IAJPR

Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN NO.: 2231-6876
APRIL 2017
1

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA (L.) SEED EXTRACTS: A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF ETHNOMEDICINE

Vanitha Thangaraj, Mohammed RafiqKhan*, Aravinth Rajendran, Deepan Selvam
PG and Research Department of Biotechnology, Hindusthan College of Arts and Science, Behind Nava India, Coimbatore- 641 028, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Plant based medicines have been a part of traditional healthcare in most parts of the world for thousands of years. Its civilization is very ancient and the country as a whole has long been known for its rich resources of medical plants. In India, more than 7000 medicinal plant species are known. The medicinal plants find application in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agricultural and food industry. Even today, the World Health Organization estimates that up to 80 percent of people still rely mainly on traditional remedies such as herbs for their medicines. There is an increasing demand for the herbal drug treatment of various ailments and many plant drugs from ayurvedic system are being explored globally. Studying the plants used in folklore medicine promises to yield commendable results as investigating their medicinal properties has led to a better understanding of the use of traditional medicines as potential drugs in addition to contemporary drugs. Annona squamosa L. is extensively studied for its medicinal properties by advanced scientific techniques and a variety of bioactive compounds have been isolated from the different parts of the plant and were analysed pharmacologically. In our present investigation, phytochemical screening of Annona squamosa seed extracts revealed the presence of various bioactive compounds. The results lend credence to the folkloric use of this plant and show that Annona squamosa seeds could be exploited therapeutically for novel potent drugs.

2

BURDEN OF LEFTOVER MEDICATION AT HOME AND ITS CONTRIBUTING FACTORS IN GOBA TOWN, BALE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

Engdayehu Dekeba, *Muluneh Fromsa
Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ambo University, Ethiopia P.O.Box: 19.

Abstract

Background: Essential medicines save lives, reduce suffering and improve health. However keeping unwanted or expired medications in house potentially exposes the family to risks. Patients may not use all the medications dispensed to them because of many reasons. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the burden of leftover medication and its contributing factors in Goba town, Bale zone, Ethiopia, 2016. Methods: Cross sectional study design was conducted from 10th to 20th April 2016 in Goba Town. The sample size was 315 and the response rate was 95.6%. Descriptive statistics and binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to describe the study participants in relation to variables and to determine associated variables with the outcome. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to measure strength and significance of association. Results: Of the households visited, 82 (27.2%) had stored leftover drugs. Altogether, there were 92 leftover preparations. The average household possessed 1.12 products and the range was 1-3 per household. Housewives were 4.18 (95% CI: 1.96, 8.87) times more likely to report presence of leftover medicines than those who had other occupation; families with health professional(s) as family member were 2.8 (95% CI: 1.11, 5.71) times more likely to have leftover medicine than families with no health professional(s). Conclusion: The prevalence of leftover medicine at home in Goba town was 27.2%. Housewives with no formal job and the presence of health professional(s) in family were found to be associated with drug storage at home.

3

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GASTRO-RETENTIVE FLOATING TABLETS OF ATENOLOL

Akshay Kumar Soni*1, Dr. Surendra Lalwani1, Anshul Jain2, Monika Chauhan2
1Nagaji Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Sitholi, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474001 (M.P.) India.
2Gurukul Institute of Pharmaceutical Science & Research, Tighra Road, Gwalior-474001 (M.P.) India.

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to develop gastro-retentive floating tablet of Atenolol. It is a beta-adrenoreceptor antagonist (beta-blocker) used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. It is incompletely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and has an oral bioavailability of only 50% while remaining drug is excreted unchanged in feces. This is because of poor absorption in lower gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the formulation of Atenolol as a gastro-retentive floating drug delivery system (GFDDS) was thought to be beneficial, with a view to improve its oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. The floating tablets of Atenolol (F1-F9) were prepared by direct compression technique using HPMC of different viscosity grades (K4M and K15M) as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate and citric acid as a gas generating agent, to reduce floating lag time. The blends were evaluated to bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose. The tablets were evaluated to thickness, hardness, diameter, weight variation, and drug content uniformity, friability, floating lag time, effect of hardness on buoyancy lag time and in-vitro swelling studies, in-vitro drug release studies. In-vitro drug release study was performed using USP dissolution test apparatus-II at 50 rpm using 900 ml of hydrochloric acid buffer pH 1.2 maintained at 37±0.5ºC as the dissolution medium. Among the various floating tablet formulations studied, formulation F6 containing drug polymer ratio (1:3) prepared with HPMC K4M & K15M showed promising results releasing 92.63% of the drug in 12 hours with a floating lag time of 30 seconds and floating time of more than 24 hours has been considered as an ideal formulation. FTIR studies indicate that there is no interaction between drug and excipients. Stability study of F6 formulation was performed and that showed no major change in physicochemical parameters, floating properties and drug release profile.

4

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF BARLERIA PRIONITIS LINN. – REVIEW

Wankhade P. P*, Dr. Ghiware N. B, Shaikh Haidar Ali, Kshirsagar P. M
Department of Pharmacology, Center for research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nanded Pharmacy College, Nanded.

Abstract

Barleria prionitis have been utilized for basic and curative health care since time immemorial. Barleria prionitis L. is one of the important herbal being used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. In traditional system of medicines part of the Barleria prionitis plant is used for the treatment of various diseases like toothache, fever, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, expectorant, boils, glandular swellings, catarrhal affections, ulcers, tonic and diuretic. A wide variety of biologically active constituents such as glycosides, flavonoid, saponin, steroid and tannins are present in his plant. The plant contains balerenone, prioniside A and B, lupeol, 6-hydroxyflavone, barlerin. This plant exhibits antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, hepatoprotective, antifungal, antiviral, mast cell stabilizing, antifertility and gastoprotective activity. This review will focus on the traditional uses, Phytochemical constituents isolated from the plant and pharmacological properties of different parts of Barleria prionitis.

5

FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF SUBLINGUAL FILM OF RESPERIDONE.

Tekade B. W., Jadhao U. T., Patil V.R., Koli B.D., Minal Pachpande.
Department of Pharmaceutics, TVES’s Honorable Loksevak Madhukarrao Chaudhari College of Pharmacy, Faizpur, India.

Abstract

The aim of formulation of fast dissolving sublingual film of Risperidone was to provide quicker onset of action in short duration of time and in addition to provide immediate action after administration of dosage form. Pre-formulation study was carried out by FTIR with pure drug (Risperidone) and formulation mixture (Risperidone-HPMC K4M and Risperidone-Pectin). It was observed that disintegration time varies from 19 to 30 sec for all the formulations. Weight variation varies from 49.33 mg to 66.66 mg. All the formulations were evaluated for folding endurance, surface pH, Tensile Strength, thickness and weight variation. It was also observed that HPMC K4M & Pectin was able to modulate the Risperidone release as lower amount of HPMC K4M as well as Pectin resulted in release of drug a faster rate.

6

NANOPARTICLES: A NEW APPROACH

Jyoti Negi*, Tulsi Bisht, Popin Kumar
Gyani Inder Singh Institute of Professional Studies, Opp. Malsi Dear Park, Post- Sinola, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, 248003, India.

Abstract

The application of nanotechnology in pharmaceutical industries has received great attention from last decade. A lot of research work is going on in this field due to its safety, efficacy and better patient compliance. Different production methods have been developed for nanoparticles and most of the methods use two basic steps; emulsification and size reduction to Nano size. Homogenization techniques are most frequently employed using hot and cold homogenization or ultra-sonication for the production. Few methods based on emulsification are also applied used earlier for polymeric nanoparticle production. Hot high pressure homogenization and ultra-sonication are most commonly used method with scale up workability but costly equipment is biggest drawback. Other methods used to produce lipid nanoparticles are possible in a laboratory setup with no expensive equipments are needed but scale up is still a problem with such method along with regulatory problems associated with high surfactants concentrations in these formulations. This review focus on different methods used for lipid nanoparticles production with their procedure, advantages and disadvantages associated with them.

7

ANTI-PLATELET AGGREGATION STUDY ON RASAM: A SOUTH INDIAN TRADITIONAL FUNCTIONAL FOOD

Agilandeswari Devarajan1,2*, MK Mohan Maruga Raja2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Hillside College of Pharmacy & Research Centre, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
2Pharmacy Department, Centre for Research & Development, PRIST University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Rasam, is a common South Indian traditional spice soup. The ingredients used in the preparation of rasam are medicinally claimed for anti-platelet aggregation activity. Hence, rasam was studied for its anti-platelet aggregation potential beyond its culinary and nutritional effect. Adenosine diphosphate induced platelet aggregation study for four stage wise samples in the preparation of rasam (RS1, RS2, RS3 and RS4) were studied. RS4, the final product of rasam showed higher percentage of platelet aggregation inhibition and IC50 value of 93.43% and 10.75 μL/mL respectively than other samples. The percentage of platelet inhibition of rasam was found to be directly proportional to the concentration. Rasam is a traditional functional food and can be an anti-platelet aggregation inhibitor on chronic use.

8

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SOFOSBUVIR AND LEDIPASVIR USING UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND RP-HPLC METHODS

Anjali Patel, Priya Shah, Sadhana Rajput*
Quality Assurance Laboratory, Centre of Relevance and Excellence in Novel Drug Delivery System, Pharmacy Department, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Fatehgunj, Vadodara – 390 002, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

The present work includes two simple, inexpensive, rapid, accurate and precise UV spectrophotometric methods and another isocratic RP-HPLC method for estimation of Sofosbuvir (SOFO) and Ledipasvir (LEDI) in bulk and in synthetic mixture. The UV methods are based upon absorption correction (ACM) and first derivative zero crossing point method (FDZC) analysis approach. Chosen wavelength maxima were 260nm and 334nm for SOFO and LEDI respectively for ACM. Whereas for FDZC, estimation of SOFO and LEDI were carried out at 274.5 and 260.6 respectively. Selected linearity ranges for SOFO and LEDI were 24-40 μg/mL and 5.4-9 μg/mL respectively for UV methods. The simple, isocratic RP-HPLC method involved separation of SOFO and LEDI using reverse phase C18 CHROMBUDGET column (250 mm x 4.6 mm,5 μ) having mobile phase composition of acetonitrile and ammonium formate (pH 2.8)::55:45. The developed methods were validated successfully according to ICH Q2 (R1) guideline. Both spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods showed a linear response having r2 values of 0.999. The percentage relative standard deviation (%RSD) was found to be less than two indicating that the methods were precise. The methods were successfully applied for analysis of SOFO and LEDI in laboratory mixture.The mean percentage accuracy values obtained for UV and RP-HPLC methods were between 99-102% and 99-101% respectively. SOFO and LEDI in its formulation could be accurately determined with assay values ranging from 99-101%. Thus it can be concluded that both the developed methods were specific, selective and robust.

9

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMPLE UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF APIXABAN IN API AND ITS BULK DOSAGE FORM

P.A.Malode*, S.S.Pendhari, B.S.Ghuge, S.P.Anantwar
Department of Quality Assurance, MVP Samaj’s College of Pharmacy, Nasik, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and specific UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of Apixaban in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form were developed and validated. In this method solution of Apixaban was prepared in methanol. Apixaban standard solution was scanned in the UV rang (400-200nm) in a 1cm quartz cell in a double beam UV spectrophotometer. The standard solution of Apixaban showed maximum absorption at wavelength 280 nm. The method obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range from 2 μg/ml -10μg/ml. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9967 and regression of the curve was found y = 0.0995x + 0.0149 with excellent recovery 99-104%. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.186 μg/ml and 0.566μg/ml respectively. The method was validated for several parameters like accuracy, precision as per ICH guidelines. Statistical analysis proved that the methods are repeatable and specific for the estimation of the said drug. These methods can be adopted in routine assay analysis of Apixaban bulk or tablet dosage form.

10

UV-VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ASSAY OF BENIDIPINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLET FORMULATION

S.S. Pendhari*, B.S Ghuge, P.A. Malode, S.P. Anantwar
Department of Quality Assurance, MVP Samaj’s College of Pharmacy, Nasik, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and specific UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of Benidipine HCl in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form were developed and validated. In this method solution of Benidipine HCl were prepared in methanol. Benidipine HCl standard solution was scanned in the UV rang (400-200nm) in a 1cm quartz cell in a double beam UV spectrophotometer. The standard solution of Benidipine HCl showed maximum absorption at wavelength 237 nm. The method obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range from 2-10 μg/ml. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.991 and regression of the curve was found y = 0.0680x +0.031 with excellent recovery 99-104%. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.222 μg/ml and 0.674μg/ml respectively. The method was validated for several parameters like accuracy, precision as per ICH guidelines. Statistical analysis proved that the methods are reproducible and specific for the estimation of the said drug. These methods can be adopted in routine assay analysis of Benidipine HCl in bulk or tablet dosage form.

11

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ATENOLOL IN PURE MATERIALS AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE

Karam Mohamad Aboud*, Ali Mohammad, Mostafa Isbera, Mustafa Beesh
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Quality Control, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al andalus University for Medical Sciences, Tartous-Syria.

Abstract

The current research aimed to develop and validate a simple, accurate and sensitive analytical method using spectrophotometer device in assaying raw material of atenolol and determination the content of atenolol in pharmaceutical tablets. Firstly, a solution of atenolol in hydrochloric acid (0.1N) was prepared and its absorption spectrum was examined in UV range against blank solution containing only hydrochloric acid (0.1N). The method was validated for linearity through preparation a series of certain concentration and measure their absorptions and correlation coefficient ,molar absorptivity, and Sandell's sensitivity were calculated. Method was detected for accuracy by performing recovery studies. The precision of the method was expressed as RSD of series of measurement by replicate estimation of drug. The proposed method was both evaluated for specificity by noticing any effects of common excipients that may add to atenolol pharmaceutical formulation and applied to commercial tablets The results indicated that the solution of atenolol in hydrochloric acid (0.1N) exhibiting λ max at 225 nm. The relationship between the concentrations and the absorbance was linearity with good correlation coefficient (0.9979) The molar absorptivity is 7.163×103Lmol-1cm-1and Sandell's sensitivity is 0.034μg/cm2. The method is appropriate over concentration range of 5 – 40μg/ml. The results of studying the validation of this method showed that the method have been validated statistically. The proposed method had its accuracy, precision, specificity, when applied in measurement atenolol in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. As a result we can use the proposed analytical method in determination atenolol in raw material and its commercial tablets.

12

A REVIEW ON: CHITOSAN MICROSPHERE FOR COLONIC DRUG DELIVERY: INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

Zaufeen Sayyed*, Ayushi Sowanshi
M Pharmacy (Dept. of Pharmaceutics), NDMVP College of Pharmacy, Shivaji Nagar, Gangapur Road, Nashik.

Abstract

The objective of following review is to elaborate chitosan microsphere, chitosan is natural polymer used as potential carrier for many drugs and also for many drug delivery such as topical, parenteral, buccal, targeted drug delivery. The colonic drug delivery is highly desirable for local treatment of a variety of bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, ameabiosis, colonic cancer, and systemic delivery of many drugs which degrades in stomach and small intestine, such as proteins and peptides. Colon is the distal organ of the GIT, hence difficulty arises in colonic drug delivery. However there are many techniques for colon specific drug delivery namely prodrugs, pH dependent, time dependent, microbially triggered system, pressure controlled, osmotic controlled, multiparticulates system such as microparticle, nanoparticle, pellets etc. Microparticles is preferred over unit dosage form as the system enables the drug to reach colon quickly & retained in it for long period of time. Using different techniques of microparticles targeted drug delivery achieved. Due to this dose of drug and side effects minimizes.

13

NEEDLELESS INJECTION SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW

J. K. Attarde, H. V. Changare, F. A. Shaikh, T. D. Fegade, P. V. Sapkale, Dr. T.A. Deshmukh
SES Arunamai College of Pharmacy, Mamurabad, Jalgaon (MH), India.

Abstract

Needle-less injections are designed to solve the problem associated with hypodermic needle injection. Needle-less injection system was first introduced by Marshell Lockhart in1936. Needle-less system is based on the principle of electrophoresis to deliver the medicament through the skin. This devices are easy to use, it does not required any skilled person. This review is inclined on the needle-less injection system which gives detail information about advantages, disadvantages of the system. This review describes needle-free injection technology involving the generation of force by using compressed gas upon actuation in order to deliver a drug at very high speed through a nozzle. This review also gives brief knowledge about the components. This review also gives brief information about injection methods i. e. spring load jet injector, battery powdered jet injector, and gas powdered jet injector.

14

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL BASED ANTI MICROBIAL CREAM USING COW GHEE AS BASE

Medipalli Viswaja*, M.Nikitha, K.Manasa, S.Sowmya
Department of Pharmaceutics, Vijaya College of Pharmacy, Hayath Nagar-501511, Telangana, India.

Abstract

Essential oils like eucalyptus and neem are well known for its anti microbial activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-bacterial activity of two essential oils (eucalyptus oil,neem oil)by incorporating them in cream containing cow ghee as base and evaluate its physical and anti microbial properties.cow ghee here not only acts as base but also as penetration enhancer.creams are prepared by fusion method.Agar diffusion method” was used to see anti bacterial activity of cream using reference disk of antibiotics. Anti bacterial cream was prepared by incorporating different amount of ingredients together and certain amount of oils in different concentrations and anti microbial activity was carried out on Escherichia coli,Staphylococus aureus,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus subtilis.zone of inhibition was measured. Finally efficiency was compared with standard product. Anti bacterial activity was found to be in limits. The prepared cream was evaluated for their physical and rheological studies.Stability studies showed stable, homogenous apperance over period of 3 months at room temperature. The prepared formulations showed anti bacterial activity as concentration of essentional oils were increased. Formulation which has 2.5% essential oils has shown zone of inhibition almost equal to standard. Further invivo studies are to be performed.

15

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FERONIA LIMONIA FRUIT PULP – A REVIEW

Win Min Oo, Myat Mon Khine
Department of Biochemistry, University of Medicine-Magway, Myanmar.

Abstract

Current research on drug development has emphasized on traditional uses of herbal constituents which were practiced in ancient times. Many parts of Feronia limonia were prescribed for diseases in ancient medicine of Asia. Recently, the active constituents of the fruit pulp have been studied extensively to support the traditional uses. The most important pharmacological actions of the fruit pulp are antioxidant and anticancer activities. These effect may be attributed to its high phenol contents. In-vivo and in-vitro studies of pharmacological effects of the fruit pulp have provided scientific knowledge on its potential use in many diseases such as liver failure, myocardial infarct, ischemic stroke, renal failure, diabetic mellitus and gastric ulcers. This review focuses on pharmacological and medicinal properties of Feronia limonia fruit pulp in prevention and treatment of various diseases. The information was gathered from articles which have been published in international journals and which are available online. The outcome of this review provides concise knowledge on pharmacological effects and possible mechanisms which are essential for developing therapeutic uses of the fruit pulp. It can be concluded that Feronia limonia fruit pulp has various pharmacological actions which can be utilized in treatment of many diseases if the active constituents for respective actions are identified in the future.

16

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE AND FLUOCINOLONE ACETONIDE IN THEIR SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

Bhavini Milankumar Patel
Department of Quality Assurance, A-One Pharmacy College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

The present research work aims to develop a simple, precise, accurate, rapid, reproducible and economical method for the estimation of Fluocinolone acetonide and Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in their synthetic mixture by RP-HPLC method. An absorbance maximum for this combination was found to be at 225 nm using methanol as a solvent. Development And Validation Of RP-HPLC method for estimation of Fluocinolone acetonide and Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in their combined marketed dosage form was performed on a Hypersil BDS (250 x 4.6mm C18) column with mobile phase containing, buffer (pH 6.5-KH2PO4):Methanol in ratio of 50:50. The flow rate was 1 ml/min and the eluent was monitored at 225 nm. Detection was carried in UV-2000 detector. The selected chromatographic conditions were found effectively to separate Fluocinolone acetonide and Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride at 3.33 and 4.77 min respectively.

17

REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING FIRED CLAY SOIL PILLARED WITH TEA LEAF ASH COMPONENTS

Kebena Gebeyehu Motora1*, Dejene Ayele Tesema2
1Mettu University, Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O.Box 318, Mettu Ethiopia.
2Jimma University, College of Natural Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O.Box 378 Jimma Ethiopia.

Abstract

This study reports on the adsorption of fluoride ion from aqueous solutions by using fired clay soil, pillared with tea leave ash components. The potential of low cost material fired clay soil and fired clay soil pillared with tea leave ash components for fluoride removal from aqueous solution was evaluated by using fluoride ion selective electrode. Pillaring of clay soil with tea leave ash was done by thoroughly mixing fifteen gram of tea leave ash and three hundred gram of clay soil using distilled water and it was aged for 96 hours until it was dried. Untreated clay soil and clay soil pillared with tea leave ash components were fired in an electrical furnace at 570 oC for 3 hrs. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out and the effects of pH, contact time, initial adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature of the solution were investigated. Adsorption of fluoride by fired clay soil and fired clay soil pillared with tea leave ash was observed to sharply increase from pH 4 to 7 then decreased. The maximum adsorption efficiencies obtained were 75% for fired clay soil and 90% for fired clay soil pillared with tea leave ash components at pH 7 for both adsorbents. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained was 0.913 mg/g for fired clay soil and 2.746 mg/g for fired clay soil pillared with tea leave ash components. It can be concluded that fired clay soil pillared with tea leave ash is a good and cheap adsorbent with high potential for the adsorption and removal of fluoride from fluoride contaminated water and could therefore serve as effective and efficient adsorbent for treatment of drinking waters in terms of high adsorption capacity.

18

DEVELOPMENT OF SIMULATED EXPERIMENTAL DEVICES TO MEET LEARNING NEEDS OF EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY

Sanjay R Gandhi, Swetha B R*, Dr. Shivalinge Gowda KP
Department of Pharmacology, PES College of Pharmacy, 50 Feet Road, Hanumanthanagar, Bengaluru - 560050, Karnataka.

Abstract

The limitation of use of animals in Pharmacology practical classes lead to develop innovative simulated experiments to understand the pharmacological actions produced by various drugs. Laboratory based practical classes, have been the corner stone of undergraduate Pharmacology learning. Ethical issues with the use of animals and rapid development of information technology has led to newer trends in teaching and learning such as computer assisted learning and other methods.

19

CONTROLLED RELEASE PELLETS: AN EFFECTIVE TOOL IN CHRONIC THERAPY

R. Santosh Kumar, Mattaparthi Sahiti
GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam-45.

 

Abstract

Multiparticulate drug delivery systems like pellets, granules, micro particles, minitablets etc., prove to be promising and highly flexible systems with ease of formulating with different drug release kinetics. In present era, pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. Pelletization is an agglomeration process that converts fine powders or granules of bulk drugs and excipients into small, free flowing semi-spherical units. Pellets, being multiparticulate systems, are widely used due to the technological as well as therapeutic advantages over single-unit dosage forms. The present review focus on advantages, disadvantages, formation of pellet growth, different pelletization techniques, characterization, marketed pellets products and also outlines recent developments in the pharmaceutical approaches that have been used to prepare pelletized dosage forms with different techniques emphasizing on the recent research work done in the area of pelletization.

20

VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FRESH RHIZOME OF CURCUMA LONGA LINN.

Vijender Singh1, Gunjan1*, Mohammed Ali2
1School of Pharmacy, Sharda University, 32, 34 Knowledge Park – III, Greater Noida, U.P., India.
2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

Curcuma longa Linn. syn. Indian saffron, curcuma in hindi known as haldi (f Zingiberaceae.) is a tall herb. It is a native of South Asia & is cultivated extensively throughout warmer parts of the world, including India. Volatile constituents of the fresh rhizomes of curcuma by GLC and GC-MS resulted in the identification of twenty seven components. The oil consists of seven monoterpenes, out of which three were hydrocarbons, three alcohols and one ester.Fifteen sesquiterpenes out of which nine hydrocarbons, three alcohols, one ketone, one oxide and one epoxide. Sesqueterpenes of which spanthulenol (46.6%) was the major components followed by β- eudesmol (15.1) and ar - turmerone (9.7%) and oil also consist of five non terpenic compounds. Volatile oil of Curcuma longa in higher concentration showed significant antibacterial activity against the strains of Staphylococcus aureus (16.4 mm) followed by Escherichia coli (14.2 mm), significant anti fungal activity against Candida albicans (13.1 mm) followed by Aspergillus niger (12.5 mm). The alcoholic extract of Curcuma longa showed more potent antioxidant activity in comparison to aqueous extract.

21

REVIEW ON POSSIBLE HERBAL REMEDIES FOR BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.

Pramod P. Patil1, Prabodh V. Sapkale2
1R. C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, India.
2SES, Arunamai College of Pharmacy, Mamurabad, Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Benign Prostate hyperplasia is a disorder develops with age in men about all men reaching to last decade of their life develops histological BPH, Not all time it will develop symptoms but at many instances it will develop the symptoms associated with LUTS (lower urinary tract symptoms) and it substantially affects the quality of life in elderly patients the symptoms are quite annoying as it ranges from urinary retention to adversely affecting their sex life. There are some of the therapies are available for treating the condition like removal of prostate surgically and drug therapies but as surgery cannot performed in every patients and there are disadvantages are associated with the use of drug therapies so it becomes necessary to provide the solutions with minimum or no side effects, and so here herbal therapies came in light so in this review we have searched for the possible herbal remedies which could be found useful in treating BPH and its symptoms, as overgrowth of prostate leads to produce the symptoms it is essential to reduce the prostate overgrowth There are some examples of plants used in BPH are Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Curcubita pepo, and Urtica dioica in which S. repens is also showed effectiveness in human studies equal to tamsulosin and in combination to U. dioica shows equal effects to finastride with less side effects. And according to findings after reviewing the literature there are numerous plants having beneficial effects on BPH but the exact mechanism of actions are still not clear but the active ingredients of these plants can be found useful for developing new effective and safer alternatives.

22

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CLARITHROMYCIN EXTENDED RELEASE TABLET

Hamed Barzeh*, Bharani S Sogali*
Department of Pharmaceutics, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Chikka Bellandur, Carmelaram Post, Varthur Hobli, Bangalore-560035.

Abstract

The design of extended release tablet by using natural polymers are becoming very popular in formulating oral controlled release tablet as they are biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic, cheap and easily available compared to synthetic polymers. The present investigation was planned to formulate and evaluate the clarithromycin once daily extended release tablets with natural polymers like guar gum and xanthan gum and in combination with HPMC K15M. Drug- excipient compatibility study was conducted using FTIR spectroscopy. A total of seven formulations were prepared with different combinations of polymers using wet granulation and compression method. Pre compression and post compression parameters were tested and in vitro drug release study was performed and the data were fitted into kinetic models. The selected best formulation (F7) was kept for short-term accelerated stability studies (1 month at 40oC±2oC / 75%±5% RH). FTIR analysis of spectra showed that there are no drug-excipients interactions and all the formulated tablets had acceptable physical properties. Drug content uniformity, hardness and thickness of best formulation (F7) were found to be 99.7±0.004%, 4.8±0.21 Kg/cm2 and 4.9±0.002mm. Formulation (F7) showed release up to 94.81% in 0.1 N HCl and 88.4% in potassium phosphate buffer pH 6 in 24 hrs. The release mechanism of the best formulation (F7) was found to be non fickian and Fick’s law respectively, i.e., by both diffusion and erosion. It can be concluded that a successful once daily extended release tablets of Clarithromycin have been prepared by using the natural polymer such as guar gum.

23

BIOSYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND INVITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM SEAWEEDS AGAINST SELECTED POULTRY PATHOGENS

S. R. Sivakumar*, Bonaventure Mujyambere, G. Dharmaraj
*Department of Botany, Bharathidasan University, Trichy-24, Tamilnadu, India.
Department of Biotechnology, Nandha Arts and Science College, Erode -638 052, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

In the present study Silver nanoparticles were synthesized from aqueous seaweed extract of seaweeds such as of green Halimeda macroloba, brown Turbinaria conoides, and red Spyridia filamentosa and characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR, EDX, XRD and SEM. Characterization by the above said instrument analysis confirmed the presence,size and stability of silver nanoparticles.After characterization, the silver nanoparticles were tested at 25μg-ml,50μg-ml,75μg-ml and 100μg-ml concentrations to check the bactericidal activity against selected two poultry bacterial pathogens. We observed that, if the concentration of seaweed nanoparticle increases, the zone of inhibition also get increased in all the tested two bacterial pathogens against streptomycin as control and result suggested the potential use of seaweed synthesized silver nanoparticles against other pathogens.

24

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NICKEL (II) COMPLEXES WITH 3-(2-HYDROXYPHENYL)-2-IMINO-1-THIAZOLIDIN-4-ONE AND 3-(2-HYDROXYPHENYL)-2-IMINO-1-OXAZOLIDIN-4-ONE

Lalisa Wakjira Duresa
Mettu University, Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O.Box: 318, Mettu, Ethiopia.
 

Abstract

This paper focuses on synthesis and characterization of ligands and complexes. The ligands, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-imino-1-thiazolidin-4-one (C9H8O2N2S) and 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-imino-1-oxazolidin-4-one (C9H8O3N), synthesized by cyclocondensation of 2-chloro-N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide, obtained by reaction of o-aminophenol with chloroacetylchloride, with potassium thiocyanate and potassium cyanate respectively. The metal complexes were prepared by refluxing solutions containing each ligand and metal salt in hot ethanol in 1:1 molar ratio. Analyses and conductometric results revealed 1:2 metal-ligand ratio and nonelectrolytic nature of the complexes respectively. IR spectral data revealed that both heterocyclic ligands coordinate through their heterocyclic nitrogen and phenolic oxygen to the metal and act as anionic bidentate ligands. Magnetic susceptiblity studies indicated square planar geometry of [NiL2].2H2O complex whereas other complex exhibiting magnetic moments less than spin-free d8 geometry seemed to be equilibrium mixture of four coordinate tetrahedral and square planar geometries owing to high spin to low spin or vice versa spin crossover phenomenon. However, splitting patterns of d-d bands in the electronic spectra of the complexes in solutions are consistent with their square planar geometry; tetrahedral stereochemistry has most probably been changed to square planar form by interaction with the solvent molecules. Newly synthesized complexes of Ni(II) which were 1:2 metal-ligand ratio were nonelectrolytic and formed by coordination of the ligands through their heterocyclic atoms and phenolic oxygen.

25

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF RELATED SUBSTANCES IN AVANAFIL

Pavani Peddi1*, Dr.T.Raja Rajeswari2, Dr. Ramana Reddy Ganji3
1PVP Siddhartha Institute of Technology, Vijayawada-520010, India.
2Y.A. Govt. College for Women, Chirala.
3Acharya Nagarjuna Univ, Guntur, India.

Abstract

The current proposal of the research is to estimation of related substances by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the determination of Avanafil. Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on Waters 2489 UV 2695 pump, Waters 2998 PDA 2695 pump Software Empower2 photodiode array detector using ACE C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) column with pH 4.2 buffer: methanol in the ratio of 90:10 as mobile phase A and acetonitrile as mobile phase B at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. by gradient elution with UV detection at 245 nm. Recovery and Linearity was observed well within the limits (R2 = more than 0.99 for concentration range of LOQ to 150% level for linearity and the % recovery was within the ICH acceptance limits of 85-115% ) for all the impurities. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) were found to be less than 0.05%. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The RSD for intra-day and inter-day (<3.0% RSD) precision were found to be less than 1 %. The percentage recovery was in good agreement with the labeled amount in the pharmaceutical formulations. from the method validation data, it can be concluded that the method is simple, specific, precise and accurate for the determination of Avanafil in pharmaceutical formulations.

26

PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE AND IN VITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA LINN. LEAVES

R. Balabhaskar1, K. Vijayalakshmi2
1Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.
2Department of Biochemistry, Bharathi Women's College (Autonomous), Chennai, TamilNadu.

Abstract

Natural products have endless potential. Most important of such molecules are flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins and other phenolic compounds. These compounds have been reported to quench or decompose free radicals and its products. Bauhinia tomentosa is one such medicinal plant belonging to Caesalpinaceae family. Various parts of this medicinal plant has been used to treat various ailments in traditional systems of medicine. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the phytochemical content, phytonutrients and mineral contents of ethanol extract of B. tomentosa leaves. The study also investigates the free radical scavenging potential of B.tomentosa leaf extract. The collected leaf samples was subjected to physiochemical studies and safety studies like total microbial load assay, aflatoxins assay, pesticides analysis and heavy metal analysis as per WHO guidelines. Total polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, total protein sugars, fibres, fats, macro minerals (Ca, Mg, P&K) and micro minerals (Fe, Cu, Mn &Zn) were determined using standard procedures. Ethanol extract of B. tomentosa (EBT) was then subjected to DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging assays and FRAP assay. From the results, it was observed that the collected leaf sample was found to be free from pesticides, aflatoxins, heavy metals and microbial contamination. The water and alcohol extractive values of B.tomentosa leaves were 9.1 ± 0.8% and 8.1 ± 0.4 % respectively. The total ash value, water soluble ash and acid insoluble ash were found to be 12.19 ± 1.1%, 3.1 ± 0.3 % and 8.5 ± 0.7% respectively. The moisture content was found to be 10.13 ± 0.9%. The results have also demonstrated the presence of appreciable amounts of phytochemicals, phytonutrients and minerals in EBT. The IC50 value of EBT for DPPH radical was found to be 59.54 μg/ml and it also exhibited appreciable activity towards other radicals as compared with the standards like BHT and curcumin. Thus, the present study justifies the traditional usage of B. tomentosa for the treatment of various ailments. From the study it can be concluded that the B. tomentosa possess significant amounts of phytochemicals and also has appreciable activity towards free radicals. Future work may be carried out to identify the active principle for the effective treatment against various diseases which involves oxidative stress in its pathogenesis.

27

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HOSPITAL FORMULARY FOR PROMOTING RATIONAL USE OF DRUGS IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN URBAN AREA OF ANDHRA PRADESH

Lakshmi Prasanna. K1, P. Bhavya1, Dr. Balaiah Sandyapakula2, Dr. Charan Tej.K3, Dr. S.A. Rahaman4

1Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice Mangalagiri, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh., India.

2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nirmala College of Pharmacy Mangalagiri, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh., India.

3Medical Superintendent, Manipal Hospitals, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh., India.

4Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Mangalagiri, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh., India.

Abstract

The main aim and objectives of hospital formulary is to provide information about the use of medicines. Hence the central goals of the formulary are to help prescribers in the appropriate drug of choice to the suitable treatment and to make prescribers follow uniform choice of treatments. The prospective and developmental study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital, over a period of six months. The study was approved by PTC committee and also considers the healthcare professionals requirement and need of Hospital Formulary. All drugs present in the drug list were critically evaluated for its need, efficacy and safety. Monographs were prepared for all the selected 221 drugs in the hospital pharmacy with the prepared monograph content. Copies of the prepared hospital formulary were given to Medical superintendent, chief medical officer, and chief pharmacist and to Pharmacy and Therapeutic Committee. In our study, formulary was compiled in 221 drugs including FDCs. Monographs were prepared for all the selected drugs in the hospital pharmacy as per standard formularies. In conclusion, the development of the formulary will have major impact on prescribers and health care professionals’ for clinical practice to endorse the quality of life in the patients, by promoting rational use of drugs towards patient care to getting better therapeutic outcomes.

28

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF BUCHANANIA LANZAN SPRENG. LEAVES

Atoofa Habib*1, Mukta Shrivastava2

Department of Botany, Govt. M. L.B. Girls P.G. (Autonomous) College, Bhopal, M.P. 462002. India.

Abstract

Plants have bioactive compounds which are used for curing of various human diseases. Phytochemicals have two categories viz. primary constituents which include chlorophyll, Proteins, sugars, aminoacids and secondary constituents which include terpenoids and alkaloids. The primarily aim of the present study was to carry out a preliminary phytochemical screening of Buchanania lanzan leaves so as to evaluate the major class of compounds present in it. The leaf extracts of B. lanzan were prepared in different solvents like Petroleum ether, Dichloromethane, ethanol and water through soxhlation. The results of this study indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, glycosides, carbohydrates and triterpenes. Most of the phytochemicals were found in aqueous and ethanol extracts. The presence of these phytochemicals describes the importance of this plant as a good source of herbal medicine.

29

CYTOTOXICITY STUDIES ON VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA AND CENTELLA ASIATICA AGAINST HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES

M. Nivedheedha, C. Sivasubramaniyan*
Department of Environmental and Herbal Science, Tamil University, Thanjavur-613010, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

Cancer is one of the leading deaths causing disease in the world. Now a days, there are number of studies were conducted in order to eradicate cancer in the environment. From Ancient times, the medicinal plants used to treat cancer were found in different medicinal system in different parts of the world. The present study concentrates to find out the in vitro anticancer activity of medicinal plants named CentellaasiaticaandAndrographispaniculata. Inorder to find the activity of these medicinal plantsin the invitro (MTT assay) was conducted and the results confirmed that the both the plants have the anticancer activity and the aqueous leaf extract of Andrographispaniculataand methanolic leaf extract ofCentellaasiatica had more potential activity.

30

DETERMINANTS OF HYPERTENSION IN METTUKARL HOSPITAL, SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA: CASE CONTROL STUDY

MulunehShuremu1*, NegussieDeyessa2
1Department of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health And Medical Sciences, Mettu University, Mettu, Ethiopia.
2School of Public Health, Medical College, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Background: Hypertension has been the major public health challenge worldwide. In considerable proportion of cases, the disease tends to be symptomless for prolonged time and the known morbidity is much less than the known morbidity. Various sources revealed that, it became the major cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to assess determinantsof hypertension. Methods Facility based matched case control study design was employed in Mettu Karl hospital from individuals visited the hospital for medical care. A total of 342 (114 cases and 228 controls) subjects constituted the sample size for this study. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurement were taken through standardized procedures and the rest data was collected through interviewer administered questioner. Data were entered onEPi Info version 3.5.3.and exported to SPSS version 16.0 statistical software packages for analysis. Results: Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and khat chewing, (AOR= 6.465, 95%CI: 3.486, 11.991), (AOR= 6.136, 95%CI: 3.247, 11.596), (AOR= 4.395, 95%CI: 2.308, 8.366) had higher odds of developing hypertension than non- smoker, no alcohol consumption and those who don’t chew khat respectively. Similarly body mass index, physical inactivity, family history of HTN and house hold family size, (AOR= 2.234, 95%CI: 1.300, 3.838), (AOR= 1.732. 95%CI: 1.041, 2.879), (AOR= 2.729, 95%CI: 1.797, 5.247), (AOR= 2.840, 95%CI: 1.526, 5.287) respectively were significantly associated with HTN occurrence. Conclusion and recommendation: The study shows that exposure to risk factors such as alcohol consumption, nature of routine work, nature sleep time, khat chewing, urban inhabitant, family history of hypertension, cigarette smoking and physical in activity, house hold family size, sleeping duration and BMI were determinants of hypertension development. So measures should have to be taken to minimize those risk factors.

31

“INGREDIENTS IDENTIFICATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND HPTLC EVALUATION OF VAJIGANDHADI TAILA – A POLYHERBAL FORMULATION”

Surendra Kumar*, K.S. Patel, A.B.Thakar, C.R. Harisha, Shukla V.J.
Institute for Postgraduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

Vajigandhadi Taila (VT) is a classically well-known medicated oil for relieving Gridhrasi disease. To standardize the VT medicament with pharmacognostical, physico-chemical, Chromatographical profiling according to ASU guidelines. The Taila are prepared with respective pharmacognostically identified ingredients Vajigandha/Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Linn.), Bala (Sida cordifolia Linn.), Bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.), Brihati (Solanum indicum Linn.), Kantakari (Solanum surrattense Burm.f.), Prishaniparni (Uraria picta Desv.), Shalaparni (Desmodium gangeticum DC.), Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn.), Agnimantha (Premna mucronata Roxb.), Shyonaka (Oroxyllum indicum Vent), Patala (Stereospermum suaveoleus DC), Gambhari (Gmelina arborea Linn.), and along with base Eranda Taila (castor oil) with standard operating procedure. The VT was subjected to standardize by physico-chemical and chromatographical parameters. Pharmacognostical identified features of coarse powder are systemically explained and physico-chemical finding of VT formulation such as Acid value, Refractive index, Iodine value, Saponification value and Specific Gravity respectively was found 10.57, 1.472, 91.09, 168.97043 and 0.9577. The chromatographic authentication of VT was done under pre-chromatographic derivatization technique. Microscopic characteristics like the pitted vessels, oil globules, rhomboidal crystal, starch grains, prismatic crystals, shows that ingredients presence in VT formulation. The findings from this study will provide systemic evaluation and also serve as a master document to control the quality of VT formulation.

32

SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION ENHANCEMENT OF A BCS CLASS II DRUG BY CO-GRINDING WITH SUPERDISINTEGRANTS

Suraj N. Pattekari1*, Dr. Ajit S. Kulkarni2

1Indira Institute of Pharmacy, Sadavali. Tal: Sangameshwar, Dist: Ratnagiri, M.S., India, 415804.

2Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara. Plot No. 1539, Behind Spicer India Ltd., New additional M.I.D.C., At. Degaon, Satara, M.S., India, 415004.

Abstract

Majority of drugs administered by oral route exhibit low bioavailability because of their limited water solubility. Atorvastatin calcium (ATR)-a potent antihyperlipidemic drug- is a poorly soluble BCS class II drug. Present investigation was aimed at solubility and dissolution enhancement of ATR by co-grinding it with suerdisintegrants. Atorvastatin calcium was milled with crospovidone(CP), croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) in different ratios using a ball mill. Prepared co-ground mixtures were evaluated by saturation solubility studies, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Infrared spectrum ruled out any chemical interactions between drug and superdisintegrant. DSC and XRD studies proved that the co-grinding has caused reduction in drug’s crystalline characteritics. Also, SEM study indicated micronisation and intimate mixing of drug particles with superdisintegrant. Solubility studies revealed significant solubility enhancement in all co-ground mixtures than that of pure drug and drug milled alone. Tablets were formulated from all co-ground mixtures and evaluated. All the tablet formulation containing co-ground mixture exhibited improved in-vitro dissolution. Co-ground mixture with superdisintegrant CCS showed highest solubility and dissolution enhancement in the ratio 1:3. The optimized tablet formulation (F6) displayed better dissolution profile than a marketed formulation. Thus, solubility and dissolution of ATR was successfully enhanced by co-grinding it with superdisintegrants. Co-grinding with superdisintegrant could be concluded as a simple, novel and effective tool for solubility and dissolution enhancement of BCS class II drugs.

33

STUDY OF GROWTH PROMOTION AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF AYU-809 GENERAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENT IN RATS

Priyanka Shrestha1, Biplav Syngkli1, Sri Vidya2, Shanaz Tejani-butt3, Shivalinge Gowda KP.*

1Department of Pharmacology, PES College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

2Ayurwin Pharma Pvt. Ltd, Bengaluru, Karnataka.

3University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Abstract

The growth promotion and health benefits of AYU-809 –a general nutritional supplement was investigated using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in olive oil 0.5ml/kg bw ip) intoxicated Sprague Dawley rats. The AYU-809 in milk was administered orally at a dose of 4.80 g/kg bw po for 28 days. The CCl4 was administered to all the groups except group I (normal control) once in three days. Silymarin (100 mg/kg po) was used as a standard hepatoprotective drug. Body weight, feed efficiency and body circumference were measured every 5th day during the study. On 29th day, animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected by retro orbital. Hemoglobin content and RBC count, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined. Liver homogenate was prepared and lipid peroxidation (LPO) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) levels were measured and histopathology of liver tissue also examined. Our findings suggest that AYU-809, a general nutritional supplement formulated by Nutraceuticals division M/s Ayurwin Pharma Pvt Ltd, Bengaluru, possesses growth promoting, hepato protecting and antioxidant properties. The data provide useful insight into the possibility of using AYU-809 to promote the growth in children associated with growth related disorders.

34

A REVIEW ON APPLICATIONS OF MOLECULAR DOCKING IN DRUG DESIGNING

M. Venkata Saileela1*, Dr. M. Venkateswar Rao2, Venkata Rao Vutla1
1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur.
2Department of Pharmacology, Guntur Medical College, Guntur.

Abstract

Molecular docking is a computational modelling of structure of complexes formed by two or more interacting molecules. In the field of molecular modelling, docking is a method which predicts the preferred orientation of one molecule to a second when bound to each other to form a stable complex. Knowledge of the preferred orientation in turn may be used to predict the strength of association or binding affinity between two molecules using scoring functions. Molecular docking is one of the most frequently used in structure based drug design due to its ability to predict the binding-conformation of small molecules ligands to the appropriate target binding site.

35

ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, AND ANTI-PARKINSON’S SCREENING OF AZOMETHINE ANALOGUES THROUGH HSP90 INHIBITION

Dr. M. Ganga Raju*, Divya N
Department of Pharmacology, Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Bachupally, Hyderabad.

Abstract

Heat-shock protein (Hsp90) a group of molecular chaperones responsible for managing protein folding and quality control in cell environment. Hsp90 requires a series of co-chaperones to assemble into a super-chaperone complex for its function. The current study is piloted to perform antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-Parkinson’s and antioxidant activities of Hsp90 inhibitors. The compounds S30 and S47 were synthesized and the maximum tolerable dose was found to be 2000 mg/kg, animals were administered with a dose of 100 mg/kg bd. wt and 200 mg/kg bd. wt. From the results dose dependent reduction in symptoms like muscular rigidity, ptosis, tremor, bradykinesia, gait alteration, righting reflex, swim test and locomotor behavior were observed. The histopathological studies of drug treated also showed the restoration. The two test drugs S30 and S47 possess antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-Parkinson’s and antioxidant activities. Further study is needed to confirm the exact mechanism of action of the test drugs S30 and S47.

36

A NOVEL UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF VANCOMYCIN IN BULK AND ITS PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

M.Susima*, Shaik Muneer, K.B. Chandra Sekhar, J. Komala Preethi, T. Latha, G. Koundilya, G.Ramesh
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, JNTUA- Oil Technological and Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Ananthapuramu- 515001, A.P, India.

Abstract

The present study was aimed to develop a novel, simple, accurate, precise, robust and economic UV spectrophotometric method for the detection and quantification of vancomycin in bulk and its formulation. Quantification was carried at absorption maxima 280.50 nm using 0.01M Sodium hydroxide as diluent. The developed method was validated with accordance to ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 40-240 μg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.9991. The sensitivity was checked as the limit of detection and limit of quantification which were found to be 1.6 and 4.8 μg/mL respectively. Further studies of the accuracy and precision of the proposed method were performed using standard addition method; the mean quantitative recovery of such studies were found to be in the range 99.39 ± 0.41 to 101.24 ± 0.89 with RSD ≤ 2.0%. From the results it can be concluded that the developed method was specific, selective, precise and robust. This method could be successfully applied for analysis of vancomycin in its formulation.

37

ANALYTICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND PHYLOGENETIC STUDIES OF CLERODENDRUM PHLOMIDIS LINN. F. LEAVES

MK MohanMarugaRaja1, Agilandeswari Devarajan2*
1Pharmacy Department, Centre for Research and Development, PRIST University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Hillside College of Pharmacy and Research Centre, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. (Lamiaceae) is a well known medicinal plant used for the treatment of nervous disorders and mental diseases. Hence, the study was planned to investigate the various extracts, fractions and reported compounds of C. phlomidis leaves for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and cytotoxic activity. Crude polyamine fraction (CPF) showed highest percentage inhibition (67.38%) of AChE. The unsaponified petroleum ether fraction of methanol extract (UPFME) showed high lethality with an LC50 value of 1130.70 μg/mL against brine shrimp lethality bioassay. β-carotene was identified for the first time from C. phlomidis leaves which was further quantified by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The β-carotene content of the leaves was found to be 0.0218 %w/w. DNA analysis of C. phlomidis leaves was carried out which was then compared to the phylogenetic tree of Lamiaceae. The cladistic analysis of C. phlomidis confirmed its phylogenetic origin from Africa and not from Asia.

38

MILK ADULTERATION – A REVIEW

Justin K Joy1, K. Krishnakumar2
1Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, St James College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chalakudy.
2St James Hospital Trust Pharmaceutical Research Centre (DSIR Recognized), Chalakudy, Kerala.

Abstract

Milk adulteration is a common social problem in today. Apart from the ethical and economical issue, it also creates health hazards. Some of them may cause renal disease, skin disease, eye and heart problem or it may lead to cancer. So, for preventing these, detection and control of milk adulteration is very important. It is a common practice by the milk supplier to add water. Addition of water changes specific gravity of the milk and its natural color gets destroyed. To compensate specific gravity, different types of salt and sugar are used. Chemical adulterants are used for various purposes. The common adulterants are starch, urea, sugar, formalin, peroxides etc. Many studies on milk adulteration and detection have been carried out in different part of India. The present work will give a clear picture of the quality of milk available from the local market and this review tries to view the different adulterations in the milk samples. By this we can give awareness to the public.

39

INFLUENCE OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM T22 TO ENRICH THE MINERALS REQUIRES FOR PLANT GROWTH IN VERMICAST

M. Agnes Sharmila, M. Jegadeesan*
Department of Environmental and Herbal Science, Tamil University, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu.

Abstract

In several developing countries bagasse is one of the major source of bio fertilizer and animal feed production. About 25 million tonnes of bagasse are available every year but 60 –75 % of dry matter of bagasse acquires in the form cellulose and hemicelluloses and its digestibility is very poor because of the presence of lignin. It is regarded as a cheap substrate, collected at the site of processing and constant supply generated within the sugarcane industry. Trichoderma harzianum T22 produce ligno cellulolytic enzyme which is used to break the indigestive compounds and help earthworm to easily digest food matters in the bagasse. In the current research three different groups each group had three different combinations of the composting beds with the size 3L×2B×1H were prepared. The first group had three different combinations of composting beds with bagasse and cow dung; then second group had three different combinations of composting beds with bagasse, cow dung and earthworm; finally third group had three different combinations of composting beds with bagasse, cow dung, earthworm and Trichoderma harzianum T22 were constructed and the beds were maintained at optimum temperature and pH. The presences of the minerals were analysed using standard method and heavy metals were analysed using the Atomic absorption spectroscopy at regular interval 30th, 60th, and 90th day of composting respectively. Finally, the results revels that the vermicast from Trichoderma harzianum T22 inoculated composed beds especially T3c have higher quantity of essential minerals with lesser heavy metals when compare to others. We concluded that the Trichoderma harzianum T22 plays a major role to enrich the essential minerals required for various plants growth in the vermicast.

40

FORMULATION OPTIMIZATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF NANOSTRUCTURED LIPID CARRIER CONTAINING ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUG

Arpita Nath*, Vilasrao Kadam
Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, sector-8, C.B.D., Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400 614, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

The main aim of the present work is to formulate, optimize and evaluate a Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (NLC) of a poorly water soluble antipsychotic drug: Ziprasidone hydrochloride monohydrate (ZHM) by high shear homogenization technique followed by ultrasonication method to enhance the oral bioavailability. ZHM a dopamine receptor antagonist, is an orally active atypical antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. ZHM is a BCS Class II drug which is poorly water-soluble so its oral bioavailability is 60% when administered with food. The absorption of ZHM is increased up to two-fold in the presence of food. Preformulation studies including screening of excipients for solubility suggested the suitability of precirol ATO 5 as solid lipid, labrafil M1944 as liquid lipid and gelucire 50/13 as stabilizer for preparation of NLC. The optimized ZHM-NLC was characterised by measuring particle size, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. The concentration of solid lipid and liquid lipid in the ratio of 70:30 was optimised as final formulation components concentration as it exhibited desired mean particle size (200-302 nm) and % Entrapment efficiency (54-84%). The in vitro drug release study indicated the ZHM-NLC sustained release formulation showed sustained release profile of 98.62 % release within 24 hours. Based on this results it was concluded that NLCs are promising drug delivery for improving the oral bioavailability of ZHM.

41

EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF CLEOME VISCOSA L.

Chandrasekaran Swaminathan

Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Vivekanandha College of Arts and Science for Women (Autonomous), Tiruchengode, India.

Abstract

Cleome viscosa L. commonly known as Asian spider flower is used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for therapeutic purposes. The current study was undertaken with the aim of phytochemical analysis, evaluation of antibacterial activity and antioxidant properties of ethanol, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves this plant. The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis using standard phytochemical methods, in-vitro antibacterial activity against six standard bacterial strains by cup-plate agar diffusion method and antioxidant determination by DPPH method. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, phytosterols, fixed oil, saponins, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Though all the extracts exhibited antibacterial activity, methanol extract of leaves registered highest antibacterial highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (28 mm zone of inhibition), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (28 mm zone of inhibition), Acinetobacter baumannii (26 mm zone of inhibition), Aeromonas hydrophila (26 mm zone of inhibition), Proteus mirabilis (18 mm zone of inhibition) and Yersinia enterocolitica (15 mm zone of inhibition). The DPPH free radical scavenging assay revealed that the extracts exhibited scavenging effect in concentration-dependent manner. The strong free radical scavenging effect (43.33%) was observed with ethanol extract at 100 μg/mL which was comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. This study confirmed the broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging activities of Cleome viscosa L. and could be used as a potential alternative for treatment of various ailments.

42

ASSESSMENT OF PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF ANTIBIOTICS AND WHO PRESCRIBING INDICATORS IN PAEDIATRICS DEPARTMENT

B.VinolyJeevan*, D. SaiSravani, AN. Anusha Reddy, Y. Vamseedhar, D. Giri Raja Sekhar, Chakka Gopinath
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, Rajampet-516115.

Abstract

AIM: This study aims to assess and monitor the prescribing pattern of antibiotics by using WHO prescribing indicators. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prescribing pattern of antibiotics, to know the common class of antibiotics and to assess the prescribing pattern using WHO prescribing indicators. METHODOLOGY: It is a prospective, observational study conducted at RIMS Hospital in the department of Paediatrics. Data collection was be done by using self-prepared patient Data collection form and WHO Prescribing Indicators. Microsoft excel was used for recording the data of recruited subjects. RESULTS: In our study the total percentage of male paediatric patients were comparatively more(58%) than that of female paediatric patients (42%). In the present study we observed that Cephalosporins group of antibiotics were most commonly prescribed. In our study we observed that average number of drugs per encounter was 5.2. Antibiotics were prescribed with 79.6% per encounter and most of drugs were prescribed from EDL of hospital. The excessive use of Parenterals is common in many developing countries. In this study 64.01%of antibiotics were given by Parenterals. CONCLUSION: On evaluation of study the use of antibiotics and injections were found to be high. Generic prescribing is more, and prescribing of drugs from EDL was found to be excellent.

43

PREPARATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF SOLID DISPERSION OF FINASTERIDE

Jamal Ali Ashoor, Qasim Allawi Bader, Mohammed Fanokh Abo Khthr, Hasanain Shakir Mahmood
College of Pharmacy, Karbala University, Iraq.

Abstract

Solubility is an important physiochemical element that affect the absorption and effectiveness of desired drug. Failure in formulation development of the drug has been considered as the consequences of its poor aqueous solubility. The reduced solubility of and low dissolution rate in aqueous gastrointestinal tract most often lead to inadequate bioavailability of the drug. In the present study the solubility and dissolution rate of finasteride which show poor solubility has been developed by solid dispersion(SD) technique with different polymers such as polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) and Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC). SD of finasteride (FNS) was prepared by using 60,120 and 200 mg of the polymer for 200 mg of the pure FNS in each formula using solvent evaporation method. Formula containing 200mg of HPMC showed best release rather than other formulas.

44

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW OF SURANJAN SHIREEN (Colchicum autumnale)

Shahid Suhail*, S. Shakir Jamil, Shazia Jilani, Shabnam Ansari, Amjad W.Yousuf

Department of Moalajat, School of Unani Medicine, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

Colchicum autumnale has been known as Suranjan shireen in Unani Medicine. It belongs to the family Liliaceae and commonly known as the autumn crocus, a wild saffron and naked lady. It has been used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic actions as Mushil (Purgative), Mushil-e-Balgham /Mukhrij-e- Balgham (Phlegmagogue) Qabiz (Constipative), Muhallil (Resolvent), Mufatte-e-Sudad (Deobstruent) Muqawwi-e-Baah (Aphrodisiac) Mujaffif-e-Qurooh (Desiccant ulcer) Musakkin-e-Alam/ Dafi'-e-Alam (Analgesic), Dafi'-e-Niqris (anti-gout, to relieve inflammation and pain of acute gout), Mukhaddir (Anaesthetic), Muharrik e-Baah (Stimulant of sex) etc. in Unani medicine since centuries. The present article has provided a review of pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses of suranjan shireen in Unani and ethno-botanical literature in the light of available pre-clinical and clinical experimental data on Colchicum autumnale.

45

BIOLOGICAL FINGER PRINTING OF MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN VERMICOMPOST OF DIFFERENT RAW MATERIALS

Aruna A.P1, Purushothaman Balakrishnan1,2, Kumaran Shanmugam1, K. Rajendran1*
1Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam Thanjavur, Tamilnadu.
2TanBio R & D Solution, Periyar TBI, Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam Thanjavur, Tamilnadu.

Abstract

Every day there are millions of the organic wastes were produced around the world and the processing of organic waste in to useful product is the difficult process. There are number of techniques were used to convert the organic waste into the useful products like bio fuel, manure etc., among them the mesophilic process using earthworms named Vermi-composting is one of the most eminent technology to process large amount of organic waste at low cost. The most significant of the process is not only to improve the fertility of the soil but also improve the diversity of useful microorganism by eradicating the harmful one.The current study is to investigate the presence of the microbial diversity in vermicast feeded with different source (cow dung, slurry, and press-mud) and find the best one by compare among them. The vermicomposting unit used in this study was placed at the Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, india. The process was done by open bed method and six separate beds were constructed in the following sequence 1- slurry, 2- slurry with earthworms, 3-cow dung, 4-cow dung with earthworms, 5-pressmud, and 6-pressmud with earthworms. On the 42nd day the process was terminated for samples 2,4 & 6 and the samples were collected from each bed and proceeded to the meta-genomic analysis to observe the presence of different combination of microorganisms in different composting bed. The meta-genomics sequence results were categorized from higher order phylum to lower species level and it indicates that large quantity and diversity of microbes like Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria etc., were present in all the vermicast when compare with the non compost samples. Finally, we concluded that our results indicate vermicast obtained from the night soil slurry did not have any pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., and Enterococcus spp. In addition to that, it had most harmless diversified bacteria useful for the plant growth and mostprominent one when compare with others in our study. In summary, analysis using meta-genomic sequencing is the most predominant technology for the characterization of microbial composition in vermicast and it should be the most supporting tool to determine necessary measures to handle manure safely.

46

IDENTIFICATION, EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF DRPs IN PATIENTS WITH SEIZURE DISORDERS IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

Alan Raju George, Aleena Joseph, Bithin Francis, Rilly Anil Mathew, Muneerudeen J*
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bapuji Pharmacy College, Davanagere, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

The primary objective of the study was the identification, evaluation and analysis of Drug Related Problems (DRPs). This study identifies Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and categorizes drug-drug interactions based on their severity. A prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital for a period of 6 months. All inpatients in Medicine, Pediatric, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and emergency wards with clinical diagnosis of seizure irrespective of age, sex and presence of concurrent diseases were included in the study. Out of 100 patients enrolled, most commonly found etiology was fever, followed by epilepsy. Generalised Tonic Clonic Seizure (GTCS) was found to be the major seizure type. Out of 184 drugs, Hydantoin was the most prescribed class of drug, i.e. 31.52%. The most common drug prescribed was Phenytoin 29.35%. Out of total 190 drug-drug interactions, 9 (4.74%) were major, 111 (58.42%) were moderate and 70 (36.84%) were minor. 59 (59%) prescriptions follows the standard guideline. A total of 17 ADRs were identified. The present study has attempted to reveal the drug related problems in seizure disorder. Even though, majority prescriptions follows standard guideline; a large margin does not. Out of the 17 ADRs found, 11 were due to Phenytoin and 6 were due to Sodium Valproate. Hence, this study has vital role in the treatment of seizure.

47

CRITICALITY OF SOLUBILIZER SELECTION DURING FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE CEFIXIME

Poonam Mogal, Deeliprao Derle
Department of pharmaceutics, M.V.P.S’ College of pharmacy, Nashik, India.

Abstract

In Recent Years, The Pharma Industry Has A Wide Variety Of Excipients Available For The Formulation Development, Where Selecting The Effective Functional Excipient Is A Critical Step In Early Stage. For Selecting Suitable Type Of Solubilizer Through Its Solubilizing And Absorption Enhancer Property Towards Cefixime, Various Solubilizers Like Urea, PEG, HPMC, Kollidon 64 And Gaur Gum Were Investigated. Solid Binary Systems Prepared At Various Drug–Polymer Ratios By Mixing, Kneading, Solvent Evaporation, Lyophilization, Microwave Irradiation & Spray Drying Were Characterized By DSC, XRD, SEM, Attenuated Total Reflectance, Saturated Solubility Study And Tested For Dissolution Behavior. The Solubilizing Effect Of Polymers On Poorly Soluble Cefixime Was Found To Be Of Following Order: Kollidon 64>Urea>Gaur>PEG>HPMC. The Dissolution Studies Displayed A Noticeable Augment In The Dissolution Rate Than Neat Cefixime. The Dispersion Of Drug Processed By Spray Drying Demonstrated Higher Drug Dissolution Rates In Comparison To Physical Mixture And Pure Cefixime. In Vivo Experiments In Mice Demonstrated That Administration Of 4 Mg/Kg Of Drug Spray Dried Systems With Kollidon 64 Resulted In Statistically Significant (P = 0.006) Increase (227%) In Cmax With Tmax (P = 0.03) Of 4 Hr. The 1/1 (W/W) Drug–Carrier Spray Dried Systems With Kollidon 64 Was The Best Product Enabling An Improvement Of 4.8 Times Of Drug Dissolution Efficiency And Better Antibacterial Activity With Zone Of Inhibition 2.4 Times Higher Than The Pure Cefixime. Thus, The Demonstrated Solubilizing Ability And Antibacterial Enhancer Effect Towards Cefixime Make Kollidon 64 Peculiarly Suitable For Development Of Poorly Soluble Cefixime.

48

APPLICATION OF QUALITY BY DESIGN FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL RP-HPLC METHOD FOR RANITIDINE HCL

Derle Deelip V., Patil Mahendra S*, Patil Yogesh, Derle Nikita D.
Department of Quality Assurance, MVP’s College of Pharmacy, Nasik- 422002.

Abstract

The concept of Quality by Design (QbD) has recently been adopted for the development of pharmaceutical processes to ensure a predefined product quality. Quality by design (QbD) refers to the achievement of certain predictable quality with desired and predetermined specifications. In an attempt to reduce rising development costs and regulatory barriers to innovation and creativity, the FDA and ICH have recently started promoting QbD in the pharmaceutical industry. The present study describes a simple, accurate, precise and cost effective reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) Method for determination of Ranitidine HCl bulk marketed tablet formulation. The systematic approach, one of the parts of QbD was use for the analytical method development. Detection was done using UV detector at 314 nm. Optimization was done by response surface methodology, applying a three level Box Behenken design with three centre points. Three factors selected were flow rate, pH and Buffer: Acetonitrile concentration in mobile phase composition. The optimized chromatographic method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Q2 (R1) guidelines for linearity, range, accuracy and robustness. The separation was carried on Phenomenex C18 (4.6 ID mm×150mm; 5μm) with mobile phase 0.02M phosphate Buffer: Acetonitrile (25:75 v/v). Flow rate 0.9 ml/min and at pH 3.0, which was optimized with help of design expert software. High linearity of the developed method was confirmed over concentration range of 10-50 μg/ml and correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2%. Peak was obtained at retention time of 2.139 min.

49

A STUDY ON PREVALENCE AND DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN IN DEPARTMENT OF ONCOLOGY OF TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN INDIA

A. Spandana1, K.L.K. Sneha1, Dr. Balaiah Sandyapakula1, Dr. Vinay Kumar.T1, Dr.Charan Tej. K2, Dr.S.A.Rahaman1

1Nirmala College of pharmacy, Mangalagiri, Guntur.

2Medical Superintendent, Manipal Hospitals, Vijayawada.

Abstract

Background A drug utilization study is intended to describe-quantitatively and qualitatively-the population of users of a given drug and/or the conditions of used in Oncology department, it is a branch of medicine. That deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Cancer is not a single disease; rather, it is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. The main aim of the study to improving patient’s knowledge on all aspects will boost up the present health care. The objectives of the study to Analyze patterns of drug use among cancer patients. Methodology It is a hospital based prospective observational study. Results Total no. of prescription was 100, in that age group of cancer patients. Alkylating agents (46) are most common prescribed drugs, breast cancer (14%) have high prevalence index, gastro intestinal tract system have high no of carcinoma cases (21%). The most frequently prescribed anticancer drugs were observed to be Alkylating agents 46(31.5%). Among a total of 272adjuvant drugs Dexamethasone (17.72%) and Ondansetron (16.87%) were observed to be majorly prescribed Adjuvant drugs. Major formulations of anti cancer drugs are parenteral (92.46%).applying of WHO drug use indicators for these Study. Conclusion According to WHO drug utilization studies are required for rational use of drug in every clinical practice. The study provides an overview about utilization of anticancer drugs among the patients in hospital and could serve as a basis for further research towards the rational clinical practice, preventive care for cancer and improving patient’s knowledge on anticancer drugs on all aspects will boost up the present health care in this settings.

50

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV-VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF CILNIDIPINE AND TELMISARTAN IN BULK AND DOSAGE FORM

Lalit Thakare*, Sufiyan Ahmad, V. M. Shastry
Department of Quality Assurance, Gangamai College of Pharmacy, Nagaon, Dist. Dhule (M.S.), India.

Abstract

Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and specific UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of Cilnidipine (CIL) and Telmisartan (TEL) in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form were developed and validated. A simple double beam UV spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated with different parameters such as linearity, precision, repeatability, limit of detection (LOD), Limit of Quantification (LOQ), accuracy as per ICH guidelines. UV-visible spectrophotometric method, measurement of absorption at maximum wavelength in 10 ml acetonitrile and volume make with water solvent system as reference CIL and TEL were found to be at 203 nm and 241nm respectively. The drug obeyed the Beer’s law and showed good correlation. Beer’s law was obeyed in concentration range 0.5-2.5 μg/ml for Cilnidipine and 2-10μg/ml for Telmisartan respectively with correlation coefficient was 0.999. The LOD and LOQ of CIL were found to be 0.317 (μg/ml) and 0.96 (μg/ml), TEL were found to be 0.67 (μg/ml) and 5.086 (μg/ml), respectively. Percentage assay of CIL and TEL in tablets. The proposed method is precise, accurate and reproducible and can be used for routine analysis of CIL and TEL in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.