah, Jayant Sarolia, Pranav Shah*, Jaimini Gandhi
Department of Pharmaceutics, Maliba Pharmacy College, Uka Tarsadia University, Gopal Vidyanagar Campus, Surat, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

Ezetimibe is an anti hyperlipidemic drug which has poor aqueous solubility (0.00846 gm/L) and low bioavailability (35%). The SLNs were prepared using high speed homogenization technique. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and Poloxamer 188 were employed as lipid carrier and surfactant respectively. A two factor, three level (32) full factorial design was applied to study the effect of independent variables i.e. amount of GMS (X 1) and amount of Poloxamer 188 (X 2) on dependent variables i.e. Particle size (Y 1 ), % Entrapment efficiency (Y2) and % Cumulative drug release at 24hour (Y3). Particle size, Poly dispersity index (PDI), % Entrapment efficiency (%EE), zeta potential, drug content, in vitro drug release and particles morphology were evaluated for SLNs. Contour plots and response surface plots showed visual representation of relationship between the experimental responses (dependent variables) and the set of input (independent) variables. The optimized batch (B10) contained 500 mg of GMS and 750 mg of Poloxamer 188. Batch B10 exhibited particle size of 38.91±2.23 nm; Polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.221±0.091; zeta potential of -0.623 mV; % EE of 78.1±0.916% and % CDR at 24 hour of102.61±0.927%. The drug release experiments exhibited an initial rapid release experiments exhibited an initial rapid release followed by sustained release extended up to 24 hour. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies hoed that there was no chemical interaction between drug and lipid. The developed formulation may be adsorbed via the lymphatic route thereby avoiding hepatic first pass metabolism. This may lead to improvement in bioavailability, reduction dose and dose related side effect, etc.

31

ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF ERYTHRINA VARIEGATE

Y.Bhagyasri, G. Nagalatha, N. Vinay reddy, N.Siva Subramanian
Gland Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sy No.551, Shangri-La, Kothapet (V), Sivampet (M), Near Narsapur, Medak (Dist) Telangana, 502313.

Abstract

Erythrina variegate (asclepidaceae) is a plant with a variety of ethnic medicinal uses. Hence an effort has been made to screen the aqueous extract of leaves of erythrina variegate for its analagesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Leaves of erythrina variegate were extracted with water successively. Preliminary phytoichemical investigation was carried out to identify various phytochemical constituents present in the extract. phytochemical investigation: the aqueous extract of leaves of Erythrina variegate showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, sapaonins and triterpenes. The toxicity studies; the LD50 were found to be aqueous extract: 3162mg/kg, analgesi activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Erythrina variegate has reduced the intendity of acetic acid induced writhing and thermally induced pain stimuli using eddy’s hot plate method in mice, indicating both peripheral and central analgesic activity. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract has shown significant activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema model in rats. The effect was observed in middle and final phase of inhibition suggesting that extract can block the mediators like kinins and prostaglandins.

32

MICROPROPAGATION FROM AGERATUM CONYZOIDES L.

R. Rethinam*, R. Jeyachandran
Department of Botany, St. Joseph’s College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli - 620 002, India.

Abstract

An in vitro micropropagation protocol has been standardized from shoot tip, nodal and leaf explants of Ageratum conyzoides L. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae is an endemic medicinal plant used for the treatment of hepatitis, eczema, epilepsy, dizziness diarrhea, and fever. Murashige and Skoog, (1962) medium along with the various hormone compositions were used. Callus culture was initiated and established from leaf explants, on MS medium fortified with NAA (2.0 mg/L) 2, 4 - D (2.5 mg/L). Multiple shoots were regenerated from shoot tip explants of NAA (0.5 mg/L) and BAP (1.0 mg/L) and nodal explants of NAA (1.0 mg/L) and BAP (1.5 mg/L). Shoots were transferred to rooting MS medium supplemented with NAA (2.5 mg/L) and IBA (3.0 mg/L). Acclimatization was carried out on artificial soil survival rate.

33

LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM MYXOPYRUM SERRATULUM A.W.HILL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI L

S Venkatachalapathi1*, Ebin Thomas2, Subban Ravi2
1Department of Chemistry (S & H), Jay Shriram Group of Institutions, Tirupur, Tamilnadu, India.
2Department of Chemistry, Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

The larvicidal potential of extracts from Myxopyrum Serratulum was evaluated against larvae of Aedes aegypti. The results from the present study showed that the petroleum ether and methanolic extract from M. Serratulum exhibited significant toxic effects against Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 value of 134.2 μg/ml and 172.47 μg/ml, respectively. Two compounds myxopyroside (1) and kaemferol (2) were isolated from methanolic extract. However, the synergetic effect of Kaemferol with Phenolic compound of methanolic extract shows higher larvicidal activity than petroleum ether extract.

34

REVIEW ON TRANSUNGUAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Jeremiah M Christi*, Chintan Aundhia, Avinash Seth, Nirmal Shah, Dip Kondhia, Snehal Patel
Department of Pharmacy, Sumandeep Vidhyapeeth, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

Topical therapy is highly desirable in treating nail disorders due to its localized effects, which results in minimal adverse systemic events and possibly improved adherence. The absorption of drugs into the nail unit, to the nail plate, is highly desirable to treat nail disorders; however, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Nail permeability is however quite low and limits topical therapy to early/mild disease states such as onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail). Current research on nail permeation that focuses on altering the nail plate barrier by means of chemical treatments, penetration enhancers as well as physical and mechanical methods is reviewed also the recent research into ungual drug delivery is reviewed, a new method of nail sampling is examined. Finally limitations of current ungual drug permeability studies are briefly discussed and the factors, which affect drug uptake and permeation through the nail plate such as solute molecular size, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, charge, and the nature of the vehicle, are then discussed, and drug containing nail lacquers which, like cosmetic varnish, are brushed onto the nail plates to form a film, and from which drug is released and penetrated into the nail those are reviewed. It can be said that better the formulation, higher are the chances of achieving the success.